FBOII FU8101 Photograph above shows a computer-generated simulation of the implosion of a thermonuclear fusion fuel pellet. The University of California's Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has built one of the world's most powerful laser-fusion facilities to determine the feasibility of triggering fusion reaction-the process that powers the sun and the stars. Scientists say that if we could imitate the process, we would solve mankind's energy problems for ever. Named after the multiarmed Indian deity Shiva, the $25 million
facility has 20 laser "arms," all focused on a pin-sized pellet of fuel, consisting of deuterium, tritium (heavy hydrogen isotopes) and lithium. For less than a billionth of a second, the fuel pellet will be bombarded with superintense laser beams from 20 different angles with a force 25 times that of all the electric power generated in the United States. The tremendous compression will implode the fuel sphere, forcing the hydrogen to ignite and produce neutrons that can be ultimately harnessed to make electricity.
A LEITER FROM THE PUBLISHER Ambassador Robert F. Goheen recently did a videotaped recording in which he presented a review of the state of IndoU.S. relations at the end of his first year in office. Two distinguished Indian editors interviewed the Ambassador. In view of the importance of the event and the strong public interest in the subjects discussed (notably nuclear safeguards), it is the lead article in this issue of SPAN. We call your attention to the Ambassador's exchange with the editor of the Indian Express and one of the assistant editors of The Times of India, beginning on the back of this page. Very much in the news these days is the question of the future of television in India. Two articles in this issue describe the American experience-readers may wish to draw their own conclusions as to its relevance to this country. The first article, by Eric Sevareid, a veteran news commentator, presents the case for television journalism. He agrees that TV reporting and commenting has its limitations, but maintains that it has an important role to play in informing and educating the public. He denies the charge that TV journalism must necessarily be sketchy and impressionistic because it is es~entially an audio/visual, not a press/print medium. The audience for TV journalism, he claims, is "more highbrow than highbrows will admit." And he rejects the canard that journalism on U.S. television is dominated or influenced by commercial or partisan interests, governmental or corporate. On the other hand, Hafeez Noorani, a mass media expert who has recently testified on educational television in India, focuses on the tremendous growth and possibility of public television in the United States. On the basis of recent firsthand observations, he describes programs currently being shown on the growing number of noncommercial American stations supported both by voluntary contributions from viewers and grants by public-spirited organizations. A fascinating sidelight is the extent of international cooperation in American public television; many British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) programs are produced with bilateral financing, to be shown on the American public television screen, as well as the British. Recently, a reader whose husband had returned from a lengthy stay in the United States with glowing accounts of the food he had eaten there, wrote asking us to print an article on American dishes. We approached a friend, an American woman long resident in this country, and asked her to share her experiences in cooking American dishes in Indian kitchens for her own Indo-American family. Margaret Sood agreed. The results, in the form of menus and recipes for four complete meals, are presented, together with pictures of the dishes themselves "in living color." America's most popular dishes come from all over the world, as is natural for a country that has been called a "nation of immigrants." They were brought from Italy, Hungary, Scandinavia, China, Spain, Germany and domesticated in the United States. Of course, many American dishes are indigenous-they are derived from the cooking of the American Indians. (One such very popular dish is corn on the cob, known in this country as maize.) We expect that Mrs. Sood's article, the first of its kind ever to appear in SPAN, may lead our more enterprising readers to try to internationalize their own culinary skills. Many American dishes are already popular in India, and most of them can be easily cooked in Indian homes. In rare cases when a particular ingredient is not available, Mrs. Sood indicates a substitute. We are happy to publish this article in response to a reader's request, and welcome other suggestions, to which we shall give our respectful consideration. -J.W.G.
SPAN 2 4 10
'The Signs Look Good for the Future' Ambassador Goheen Discusses Indo-U.S. Relations With Indian Editors
The New Alchemists
bv Wade Greene
20 26 28 34
Willis Conover Talks About Jazz in India by Ernest Weatherall
Lionel Trilling: Moral Critic of the Age
by D.R. Sharma
38 40 American Cooking in Indian Kitchens
by Margaret Sood
46 49 , Front cover: "The world is round." Patrick Graybill as Columbus relates this exciting discovery in sign mime in the U.S. National Theater of the Deaf's musical Parade. Bernard Bragg, administrator and leading actor of this unique, internationally acclaimed theater, was in India recently. See story on pages 20-25. Back cover: A daredevil skateboarder does a "kickup" -one of the many stunts that have made this old pastime an exciting new sport in the United States. See page 49.
JACOB SLOAN, Editor; JAY W. GILDNER, Publisher. Managing Editor: Chidananda Dasgupta. Assistant Managing Editor: S.R. Madhu. Editorial Staff: Krishan Gabrani, Aruna Dasgupta, Nirmal Sharma, Murari Saha, Rocque Fernandes. Art Director: Nand Katyal. Art Staff: Gopi Gajwani, B. Roy Choudhury, Kanti Roy. Chief of Production: Awtar S. Marwaha. Photo Editor: Avinash Pasricha. Photographic Services: ICA Photo Lab. Published by the International Communication Agency, American Center, 24 Kasturba Gandhi Marg, New Delhi 110001, on behalf of the American Embassy, New Delhi. The opinions expressed in this magazine do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the United States Government. Printed by Aroon Purie at Thomson Press (India) Limited, Faridabad,Haryana.
Pbotographs: Front cover-Bill Ray. 2-R.N. Kbanna. 5-S01ar Power Corporation, Affiliate of Exxon Enterprises Inc .â€˘ Nortb Billerica, Massachusetts. II, 14-15-Dan McCoy. 13-Fritz Goro. 21 top, 23-Avinasb Pasricba. 21 bottom, 24-25-Bill Ray. 28-33-courtesy PBS. 34-35-Aviuash Pasricha. 41-44-Avinash Pasricha. 46 bottomGeorge F. Mobley. 47 top-Natioual Geographic Art Division, both ÂŠ N.G.s. 49, back cover-Warren Bolster except 49 bottom right by Burton Silverman, The New York Times.
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'TII Sl81S LOOI800D rOI TBI rUTUII'
Imbassador Goheen Discusses Indo-O.S. Belations With India Iditors
Two leading Indian joumalists-Ajit Bhattacharjea (center), Editor of the 'Indian Express' and Dileep Padgaonkar (right), Assistant Editor of 'The Times of India'-interviewed American Ambassador Robert F. Goheen in New Delhi recently. There were sharp questions and candid replies on several aspects of Indo-U.S. relations. The interview is published here in full. AMBASSADOR GOHEEN: Gentlemen, I am delighted to have this chance to talk with you about Indo-American relations. President Carter's visit to India earli.er in the year symbolically helped to usher in what may be a period of broader, more stable, more realistic relationships than India and the United States have enjoyed over the 30 years of India's independence. Some of the things that make me feel that the signs look good for the future are not only the democratic values and institutions that we share, together with our concern for human rights, but the
fact that some of the older causes of friction, if not totally removed, have at least been considerably reduced. On the American side, for many years we looked at foreign affairs as though we had anticommunist spectacles on, and everything was shaped by that perception. On the Indian side, leaders of your government seemed to us to look at world affairs as though you constantly had anticolonial spectacles on. Colonialism is just about gone. The last vestiges in South Africa are passing away. That is not your total preoccupation any more, just as our perception of the world is no
longer limited by our concern with communism. We have today a world in which the United States is India's biggest trading partner. That is important to you, as is the fact that we are committed to an antiprotectionist position which is favorable to you. You have interest in our science and technology. We have interest in supplying it to you. W'e have leaders who have a common view of the interdependent, multipolar, changing kind of world that both countries now must operate in. They see that many of the most serious problems confronting the
two countries are global problems, which have to be resolved by nations working in cooperation rather than confrontation. There are, of course, differences between us, too. We are very different countries historically and culturally, and in terms of our respective geographic and economic positions. Naturally we cannot see everything exactly the same way. We have differences about American policy as to student visas, even though America is the most generous country in the world in the admission of immigrants and visitors. We have differences about elements of the Law of the Sea Conference. We have differences on nuclear nonproliferation policy. We have differences on the role that debt relief should play in resource transfer between the so-called northern and southern countries: and there are other differences. The significant thing, it seems to me, is that today members of our two governments can sit down and talk about these differences-hard, candidly, searchinglyrecognizing that these are complex issues, that there is often much to be said on both sides, and that the important thing is to try. to work out meaningful resolutions rather than to pose in a confrontational stance. This ability of our leaders to project this view toward each other seems to me very very important. I find that in my country, as in your country, often the press and politicians tend to put things in a confrontational manner. It seems to me very important that governments not do that, and I think that is part of the realism today of my government and part of the realism of your government. We are not lecturing to one another. We are not throwing sticks at one another any more. We are trying genuinely to deal with good faith toward one another. PADGAONKAR: Mr. Ambassador, I am afraid I do not wholly share your assessment. I quite agree that a confrontationist attitude is bound to be extremely counterproductive. At the same time, it is my view that the entire question related to U.S. contractual obligations for uranium supply to the Tarapur plant has assumed a symbolic significance. I believe it is a key issue in the future development of Indo-U.S. relations. I have the impression that since President Carter's visit to India, not only has there been no progress for the better on this thorny issue, but that attitudes have hardened on one side or the other. Do you share this assessment?
AMBASSADOR: Reading the Iridian press and talking with other Indians, I would say that public attitudes in India have hardened. I quite appreciate the importance of the supply of enriched uranium from the United States to Tarapur, because of Bombay's dependence on Tarapur for power. My government appreciates that, too. But we also think-my government, our Congress, as well as the President-that there are enormous other stakes in the world today, and these stakes have to do with the fact that, technologically, nations are about to move into a new generation of nuclear energy production called the plutonium economy. If some of these prospective and actual means of reprocessing uranium and generating plutonium are carried forward, there is going to be a great deal of weapons-grade plutonium lying around the world. This would constitute an immense danger to international peace. Therefore our government in America has said: We think it is time, both for us in the United States and for other countries, to hold back; to get the existing facilities under international-not under American, but under international-safeguards; and to try to develop new, safer forms of technology, before we plunge into a technology that we know is going to be highly dangerous. Those are the stakes at issue, and we think they are terribly important. It seems to me that, not your Prime Minister, bur often your people, the newspapermen, focus only on Tarapur as though that was the whole business. We see Tarapur as part of a much larger problem. BHATIACHARJEA: But the issue arises, Mr. Ambassador, because there is a commitment toward the continued supply of enriched uranium for Tarapur; and President Carter, when he was here, at least did assure this country that some amount - I think it was seven tons roughly -would be on its way quite soon. Apparently there have been hitches on that. So, clearly he, too, has to deal with local opinion or domestic opinion, and does not find it easy to do so. In this regard Prime Minister Desai set three basic conditions. He said that if they were fulfilled, India would be willing to accept full-scope inspection. I think one condition was that there should be a, treaty to stop all testing. The second was that the manufacture of nuclear weapons should be stopped completely. The third was that there should be a phased program to eliminate nuclear weapons.
It is possible, at least theoretically, that these conditions may be met and this problem may be overcome. Would you say that the SALT talks and the other international negotiations are leading toward this possibility? AMBASSADOR: We profoundly hope that these conditions will be met. My advices from Washington are that the chances of a comprehensive test ban treaty look good. We are also still optimistic about getting a significant SALT II agreement that really will reduce the levels of nuclear armaments and will include a commitment to a SALT III, a third phase of strategic arms limitation, that will lower the levels still more significantly. All those developments would be real movements in the direction that your Prime Minister has asked for. Whether he and your government would find that sufficient, I do not know. I expect that at this moment, they may not know either. To revert to the mentioned U.S. commitment to supply enriched uranium for the Tarapur reactors. It is quite true we have had such a commitment. What has happened, from our point of view, is that basically the conditions have changed. We are now in an era when nations are moving toward the plutonium economy that I spoke about. It is because the inherent dangers of a plutonium economy seem to us to be so great that we now have to reconsider our total nuclear policy-for ourselves as well as for others. So, the President has stopped reprocessing in the United States. He has put strict limitations on our experimental programs for breeder reactors. Here, we are not trying to ask of others anything that we are not asking of ourselves. To the same ends, we have a new law, the Non-Proliferation Act of 1978, that overrules our previous agreement with respect to Tarapur because of new circumstances. A very different matter really is the delay in the current shipment. Here we face the workings of a citizens' democracy: The Congress constructed an agency called the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It is an autonomous agency. It is not subject to the will of the President or the Congress. It makes its own determinations-and apparently on its own schedule. I have no reason to believe that the Tarapur shipment is not going to come through very shortly. The U.S. Executive Office and the American Embassy are distressed that it has taken so long. But, as your Prime Minister said in Parliament
'It is because the inherent dangers of a plutonium economy seem to us to be so great that we now have to reconsider our total nuclear policy-for ourselves as well as for others.' AMBASSADOR: Oh! I think so. There are 17t or 18 months before our legislation goes into effect officially ending our PADGAONKAR: Mr. Ambassador, Tara- exports of nuclear materials under current pur has come to acquire a symbolic conditions. So, we have got time, and significance in Indo-American relationlots of things can happen meanwhile. It gives us time with the Russians to try ships. Some of us here feel that Tarapur reflects a certain lack of understanding to move in the direction your Prime on the part of the United States of the Minister wants. Who knows? There may strength of nationalism in a developing be some of these breakthroughs in technology that we are looking for. There is country like ours. In most of the editorial comments on the issue appearing in our an international nuclear fuel evaluation newspapers, I think the underlying feeling currently going on, in which both India really is that this is an example of a big . and the United States are taking part, power riding roughshod over the nationdirected specifically at how we can develop alistic sensibilities of an Asian country, safer technologies and still get all the nuclear. energy that nations need. like India. the other day, this is a procedural rather than a policy matter.
AMBASSADOR: I am very aware of these sensibilities-that is why I have emphasized the fact that we are not asking these restrictions of India alone. It is a universal policy. We are applying it to everybody else we are dealing with, and, as I mentioned, we have placed these restrictions upon ourselves. Nevertheless, one can see how this could become in the Indian collective mind a symbolically explosive issue. We must do everything we can to keep that from happening. The reverse could also happen in the United States. There was a great shock in the Western world when India detonated its explosive device. That shock was particularly deep in Canada and the United States because some of our materials were used without our expecting it or knowing about it. So, if we break on this issue and India goes off and does something or other that would seem to us "off the reservation" -to use an American idiom-that could sour opinion in the United States, too. Somehow, we have got to work for a broader sense of our relationship, a more genuine awareness that these are real global issues we are dealing with and we must look at them that way. We have got to respect each other's good faith and not let the broader relationship get smashed over particularly sensitive single issues like this. P ADGAONKAR: Is it your feeling, Mr. Ambassador, that if this issue is not resolved, Mr. Desai's trip to the United States can still be a success?
BHATTACHARJEA: This period of l7t or 18 months-can the President alone decide whether to allow another shipment or not? Or does Congressional sanction have to be taken? AMBASSADOR: There are two parts to that answer. First, we still have the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which has to pass on every license within the United States and outside the United States. Secondly, the President may, under certain circumstances, overrule the Commission. If he does, his decision has to lay before the Congress, where it is subject to veto for, I think, a 60-day period. If the Congress does not act in 60 days, either to affirm or deny the President's decision, then it carries~ BHATTACHARJEA: Mr. Desai has gone a long way by saying that India would not explode another device, and therefore there is no real threat from that point of view. In the circumstances, could it not be so arranged that while you and the Soviet Union and the other nations concerned went ahead with various negotiations, SALT and others, to lower the nuclear threshold, nuclear fuel for India could be kept going, so that the point of confrontation would not be reached? *On April 27, President Carter authorized the export of 7,630 kilograms of low enriched uranium to India for use in fueling the Tarapur atomic power station, after the decision had been referred to him by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. President Carter expressed his confidence that India would honor its commitments to use this fuel for peaceful purposes.
AMBASSADOR: Well, we have great confidence in the Prime Minister's word. Our feeling is, however, that relations between nations have to be on a more formal basis than the word of a given individual, who is here for a time and then gone. If we operated only on his word, we might have to accept the word of others in whom we have much less confidence than we have in him. The position the Prime Minister has taken, obviously, is what has made it possible for us to send you the last shipment of enriched uranium, to count on sending you the pending one, and presumably to send you some more during this 18month period. But it does not get us past the 18 months. Some other things have to happen. PADGAONKAR: Mr. Ambassador, in your opening statement you very pertinently referred to certain difficulties in the past and how these are sought to be overcome now. It is my view that most of these difficulties have stemmed from the place that India occupies in the American scheme of things, in American priorities. WQuId you say that the scheme has changed somewhat in the past few years, or are vital American interests in this part of the world still way down on the list? AMBASSADOR: I do not think American interests here are way down on the list at all. One would say without question that Western Europe, Russia and China have a higher priority, because they are either more dangerous or more endangered than India seems to be. Things there may discombobulate* the world worse than things here ... BHATTACHARJEA: Mr. Ambassador.
