SPAN Towards Self-Sufficiency
by V.S. Nanda
Key Weapon in the War on Hunger by Roy Hoopes
by Allen Scott
The Spin-off of Space Technology America's Second Movie Capital Rehearsal for the Unexpected
Restored version of the Presidential box in the picture below, faithful, reproduces decor of the original, shown above, that Lincoln often use
Call It Football or SoccerIt's Now Big-Time 28
Lawyer with 200,000,000 Clients
by Samuel Traverty
The Ford Revolution by Allan Nevins
Continuity in Modern American Art
by Ellen Johnson
Front cover Guitarist Charlie Byrd; who gives concerts in several Indian cities this month, has a following that includes both hard-core jazz fans and lovers of classical music. For an article on Byrd turn to page 12. W. D. Miller, Publisher;
Back cover Photographer Jonathan Blair brings to life all the colour and excitement of a soccer match. The spurt in U.S. interest in soccer and an Indian's success in teaching the game are described on pages 28-33.
Dean Brown, Editor;
V. S. Nanda, Mg. Editor.
Editorial Staff: Camlen Kagal, Avinash Pasricha, NirmaI' K. Sharma, Krishan G. Gabrani, P.R. Gupta. Art Staff: B. Roy Choudhury, Nand K. Katyal, Kanti Roy, Kuldip Singh Jus, Gopi Gajwani. Production Staff: Awtar S. Marwaha, Mam Philip. Ph~tographic Services' SIS Photo Lab. Published by the States Information Service awalpur House., Sika~dra~ elhi} qp behalf of the Amer oibassy, New Delhi. Printed y K. Mehta at Vakil & SLtd., Narandas Building, Sp Road, 18 Ballard Estate., ;Bombay-1. Manuscripts and photographs sent for publication must be accompanied by stamped, self-addressed envelope for return. SPAN is not responsible for any loss in transit. Use of SPAN articles in other publications is encouraged except when they are copyrighted. Fer details, write to the Editor, SPAN. Subscription: One year, rupees five; single copy, fifty paise. For change of address, send old address from a recent SPAN envelope along with new address to A.K. Mitra, Circulation Manager. Allow six weeks for change of address to become effective.
SPAN OF EVENTS A NATIONAL SHRINE, where visitors paid silent homage for more than a century, now echoes once again to sounds of music, dance and drama. Ford's Theatre in Washington, where President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated on the evening of April 14, 1865, has cast off memories of the tragic event. Restored to its original elegance, with authentic reproductions of mid-nineteenth century furniture, draperies and lighting fixtures-and with such concessions to modernity as airconditioning and central heating-the theatre is now a living memorial to the great President. It was reopened recently when a specially invited audience including Vice President Hubert Humphrey, Chief Justice Earl Warren and many other high government officials and foreign dignitaries, witnessed the inaugural show. The performance -a variety show with songs, dances and jokes, all linked to Lincolnfeatured leading stage artistes and was carried on national television. Among plays scheduled for Ford's Theatre's first season are John Brown's Body, a verse narrative of the Civil War, Shakespeare's A Comedy of Errors and Goldsmith's She Stoops to Conquer. Staging some of the plays which delighted Lincoln, and recreating much of the environment in which he saw them, the theatre has become a unique, living tribute to the memory of the martyred President. Renovated Ford's Theatre, above, blends original elegance with modern improvements. Six hundred guests attended dedication ceremonies, below.
ÂˇTOWARDS SELF-SUFFICIENCY TEXT BY V.S. NANDA PHOTOGRAPHS
of India's development is written, perhaps one of the most exciting chapters will record how the nation met the challenge of producing sufficient food for an expanding population. India's foodgrain crop for 1967-68, estimated at ninety-five million tonnes or more, is the largest ever produced in the country. While nature's bounty, in the shape of abundant and widespread rainfall, has contributed to this record production, equally important is the 'vVHEN THE HISTORY
continued on page 5
Located in picturesque surroundings, the Coromandel fertilizer complex at Visakhapatnam is one of the largest and most modern plants in the country. View at right is of the ammonia unit and prill tower. At left, bags of urea are readied for despatch to distributors.