A lovely word,
AMBASSADOR: There has been a significant change. We now have a President and a Secretary of State and a Secretary of Treasury all of whom believe deeply that the so-called north-south
OCEANS Could the oceans (right) produce enough energy and food to sustain a growing world population? Many scientists think the answer is a resounding yes. Since they cover 71 per cent of the earth's surface, oceans receive most of the planet's solar energy which, like the strength of the tides, can be harnessed. Another approach-thermal conversion-would pump ammonia down to the ocean depths, where temperatures are low. Piped to the surface, the ammonia would vaporize, releasing gas that can turn turbines. Experiments suggest that a single unit could supply electricity for a city of 100,000.
,GARBAGE Fuel from garbage? That's what scientists in the U.S. are making. Organic material, which often constitutes 75 per cent of the land fills like the one above in America, can be converted into methane by pyrolysis, or distillation by heat. The principal ingredient of natural gas, methane can be used to fuel automobiles. A number of American states are recycling garbage to extract methane. The city of Baltimore in Maryland is setting up a pyrolysis plant to convert about 1.000 tons of waste a day into steam for a power company.
BIOCONVERSION The word bioconversion is newer than most dictionaries. but it deals with natural processes as old as life itself. It involves solar energy and the phenomenon of photosynthesis. nature's way of using the sun's heat for plant growth. Plants absorb water and carbon dioxide from the environment then use sunlight to turn them into carbohydrates. The resulting chemical energy is stored in the plants. One experiment involves taking methane from the fast-growing water hyacinth. Another aims at extracting hydrocarbon from a spindly little "gopher bush" and an angular seedling. The plants' thick white sap is latex, an em ulsion 30 per cent of which is hydrocarbon that can be used as a fuel.
COAL Once the most widely used energy resource in the world, coal is staging a dram?tic comeback. New technologies are being developed in the United States aimed at converting coal into cleaner and more efficient forms of energygas and oil-and making mining safer and highly automatic. In the photo above, a new mining machine chews out coal at the rate of 12 tons a minute and moves it to the waiting cars for transportation. This eliminates such hazardous manual operations as cutting, drilling, blasting and loading.
SUN To meet the ever-growing need for energy, American scientists are examining the possibility of launching solar-power satellites in space. Each comprising a hundred square kilometers of solar cells, the satellites would gather energy from the sun and beam it via microwaves to receiving stations on earth. Even at present. photovoltaic cells (above). which are used to convert solar radiation to electricity, are becoming economical in the U.S. for low-power needs. Scientists predict that by the year 2025, the sun would supply 25 per cent of America's power needs.
HYDROGEN In 1787, a French chemist coined the word hydrogene, meaning the generation of water from the combustion of hydrogen, the flammable, odorless, gaseous chemical element. Today, 200 years later, U.S. scientists are developing technologies to extract hydrogen gas from ordinary water for use as a fuel. Called the fuel of tomorrow, hydrogen in liquid form packs about two and a half times as much energy as gasoline of the same weight. In gaseous form, it will become a substitute for natural gas: Facing page, top: Scientists are checking the components of a hydrogen storage ta nk.
WIND Long overlooked, wind power, which is inexhaustible, nonpolluting and free, may be yet another way out of the energy crisis. American scientists feel that a period of rapid change and growth in windpower technology is at hand. They foresee groupings or "farms" of large windmills, capable of generating 10,000 or more kilowatts of electric power. Already new types of vertical-axis wind turbines, like the one being tested at left by a scientist. have been designed in the United States. They are cheaper and far more efficient than the traditional horizontalaxis windmills.
NEW ALCHE Odd little wood and fiberglass structures, solar heating devices, a geodesic dome and a windmill sporting orange. red and yellow sails are all evidence of an unusual experiment in progress at the New Alchemy Institute in Falmouth, Massachusetts, on the New England coast of Cape Cod. Named not with the forlorn hope of turning lead into gold, but harking back to an earlier aim of ancient alchemy-to integrate science and the humanitiesthe New Alchemy Institute is a forward camp, perhaps the most influential in the United States, in the movement to achieve smallness and innocuousness in technology, to find ways, in the imagery of the movement, of "living lightly on the earth." In existence only nine years, less than that at its current five-hectare site, the institute has never been far from the edge of financial desperation. The dedicated group numbers only 16 full-time men and women who draw equal, modest salaries, but who differ markedly in style, talent and background. Among them are two prominent aquatic biologists, the founders of the group; a retired army lieutenant colonel, who acts as chief administrator and bookkeeper; and a one-time nursery schoolteacher. Unlike some kindred members of the movement, the New Alchemists are not communards. They work happily together and, for the most part, reside happily apart. The self-appointed task of the New Alchemists has been the designing and testing of intensive food-growing methods that can be employed on a small scale and without recourse to the extensive mechanization and chemical consumption of modern agriculture. Their shared vision is one of a land of small, mostly selfsufficient communities in which most people live closer to nature and farther from the products, pressures and toxins of industry. Most of the accouterments of the New Alchemists-solar heating systems, geodesic domes, windmills, compost heaps-have become familiar icons by now to many environmentalists
Guide nature, do not overpower it, say the men behind the New Alchemy Institute in Massachusetts. Living amidst solar ponds, windmills and geodesic domes, they experiment with smallscale food-growing methods. Their aim: a world of c1ose-to-nature communities that provide an alternative to technological gigantism. in the United States. But the New Alchemists, probably more than any other group, have brought a high degree of expertise, organization and implementation to their quest and, in the process, they have accumulated an increasingly respectable following for both their visionary ends and their down-to-earth means. The institute's essential focus and style were established mainly by its cofounders-John H. Todd and William W. McLarney. Todd, who is a Canadian citizen and once skied on the Canadian Olympic team, carries an impressive batch of academic credentials-;in agriculture, in parasitology and tropical medicine and in comparative psychology and ethology. McLarney is coauthor of the leading English-language text on aquiculture. Interested in Latin American fish life in particular, he spends much of his time at a New Alchemy site in Costa Rica. He prefers th~ practical to the philosophical, promotional and administrative, and leaves these aspects of the group's activities to other members. Todd and McLarney met in the mid-'60s at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, where both were doing research on fish behavior. Later they mQved to San Diego State University in California, and they trace their inspiration for the New Alchemy Institute to a discovery
they made there. Minute quantities of DDT, they found, so badly impaired the chemical communication systems of some fish species that basic social bonds were severed, including .Jinks between parent fish and their offspring. "We found," they wrote in the institute's yearly publication, the Journal of the New Alchemists, "the more highly the fish were evolved socially, the more vulnerable they were to DDT. We became concerned that industrial societies might be triggering a natural selection process in lakes and oceans that could lead to the replacement one day of the more social and highly organized creatures with organisms that would be more primitive socially. It seemed we were peering into an evolutionary process that was turning backwards as a result of mankind's insensitivity. " This frightening finding and its implications not only for fish but also for high organisms including man led the two, at a time of growing environmental doomsaying, "to discuss what creative and positive steps could be taken to help an unhealthy planet." In 1969 they established the New Alchemy Institute and brought it to Massachusetts with them when, in 1970, they moved to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. From the start, the organization's goals and its members' attitudes have reflected a search for "positive steps," and this unquestionably has been a major source of the group's appeal in a gloomy, often fatalistic time. They focused their search on food raising. They were inspired by the experience of countries, such as China, where small-scale fish farming is widely practiced and is a main source of protein. To the aquatic biologists, designing an efficient small-scale fish farm seemed a natural starting point. The early results can now be seen under a geodesic dome at the New Alchemists' site. Inside the dome the air is warm and Facing page: John Todd, cofounder of the New Alchemy Institute, with the fish tanks that form part of an experimental "ark" -a means of survival should disaster strike the world.
still, even with a stiff breeze blowing outside. The surface of a 3.6-meter-wide pool cut into the earth is bright green with algae, and swimming in the pool are several dozen tilapia, known as St. Peter's fish, an edible ancient African species picked especially for its hardiness and its herbivorous tastes. Pool water circulates constantly through an improvised filtering system-liners from discarded refrigerators filled with clam and oyster shells-where bacteria growing on the shells break down the ammonia in the fish waste, turning it into nitrates that, in turn, nourish the algae. In addition to this self-contained fishfarming unit, three smaller, interconnected buildings each perform one of the functions of water purification, algae and zooplankton production or fish growing. The colorful windmill keeps water cycling through the buildings and, when needed, through a solar water-heating device. This process of mutual reinforcement and of tapping free natural energy operates in several other ways in the New Alchemists' compact and fecund world. Cold-tolerant plants are grown alongside the enclosed waters, providing a constant winter supply of fresh vegetables, and these are able to survive subfreezing temperatures because the water within each insulated structure, in addition to providing a home for the fish, serves as a heat-storage medium, absorbing the sun's warmth and holding it through cold New England nights. While ordinary greenhouses are costly to heat during winter months, New Alchemy structures have no heating costs at all. Water from the ponds, moreover, nourishes the plants as well as warms them: Fish excretion has increased yields of certain kinds of plants up to 100 per cent. The plants in turn, or at least those parts not consumed by humans, are fed to the fish. Success on this project, according to John Todd, was by no means instantaneous, but arrived in steps. The first New Alchemy fish-growing experiment was set up in a small, dome-covered pond in 1971. "The first year we could grow algae. Boy, could we grow algae," Todd says, "but the fish weren't anything. The second year we were able to get some fish production, because we could biopurify the water, using little attached ecosystems that took out all those nasty things which kept the fish stunted. Then we had overpopulation. Instead of having 200 fish we had 2,000. So the following year we introduced two or three predatory fish at a certain stage in the life cycle. And so forth."
be -linked together to run a single generator, a capability they think is superior to a large single windmill for heavy electricity outputs. John Todd says a battery of Hydrowinds could produce as much electricity, for instance, as the giant 100-kilowatt windmill the U.S. Government is currently testing and for one-quarter the construction and maintenance costs. The institute's two largest and most ambitious undertakings to date are structures called "arks," because a wide variety of life forms can be grown and nourished within them and because they are looked upon as a means of survival should ecological or economic disaster strike. "It is our contention," the New Alchemists say, "that they will be needed desperately if mankind is to avoid famine and hardship, and manage to shift to modes of living which restore or rekindle our bonds with nature." One ark occupies a corner of the complex on Cape Cod. Completed a little over a year ago, it is a good deal larger than the other buildings, more dramatic and more futuristic looking, mainly because of its long concave panels Fiberglass buildings that of reinforced fiberglass which are delet in more light, solar signed to capture the low-angle rays heating devices to keep off of the morning and late afternoon sun. Inside the ark are some 30 solar ponds the cold, windmills to full of fish and an agricultural area in generate power-these which vegetables and fruit trees are are symbolic of the lifestyle successfully grown, using only the sun's light and heat, even under extreme conof the New Alchemists. ditions such as the fiercely cold winter of 1976-77 in America. The solar ponds themselves store a considerable amount of and algae, which require light for photoheat for sunless hours. In addition, the synthesis, grow much more abundantly -10 times more so than in regular Cape Cod ark has a large subterranean commercial fish tanks or ponds. The chamber full of rocks into which excess hot more algae, the more fish that can be air is pulkd by a large fan during the day. fed and, the New Alchemists also found, The heat is absorbed by the rocks and the more fish wastes that are readily can later be extracted from the chamber to heat the ark when the sun doesn't. absorbed. A net effect is that fish can be grown A computer is used to monitor and help at the rate of approximately one fish control air and water temperatures as well as other factors affecting the growth per 11 liters of water. "A phenomenal figure," exclaims Todd, compared with of the fish, trees and vegetables. The other ark is on Prince Edward most aquiculture systems, operating either on a constant flow of fresh water, Island in southeastern Canada. It was high-energy filtration techniques or large funded by the Canadian Government, outdoor ponds, where a rate of one which put $354,000 into the project as fish per 57 liters would be considered part of a United Nations Human Settlements Year Program. It was formally exceptional. The New Alchemists are also testing opened by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau what they hope will be a better elec- in September 1976. And it comes closest tricity-producing windmill that will trans- yet to fulfilling the New Alchemists' mit wind power by means of a hydraulic vision of the self-sufficient "bioshelter" system to a generator on the ground. One advantage of the "Hydrowind" Facing page: One of the New Alchemists sets model, as their design has been trade- wood on fire using a solar furnace he built marked, is that several windmills can with hand mirrors-and applied mathematics.
Having taken their first step in the gentle guidance rather than the overpowering of nature, the New Alchemists say they are currently taking the next decisive one-the creation of economically competitive alternatives to technological gigantism. In this regard, they talk about four innovations in particular. The farthest along are the institute's "solar ponds." If they continue to work as well as they have for the past three years, the New Alchemists say they will provide a means by which with little effort the homeowner, or even apartment dweller, can grow a large amount of edible fish in his living room or-as John Todd does-in his dining room. The solar ponds are cylinders of varying sizes (from 1.5 meters high and 45 centimeters in diameter to 1.5 meters high and 1.5 meters in diameter) made of the same reinforced fiberglass used in many of the New Alchemists' buildings. Because their walls are translucent, light reaches through the sides as well as the top of any water contained in them,
of the future. Like the Cape Cod ark, the Prince Edward Island structure is totally solar-heated and contains aquiculture and agriculture areas. But it is three times the size of the Cape Cod ark and has much larger food-raising areas. In addition, the Canadian ark has a built-in barn with a space for animals, which has been occupied so far by pnly a small flock of geese; and, most significantly, it includes residential space for a family of four. Nobody has actually taken up residence in the Prince Edward Island ark; it has been too busy with visitors and technicians since its opening to provide enough privacy for a home. But Todd describes what a typical ark dweller's day might be like there or in similar counterparts of the future as glimpsed by the New Alchemists. The day would begin, as Todd pictures it, with a checking of the various systems. First, one would make sure that the water was flowing properly between the solar ponds. Then one
The New Alchemists have no desire to throw out all of modern technology. They say it should be used frugally. 'Living lightly on the earth' is their motto. would make an inspection tour of the south face, where an automatic misting system designed to stimulate growth would be moisturizing as many as 10,000 cuttings for fruit and nut trees, eventually to be reared outside. Next stop would be the commercial vegetable-growing area. Because of their large return in relation to the limited growing space they need, fish, tree seedlings and tomatoes would be the principal commercial products in the ark. A smaller, high-yield vegetable garden for the ark's inhabitants would be cultivated inside the structure as well. After visiting this, the ark dweller would climb upstairs to the microcomputer, which would indicate how the windmill is operating, monitor the air flow in the ark itself, the amount of carbon dioxide in the air, the amount of ammonia in the fish tanks-any number of variables. Some of the findings on the tour or at the console would dictate subsequent tasks-tying up or trimming the tomatoes, for instance, adding fresh water to the solar ponds and draining some
of the old water into the vegetable garden. But Todd sees much of the production in the ark as being largely self-regulating, and individual output is expected to vary with each ark dweller's "degree of involvement." In any case, life in the ark is envisioned as proceeding at a gentle pace, allowing a good deal of time in the average day for leisure or outside pursuits. At the same time, the ark should provide a large portion of its inhabitants' basic income and food needs. The New Alchemy Institute is also involved in designing equipment for developing lands: One of its members has spent a good deal of time in India developing a low-cost water-pumping windmill constructed from materials easily obtained by local farmers; at their site in Costa Rica, a couple of members have been working on a solar herb-drying device. But the New Alchemists' major focus has been on designing "soft" techno I: ogies that, they hope, will be attractive alternatives within supertechnological societies. They reason that if people in highly developed countries are going to turn away from supertechnology, they have to have something tangible to turn to. And they do not feel that simply returning to pre-supertechnology methods and lifestyles is the answer. They have no desire to throw out all of modern technology, they say. Indeed, their visions depend on a selective and frugal use of it. "In many cases," says Todd, "a lot of what has happened as a by-product of the industrial society is laying the groundwork for its alter ego. Miniaturization, for example." He thanks this development for making possible small computers, which he sees as playing a major role in monitoring and controlling small-scale growing systems. And then there is plastic. The New Alchemists' fondness for plastics-which is evident in the large amount of fiberglass they use-is heresy to many naturalists with whom they are otherwise in philosophical accord. Heresy because plastics are made from petroleum, because to make them it generally takes a lot of energy and because, once formed, they are virtually imperishable. "The purists have a wonderful time with us," Todd acknowledges. But, he says, "if we need petroleum products to make our fiberglass, this is a relatively Right: Flowers, trees and environmentalistsNew Alchemist Bill McLarney explains his ideas to visitors outside a geodesic-domed pond in Falmouth, Massachusetts.
slJlall amount of the overall oil supply," and it is well used for such ends, for long-lived, energy-conserving capital investment. Most petroleum is burned up in one-time usages. Given judicious use of modern materials and technologies, the New Alchemists feel industrial societies can come up with ways of working and living that are no more demanding-and are a good deal more rewarding-than those current technology provides. Todd thinks the institute's solar ponds are well along the path to being an economically proven "soft" technology. He feels the arks are proving themselves, too. And one can sense his impatience to press on to less charted, less tested realms. He
is particularly interested in what he calls "agricultural forests" -densely planted fruit and nut trees grown as a source of high nutrition foods. Generally speaking, the New Alchemists see their own horizons as limitless. They feel that they are pioneers in an area that has been barely explored and compare their potential to that of the Model T Ford at the advent of the automobile age. At the same time, they say they are determined to resist organizational growth. Instead, if their cause thrives, they plan to serve it by increasingly stimulating and helping other groups and individuals. "Maybe we're only a spark in the dying embers of our civilization," John Todd says. "Or maybe we're something
else. I don't know." "My own feeling," says Michaela Walsh, a staff associate of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, which has made a grant of $75,000 to the institute, "is that the future is going to develop an economic environment that will make the work they're doing extremely relevant. ... Food distribution and food production are going to become increasingly difficult as we move out of a cheap-fuel intensive society into a very expensive one. I believe that. There are many people who don't. And if you don't believe that we have limited resources, that energy is going to be costly, much more costly, in the future, then you have to say that the New Alchemy Institute is irrelevant."
At worst, the New Alchemists say, "if we;re wrong, we really haven't hurt anybody." And this, they point out, is more than proponents of supertechnology can promise if the world must rely on nuclear power to run its supermachines once the fossil fuels run out. And if they're right-if alternatives to modern technology must be adopted? Then, as a recent article about groups such as the New Alchemists put it, they "will not only be fortunate but will 0 be teachers of us all." About the Author: Wade Greene, who writes frequently for The New York Times Magazine on social and environmental issues, is the author of Disarmament: The Challenge of Civilization.
CA~E M&'lltOO STUDy
TBB BUSIIISS or LIIRIIII BUSIIBSS How valuable are business schools to the world of business? Very, say some-but others are not convinced. However, predicts the author, they will continue to boom so long as corporations face intricate problems and require people with specialized skills and training. Briefcases clutched in hand, they look like what they are-businessmen commuters awaiting their morning train. But these gentlemen, when they clamber aboard the Long Island Railway's early train to New York City, head straight for one car and take out not newspapers, but pen and pads-and wait for the professor to begin lecturing. In addition to being executives on their way to work, they are also students in a branch of Adelphi University's School of Business Administration. Instead of traveling to Adelphi at night to take classes leading to degrees as masters of business administration (MBA), Adelphi has come to them, renting one car from the railroad in order to offer students such courses as "The Manager One-onOne" and "The Legal Environment of Business." Some 200 New York-bound commuters are enrolled at any given time. This particular program, now seven years old, is but a further sign of the booming interest in postgraduate education in business in America. Another sign is the rapid increase in applications. An even more dramatic indication is that awesome annual hiring ritual, the mating dance between 23,000 young men and women about to receive MBA degrees, and representatives from hundreds and hundreds of American and overseas companies. Students will often sit through 30 or 40 interviews, with prepared speeches that sound impromptu, while the companies will interpret the rather strict rules about recruiting as liberally as possible. Sometimes the whole affair can get a little rough. The student is attempting to position himself for a job, while the company man is trying to slice through the student's curtain to understand what really motivates him. Thus, the company stratagem becomes one of leading the discussion in a direction irrelevant to the interview to thwart the student from reciting his prepared explanations- "even to the point of getting into an argument," one interviewer says. The stakes are high. The students are seeking not only beginning salaries of $20,000 but also a good deal of
responsibility and assurance of rapid promotion if they do perform well. The recruiters are looking for the talent to keep their companies going and growing-and eventually to run the firms. Thus, the ritual is a vital part of corporate life. For instance, First National City Bank of New York and Ford Motors each seek as many as 300 MBAs in that fashion annually. Business school, as a field of advanced studies, is an American invention. The first one was the Wharton School, established at the University of Pennsylvania in 1881; the development of these schools parallels the growth of American enterprise itself. Of course, there are still skeptics, more abroad than in the United States, who question the whole exercise. "Business is not enough of a discipline," says Sir Arnold Weinstock, managing director of Britain's largest private employer, General Electric Company. "Itcan't be taught like literature or mathematics. Business is about relationships with people, including differences in cultures and background. Management is largely judgment and I don't see how you can teach judgment. " Weinstock, however, is part of a shrinking minority. Business school is becoming more and more prominent; in the last decade, it has achieved a prestige comparable to that of the more traditional school of law. Increasingly, many nations are exhibiting great interest in the American business school. "When I travel abroad and people talk to me about their children's education," says economist-author John Kenneth Galbraith, former U.S. Ambassador to India, "it's overwhelmingly the Harvarct Business School they want their children to attend. That's because the word has spread." It has clearly spread to large foreign corporations, for 10 per cent of the companies recruiting each year at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, are nonAmerican. And then there's that most sincere sort of flattery-emulation. The best known business school in Europe is France's European Institute of Business Ad-
ministration, which was modeled on the Harvard Business School. Again, the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, is patterned after the Harvard Business School. The programs on the American campuses vary considerably. At many schools, students spend their undergraduate university years studying business, receiving either a bachelor of art or bachelor of science degree at the end of four years. But the top schools are postgraduate, usually two-year programs leading to the master of business administration degree. Stanford University's Graduate School of Business in California, with 300 students and ranked just behind Harvard in a survey of business school deans, puts a heavy emphasis on quantitative approach to business decisions, by insisting that its students take a good deal of math and computer analysis. At the University of Chicago's Graduate School of Business in Illinois,
Increasingly, business schools are recognizing that corporate policy involves social issues as well as management methods, and the curriculum is changing to reflect this. ranked in that same survey number three after Stanford, students must immerse themselves in more traditional disciplines, such as economics and accounting. Only after a student has mastered those skills does he move on to consider business problems. But the most common method of instruction continues to be that pioneered at Harvard, and still at the heart of its curriculum, the case method study based on resolving actual problems faced by business concerns at one time or another. Founded in 1908, Harvard Business School occupies impressive red brick buildings alongside the Charles River, which separates the town of Cambridge from Boston. Unlike the rest of Harvard, the Business School however is not on the Cambridge side but rather on the Boston side of the river, and when crossing the bridge one feels in a somewhat different world. There are none of the long-haired young people, wearing what looks like cast-off clothing, whom one sees lounging around Harvard Square near the main campus. On the contrary, the men at Harvard Business School wear ties and jackets (dresses rather than pantsuits for the women), frequently pop into the campus barbershop located next to the bookstore, never go anywhere without a pocket calculator, and are older at admission-averaging 26-than other students. They also walk with a rapid step because they have little time to waste. The students in the twoyear MBA program-almost 1,600 of them-are perhaps the hardest w.orked in the university. Classes are conducted in what look like operating room amphitheaters. Down in the center is the professor, with his lined yellow pad in front of him, prepared to lead the students through some pretty rough operations. The text is the case, a disguised description of an actual business problem faced by some company, which the students will have read very carefully the night before. These cases,
6 to 25 pages long, are the result offield research by professors. They present the kind of problems encountered in the real world-international opportunities, reinvestment opportunities, labor strife, a new product that is fizzling, a sudden cash flow squeeze, etc. There is no single right answer, which at first can be disturbing to stu<:!ents.The professor directs the discussion, questions, requestions, challenges, sometimes goads the students into considering as many sides of the problem as can be imagined-all so that they learn how to think about real problems in the years ahead. Since 1911, more than 40,000 cases have developed at Harvard. The method has been adapted by most other business schools, but Harvard is still the biggest coqsumer as w~ll as producer. Some 200 other institutions obtain the Harvard cases through the Intercollegiate Case Clearing House at Cambridge. "It is remarkable that so many companies have been so open to us," says Harvard Business Dean Lawrence Fouraker, "but it would not have happened were we not very judicious in our use of the research." And what do students get out of the case method? "You learn a structure for solving problems," says Linda Elmer, a young woman who graduated in 1975 and is now a marketing consultant. "The courses I like best were those that provided a framework for a whole lot of different problems. At first I was not very confident about my own decisions and opinions; after all, it's hard to go against 79 other people. But I learned independent analysis, and now I have the confidence to recognize when I think I'm right and not care if others think I'm wrong. That means I've become, I think, much more flexible and rational. I've also learned about myself. I've learned about limitations, I don't have to be great in everything. And I've learned how I can and can't influence other people." Companies that do recruit MBAs note that the transition from campus to corporation is not always smooth. "There is a tendency among some business school students, especially those who have not had practical experience before going to business school, to assume-after two years of studying cases about problems in businessesthat everybody out in the real world is stupid," says Peter Cruikshank, director of personnel at Gillette, the huge, diversified consumer package goods company, which recruits MBAs in marketing and finance. "Some of the students have an inflated ego about what they can do, although the smart ones have gotten over that a long time before. But those who haven't, who don't understand that a lot of problems are simply ongoing, will get frustrated. It can take a little time for them to get squared away." Nevertheless, Gillette is typical in having few doubts about the value of MBA programs. "Over the years, our MBAs have been rather successful; many head our operating divisions around the world," Cruikshank added. "Their proven track record lends credibility to the MBA approach. The training helps an individual to learn how to approach a problem, to analyze alternatives, to develop certain functional skills, and to gain a broad view of the business scene. One of the main advantages is that it gives a young person a running start. An MBA might become one of our divisional heads 14 or 15 years after leaving business school, a position which he might not
have reached without the running start. The MBAs come in knowing that they have pretty good prospects, and perhaps they're watched a little more carefully. And if you have someone who has been to Amos Tuck School at Dartmouth in Hanover, New Hampshire, or Wharton or Harvard and has taken courses under the leading professors in marketing, well, then he's probably better prepared to make a contribution. Of course, I should add that we have an awful lot of successes among people who didn't go to college-such as the chairman of our board." There are more and more women and minority groups on business school campuses today, the result of both changing attitudes in the schools and a growing desire on the part of companies to make their executive corps more representative of the society at large. However, no one can accuse the business schools of moving too fastHarvard did not admit women to the first year of its MBA program until 1963. Business schools are continuing to make other innovations. Harvard, for instance, in 1972 established a three-week cram course for managers from small busi-
Although company chiefs dismiss the current enthusiasm for business schools as a fad, this American invention is becoming more and more popular in a large number of countries. nesses. Simmons College, an all-woman college in Boston, has established the first postgraduate business program exclusively for women. The curriculum is deliberately tailored to the needs of women trying to succeed in what has traditionally been a man's world. As Dr. Margaret Hennig, one of the founders, explains, the aim is "to help women break away from the narrow special identification they either assume or are assigned to in the male culture of business organizations." The University of California at Los Angeles has set up a program to train managers working in the arts, a reflection of the growing realization that good management is crucial to successful art enterprises. Some of the innovations are a little bizarre. At Cornell University's Graduate School of Business and Public Administration in Ithaca, New York, Professor Arthur J. Kover has set up a "Machiavellian Seminar," named for the Florentine civil servant who wrote The Prince and The Discourses, those classic handbooks about acquiring and holding power that have attracted politicians for centuries. Machiavelli's books are among the required reading for the seminar, the purpose of which is to equip students not only to recognize "Machiavellian" behavior in others but also to develop such techniques for themselves in order to advance their careers. While other professors at Cornell University initially opposed such a course, many have come around. "It is a practical approach," says an associate dean. "It is a way to introduce reality into the business school curriculum."
Even without such a course, business schools do have their critics. There are still many top officers of companies who dismiss the current enthusiasm for business school training as based upon an unfounded mystique. Some will assert that one thing that cannot be learned in business school is entrepreneurship-the ability to build up companies from scratch, the willingness to risk great failure in order to achieve great success. They may be right, for those risk takers are often acting irrationally, and business school, if anything, trains students to make rational decisions. An MBA is meant to be a manager in a great company, not a founder of one. There are those who question the entire activity, asserting that business schools put highest value on ruthlessness and success. One former Harvard Business School student, Peter Cohen, received some attention with his recent book, The Gospel According to Harvard Business School. Students, professors, even the secretaries, he wrote, "were not worried too much about the habit of thinking and questioning anything" but rather were "content to accept that maximization of long-range profits is why God hath created the earth." Curiously, the complaint was more true a few years ago-although business schools have never claimed that they are trying to educate philosophers or holy men. Today, more and more schools are recognizing that business policy involves social issues as well as business methods, and the curriculum is changing to reflect this. In 1975, in the wake of disquiet over the Watergate political scandal and allegations about questionable corporate practices, some 50 American business schools introduced courses on ethics in business. At the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania, Professor James Wilson tries to push his students into tight ethical situations- "What should your role as a manager be when a subordinate comes to you reporting a product safety defect?" At Stanford, students are asked to focus on what role, if any, individual ethics have in the business world. At the Amos Tuck School at Dartmouth, the regular curriculum includes videotapes of the U.S. Senate Watergate hearings and candid lectures by corporate executives who "have had trouble." Widespread student interest in such courses indicates some changes in the outlook of students. They are not less interested in success than their predecessors, but they are also looking with a wider vision. As one student put it, "a portion of the class is going for dollars and cents, but a larger portion is going for a satisfying job and a compatible lifestyle." Business schools both in the United States and abroad, one can safely predict, will continue to boom so long as organizations face more and more complicated problems and thus require people with specialized skills and training-as well as a general ability to analyze-to cope with them. No one ever said business school is a simple substitute for experience, but neither is experience a 0 substitute for business school. About the Author: Daniel Yergin is a teacher at the Harvard Business School. His articles often appear in New Republic and The New York Times Magazine, and his latest book is Shattered Peace, a study of the origins of the cold war.