Coromandel organized intensive on-the-spot training of Indian technicians. American engineer Ernie Zappa, extreme right, discusses a detail with urea plant operator Anand Varma. Demonstrations have proved that right use of fertilizer can result in large increase in crop yields. Prior application offertilizer has prepared cabbage field, below, for a good harvest,
In developing the indigenous fertilizer industry, India is getting international co-operation in ample measure. role of new methods and techniques in boosting Indian agriculture. Use of new, quickgerminating seeds, better irrigation facilities, and improved fertilizers and insecticides, backed by technical advice, is bringing about an agricultural revolution. The old cropping pattern of a single harvest per year is changing to multiple cropping and farmers in many parts of the country are obtaining yields which would have been beyond their fondest expectations only a few years ago. A key factor in the effort for increased agricultural production is the availability of fertilizers in adequate quantities. The new highyield varieties-such as the Mexican wheat now being grown in the Punjab and Uttar Pradesh and ADT-27 rice strain which has produced bumper crops in Madras Stateneed heavier applications of fertilizer than the traditional varieties. More fertilizer is therefore urgently needed and, with scarce foreign exchange, it is imperative that the demand be met by stepping up indigenous manufacture rather than relying on large imports year after year. Until 1951 India was not producing any chemical fertilizer. Consequent, however, on the realization that self-sufficiency in food must be achieved as rapidly as possible, the country's agricultural development programme was reoriented and opening of fertilizer plants received top priority in national planning. At present there are eight plants in the public sector and two in the private sector, with a total capacity of 500,000 tonnes of nitrogen and 225,000 tonnes of phosphate. A number of new projects are in the planning stage and it is estimated that total production capacity will rise to more than two million tonnes within the next five years. To assist India in developing its fertilizer industry, international co-operation has been forthcoming in ample measure. Construction of the country's largest fertilizer factory to date at Trombay, in the public sector, was financed almost entirely by U.S. Government loans. In the private sector, an outstanding example of Indian-American collaboration is continued Phosphoric acid, produced by combining phosphate rock with sulpllllric acid, is used in the manufacture of complex fertilizer. At right is the phosphoric acid unit in Coromandel's plant.
Increasingly knowledgeable, the Indian farmer is willing and even eager to tryout fertilizers and other modern aids to farming.
the recent opening of the Coromandel ferti- in the plant is held by Indian investors. Belizer plant at Visakhapatnam in Andhra sides E.I.D.-Parry Ltd., these include about a Pradesh. Of the projected plants, scheduled dozen other Indian companies and more than to come into operation within the next four nine hundred individual shareholders. or five years, as many as ten are also to be set Except for a few specialists, the staff is enup with private American collaboration. tirely Indian and some seven hundred local Located on a 500-acre site amidst pictur- operating and maintenance technicians have esque surroundings, the Rs. 48.4-crore Coro- been trained on the spot under an intensive mandel plant is one of the largest private- training programme. The intention is that capital enterprises launched in the country. eventually only two American supervisors Its two American promoters, Chevron Che- will remain and the manifold operations mical Company and International Minerals of the factory will be supervised almost & Chemicals Corporation and their Indian exclusively by Indians. Mr. Vaughan C. Hill, collaborator, E.I.D.-Parry Limited, have ex- Managing Director of Coromandel Fertitensive experience of fertilizer production and lizers Ltd., remarks: "We are an Indian marketing. Pooling of their resources and ex- company ... and intend to be identified as perience in the joint Indian venture should such." be of benefit to the indigenous industry. With this laudable aim in mind, it was fitConstruction of the plant at Visakha- ting that Coromandel's management should patnam was financed largely by U.S. Govern- have invited a progressive Indian farmer, ment loans of$27 million (Rs. 20.25 crores) in Grandhi Ramamoorty Setty, to dedicate the foreign exchange and an additional Rs. 14.67 plant and share the honours of the inaugural crores in Indian currency. The two American ceremony with Mr. Morarji Desai, India's firms own between them forty-seven per cent Deputy Prime Minister. of the share capital, so that the majority share Fifty-seven-year old Setty is one of the The high nitrogen content of urea makes it twice as effective as a conventional fertilizer and it should have a big market in India. Coromandel's bulk storage for urea, below, is air-conditioned.