BODY LANGUAGE FOR THE DEAF
"When have Âˇyou felt the disadvantage of being deaf most?" Bernard Bragg, serious at last-though that glint in his eye never really goes-after a fun session with students of a Delhi deaf school, reads the question. His pencil doesn't take more than a split second to start moving on the pad. "When others fail to understand," he writes in reply. "The lack of understanding on their part is my biggest handicap." The understanding that Bernard Bragg writes-and can't talk-about is not just the literal comprehension of his unsaid words, his gesturing explanations, his sign language. It is a more sensitive realization that the deaf are people, not curios. He doesn't-and he shakes his head emphatically-want special treatment. He wants them to be treated like ordinary people, no more and certainly no less. Bernard Bragg was born deaf mute ("we American deaf don't like being called 'deaf and dumb' because 'dumb' also means stupid"), and "neither despite nor because of" that is a celebrated stage and TV showman in America today. He uses this status"my biggest asset" - to get abetter, fairer deal for his partners in silence. "I don't want tolerance, I want understanding." He writes that; then to make sure you've got it, or maybe just because he feels so intensely about it, he puts a decisive cross over "tolerance" and underlines "understanding" once, twice, and then once more. As he acts out his life, on and off stage, this talented actor, administrator of the U.S. National Theater of the Deaf (NTD), "one of the most consistently busy acting companies in the United States," tries to convey this understanding to the hearing and nonhearing world around him. "Deaf pride," and typically he underlines that, "is what I'm trying to instill in other deaf people." The question-answer session was conducted, scrawled really, across a dozen pages of a note pad and scattered between his tight schedules and performances in New Delhi. Dr. Bragg, famous both for his talents as
Actor Bernard Bragg, who has proved the eloquence of hands as a language for those who cannot speak, is trying to instill a 'proud acceptance of their deafness' in other deaf people. an actor and for his work for the deaf, was in India on a week-long holiday as part of a globe-trotting tour. "Actually I'm on sabbatical leave from the NTD and have decided to see the world on my own." Delhi w31sa half-way stop in a trip that covered Moscow, Helsinki, Stockholm, Oslo, Dublin, Madrid, Lisbon, Paris, Geneva, Zurich, Vienna, Belgrade, Istanbul, Tehran. And then home to New London, giving performances en route at Los Angeles and New York. "It's 75 per cent work and 25 per cent sightseeing," he comments on his world odyssey. He takes in visits to local institutions for the deaf, and where time and program permit, gives a performance. Bernard Bragg's performances are memorable moments. Dubbed as "the man with the golden voice in his hands," Bragg takes a disarming and admirable pride in demonstrating how the hands can speak as eloquently as the tongue, how the eyes can see what the ears may not or cannot hear. His shows are a blend of mille and theater, of fun and learning, nonsense and meaning, laughter and pathos-the last unintended by Bragg, who is at pains to stress that he does not want you "to feel bad" for the deaf or pity them their disability. The silent shows depend a lot on stage presence and talent-Bragg has charm, agility and matinee-idollooks. In Delhi Bragg managed to slot two mini-performances into his schedule-one at Dr. Victor's School for the Deaf (a private institution) in Anand Niketan and the other at the American Embassy School. At Dr. Victor's, the children responded
to Bragg uninhibitedly and with spontaneous delight. Bernard Bragg, the showman, merged with Dr. Bragg, the teacher, to produce a few mimed skits, with the children participating enthusiastically. Bragg motionedand they understood immediately-that they should do as he did: there was bedlam. He was a plane, a train, a kite ... and just a bundle of more movements, gestures and body exercises: free movements. The children loved it. "It's like doodling with your body instead of your pencil. The idea is to loosen up and follow your impulses," a journalist had commented after seeing a similar Bragg performance in Boston. Many thousands of miles away from Boston, the reaction of the deaf children was identical. Everywhere, Bragg's aim was the same: "Children should learn not to depend on words exclusively to express themselves." He proves that. there is another way to communicate-and it can be a lot of fun, not an embarrassing and painstaking effort. He wants a change in the attitude that sign language is the resigned, only choice open to a deaf person. Sure, it may be the only choice-but he wants the world to realize that it is a happy choice. If you can have fun with words, you can have fun with your hands too. Communicating with the hands may have disadvantages-but so have words. Bragg proved all this and more at the American Embassy School (AES), where he took some of Dr. Victor's students along. The easy interaction between the AES students and the deaf children showed that Top: right: Bernard Bragg delights his audience and "stars" during an impromptu mime session with students from a Delhi school for the deaf and the American Embassy School. Bottom: Scenes from the Washington presentation of Parade, one of the hits from the National Theater of the Deaf of which Bragg is administrator and leading actor. Parade is abOUl a New Deaf Dominion-its serious aspects and its lighter side, too. The latter was reflected in a soap opera (right) with the nurse (Juliana Field) and doctor (Joe Castronovo) discussing a problem through their "surgical masks," and in the dominion's equivalent of Superman, played by Ed Waterstreet (far right).
friendship need have no language or sound barrier. Bragg first performed some of his popular skits-the woodcutter, the handless man conducting an orchestra with his eyes and eyebrows, the western, the eagle and the gopher, on the train, bombers in action. This was showman Bragg at his best. A born comedian with an amazing sense of timing and a wide, never-repetitive stock of gestures, he had the audience enthralled. Bragg then called some of Dr. Victor's students and played his little "games" with them. He explained to one of them that she was a puppet, he the puppeteer and that an imaginary thread tied his hand to hers. She would move her hands in the direction he moved his. And when Bragg suddenly made a gesture of snipping the thread, she spontaneously flopped down her hands. As the audience cheered, Bragg had proved once again-as he so often has all over the worldthat theater of the deaf need not become just a theater for the deaf. And then he had the hearing and nonhearing children perform together-as mirrors for each other. One had to simultaneously imitate the movements of the other. As usual it wasn't just fun. There was Bragg again subtly proving that communication between those who can hear and those who can't isn't difficult-it just needs effort and understanding. Bragg should know-he's been communicating for decades now. He has got Shakespeare and O'Neill across to both the hearing and the deaf audience through "kinetic imagery" - "poetry painted in the air ... it's like mime but different-the hands do more painting than the rest of the body." Bragg's aim is to give the deaf a pride in themselves as a distinct group-not as a disabled group- "with their own sign language, culture, social lives, their own theater which they can share with others as the NTD does." The deaf, he points out. have an added advantage over other groups. They can be a really international group "since there'll be no language barrier." He chuckles at his joke. Bragg is helping create this separate identity for the deaf mainly through his work with the NTD. His visits and performances are all extensions of that. "I'm a strong advocate of what is known in the States as 'total communication' for all deaf children. I try to sell the idea wherever I go, and also encourage and inspire others to set up their own theater," he writes in answer to a question about the main object of his international trips.
In addition to Dr. Victor's Scho'ol for the Deaf, Bragg visited the schools and institutions run by the Association for the Deaf in Delhi. He had discussions with Dr. Victor about broadening the scope of his school. Dr. Victor tries to make the children learn as many sounds and words as possible. The result is often incoherent and achievement comes, if at all, after days of painstaking effort. But Dr. Victor believes that this is the best way of integrating the deaf child with others. Dr. Bragg doesn't agree. If there has to be any integration, he would rather have it on the terms of the deaf, as it were. "Dr. Victor was responsive to my suggestion that the school should teach the manual alphabet, the one-hand language, to the students," Bragg commented. But, methods apart, Bragg was "impressed by the dedica-
Bernard Bragg and other talented artists of the National Theater of the Deaf have proved that their theater is not just for the deaf. Their plays have been hailed as artistic creations 'in which words are not missed.'
tion Dr. Victor has shown in his work. Ijudge this from seeing the children here. They're all happy, intelligent, and alert." What made Bragg happier was the fact that Prem Victor himself is not deaf. Bragg is equally delighted when he sees deaf people taking up the job of teaching deaf children-there were a few deaf teachers at the Vocational Training School for the Deaf in Delhi. ''I'm a teacher myself-there are about 2,000 deaf teachers in the United States. They become models for deaf children. The deaf students find it easier to identify with such a teacher, and the teacher knows the best way of dealing with the child and can understand his problems better." But more important than all this, Bragg stresses, is first to teach the child not to be embarrassed by, or ashamed of, his inability to hear and speak properly. "Touche!" he replies when you ask if instilling a proud acceptance of deafness should come before getting them to learn some sounds or buying them hearing aids or teaching them any other methods of communication. And for that pride to be
sustained, it is essential that he learn to communicate in his language. Dr. Bragg, incidentally, doesn't wear a hearing aid because "I do not have what is called 'functional' hearing. Mine is nonperceptual, I can hear noise but can't distinguish words. Nothing could make me understand-not even in 50 years." He then gestures that a car passing, a child crying, a plate falling-to him they all "sound" the same. Bragg's life is an ideal example of a deaf man who has not fought his disability or conquered it but accepted it, and then proceeded with his life not in spite of or because of it, but just like anyone else. "My biggest achievement," he scrawled on the note pad, in the car journey from Dr. Victor's school to AES, "is becoming what I am, the way I really am, not what the world wants me to be. We must allow deaf children to become what they want to be, not what the world wants them to be or what their teachers, parents and others want them to be." Bernard Bragg never had that problem. He was born into a house of silence. Both his parents are deaf. Bragg gives the total credit for his achievements, his attitude, and the pleasure he gets out of life, to them. "My father is an actor. I wanted to be like him," he mimes out. Bragg's father had an amateur theater company in New York, and young Bernard started out with acting in his productions and a few school plays. In 1952, he graduated froin Gallaudet, a liberal arts college for the deaf in Washington, D.C. He then studied with the noted French actor and pantomimist, Marcel Marceau, in Paris and came back to America launching a successful career that combined television, theater, and teaching. Among his triumphs on TV was a three-year weekly program "The Quiet Man." Other programs were taped and distributed nationally. He appeared on BBC too, where his most famous show was a miming of Aesop's Fables. He toured the United States, performing in many colleges and night shows-and. as he went along he was making Americans take a second look at their deaf compatriots. Every time he established a rapport with his audience-and it was every time-amidst the cheers, applause and calls for encore would be the realization: "He's deaf and he can get across to us; he's deaf and he's so witty, so intelligent." Bragg's pride is the work he has done in the National Theater of the Deaf, which David Hays formed in 1966. Hays, an award-
winning Broadway scenic designer, is the managing director of NTD. Although amateur deaf acting companies existed before NTD, there was no professional company. David Hays, who had helped establish the Eugene O'Neill Memorial Theater Center in Connecticut in 1964, proposed that the center sponsor a national deaf theater. The center agreed; the Rehabilitation Services Administration of the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare awarded the NTD a $140,000 grant for training, rehearsal and preparation for tours. Bragg, a famous professional by then, was logical choice when NTD began looking for talented deaf actors. Today he is much more than just an actor with NTD. Administrator, sign master, he can take much of the credit for NTD being regarded not as excellent "deaf" theater but as excellent theater. . Period. The NTD's achievements are manyartistic, social, educational, humane. They
"Children should learn not to depend on words exclusively to express themselves," feels Bernard Bragg. He is himself a master at the art of communicating without speaking, as he demonstrates above to a young audience in Delhi.
have so far put on over 2,000 performances all over the world. There is initial skepticism, with people coming to see their performances as some sort of a social or humanitarian obligation and, always, with a touch of condescension. But the superb presentation soon has the audience viewing it as purely an artistic creation, forgetting that the actors are not speaking because they can't. The mime blends in. The spoken word is not missed. The sign language "is an enhancement rather than a distraction," said one critic. "The gestures and mime of the actors," commented another, "are a ballet of the hands, rich in allusion and imagery which transcends the limited order of English grammar."
The NTD does have some hearing.speaking performers too, apart from their 14 deaf artists. "There are three hearing performers who read while we sign-for the benefit of the hearing people who make 'up 75 per cent of our audience," Bragg explains. This is no awkward form of dubbing, and it isn't jarring off-stage reading. The narration is totally integrated into the performance. The success of this method is evidenced by the laurels NTD has won. NTD hasn't done simply light comedies, which are so easy to mime (it has done slapstick versions of Superman and Cinderella). In fact, as Bragg explains, its plays aren't just mime. "We use sign-mime which is a combination of sign language and mime and an extension of the manual language with which most deaf people communicate." In its repertoire for its inaugural tour, ,NTD included poetry and short plays. There were adaptations of William Saroyan's My Heart's in the Highlands, a Puccini opera, William Blake's Tyger Tyger, and a Japanese Kabuki play. Its most famous and popular production has been Gilgamesh. "We've performed it both in the United States and abroad," writes Bragg, and then mimes out the enthusiastic appreciation they received for it. Gilgamesh was a difficult play for anyone to do, more so for a theater that had to sign-mime it. One of the oldest known literary works, predating Homer by more than a thousand years, it is about the life and struggles of a man-god to achieve everlasting life. It was a Sumerian composition inscribed on clay tablets. The NTD rendering was an outstanding success, once again proving its ability to "carve language in the air." Its other successes are Dylan Thomas' A Child's Christmas in Wales and Under Milk Wood and Richard Sheridan's The Critic. Translating words into signs for NTD is Bragg's job as sign master. The company tries to avoid finger spelling as it is not very effective dramatically. Bragg has to continually invent and improvise. An offshoot of NTD is the Little Theater of the Deaf, which performs for childrenhearing and deaf-and has a cast of one hearing and four deaf actors. They are regular performers on "Sesame Street," the popular American TV program for children. Bragg also founded the Theater in Sign, a small group theater that performs especially for deaf people. As for the deaf schools in America, "they think they own me," jokes Bragg.
Bragg gets along famously with hearing people. He has no qualms about traveling the world on his own, no worries that he won't be understood. A foreigner coming into a new country may worry about having to pick up a few stray local words-Bragg delightedly points out that he is one up on them: he doesn't need to. And he certainly manages better than many a foreigner. In the little time that he had in Delhi, Bragg did what every foreigner does: shopping for mementos. At one shop-where he really fell in love with one piece-he pantomimed how his heart would be left behind if he walked out of the shop without it, so they would just have to reduce the price. The salesman pantomimed back that he would have to walk out of the shop without his job if he gave it at the price Bragg suggested. Bragg used his charm, his wits and his mime and a happy compromise was reached, with Bragg trying till the last to pay a little less. He had, as usual, managed to communicate. It's a measure of Bragg's success that he is called upon to conduct theater workshops even for hearing theater students. His workshops do more than teach theater: they demonstrate the eloquence of hands. Bragg knows that messages can get boring. He sees to it that his never are. He doesn't allow his obsession to give a helping hand (quite literally) to the deaf get so serious that it overrides the group's theatrical identity. Rarely is deafness the theme of NTD plays. One major exception was Parade (photographs from which accompany this feature), in which a deaf professor recalls his own graduation from a high school for deaf students and remembers a march to Washington in which he participated. He tells the audience of the hopes and expectations the marchers had for their New Deaf Dominion, "a place where they would be free from the condescension and special treatment to which deaf people are frequently subjected, a place where they could be individuals and live as they wished and develop their own ideas." Bernard Bragg played the professor. But when he spoke of the New Deaf Dominion, he could well have been playing himself and echoing his own wishes. For it is a world, a dream that Bernard Bragg wishes would come as true for the deaf all the world over as it has for him. He has proved that if his actions speak louder than his words it isn't because he . can't use words. It is because he doesn't need them. His language is like silence. Golden. 0
The universe ...
of the deaf ..
Above,from left: The series shows Linda Bove, a deaf-mute actress, giving a speech with signs in her role as a leader of the deaf in National Theater of the Deaf's Parade. The meaning of each sign is given below the photographs. Far left: In another scene from Parade,handSform designs on a tattooed man: butterfly and fire under legs, and a pumping heart below a large open mouth. The hands of the other actors depict the phrase New Deaf Dominion-which is what the parade is all about. Left: Linda Bove gestures exuberantly as the parade of deaf marchers reaches its destination-the White House. Linda is among the NTD artists whose success with the deaf theater has led to roles outside. She is a regular on "Sesame Street," the popular American TV program for children.