many farmers in Andhra Pradesh who benefited from Coromandel's "seeding programme," carried out in the five years preceding the opening of the plant. During this period a quantity of more than 210,000 tonnes of complex fertilizer, containing twenty per cent each of nitrogen and phosphate, was imported from the United States and distributed to farmers in the State. Some 1,200 demonstrations were also held at various farming centres to familiarize them with the use of the new fertili.zer. Introduction of this type of fertilizer in India was an innovation and was decided upon after a careful analysis of local soils and study of other relevant factors. The results of the seeding programme were highly-encouraging. Large increases in yield, ranging from twenty to a hundred per cent, were obtained in the case of foodgrains, while even higher yields were registered for such crops as cotton, ground nut, sugar-cane and chillies. Further market research indicated that even better results and greater economies in handling and transport could be achieved by producing complex fertilizer in a more concentrated form. The Coromandel plant is accordingly designed to ÂŁroduce 260,000 tonnes a year of fertilizer with a nitrogen and phosphate content of twenty-eight per cent each. It will also manufacture finished urea at the rate of 16,500 tonnes per year. Production is, of course, not an end in itself. The success of this or any other fertilizer plant depends ultimately on acceptance of the product by the farmer and also on its efficient distribution. The seeding programme served a dual purpose. Through extensive demonstrations, it familiarized farmers with the use of a complex fertilizer, and showed them how they could get bigger and better crops and increased profits. It was also a useful rehearsal for the distribution and marketing of the plant's output. A distribution and sales organization was gradually built up, which now comprises more than 2,000 individual dealers and co-operative societies. Assisting it with technical advice is a Farmers' Advice Bureau and a team of trained field workers. The traditional image of the Indian farmer -ignorant, sceptical and unwilling to learn -is fast disappearing. American and other foreign visiting experts find that he is becoming increasingly knowledgeable and is only too eager to tryout fertilizers and other modern aids to farming. There is every reason to hope that he will profit from the country's advancing technology and playa leading role in attaining the national goal of self-sufficiency in food. END
KEY WEAPON IN THE WAR ON HUNGER THE WORLD POPULATION, which doubled in the first sixty-five years of this century, seems likely to do so again in half that time. Yet half a billion people already have too little to eat. Another billion subsist on diets deficient in foods essential to health and strength. Three million children die each year from diseases induced by malnutrition. The accelerating race between people and food is one of the century's most challenging crises. The beneficial effect of family-planning programmes now being adopted around the world is decades away, at best. By then, millions could have known a lifetime of hunger. There is no choice but to increase the world food supply -immediately. The necessary knowledge is available and only awaits wider acceptance and application. Experts generally agree that the amount of new, easily recoverable cropland in the world is close to being exhausted. In the past decade, four-fifths of the rise in world food production has stemmed from increasing yields rather than from the ex~ension of cultivated areas. From now on, production increases will depend even more exclusively on the capital inputs of fertilizer, pesticides, machinery and irrigation facilities into existing croplands. And there is little question that fertilizer is the most important single factor.
In the United States, seven per cent of the population fee~s the rest of the nation, while in the past few years alone millions of tons of American surplus food have been distributed abroad. The wide application of new fertilizer technology has played a key role in achieving this agricultural efficiency. America might well be concerned about satisfying its own needs if the present population had to depend on food supplies produced with the plant nutrients in use thirty years ago. For more than three decades in the United States, the development of new fertilizers has been a vital part of the operations of the Federal Government complex known as the Tennessee Valley Authority. TV A's National Fertilizer Development Centre has been making an increasingly important contribution to the longrange battle against hunger. Its advances in fertilizer technology have already benefited not just the Tennessee Valley and the rest of America, but countries throughout the world concerned with the possibility or fact of food shortages. Like its parent agency, the Fertilizer Centre has been the subject of considerable domestic controversy. As recently as 1961 the U.S. Chamber of Commerce was urging that TV A's budget be cut because "it sells fertilizer below market prices." But today the most vocal
Of the capital inputs essential to obtain increased yields from agriculture, fertilizer is the most important. The Tennessee Valley Authority has made valuable contributions to fertilizer technology and facilitated its adoption in the U.S. and outside.
Development of new, improved, concentrated fertilizers has meant increase in nutrient content, lower costs, economies in handling.