THE CASE FOR TELEVISION JOURNALISM A kind of adversary relationship between print journalism and electronic journalism exists and has existed for many years in the United States. Innumerable newspaper critics seem to insist that broadcast journalism be like their journalism and measured by their standards. It cannot be. The two are more complementary than competitive, but they are different. The journalism of sight and sound is the only truly new form of journalism to come along. It is a mass medium, a universal medium; as the American public-education system is the world's first effort to teach everyone, so far as that is possible. It has serious built-in limitations as well as advantages, compared with print. Broadcast news operates in linear time, newspapers in lateral space. This means that a newspaper or magazine reader can be his own editor in a vital sense. He can glance over it and decide what to read, what to pass by. The TV viewer is a restless prisoner, obliged to sit through what does not interest him to get to what may interest him. While it is being shown, a local bus accident has as much an impact, seems as important, as an outbreak of a big war. He can do little about this, little about the viewer's unconscious resentments. Everybody in America watches television to some degree, including most of those who pretend they don't. Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter was right; he said there is no highbrow in any lowbrow, but there is a fair amount of lowbrow in every highbrow. Television is a combination mostly of lowbrow and middlebrow, but there is more highbrow offered than highbrows will admit or even seek to know about. They will make plans, go to trouble and expense, when they buy a book or reserve a seat in the theater. They will not study the week's offerings of music or drama or serious documentation in the radio- and TVprogram pages of their newspaper and then schedule themselves to be present. They want to come home, twist the dial and find something agreeable ready, accommodating to their schedule. For TV, the demand-supply equation is monstrously distorted. After a few years' experience with it in Louisville, Kentucky, newspaper editor Mark Ethridge said that television is a voracious monster that consumes Shakespeare, talent and money at a voracious rate. As a station manager once said to a critic, "Hell, there isn't even enough mediocrity to go around." TV programing in America consumes 18 to 24 hours a day, 365 days of the year. No other medium of information or entertainment ever tried anything like that. How many good new plays appear in U.S. theaters each year? How many fine new motion pictures? Add it all together and perhaps you could fill 20 evenings out of the 365. Every new development in mass communications has been opposed by intellectuals of a certain stripe. I am sure that Gutenberg was denounced by the elit.e of his time-his device would spread dangerous ideas among the God-fearing, obedient masses. The typewriter was denounced by intellectuals of the more elfin variety-its clacking would drive away the muses. The first movies were denounced - they would destroy the
legitimate theater. Then the sound motion picture was denounced -it would destroy the true art of the film, which was pantomime. To such critics, of course, television is destroying everything. It is destroying conversation, they tell us. Nonsense. Nonconversing families were always that way. TV has, in fact, stimulated billions of conversations that otherwise would not have occurred. It is destroying the habit of reading, they say. This is nonsense. Book .sales in the United States during the lifetime of general television have greatly increased and well beyond the increase in the population. At the end of a program with Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black, we at the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) announced on the air that if viewers wanted one of those little copies of the Constitution such as he had held in his hand, they had only to write to us. We received about 150,000requests at CBS-mostly, I suspect, from people who didn't know the Constitution was actually down on paper, who thought it was written in the skies or on a bronze tablet somewhere. After my first TV conversation with Eric Hoffer, a longshoreman and author, his books sold out in nearly every bookstore in Americathe next day. TV is debasing the use of the English language, they tell us. Nonsense. Until radio and then TV, tens of millions of people living in sharecropper cabins, in small villages on the plains and in the mountains, in the great city slums, had never heard good English diction in their lives. If anything, this medium has improved the general level of diction. The print-electronic adversary relationship is a one-way street. Print scrutinizes, analyzes, criticizes us on TV every day; we do not return the favor. We have tried now and then, particularly in radio days with "CBS Views the Press," but not enough. On a nationwide network basis it's almost impossible because we have no real national newspapers-papers read everywhere - to criticize for the benefit of the national audience. Our greatest failure is in not criticizing ourselves, at least through the mechanism of viewers' rebuttals. Here and there, now and then, we have done it. It should have been a regular part of TV from the beginning. The Achilles heel of TV is that people can't talk back to that little box. If they had been able to, over the years, perhaps the gas of resentment could have escaped from the boiler in a normal way. The obstacle has not been policy; it has been the practical problem of programing inflexibilities. We don't have the 15-minute program any more, for example. If we could extend the evening news programs to an hour, as we have wished to do for years, we could do many things, including a rebuttal period from viewers. It is not the supposedly huckster-minded monopolistic networks that prevent this; it is the local affiliates. It was tough enough to get the half-hour news; apparently it's impossible to get an hour version. I have seen innumerable sociological and psychological studies of TV programing and its effects. I have never seen a study of the quality-and the effect-of professional television
In this spirited defense of television, a famous TV personality counteJ:ssome of' the most familiar criticisms of the medium, arguing that print and electronic journalism need not be jealous rivals; they are more complementary than competitive. criticism in the printed press. TV critics in the papers tell us, day in and day out, what is wrong with us. Let me return the favor by suggesting that they stop trying to be Renaissance men. They function as critics of everything on the screen-drama, soap operas, science programs, musical shows, sociological documentaries, political coveragethe works. Let the papers assign their science writers to TV science programs, their political writers to TV political coverage, their drama critics to the TV dramas. Let me suggest also that they add a second measurement to their critiques. It is proper that they judge works of fictiondramas, for example-entirely on the basis of what they see on the little screen because in that area the producers, writers and performers have total control of the material. If the result is wrong, they are wrong. News and documentaries are something else-especially live events, like a political convention. Here we do not have total control of the material or anything like it. On these occasions, it seems to me, the newspaper critic must also be a reporter; he must, if he can, go behind the scenes and find out why we do certain things and do not do other things; there is usually a reason. I suggest that newspaper publishers should not publish lofty editorials and critiq~es berating the culturally low common denominator of TV entertainment programing and then feature on the cover of weekly TV supplements, most weeks of the year, the latest TV rock star or gangbuster character. Or they should be honest enough to admit that they do this-play to mass tastes for the same reason the networks do-because it is profitable. Now, at this point the reader must be thinking, what's this fellow beefing about? He's had an unusually long ride on the crest of the wave; he's highly paid. He's generally accepted as an honest practitioner of his trade. All true. I have indeed been far more blessed than cursed in my own lifework. But I am saying what,I am saying here- I am finally violating an old precept that one never, but never, replies to criticsbecause it has seemed to me that someone must. Because the criticism exchange between print and broadcasting is a one-way street. Because a mythology is being slowly, steadily, set in concrete. There is the myth that since the pioneering, groundbreaking TV programs of Edward R. Murrow and Fred Friendly in the 1950s,CBS News has been less daring, done fewer programs of a hard-hitting kind. The Murrow programs are immortal in this business because they were the first. Since then we have dealt, forthrightly, with every conceivable controversial issue one can think of-drugs, homo~exuality, government corruption, business corruption, TV commercials, gun control, pesticides, tax frauds, military waste, abortion, the Vietnam war-everything. What shortage has occurred has been on the side of the materials, not on the side of TV's willingness to tackle them. I have recently inquired of other CBS News veterans if they can recall a single case of a proposed news story or a documentary
that was killed by executives of the parent organization. Not one comes to anyone's mind. Some programs have been anathema to the top executive level, but they were not stopped. Some have caused severe heartburn at that level when they went on the air. Never has there been a case of people at that level saying to the News Division, "Don't ever do anything like that again." For more than 13 years, I have done commentary-personal opinion inescapably involved-most nights of the week on the evening news. In that time exactly three scripts of mine were killed because of their substance by CBS News executives. Each one by a different executive, and none of them ever did it again. Three-out of more than 2,000 scripts. How many newspaper editorialists or columnists, how many magazine writers, have had their copy so respected by their editors? There is the perennial myth that sponsors influence, positively or negatively, what we put on the air. They play no role whatever. No public-affairs program has ever been canceled because of sponsor objection. Years ago, they played indirect roles. When I started doing a 6 p.m. radio program, nearly 30 years ago, Ed Murrow, then a vice president, felt it necessary to take me to lunch with executives of the insurance company sponsoring the program. About 14 years ago, when I was doing the Sundaynight TV news, a representative of the advertising agency handling the commercials would appear in the studio, though he never tried to change anything. Today one never sees a sponsor or an agency man, on the premises or off. After all, in the United States TV network broadcasting might at its inception have become an appendage and apparatus of government; it might have gone completely Hollywood. It did neither. It grimly held to every freedom the law allows, and it fights for more. We are not the worst people in the land, we who work as journalists. Our product in print or on the air is a lot better, more educated and more responsible than it was when I began, some 45 years ago, as a cub reporter. This has been the best generation of all in which to have lived as a journalist in America. We are no longer starvelings, and we sit above the salt. We have affected our times. It has been a particular stroke of fortune to have been a journalist in Washington these years. There has not been a center of world news to compare with it since ancient Rome. We have done the job better, I think, than our predecessors and our successors will do it better than we. 0 About the Author: Eric Sevareid is a distinguished American broadcaster. When he recently retired as the national correspondent of CBS television network, Time magazine wrote: "Sevareid was among the most articulate, most literate and most judicious of television sages." Sevareid has published numerous books including the autobiographical Not So Wild a Dream and Small Sounds in the Night. This article is an adaptation of his speech to the Washington Journalism Center.
PUBLIC TELEVISION IN AMERICA
Tracing the phenomenal growth of public television in the U.S., the author notes that its imaginative and innovative programs have made it an effective alternative to the commercial networks. Thirty years ago, postwar technology brought forth a new mass medium called television, whose impact on American life was destined to rival that of the automobile. As the new medium grew, radio receded in popularity and cinema halls emptied. What isÂˇmore, television was firmly in the grip of commercial networks exploiting the medium for advertising revenue. This caused serious concern amongst thoughtful Americans. Ten years ago, an ambitious idea-and an untested onetook form: public television was set up as an alternative to commercial networks. The success of public television is clear evidence that today's American audience knows what it wants from television-and where to get it from. The signs were shaping early enough but were ignored even by many astute observers. When it happened, therefore, disbelief gave way to disquiet on Network Row, as the major U.S. commercial television corporations are called in the trade. The relentless pattern of more Americans watching their favorite shows more of the time each year ended in 1977. For the first time in history, viewing of commercial TV had actually declined. Some canny advertising people had nervously watched the poor start of the new season of shows. As the audience research data continued to show poor results, anxiety spread fast on Madison Avenue. Nearly eight billion dollars of advertising was at stake, with a half-minute on a popular show now billing at more than $100,000. If the audience stopped growing, TV might lose its position as the most coveted medium of advertising. According to one analysis, shaping new shows for an exclusively young audience meant leaving out half the population, which is over 35 years. This may be true, in part. But are the young watching these shows? Audience research shows that people below 30 years make up the highest proportion of the public TV audience-35 per cent of the total-while they represent only 29 per cent of the U.S. population. In other words, they watch public TV more than do the older age groups! Obviously, network shows do not really take into account the true characteristics of the present-day audience. It was not as if the networks just passively stood by. Their Facing page: The cast of "Que Pasa, U.S.A. ?", a PBS comedy series, spotlights the hilarious adventures of a Cuban-American family as it struggles to cope with a new life in Miami, Florida.
marathon movies attracted predictably good portions of the audience. In November 1977, the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) had some 110 million viewers watching the fourday showing of The Godfather and its sequel Godfather II made up into "The Complete Novel for TV." The record is still held by Roots, which was seen by 130 million viewers when it was telecast by the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) over an eight-day period in January 1977. But the "Masterpiece Theater" of public television is a rival of growing strength. As far back as 1969, The Forsyte Saga demonstrated that the serialization of novels could attract a large and loyal following. Another spectacular success is Upstairs, Downstairs, showing life among the Edwardian rich and their servants. Since 1970, when the series began, it has gained international popularity, chalking up an audience of more than 300 million in 36 countries. Competition to Godfather came last November from the 13-part series I Claudius, which covers the first 80 years of the Roman Empire from Augustus to Claudius. Its successor is Tolstoi's Anna Karenina, already acclaimed by critics. (All these programs were originally produced by the British Broadcasting Corporation.) Today, three out of every five American homes owning TV sets watch public television regularly. Critics had earlier belittled public TV as up-ended in its appeal. The new audience data compiled by A.C. Nielsen Company in a four-week survey in March 1977 effectively rebutted such criticism. Public TV is being watched in more racial-minority and lower-income homes than ever before, thus providing a closer parallel to the total U.S. population. Public TV is an increasingly effective alternative to the commercial networks, attracting approximately 75 to 100 million people at least once a month. Today, public television has 273 stations, more than that of the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), ABC, or NBC. It was not always so. For the first 15 of its 25-year history, noncommercial broadcasting led an erratic life, riddled by a host of problems, financial viability being major one. Also, the concept of education in general, and through mass media in particular, was being actively debated. There was, for example, a television service for schools. With entertainment left to the networks, what additional work could the medium undertake? One of the spurs to wider interest in nonformal education
The success of public television, not only with children but with adult audiences as well, has brought about a new outlook on the use of the medium. Rapid technological changes are affecting the content and form of television. through mass media has been the growing recognition that education can no longer be viewed as a teacher-oriented, timebound, place-bound process. The newer concept of education equates it with learning, regardless of where, when or how it occurs. Education, thus defined, embraces much more than the conventional "academic" skills and subjects. It includes also the acquisition of occupational and household skills, the development of analytical modes of thinking, the formation of attitudes, values and aspirations. This learning-oriented definition also includes the development of aesthetic appreciation. The prospect for using television for educational purposes was not high in the consciousness of the American public of the early postwar days. In 1949, a small group of prominent citizens, supported primarily by educators and educational radio station operators-calling themselves the Joint Committee on Educational Television and the National Citizens Committee for Education-were vigorously pushing the idea of educational television at the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The FCC deliberated on the issue until 1952 when it assigned 242 television channels for educational use, making it clear that the FCC was seeking a different kind of service from what the commercial networks had to offer. The first educational TV station Began broadcasting in 1953. By the end of 1954, there were 9 such stations on the air, the number rising to 22 in 1956 and 35 in 1959. By 1962, 79 educational stations were broadcasting. Large and important stations had been or were on the way to being established in cities such as New York, Boston, Washington, D.C., Cleveland, Pittsburgh, San Francisco and Los Angeles. By 1964, 101 stations were on the air.
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But the institution was unbelievably poor. It was realized that for noncommercial television to fulfill its potentiality, a reliable and continuing system offunding simply had to be established. For a year, the Carnegie Commission probed every aspect of noncommercial television. Central among its recommendations was the establishment by Congress of a nonprofit, independent corporation to be funded 'on a long-range basis. Another major recommendation was the emphasis on the local character in contrast to a centralized network. "The local stations must be the bedrock upon which public television is erected, and the instruments to which all its activities are referred." The landmark report sought a clear identity for educational television. The commission stated: Television should serve more fully both the mass audience and the many separate audiences that constitute in their aggregate our American society. There are those who are concerned with matters of local interest. There are those who would wish to look to televisionfor special subject matter, such as new plays, new science,
sports not now televised commercially, music, the making of a public servant, and so on almost without limit. There are hundreds of activities people are interested in enjoying, or learning about, or teaching other people. We have been impressed by how much we'" might have from television that is not now available. To all audiences should be brought the best energies, the best resources, the best talents-to the audience of 50 million, the audience of 10 million, the audience of a few hundred thousand. Until excellence and diversity have been joined, we do not make the best use of our miraculous instrument. The Public Broadcasting Act became law in 1967 and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) was formed. CPB does not directly produce programs. Instead it acts in a variety of ways to foster the growth and development of America's noncommercial radio and television. For example, it makes funds available for strengthening local stations and for increasing the inventory of programs. CPB funds the piloting and development of new and innovative television programs; it arranges grants to other individuals and organizations for research. Because it is not directly involved in producing programs, CPB can function as a buffer between the sources of fundswhether government or private-and the program production and distribution operations in broadcasting. In that way, CPB can provide protection from undue interference or control.
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One new concept followed another. A national organization was set up in 1969, owned and governed by independent local public television stations, to provide a distribution system whereby programs could be instantaneously transmitted across the country. Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) was the name given to this new organization. It was destined to play a major role in the success of public television. Operating from its headquarters in Washington, PBS feeds 270 television stations via microwave link and telephone long lines. By early 1979, the ground-based satellite system will be replaced by a domestic communication satellite system which will allow for the distribution of four or more programs simultaneously. PBS has only one purpose: To make it possible for the stations to obtain superior programing by working together collectively to achieve economies of scale which would not normally be possible for a single licensee acting alone. How does PBS differ from the commercial networks? In two very important ways. Firstly, PBS never produces a program. Secondly, even as a distributor, it has a different relationship to the member local station. While the national schedules established by the commercial television networks are generally adhered to by their local associates, no public television station is obliged to broadcast PBS programs at the time they are received from Washington, or even to broadcast them at all. Each local station is independent, using the programs it receives from PBS to help construct its own local schedule, responsive to the specific interests and needs of its local audience. Thus, the Carnegie Commission's definition of the local station as the "bedrock" of the public television system, and not a central agency, is given full expression in PBS. Seeking a finer balance between national distribution and local community needs, PBS introduced in 1974 a new system
of program selection and financing-the Station Program Cooperative (SPC). The operative principle is very simple: the more stations choose a certain program, the lower the cost of that program to each recipient. Nearly half the programs today come through the SPC. The other half either comes free from producing stations or is underwritten by a corporation or a foundation. Is public television going "commercial"? Business and industry contribute $28 million, close to 8 per cent of the budget of $364 million per year. While this contribution is an insignificant amount, compared to the expenditure on commercial television, it is on an upward trend. The noted essayist E.B. White criticized the Xerox Corporation for sponsoring an article in Esquire magazine. White saw it as an erosion of the freedom of the American press. So eloquent was White in describing the pitfalls of commercial sponsorship (SPAN, February 1978) that reverberations in public television are inevitable. Y-et, the shortage of funds is a reality. The Public Broadcasting Financing Act passed in 1975 authorizes five years of advance appropriations for CPB and guarantees insulated Federal funding for public broadcasting. Honoring a campaign promise, President Jimmy Carter has sent Congress a bill to provide one billion dollars to public broadcasting, over the five-year period beginning with 1981. It is still not enough, according to Charles "Chuck" Lichenstein, vice president for public affairs with PBS. "It represents 20 to 25per cent of public television's total operating budget, although that budget varies from station to station. We need a billion dollars a year to operate effectively. And we're only half way there."
The educational show for children, "Sesame Street," produced by the Children's Television Workshop, is broadcast daily over 266 PBS stations.
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Children represent the prime audience for educational television and American public television caters to them in many ways. In the daytime, most public television stations devote the major portion of their schedule to programs intended for classroom viewing. Programs, usually 15-20 minutes in length and produced in cooperation with local, state or national educational agencies, are designed to provide for classroom discussion materials and experiences not otherwise available to teachers and their students. The achievements are indeed impressive. In Central Ohio, television as a learning resource is being used by nearly 213,000 students, with 81 different program series being telecast. The statewide Educational Television network in South Carolina, among the largest and best funded in the United States, serves 285,000 students, each taking an average of four different courses. More than 42,000 classes in 844public schools use the instructional television service. The Children's Television Workshop (CTW) was created as an independent entity to produce programs that sought to provide education along with entertainment. The two program seriesofCTW are "Sesame Street" and "The Electric Company." Both were instantly successful. They drew millions of new daytime viewers to public television. in America and gained wide popularity in other countries as well. "Sesame Street" is a delightful way for a five-year-old child to learn the alphabet, get acquainted with the world around him, . learn about social interaction, good manners, civic responsibilities, etc. The program series, using ingeniously devised "muppets," are devised by a team of specialists in a wide range
Famous surgeon Norman Shumway supervises a heart transplant operation in one of the highly successful P BS programs from the science series .,Nova."
Judy Graubert's gesture tells young viewers that the E is silent in this scene from the popular PBS show "The Electric Company."
'We have been impressed by how much we might have from television that is not now available. To all audiences should be brought the best energies, the best resources, the best talents .... Until excellence and diversity have been joined, we do not make the best use of our miraculous instrument.' -Carnegie Commission
of fields, from child psychology and teaching techniques to puppet animation. So successful is the format that it has found acceptance in 50 countries. Children in six Arabic-speaking countries will shortly share the fun of "Sesame Street." Now in the planning stage, the series will be funded by the governments of these countries and produced in Kuwait. There is no question of a cultural invasion through the series. The characters will be redefined culturally for the Arab audience as they have been in other situations. "The Electric Company" series is aimed at an older age group and responds to an entirely different objective: to cultivate a good reading habit by helping youngsters recognize spelling of words. The series now reaches an estimated six million viewers in schools and homes. It uses a style and imagery that has high appeal for the 8- to 12-year group. In one episode, Spellman, the hero reminiscent of Superman, comes to the rescue of all those having trouble with words. In another, two cowboys tackle the silent E in "Hole, Wipe and Drive." One cowboy uses these words in threats to the other. He writes them on the blackboard, omitting the letter E in each case. The other cowboy corrects him by adding the missing E each time explaining why. That the teaching cowboy is black and the other is white provides a subtle social lesson. The public television station in Boston is one of the finest producers of programs. One of its outstanding formats is an award-winning one called "Zoom." It has delighted America's subteen population since 1971. "Zoom" practically writes itself, being the product of ideas and suggestions sent in by children from all over the country. Volunteers sort out the mail from children in the Zoom Room at WGBH-Boston. Every letter gets answered, even if every idea cannot be enacted. Children send in stories, poems, jokes, games, riddles, etc. Different children are brought in to enact the ideas. Great care is taken not to make stars out of these children and avoid the coy appeal of children in commercial television. All children wear striped shirts to avoid distraction through dress and emphasize the enactments. This year a new segment has been added to the show. It is called "Cinema Zoom" and is a showcase of films and videotapes by talented youngsters ranging in age from 5 to 18. The entries are eloquent evidence of the creative capabilities of the young. Outdoor activity is an important segment of "Zoom" shows. A children's news program? Yes, it has arrived. "Kidsworld" is a nationally syndicated newsmagazine for children between
the ages of 7 and 13. Now in its second year, the program is telecast weekly. Young newsreaders introduce preteens correspondents from across the country, reporting in a language their peers can understand. There may be an interview with an Olympic athlete for example, or a report on sailing as a way of life or bicycle racing. Another program may report on the space shuttle from Cape Kennedy, as seen by a youngster. "Kidsworld" has won an award from Action for Children's Television (ACT) for making "a significant contribution toward improving children's television." And then there is "Mister Rogers," TV's longest running children's program. More than seven million children watch Fred Rogers, the creator and host of the program, present a wide range of items of children's interest. "Once Upon a Classic" grips the children's minds with stories such as Robin Hood. There are comedies and many other programs of entertainment that children and parents can watch together. There are programs on public television that cater to minority interests and the underprivileged. "Villa Allegre" is a series in English and Spanish, designed to teach cultural pluralism to the children in the Southwest. "Que Pasa, U.S.A.?", a situation comedy series, is designed to spotlight the heart-warming adventures of a Cuban-American family as it struggles to cope with life in Florida. "The Black Perspective on the News" predictably draws a keen audience. So does a special program for hearing-impaired viewers. There are regular lessons in yoga and in the secrets of French cooking. An instructional program called "Parent Effectiveness" is another regular feature. Besides opera and classical music, public affairs feature in programs for more sophisticated viewers. "Firing Line" and "The Advocates" are two popular series of the second genre. Typical subjects are "Should Federal money be used to pay for abortions?" and "Should we support President Carter's energy program?"
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Three years ago, thePBS national network started a program series on science that has become one of the most interesting programs on the air. For an hour each week, "Nova" examines a single topic in considerable depth. Subjects have ranged from investigations in bird navigation, the sense of smell and the sunspot mystery to cave painters and the birth control pill, from earthquake predictions and life of dinosaurs to sleep research and the meaning of human language. "Nova" is consistently one of the top programs on public television. The 1977 ratings have seen the continuation of a steady upward climb of its audience. A year ago, three million people were estimated to be watching "Nova," which usually ranks third behind "Sesame Street" and "Masterpiece Theater."
Hafeez Noorani, professionally a commercial executive, has been associated with various Indian committees on radio and television. He recently visited the United States where he studied the country's public broadcasting system. Noorani also writes on a broad range of subjects including communications, archeology and linguistics.
In fact, in some areas ratings show that it is, every now and again, the most popular program. The public television station at Boston, WGBH, is the enterprising producer of "Nova." Half of the programs are produced by the station's full-time staff. The other half are coproductions with the BBC, in particular with their "Horizon" documentary series, which has a similar composition to "Nova." In fact, BBC has a proud record of some of the classics in public television such as The Ascent of Man by Jacob Bronowski, Civilization by Kenneth Clark, and the celebrated period drama entitled The Six Wives of Henry VIII. A recent outstanding BBC program in two one-hour parts is "Tongues of Men," which deservesto be screened in as many countries as possible.
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The setback to commercial television is due not merely to a more discerning audience. It is also to an extent due to the furious tempo at which new technology introduces changes in mass communications. Cable television is one such development. Already it has more than 12 million subscribers, giving cable a 17per cent penetration of American homes. It is estimated that by the end of 1981, cable will have achieved a 30 per cent penetration. If network television experience is anything to go by, this 30 per cent penetration will start attracting advertiser attention, giving cable TV a new dimension. Satellites are hastening the development of pay cable television. They offer not only unlimited multichannel programing capacities but also reduced distribution costs, making the coverage of small audiences a viable proposition. Waiting in the wings is the promise offibre optics and laser beams. At the beginning of 1977, the celebrated TV personality Eric Sevareid was quoted as saying: "The TV viewer is a restless prisoner, obliged to sit through what does not interest him, to get to what may interest him." Even before the year was out, the prison gates fell, allowing the viewer to be his own editor of television just the same way as of his newspaper or his music tapes. The video cassette recorder is the liberator. No longer will the TV set dictate what is watched or when it is watched. The machine can record one program while the viewer is watching another. Alternatively, using a preset timer, it can record the viewer's favorite program when he is away from home! The video cassette recorder is still relatively new and expensive.Sony sold almost 30,000 Betamax units in the United States at a price of $1 ,300 each. With other manufacturers now rushing into this market, one conservative estimate forecasts that a millionsets will be in use by the end of 1981. Change is a challenge not only to commercial television but to the public television as well. Galloping technology and new commercial opportunities will undoubtedly accelerate developments in mass communications media. A steadily maturing audience exposed to a much wider range of stimuli will demand improved programs from electronic media. The video cassette owner is no longer a prisoner of the television set but its master, with access to a video cassette library of his favorite programs. He has more options for his leisuretime. He can move out of the house to discover more of the great outdoors in which the United States abounds. He can spend a little more time in reflecting on his own role in the schemeof the rapidly unfolding universe. 0
Steve Allen (center) visits with guests from history, Thomas Paine, Cleopatra, St. Thomas Aquinas and President Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt in the PES show "Meeting of Minds."
Most of the 300-odd species of sharks are harmless, but some do attack, maim and kill bathers. PES show "Nova" finds out why in Inside the Shark.
The Ascent of Mount Fuji, a controversial Soviet play on dissent and human rights, in the highly popular PES show "Hollywood Television Theater."
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LIONEL MO OF When Lionel Trilling died in 1975, the world of literary criticism lost an urbane, seminal mind. Trilling taught English literature at Columbia University with distinction for more than four decades, and acquired a reputation as one of the foremost moral critics of the twentieth century. An Indian scholar assesses Trilling's place in the world of letters. Lionel Trilling's predominant interest as a critic was to effect a meaningful dialogue between literature and life. Trilling was averse to inert erudition displayed in a scholarly hunt for unpublished material; he was interested rather in examining the validity of moral ideas in discursive and creative endeavors. An American coeval of the British F.R. Leavis, Trilling had various affinities with Matthew Arnold, his intellectual forbear in England. One can, however, discern a sharp and suggestive variance between Trilling and his transatlantic counterparts. An Arnold without the pulpit and a Leavis without wrath, he made the life of the mind a challenging critical pursuit, and searched for the filaments between literature, social sciences, philosophy, and depth psychology. In the words of Jacques Barzun, his kindred soul at Columbia, Trilling always thought that literature is as much a criticism of life as "life is and ought to be a criticism of literature." A pronounced pluralist in the republic of letters, Trilling often affirmed that the artistic existence of a work was largely determined by its
authentic critique of life. One can acquire an idea of Trilling's perspicuity of thought and its resonance from some of his classic statements. He defined the novel as "a sort of summary and paradigm of our cultural life," for it is devoted to "the celebration and investigation of the human will." Mark Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is one of the "central documents of American culture," because it embodies moral ideas. An idea is a "product of the confrontation between two contradictory emotions." Norman Podhoretz, the editor of Commentary, and Trilling's student at Columbia, aptly remarks that Trilling "understood literature as an act of the moral imagination and as an agent of social and political health." It was the spiritual and moral health of a work that, in Trilling's view, determined its enduring qualities. Reflective and urbane in all his vital assertions, Lionel Trilling was the "very image of the American Scholar," and a prominent leader of the New York intellectual community.
The heart of Trilling's critical credo was constituted by his basic belief that literary work could not yield its complexity to a monolithic approach, be it New Criticism or the Marxian dialectic. Questioning the premise of the New Critics, he remarked that their response to literature was determined by their linguistic preconceptions; they showed an unfortunate "intelligent passivity before the beneficent aggression of literature." He was equally suspicious of the New Critics' sovereign neatness, of "an intellectual calesthenic ritual" which invariably lost sight of the multiple forces that shaped a literary work. In his wide-ranging mind there was little reverence for that "polemical tendency" which some of the New Critics exhibited in their formulations. Similarly, though a defender of "adversary culture," Trilling refused to accept either the slogans or the invective of Marxist critics as reliable tools of literary judgments. "Ideology is not ideas," Trilling often asserted, for "ideology is not acquired by thought but by breathing the haunted air."
A Matthew Arnold without the pulpit and an F .R. Leavis without the wrath, Lionel Trilling Emphatically repudiating the premise of the textual purists on the one hand and the ideologists on the other, Trilling looked upon literary situations as essentially cultural situations, and cultural situations as "elaborate fights about moral issues." Culture for him was not a static entity but a qualitative awareness of the amplitude of human experience. Primarily a dialectic process, culture meant struggle and debate- "a continuous bargaining with life." Even our manners, according to Trilling, were "a culture's hum and buzz of implication," for culture subsumed every facet of human activity. Paradoxically, adversary culture, counterculture, or the attempt to go "beyond culture" all were essentially different dimensions of the ever-evolving cultural phenomenon. Similarly, the manifestation of an "opposing self' added to the value of culture. Expansive in its thrust, culture for Trilling comprised "a people's technology, its manners and customs, its religious beliefs and organization, its system of valuation, whether expressed or implicit." He declared that the existence of a disparate self was the most im-
Such a comprehensive and inclusive pressive achievement of culture. This view of culture he reiterated in his last Jefferson view of culture and moral realism Trilling Lecture in Humanities, "Mind does not discovered in the tone and temper of move toward its ideal purpose over a royal the liberal tradition. Like Forster's critistraight road but finds its way through cism of the liberal tendency, that of the. thicket of its confusions and contra- Trilling was corrective in spirit, like W.E. Yeats' quarrel with his native Ireland. dictions. " Besides his radical redefinition of Trilling's attempt was to "recall liberalism culture, Trilling emphasized the subtle to its essential imagination of variousness distinction between morality and moral and possibility, which implies the variousrealism. Moral realism for him was not ness of complexity and difficulty." This the awareness of morality, but of "the critical revaluation of liberalism would contradictions, paradoxes and dangers nourish the soul of literature, which Trilof living the moral life." It was not the ling defined as the "human activity that knowledge of mutually exclusive cate- takes the fullest and most precise account gories of good and evil but the conscious- of variousness, possibility, complexity ness that they are coextensive, live side and difficulty." The aesthetic effect, acby side that Trilling admired in Nathaniel cording to Trilling, depended on the Hawthorne, Henry James and E.M. intensity of the artist's engagement with Forster. Hence, though an admirer of the stubborn stuff of life. It lay in the Leavis, Trilling did not condone his artist's persistent endeavor to decipher calvinistic prejudices, or his antipathy to the figure in the carpet. In the words of the elements of delight and fantasy in a Barzun, Trilling firmly believed that "the literary work. Moral realism, for Trilling, only things worth cherishing in life are was the capacity of an open mind to necessarily destroyed by ideology and identify the ambiguities and paradoxes of coercion from their first onset." moral life and to recognize their nuances Trilling's pronouncements on culture, in the operation of human motives. moral realism, and the liberal tradition
A LIONEL TRIllING The job of criticism would seem to be, then, to recall liberalism to its first essential imagination of variousness and possibility, which implies the awareness of complexity and difficulty. To the carrying out of the job of criticizing the liberal imagination, literature has a unique relevance, not merely because so much of modern literature has explicitly directed itself upon politics, but more importantly because literature is the human activity that takes the fullest and most precise account of variousness, possibility, complexity, and difficulty.
Hawthorne is no doubt the greater artist and perhaps the greater moralist, yet Forster stands with him in his unremitting concern with moral realism. All novelists deal with morality, but not all novelists, or even all good novelists, are concerned with moral realism, which is not the awareness of morality itself but of the contradictions, paradoxes and dangers of living the moral life. To the understanding of the inextricable tangle of
good and evil and of how perilous moral action can be, Hawthorne was entirely devoted. Henry James followed him in this devotion and after James, though in a smaller way, comes Forster, who can say of one of his characters that he was "cursed with the Primal Curse, which is not the knowledge of good and evil, but the knowledge of good-and-evil."
Parrington's characteristic weakness as a historian is suggested by his title [Main Currents in American Thought], for the culture of a nation is not truly figured in the image of the current. A culture is not a flow, nor even a confluence; the form of its existence is struggle, or at least debate-it is nothing if not a dialectic. And in any culture there are likely to be certain artists who contain a large part of the dialectic within themselves, their meaning and power lying in their contradictions; they contain within themselves, it may be said, the very essence of the culture, and the sign of this is that they do not submit to serve the ends of anyone
ideological group or tendency. It is a significant circumstance of American culture, and one which is susceptible of explanation, that an unusually large proportion of its notable writers of the nineteenth century were such repositories of the dialectic of their times-they contained both the yes and the no of their culture, and by that token they were prophetic of the future. Parrington said that he had not set up shop as a literary critic; but if a literary critic is simply a reader who has the ability to understand literature and to convey to others what he understands, it is not exactly a matter of free choice whether or not a cultural historian shall be a literary critic, nor is it open to him to let his virtuous political and social opinions do duty for percipience.
A couple of decades ago the discovery was made that a literary work is a structure of words: this doesn't seem a surprising thing to have learned except for its polemical tendency, which is to urge us to minimize the amount of attention we
form the mosaic of his critical credo. Throughout his career he sought to examine the significance of these terms in order to arrive at an adequate appreciation of literature. The, various emphases in his assertions are persuasively rendered in his critical canon comprising The Liberal Imagination (1950), The Opposing Self (1955). A Gathering of Fugitives (1956), Beyond Culture (1965), Sincerity and Authenticity (1972), and Mind in the Modern World (1973). His earlier works on Matthew Arnold (1939) and E.M. Forster (1943) offer a precise foreground to his eventual critical position. Complexity and depth of experience are the values suggested in his short study of Freud, Freud and the Crisis of Our Culture (1955), and his solitary novel, The Middle of the Journey (1947).