defender of the TVA Fertilizer Centre is the industry itself. "There is no question that TVA has contributed more to the processes of our industry than almost any research group you could name," said a leading trade publication, Commercial Fertilizer & Plant Food Industry, in answering the Chamber of Commerce. "True, it has ~soldfertilizer below market, and even below cost. But this has totalled less than one per cent of all fertilizer production-and has gone to energize test areas and to prove the value of TVA technical developments which have been widely adopted by our industry .... We join many leaders in industry in proclaiming in no uncertain terms that this constructive development and test-soil work should be praised and continued .... " The facts support the trade magazine's defence of the Fertilizer Centre. In the United States the cost of farmland has doubled since 1950,wages offarm workers have risen sixty per cent and farm machinery has gone up fifty per cent-but the cost of plant nutrients has declined by about one-third. If the 1950fertilizer prices had remained constant, the farmer would have had to spend at least 750 million dollars more for fertilizers in 1965than he actually paid. Almost all of this lower cost resulted from the development of improved, more concentrated fertilizers which reduced the expenses of transportation and handling. At the same time, since the formation of the Centre, the average nutrient content of fertilizer has risen from eighteen per cent to thirty-seven per cent. Today the farmer's return on each dollar spent for fertilizer is $2.70, as compared with a return of $1.10 for land and buildings and an average of $1.20 for all other farm expenditures. The Centre's history has its origins in World War I, when German submarines threatened America's supplies of munitions. President Woodrow Wilson authorized construction at Muscle Shoals of two synthetic nitrate plants, a large dam and a steam electric plant to oper,ate them, and the U.S. Congress provided that in peacetime these facilities should be used for producing fertilizers. But the chemical facilitieswere never put into operation, and no way had been found to make use of them until 1933 when TVA fell heir to the Muscle Shoals complex. TVA established the National Fertilizer Develop-
ment Centre at Muscle Shoals to improve and reduce the cost of the production of fertilizer; to manufacture and sell nitrogen fertilizer ingredients; to sell or donate products for use on experimental farms; to co-operate with national, State and local farm agents to help promote the use of fertilizers; and to operate experimental laboratories for the improvement of fertilizers and munitions and be ready to produce the latter in case of an emergency. Since 1960,Dr. Lewis B. Nelson, TVA's manager of agricultural and' chemical development, has headed the $70-millionFertilizer Centre. A past president of the Soil Science Society of America, he served with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the University of Iowa and U.S. Rubber Company before joining TVA. The Centre Dr. Nelson heads today employs 1,500people, of whom 300 are professionals in the field of chemical fertilizers, and it produces 270,000 metric tons of fertilizer a year primarily for research and development purposes. The help TVA has given to individual farmers is illustrated by the experience of Wilmer Locke of Iuka, Mississippi. A few years ago a group of TVA and Mississippi State University specialists visited Locke's farm and evaluated every phase of his operation to find ways of increasing his profit through more intensive farming techniques. At that time Mr. Locke was raising twentyone acres of cotton, twenty acres of corn, nineteen acres of soybeans, twenty acres of hay, and had the rest of his farm seeded to permanent pasture. He had four brood sows and twenty-five cows., The specialists, after their evaluation, offered Mr. Locke four alternative plans for improving his operation. He studied them carefully and finally chose oneintensification of his hog operation combined with an increase in the yield and the amount of land planted with corn. Four years later Mr. Locke was raising twenty-one acres of cotton, 100 acres of corn, three acres of soybeans and ten acres of hay. He also had eighteen cows and was finishing 612 hogs annually for market. In four years Mr. Locke increased his gross farm income from less than $6,000 annually to more adding one square foot to his than $32,000-without farm land!
A survey of thirty-one other such "demonstration" farms in that general area of the United States showed a fifty-six per cent rise in productivity wIth an annual increase in gross receipts of $8,143 (both figures representing per farm averages). These dramatic increases in farm productivity resulted, for the most part, from
adoption of improved management methods and new technology, particularly in the area of fertilizers. The list of achievements of the Centre is long and impressive in the development of both new fertilizers and new techniques. Recently when asked what he felt were TVA's most significant achievements, Dr. Nelson replied: "Development of elemental phosphorus technology and its utilization in fertilizers. This unlocked the door to many significant advances: the opening of phosphate fields in four of our nation's western States, the production of very high analysis superphosphates, calcium metaphosphate, diammonium phosphate and eventually superphosphoric acid. The development of superphosphoric acid has led to high-analysis liquid fertilizersand a wide range of polyphosphates still to be explored. However, we think that some of our most significant developments have been in processes. The importance of TVA's continuous ammoniator-granulator is wellknown by the number of companies licensed to use it." (There were more than 140 of them by mid-1967.) The continuous ammoniator-granulator mentioned by Dr. Nelson is a process by which ammonia gas is added to fertilizer material and the final product is granulated. It is probably the most widely-used piece of equipment developed by TVA. Before it was perfected in 1953,"most fertilizers were not granulated, but were dusty," according to Dr. Nelson. "Farmers tried to put them on their fields and they would be blown across the land." Today three fourths of the industry's granulated fertilizer is made by this method. Another major TVA accomplishment was the improvement of the electric furnace process for producing pure, elemental phosphorus. Among other things, these new developments have made it possible to produce phosphorus from lowgrade ores. This has extended the life of the world's phosphate reserves.