Trilling's academic life was a series of distinctions. A recipient of honorary degrees from Trinity and Harvard and membership in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the U.S. National Institute of Arts and Letters, he was named in 1965 George Edward Woodberry Professor of Literature and Cri-
ticism. A visiting professor at Oxford and Harvard, Trilling received the Brande's Creative Arts award and was chosen by the U.S. National Endowment for the Humanities to deliver the first Jefferson Lecture. For some time he also served on the editorial board of Kenyon Review and Partisan Review. Lionel Trilling will be remembered for his lucid exposition of ideas in persuasive prose. As a liberal humanist he added new dimensions to the ideas of liberalism and morality. In his attempt to understand the relationship between art and culture, between literary criticism and the imponderables of life, lay Trilling's uniqueness as a critic. He was the "first laureate of American literary critics," observed Daniel P. Moynihan, former U.S. Ambassador to India, for his study had been "that of minds, not that of markets." In his endeavor to assess the authenticity of ideas and highlight the moral imperatives of culture, Trilling crossed the border and closed the gap between the anatomists of diction and the spurious paladins of ideology. Recalling his life-long devotion to the liberal,
humanistic values of literature and his efforts to free it from the transient hold of fads, Steven Marcus rightly called Trilling "our historian of the moral life of modernity, our philosopher of culture." In "placing" Trilling in the world of literary and cultural criticism, it is well to remember Barzun's words: "Had Lionel Trilling been less shy and honorable, more moody, tempestuous, and self-willed, a likeness of him closer to the expected image of the thinkerpathfinder would have impressed itself on the public mind and made more dramatic, more emphatic the bearing of his 'word.' At the end of his life he knew his worth but not his 'place.''' It is for us to accord him that "place" in the world of literary criticism. 0 About the Author: D .R. Sharma is a Reader in English at the Panjab University in Chandigarh. In 1970-71, he visited Indiana and Utah universities under the Fulbright-Smith-Mundt Award. His scholarly papers have been published in such periodicals as the Indian Journal of Ameri-
can Studies, Indian Journal of English Studies, Literary Criterion and Quest.
SAMPLER give to the poet's social and personal will, to what he wants to happen outside the poem as a result of the poem; it urges us to fix our minds on what is going on inside the poem .... But it went against the grain. It went against my personal gram. So I resolved to give the course with no considerations in mind except my own interests. And since my own interests lead me to see literary situations as cultural situations, and cultural situations as great elaborate fights about moral issues, and moral issues as having something to do with gratuitously chosen images of personal being, and images of personal being as something to do with literary style, I felt free to begin with what for me was the first concern, the animus of the author, the objects of his will, the things he wants or wants to happen.
In describing some of the special vicissitudes which at the present time attend the right conduct of mind, it has not been my intention to suggest that these, though
disquieting, are overwhelming. I have not meant to say that mind, in Wells' phrase, is at the end of its tether. In my account of its present situation I have represented mind through its ideal purposes and through the procedures and attitudes by which it moves toward the realization of these ends, through its criteria of order, inclusiveness, and coherence. To speak of mind only in this way is not to describe the life of mind in its full actuality as a human phenomenon. Seen in its totality, seen historically, the life of mind consists as much in its failed efforts as in its successes, in its false starts, its mere approximations, its very errors. It is carried on, we may say, even in the vicissitudes it makes for itself, including its mistrust or denial of its own ideal nature. All these are manifestations of the energies of mind, and William James, a philosopher in whose peculiar largeness of spirit we may perceive an affinity with Jefferson's, was at pains to remind us that they, in all their ill-conditioned disorder, are actually a function of mind's ideal achievement. Mind does not move toward its ideal purposes over a royal straight road but finds its way through the thicket
of its own confusions and contradictions. The history of mind has of course never been a bland continuity. There have always been periods when mind shines forth with a special luminosity and periods when it withdraws into the shadows. In the past, when a retraction of the mind took place, it might well seem to affect only such specific and discrete intellectual life as a society had developed: what was thought of as an ornament of the general life was no longer there and yet the general life went its habitual way. In our time this cannot be the case. When mind, far from being ornamental, part of the superstructure of society, is the very model of the nation-state, as now it is for us, any falling off of its confidence in itself must be felt as a diminution of national possibility, as a lessening of the social hope. It is out of this belief that I have ventured to urge upon you the awareness that mind at the present time draws back from its own freedom and power, from its own delight in itself.
ON THE LIGHTER SIDE "You're a good cook, Mom. I hope my husband is as good a cook as you." © 1977.
of Ladies Home Journal and Joseph Farris.
"Why do I have to kiss her awake? Why can't I just punch her one ?" © 1977.
/ .c \
of Ladies Home Journal and Jerry Marcus.
Like most cuisines the world over, American cooking mirrors important aspects of the nation's heritage. The early days of discovery in the New World are reflected in such American dishes as corn on the cob, pumpkin pie, and roast turkey. The first Dutch and English settlers in New England were introduced to corn, pumpkin and turkey by the American Indians. These new foods quicklybecame part of the basic diet. Quick to absorb foods, condiments, and recipes from the newcomers to the American continent, American cooking reflects the tastes and habits of the peoples from all over the world who settled in the United States. Except for a few known food cliches -"As American as apple pie" and "hamburgers and hot dogs"what is American cooking today? Some of America's most popular dishes include Italian pizza and spaghetti-and-meatballs, Hungarian goulash, Chinese chow meinand spareribs, and the Spanish liquid salad, gazpacho. Most of these have been adapted to suit American conditions: over the years ingredients have been substituted and modern kitchen equipment has made the steps in preparation easier. Cooking in America today combines the family's old favorites, regional specialties and the amalgam of flavors and tastes that have simmered inthe United States for the last 200 years.
Many American dishes are already popular in India and most of them can be easily cooked in Indian homes. In rare cases when a particular ingredient is not available, a substitute can usually be found. For example, if the spice used in most Italian cooking, oregano (0 reg'ano), cannot be found, dried crushed ajwain leaves are a reasonable substitute. The normal complement of utensils in an Indian kitchen suffices for American cooking. One important addition is a double-boiler. In its absence, substitute a mediumsize patila over a small patila half filled with water. Since many American recipes call for baking at some stage, you expand your versatility with American cooking if you have an oven. Even the box-over-the-gas-burner type will suffice for most recipes. Listed on the accompanying pages are menus and recipes for American dishesÂˇ that have been adapted to an Indian kitchen. .Hint: Ingredients in American recipes are measured in staqdardized measuring spoons and cups. One measuring cup equals 8 oz. But remember, a teacup contains only 6 oz. In these recipes, T is a tablespoon, t is a teaspoon and C stands for cup. About the Author: Margaret A. Sood is an American married to an Indian. An M.A. in Indian studies from American University in Washington, D.C., she has written several books about India.
Method I. Mix all ingredients except ~hee in
large bowl. J;3lendwell. 2. Shape into 1 inch balls. 3. Fry lightly in ghee until cooked. 4. Set aside. Tomato Sauce Ingredients
1 kg tomatoes, washed, chopped (remove skin if desired) 1 t sugar 1 T ghee 1 onion, chopped 2-3 pieces garlic, chopped 1 green chili, chopped 2 t salt 2 t pepper t t red chili powder 1 t oregano I t basil I bay leaf
Hint: Top pudding with whipped cream for a festive look. (Pudding can also be used as pie filling. See Apple Pie recipe on next page.) Use only bottom pastry. Put pastry in pie dish, line with butter paper and fill with rice to keep shape while baking. Bake pastry 12-15 mins. at 350 F. (medium). Remove rice and paper. Fill with chocolate pudding and top with cream. 0
Creamed cauliflower soup Chicken casserole Spanish rice Apple pie
CREAMEDCAULWLOWER SOUP (4 servings)
Onion soup Tossed salad Spaghetti and meatballs Chocolate pudding
1 T ghee 2-3 onions, sliced t t sugar I Tmaida 4 C water or stock salt and pepper to taste Method
1. Melt ghee in large frying pan. 2. Cook onions gently until soft and lightly browned. 3. Add sugar and maida and stir until they brown (l min.). 4. Add water or stock and seasoning. Stir. 5. Cook gently for 20 mins. 6. Add more water if necessary to make 4 cups. Hint: Flavor is enhanced by allowing this soup to mellow for one day.
TOSSED SALAD AND DRESSING Ingredients I small cabbage I onion
2 tomatoes I carrot Other vegetables such as cucumber, capsicum, or green chilies can be used for variety.
1. Chop cabbage very fine. 2. Cut other vegetables fine. 3. Mix in salad bowl and chill until served. 4. Pour salad dressing over salad and mix well. Oil and Vinegar Dressing Ingredients
2 T salad oil 1 T vinegar 1 t salt 2 t freshly ground pepper 1 piece garlic, chopped Method
1. Put all ingredients in a jar with a tight cover. 2. Shake well and pour on salad just before serving. Hint.' Proportionately larger amounts of salad dressing can be made and kept at room temperature for a few days. Add garlic only at time of use.
SPAGHETTI AND MEATBALLS (4 servings) Use spaghetti (long thin macaroni) available in most markets. Cook as directed, but avoid overcooking, which makes it tough. Ingredients
t kg keema 1 onion, chopped 2-3 pieces garlic, chopped 1 green chili, chopped 2 T malai 1 egg (optional) 1 t salt 1 t pepper 2 T ghee
1. Cook tomatoes with sugar in 2 cups of water. Set aside. 2 Fry onion, garlic, chili until light brown. 3. Add spices and fry I min. 4. Add onion mix to tomato sauce and cook gently for 30 mins. 5. Before serving, add meatballs and heat together. Hint: For a smoother tomato sauce, puree tomatoes. Use a sieve or electric mixie.
CHOCOLATE PUDDING (4 servings) Ingredients
2 C milk + t C cold milk 6 T cocoa powder 3 Tcorn flour t C sugar t t salt 1 t vanilla essence Method
1. Heat 2 C milk In top of double boiler. 2. Add cocoa powder. 3. Cook and stir until small bubbles form on sides of utensil. Turn off heat. Set aside. 4. Mix corn flour, sugar and salt in small bowl. 5. Stir in cold milk until blended. 6. Add to cocoa-milk mix and continue cooking and stirring over hot, not boiling, water until pudding thickens-about 15 mins. 7. Allow to cool, then add vanilla essence. 8. Pour into 4 juice glasses and serve hot or cold.
1 small cauliflower, chopped r onion, chopped 2 C water or stock salt and pepper to taste 2 T ghee 3 Tmaida 1 Cmilk Method I. Cook cauliflower and onion in water
or stock with seasoning until tender. 2. Put through sieve, or puree in blender. Set aside. 3. Melt ghce in heavy fry pan on low heat. 4. Add maida and blend well. 5. Slowly add milk and blend well, cooking 1-2 mins. until it begins to boil. Hint: This basic white sauce can be used for any creamed soups, vegetable, meat or fish. 6. Add pureed cauliflower and reheat before serving.
Hint: To vary flavor or to decorate, sprinkle chopped parsley or coriander, boiled egg or cheese on soup before serving.
2 T ghee I onion, sliced i C rice 3 C water or stock, boiling i kg tomatoes, chopped 2 capsicum, chopped
face (marble area is good) and on rolling pin. Divide dough in two parts (one for the top and one for the bottom of pie), flatten slightly with hand. Roll into a circle t inch thick. Roll outward evenly in all directions; circle should be 2 inches larger than pie plate you are using. Gently loosen dough from surface and transfer to pie plate. Do not stretch pastry to cover sides or edges as it will shrink in baking.
all sides. Remove and set aside. 3. Fry onions and carrots until.brown. About 5 mips. 4. Add tomatoes and water they were cooked in, and all spices. Mix well, bring to a boil, reduce heat, and cook gently for 10 mins. 5. Add chicken and wine and cook 10 mins. in pre~sure cooker. 6. Add mushrooms and cook without pressure 10 mins.
Gazpacho (cold soup) Potato salad Cole slaw Corn on the cob Fried chicken Lemon ice cream This menu is especially good for summer evenings or winter afternoons in India.
2 t salt I t pepper i t red chili powder Method I. Fry onions in ghee in large fry pan until light brown. 2. Add washed rice and allow to brown slowly. 3. Add water or stock and remaining ingredients. 4. Stir well, cover and cook slowly 30 mins. All water will be ahsorbed.
APPLE PIE (8 servings) Ingredients for pie crust (pastry)
2 C maida I t salt !C + 2 T dry ghee 5-6 T cold water Method I. Mix maida and salt in bowl. 2. Using 2 knives, one in each hand, mix in dry ghee until mixture resembles coarse crumbs. 3. Sprinkle water I T at a time into mixture, mixing lightly with a fork until dough just holds together. (Too much water makes dough sticky and tough.) 4. Shape into a ball (on a hot day wrap in plastic or foil and refrigerate 1hour). 5. Sprinkle maida lightly on work sur-
10. Fill with pie filling. II. Roll out rest of pastry and cover pie. Puncture pastry with a fork in several places to allow steam to escape. 12. Pinch edges of pastry to close top and bottom. 13. Brush top of pie with milk and sprinkle with sugar (only top-not edges as they will burn). 14. Bake in hot oven 425 F. about 40 mins. or until crust is golden brown. Let cool before cutting. Apple Filling
I piece garlic I onion, sliced I cucumber. peeled and sliced 3 tomatoes, peeled I capsicum, chopped 2 raw eggs (optional) I t salt I t pepper i C vinegar i C salad oil t C tomato juice
oil and vinegar salad dressing (see Tossed Salad) t C mayonnaise Method 1. Peel, slice and boil potatoes until just cooked. Do not overcook or they will break. Drain. 2. Mix potatoes with remaining ingredients except mayonnaise and chill. 3. Add mayonnaise just before serving. Hint: Garnish salad with shaved carrots, parsley or chopped tomato. Mayonnaise-best made at home in a mixie. Ingredients for I cup. I egg t t dry mustard I t salt I t pepper t t red chili powder 2 T vinegar t C salad oil Method 1. Beat egg in mixie until foamy. 2. Add all spices and vinegar and whip. 3. Add salad oil t C at a time until mayonnaise thickens. 4. Store in refrigerator.
One of many variations. Ingredients
I small cabbage, finely chopped I onion, finely chopped 100 grams raisins 2-3 slices tinned or fresh pineapple i C pineapple juice
6-8 large apples (cooking apples are best) ~ C sugar it salt I t cinnamon powder 1nutmeg powder I T lemon juice Method I. Peel, core and slice apples (about 3 C full). Put in large bowl. 2. Sprinkle remaining ingredients over apples and mix. . 3. Pour into pie plate. Hint: Serve apple pie warm with a scoop of vanilla cream.
Method 1. Puree first 6 items in mixie or rub through sieve and add beaten eggs. 2. Add seasonings and juice and chill. Garnish
I chicken cut into 8-10 pieces 3 T ghee I onion, sliced I carrot, sliced 1kg tomatoes, chopped and cooked in I C water I T basil I T oregano 11 t salt i t cinnamon powder I t pepper 4 cloves 1C cooking wine (optional) 1kg mushrooms, sliced Method 1. Heat ghee in pressure cooker. 2. Fry chicken pieces until brown on
I C bread cubes 2 T ghee I piece garlic, minced I cucumber, diced I onion, chopped I capsicum, chopped Method 1. Brown bread cubes in ghee with garlic. 2. Add cubes and chopped vegetables to soup just before serving.
4 medium potatoes I onion, chopped 2-3 pieces garlic, chopped I green chili, chopped
C mayonnaise Method I. Mix all ingredients except mayonnaise in salad bowl. Chill. 2. Add mayonnaise at serving time. 3. Add pineapple juice and mix well.
CORN ON THE COB (4 servings) In the U.S. corn is eaten as a vegetable. This recipe has been modified slightly for Indian tastes. Ingredients
4 large ears of corn 2 lemons chat masala butter Method I. Remove husks and cook corn 5 mins. in pressure cooker. Serve piping hot. 2. Provide each person with lemon, butter and chat masala to rub on corn.
and serve on table as garnish for the meat.
FUDGE PUDDING/CAKE (6 servings) This rich chocolate treat is a moist pudding with a cakelike crust. Ingredients
i C sugar I C maida 2 t baking powder ! t salt 2 T butter 3 T cocoa powder tCmilk t t vanilla essence i C brown sugar i C white sugar 2 T cocoa powder It C coffee (cold). Use It t powdered coffee in It C cold water. 3. Corn on the cob is always eaten with the hands.
Ingredients 1 small chicken
cut in 8-10 ghee It inches deep in fry pan 1 Cmaida 1 t baking powder it salt 2 eggs iCmilk 1 t salad oil salt and pepper
CREAM OF MUSHROOM SOUP (4 servings) Ingredients
3 T ghee I onion, chopped t kg mushrooms, chopped 1 Tmaida salt and pepper to taste 2 Cmilk Method
I. Sprinkle chicken with salt and pepper and set aside. 2. Begin heating ghee in fry pan (must be very hot). 3. Sift maida, baking powder, salt into a bowl. Set aside. 4. Beat eggs until fluffy. 5. Add milk and salad oil to eggs. 6. Add maida mixture and stir only enough to dampen it. 7. Dip chicken pieces in mixture and coat evenly. 8. Fry in hot fat about 15 mins. Drain excess ghee before serving.
3 T lemon juice 2 t lemon pulp I C sugar (powdered) 2 C cream !t salt Method
1. Mix juice, pulp and sugar and blend well. 2. Slowly stir in cream and salt and mix well. 3. Pour into ice tray and freeze until solid on edges and soft in center. 4. Stir well with heavy spoon. 5. Refreeze until solid.
Cream of mushroom soup Quiche Lorraine (cheese pie) Barbecued mutton and vegetables barbecue sauce Baked potatoes Fudge pudding/cake
1. Heat ghee in fry pan and cook onions and mushrooms slowly 15 mins. 2. Stir in maida and seasoning. 3. Slowly add milk and bring to a boil. Cook slowly in double boiler or with the cooking utensil on tava for 20 mins.
i kg capsicum } cut in 1 inch i kg onions pieces or quartered i kg tomatoes 1 tin pineapple slices i kg curd salt, pepper , red chilies i C salad oil Method
1. Early in the day marinate mutton cubes in curd with seasoning. 2. Prepare It skewers per person by placing vegetables, pineapples and meat on skewers (12 inch). 3. Brush with salad oil and place over burning coals. 4. Turn often, brush with oil, barbecue sauce until meat is tender (15 mins.). Hint: Place meat in the center of the skewer and vegetables at either end for even cooking. Barbecue Sauce Ingredients
Excellent for vegetarians or as a light lunch with a salad. Pastry-make pie crust for bottom of pie as noted above in Apple Pie recipe.
2 t salt
1. Sift sugar, maida, baking powder and salt together in a bowl. Set aside. 2. In double boiler, melt butter and mix .in 3 T cocoa. RemoveÂˇfrom heat and add maida mixture. 3. Stir in milk and vanilla essence. 4. Pour into baking dish (about 9 x 9 inches and 3 inches deep). 5. Scatter the brown sugar, white sugar and 2 T cocoa over the top without mixing. 6. Pour coffee over the top, but do not mix it. 7. Bake in medium oven 350 F. for 45 mins. (Interior of pudding will be moist, but top will be crusty.) 0
I large potato per person salt and pepper butter .
Cheese Filling Ingredients
1 T ghee I onion, sliced 2 pieces garlic, minced t kg cheese, diced 4 eggs, beaten well I Cmilk 1 C malai or fresh cream 1 t salt I t pepper i t red chili powder i t nutmeg powder Method
1. Fry onions until just soft. 2. Put onion and cheese in baked, cooled pie crust. Set aside. 3. Separately combine eggs, malai and seasonings. 4. Pour into shell. 5. Bake at 450 F. (hot) fQr 30 mins. It is ready when a knife inserted in the center comes out clean. Cool 10 mins. before cutting. 0
BARBECUED MUTfON AND VEGETABLES with
1 t red chili powder I small onion, chopped i C gur or brown sugar i C vinegar i C Worcestershire sauce I C tomato sauce 2 C water few drops chili sauce Method
I kg mutton without bones, cut in 1 inch cubes
I. Put all ingredients in heavy pan. 2. Cook gently for 20 mins. 3. Brush on skewers as barbecue cooks,
1. Wash potatoes and allow to dry. 2. Wrap in aluminum foil. 3. Place near-not on-hot coals for 30 mins. or until soft inside. Pierce with a fork while cooking to let steam out. 4. Serve with butter and seasoning. Hint: Baked potatoes can easily be cooked in an oven at 350 F. (medium) for 30-40 mins. Use small potatoes for quicker cooking. 0 0
'You have strong self-interests in relating both to the industrialized world and to the nonindustrialized world. You are a potential interpreter, moderator, bridge between the two worldsand we take that as very important. We want to work with you.' issues are fundamental issues on which real progress has to be made in the remainder of this century; that we cannot approach these issues any more as the industrialized world ranged against the nonindustrialized world; that we have to approach them in what the Delhi declaration describes as a multipolar world, a world in which many nations have a right-which they are exercising-to make significant inputs into decisions, and in which the industrialized world is genuinely committed to doing things that will help to reduce this terrible gap between , the rich nations and the poor nations. Now, that was not a strong set of perceptions in recent American administrations. It is a very strong set of concerns and commitments in this administration. India becomes critically important, not only because of its size, and the difference in the world it would make if India could meet her priority problems-just numerically. But you are a nation which in some ways is highly sophisticated, very much a part of the late 20th century, and then in other ways is not. You have strong self-interests in relating both to the industrialized world and to the nonindustrialized world. You're a potential interpreter, moderator, bridge between the two worlds -and we take that as very important. We want to work with you. BHATTACHARJEA: When President Carter was here, there was quite a bit of hope of increased cooperation m the fields of industry, technology, education. These were specifically noted at the time. Do you feel that these hopes are being fulfilled, or have we come up against some roadblocks? AMBASSADOR: I think we have done very well in the areas of science and technology, plans for which were mostly laid before the President came. As for cooperation in solar energy, agricultural research, space research and development and so on: those things are going pretty well-though the bureaucracies of both our governments sometimes have taken an inordinate amount of time to clear some of these projects. But basically it is all moving very well. We have found not
much interest in your government in the broad feasibility study of the Eastern waters on a multilateral basis that the President suggested, as did British Prime Minister Callaghan. We have had, frankly, less of a response to the President's proposal for greatly increased agricultural research collaboration than I had hoped for. But I do not despair. I think you have got a wonderful group of agricultural scientists who can work on terms of equality with American and other foreign scientists, and if we can get them back together, not any longer in the relationship of teacher and learner but that of equal partners, then really significant things can happen. We are working on that. But, candidly, we have not made much fresh progress so far. PADGAONKAR: Mr. Ambassador, I believe there has been also some progress in the various subcommissions that have been set up, notably in the fields of culture, of broadcasting, of films, and so forth. AMBASSADOR: That's true. We have this program of senior fellowships, which brings about 15 Indians to the United States and 15 Americans here annually. We wish it could be larger, but fellowships cost an enormous amount of money. We have just had this exhibition on American science and technology here. An Indian exhibition is being prepared to go to the United States. There have been film exchanges. A lot of things are happening on the cultural front. And in terms of trade and commerce, we have had some very good meetings and agreements relating to the general system of preferences and other export-import issues. India appreciates our antiprotectionist stance, and we are trying to be as responsive as possible. BHAITACHARJEA: But how have plans for increased investment in this country gone along? AMBASSADOR: American investment has been held up waiting for the Government of India to defin~ its policies more fully in the various areas. The drug policy was only made clear last week. I
find that American companies are interested in meaningful investments in India. What needs to be done is to get a fit between the relevant interests on our side and the specialized areas in which you are willing to accept foreign investment. I think some of that is going on every day. Companies are in discussion with one another and with the Indian Government. I do not see an enormous surge in American investment in India, because India does not want it. But I do see a considerable growth in other forms of collaboration: licensing agreements, technology transfer, and things of that sort. BHA IT ACHARJEA: Some questions have arisen about the revival of American aid and whether this was really required or not, and whether we were not getting back into an old stance. How do you look at this? AMBASSADOR: Well, we are talking with your government about aid, but we are certainly talking in a different way than in the past. Our approach is : How can we be helpful to India's plans for its development? We don't say that we have development skills and other things to bring to you. I presume that a number of projects will be starting in the course of this coming year-projects that your government has chosen and that your people will be implementing. We will just be giving a little assistance. PADGAONKAR: Mr. Ambassador, allow me to ask what IS perhaps the last question-a profound question related to Mr. Desai's trip to the United States. Are any special culinary arrangements being made for it? AMBASSADOR: I think we are going to look hard to find a man who is as good with a flyswatter as Mr. Desai's bearer! (laughter) BRAIT ACHARJEA: Do you have somebody in training? (laughter) Thank you verymuch, Mr. Ambassador. AMBASSADOR: ~u.
Thank you, both of
'AN OUTSTANDING EXAMPLE OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION'
U. I. 1IIIIIIIIIrill PIII.I GIIIL111I111I Built more than 60 years ago by American enterprise, the Panama Canal is one of the great engineering feats of this century. Two treaties to hand over control of the canal to Panama by 2000 A.D. were signed (above) a few months ago and ratified recently by the American Senate.
The Panama Canal is one of the world's strategic waterways. Built across the Isthmus of Panama in -Central America, the 51-mile-long canal links the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans: and transports thousands of tons of coal, iron and steel, chemicals, petroleum, farm products, lumber, canned foods-some 100 million tons of cargo every year. Goods flow through the canal between the United States and Asia and Latin America; between Latin America and Europe and Asia; and among the Latin American countries themselves. The canal thus stimulates the commerce of many nations, cuts sailing time and shipping costs, lowers consumer prices. An engineering marvel, the Panama Canal was built by American enterprise between 1904 and 1914. Construction began after a 1903 treaty between the United States and Panama, which had just then declared independence from Colombia. Under the treaty, the United States was to build a canal across Panama, maintain it and protect it; the canal was to be located in a 10-mile-wide zone that was granted to the United States "in perpetuity." Panama was to be paid $10 million immediately and an annual Left: Ships entering Panama Canal from the Pacific. Nearly 13,000 ships carrying 100 million tons of cargo transit the canal every year.
rental of$250,000. (By subsequent treaties, the rental was steadily raised and today amounts to more than $2 million a year.) Panamanians complained over the years that the 1903 treaty was unfair to them because it had no expiry date. In 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson agreed to negotiate a new treaty. Talks continued under Presidents Richard M. Nixon and Gerald Ford, and ended during the seventh month of President Jimmy Carter's Administration. On September 7, 1977, President Carter and General Omar Torrijos, President of Panama, signed two treaties at the headquarters of the Organization of American States (OAS) in Washington. Representatives of 26 other Western Hemisphere nations attended the ceremony. The treaties, President Carter said, "mark the commitment of the United States to the belief that fairness, not force, should lie at the heart of our dealings with the nations of the world." Referring to the 1903 accord, the President said: "That treaty, drafted in a world so different from ours today, has become an obstacle to better relations with Latin America." On October 23, the people of Panama overwhelmingly endorsed the treaties in a national plebiscite. And in the United States, President Carter sent the two treaty documents to the Senate which, under the Constitution, has the authority
Above: Map shows the location of the Panama Canal and the direction of cargo traffic passing through it. Facing page: President Carter (left) and Panama's President Omar Torrijos Herrera (right) sign two treaties in Washington transferring control of the canal to Panama by 2000 A.D. At the center is Alejandro Orfila, Secretary General of the Organization of American States.
to approve the treaties, provided twothirds of the members present concur. On September 26, 1977,formal treaty hearings were begun by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. The first treaty was ratified on March 16, 1978, the second on April 18. The Senate hearings were accompanied by a vigorous discussion on a national scale in all media, and the ratification came as a climax to a countrywide debate. Under the two treaties, control of the canal will be transferred gradually from
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the United States to Panama; the transfer will be completed by 2000 A.D. One treaty deals with operation and defense of the canal, the other with establishing the canal's permanent neutrality. Main elements of the treaties are: • The United States will retain control of the canal until noon on December 31, 1999, when full responsibility will be transferred to the Republic of Panama. • The United States will have the permanent right to share the defense of the canal with Panama.
• The 1O-mile-widePanama Canal Zone will cease to exist. The territory presently governed by the United States will revert to Panama. The United States acknowledges Panama's sovereignty over the former zone; the entire area will be under the Panamanian flag. Welcoming the U.S. Senate's ratification of the treaties, President Carter recalled the American achievement in building the Panama Canal. It showed that "we were a nation of builders and the canal was one of our greatest glories. Today we have shown that we remain true to that determination .... We have proven that what is best and noblest in our national spirit will prevail. Today we have shown that we are still builders, with our face still turned confidently to the future." President Carter made it plain that the United States does not have, and has not sought, a right to interfere in Panama's internal affairs. The treaties do give the United States the right, in partnership with Panama, to keep the canal "open and neutral and accessible." The President said the Senate's approval to the treaties was a signal to the developing world that America is determined "to deal with the developing nations of the world, small nations of the world, on the basis of mutual respect and partnership. " The completion of the Panama Canal in 1914 by the United States marked the fulfillment of a centuries-old dream on
the part of the world's trading nations. As early as 1524, Charles V of Spain had ordered a canal route surveyed. In 1881, Ferdinand de Lesseps, builder of the Suez Canal, led a determined French effort to conquer the jungles of the Isthmus of Panama and carve out a canal. However, digging was abandoned nine years later, with yellow fever, malaria and dysentery killing 22,000 workmen. When America took up building of the canal, medical teams set to work, freeing the canal zone from the dread diseases which had harassed the French. Engineering teams then cut through mountains, excavated 240 million cubic yards of earth, checked landslides, designed and built massive locks, constructed the world's largest dam, and created Gatun Lake, an artificial lake the size of Switzerland's Lake Geneva. At one time 40,000 workers from 97 countries were employed on the project. The construction took a toll of more than 6,300 lives and cost the United States $387 million. Over the years, the United States has invested more than $3,000 million in the canal enterprise. Some interesting facts about the Panama Canal: three dozen ships use it daily; it takes 52 million gallons of water to fill the locks every time a ship moves from one ocean to the other ..
The average toll paid by a ship for use of the canal is $14,000; approximately 40 per cent of all cargo using the waterway originates in the United States; 28 per cent is destined for the United States; the canal has shortened the voyage between Atlantic and Pacific ports by several thousand miles. The Panama Canal has dramatically transformed the economy of Panama and raised its living standards. In 1903, Panama was a poverty-stricken, disease-ridden country without paved streets, water or drainage systems or any modern conveniences. Panama's 1903 declaration of independence said that most of the income it derived from Atlantic-to-Pacific traffic had gone to Colombia, bringing Panama "not a single bridge or road, nor a public building or a college." Today Panama is a thriving country of 1.7 million people, with a per capita income above $1,OOO-higher than any other Latin American country. Panama City's handsome apartments and sleek automobiles reflect the prosperity from industry, trade and tourism flowing to it from the Panama Canal. The canal generates one-third of the Republic's foreign exchange and accounts for one-fifth of its employment. The
U.S.-administered canal zone funnels $260 million a year into Panama through purchases of Panamanian goods and salaries paid to Panamanian employees. American businessmen have invested $250 million in the Republic; more than 70 foreign banks have branches there, with deposits exceeding $10 billion. The canal zone has also provided Panama with other benefits-a modern water system that provides potable water for Panama City, excellent ports and harbor facilities; the Panama railroad, first-rate highways and a well-organized system of health care. U.S. assistance to Panama through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID)nearly $200 million between 1962 and 1975-represents one of the highest outlays of U.S. assistance per capita. The ratification of the Panama Canal treaties removes a source of friction between the United States and Panama, and indeed constitutes, as Secretary of State Cyrus Vance put it, "an outstanding example of international cooperation." President Torrijos of Panama said the treaties represented "the greatest, the most-awaited and most-discussed triumph in the history of Panama." They also meant a triumph for the- U.S. political system-which ensures free, full debate before a major national decision. 0
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The old-fashioned pastime of skateboarding has never had it so good. It's suddenly here, there and everywhere in America-a rough estimate has 30 million regular skaters; four movies have been made about it; Skateboarder, a magazine that closed down in 1965, is back with a bang, and there are others. Versatile skaters have added daredevil dimensions to the sport-they swoop, swerve, pirouette, loopthe-loop, and do headstands, kickups (back cover), "bunnyhop" jumps (right, in which the skater holds on to the board while zooming through the air), a,nd high jumps (bottom left). With skateboarding meriting world championships (held in California), roller skates have become a "space age racing machine." The simple piece of wood with a pair of wheels attached to it has been replaced by high-impact material-steel alloy axles and wide tread-wheels made of smooth, polyurethane plastic. Sidewalks are the perennially favorite venue, so pedestrian opposition was inevitable. To make sidewalksand rollerskating-safer, many cities now have safety laws; and skateboard parks with runways, "bowls," sloping walls-and protective gear like helmets, knee and elbow pads, wrist guards and gloves. Accident-prone skating appeals mainly to the young because of the danger it promises. But in the hands-and feet-of an expert, skateboarding can be as graceful as ballet.
Body Language for the Deaf; Mapping the Energy Frontier; The New Alchemists; Public Broadcasting in America