Other TVA achievements include a continuous cone mixer for producing superphosphates; a pan granulation process for converting concentrated solutions to granular high-nitrogen fertilizers; superphosphoric acid which has a concentration of seventy to eighty-three per cent as compared to the usual fifty-four per cent phosphoric acid. This development enables the industry to put two-and-one-half times as much plant food in a bag offertilizer. "We didn't invent it," says Dr. Nelson. "It was developed in the 18oos. But we developed techniques for making it economically feasible and we helped promote its wider use." In the past, low analysis (which means a low con-
centration of plant nutrients) discouraged the widespread use of liquid fertilizers. "But today," says Dr. Nelson, "we have liquid fertilizers that carry the same nutrients, and the liquids now compete in analysis with solids." There are many other advantages to liquid fertilizers: farmers do not have to handle them-they can be pumped from trucks sent out by the manufacturer; they can be put on more evenly because all of the drops have a uniform concentration of nutrient; and pesticides can be added more easily than in solid fertilizers. As a result of TVA's work, American farmers use more than oneand-a-half million tons. Another fertilizer which TVA did not invent, but for which it developed low-cost production techniques, is the very popular diammonium phosphate, which also is soluble in water. Before TVA started production in 1955,quantities were limited, the price was too high for wide use and industry did not believe it would ever be competitive. In 1956TVA distributed 700 tons through its education programme, and by 1960 it was distributing 25,000 tons a year.
At the same time TVA developed a more economical process for production of diammonium pliosphate from wet process phosphoric acid. Since then more than twenty plants with total annual production capacity of two to three million tons of diammonium phosphate have been built and several more are under construction. Other plants have been built or are under construction in France, Holland, Australia, Morocco, Korea and the Philippines. Annual U.S. production is expected to reach nine million tons within two years. Dr. Nelson refers to diammonium phosphate as "the coming fertilizer throughout the world." The Fertilizer Centre usually has from twelve to fifteen products in various stages of development at any one time. The practice is to phase out the study of one fertilizer or technique as soon as it has been accepted by industry and the farmer, and then move on to something new. At present the Centre is giving much of its attention to liquid and suspension fertilizers and micronutrients. It recently introduced solid ammonium on polyphosphate and has produced urea-ammonium phosphate and urea-ammonium polyphosphate, both versatile, high-analysis fertilizers, in pilot plants. TVA's objective is to develop fertilizers with as high a concentration of nutrient as possible, work out techniques to manufacture them as cheaply as possible, then get them to industry and onto the farms as quickly (continued) as possible.
Adopting an "open-house" policy, TVA shares results of fertilizer research with U.S. farmers, industry and foreign countries.
To accomplish this the Centre follows these welldefined steps: (1) When TVA laboratory scientists develop a new fertilizer compound it is first given a preliminary testing in the TVA greenhouses at Muscle Shoals. (2) If the response in the greenhouse is promising, TVA may build a pilot plant. The pilot plant not only helps to determine whether commercial production is feasible but it supplies large enough quantities of the fertilizer for additional tests. (3) The fertilizer then is sent to agricultural colleges across the nation that co-operate with TVA in testing new fertilizers. They test it in their greenhouses and in the field, and comparisons are made with conventional fertilizers under various soil, climate and crop conditions. (4) If field agents report that the new fertilizer holds promise, TVA may build a demonstration-scale production plant at Muscle Shoals. "Most research and development operations will stop at the pilot plant stage, but we can carry a process into demonstration scale," Dr. Nelson said. "But we only do this if it is necessary to demonstrate to industry that it will be practical to adopt the new process. This enables them to see it in operation without having to spend a half-million dollars or more to build a plant of their own." The demonstration plant not only helps industry to study the process, but produces still larger amounts of the fertilizer. (5) The larger amounts, in turn, are made available to farms for testing under actual farming conditions and to industry for use in research and special educational projects. TVA currently is producing several new fertilizers on a demonstration scale. Convincing farmers of the value of a new fertilizer has not always been easy. For years farmers regarded fertilizers as an unnecessary expense and used them sparingly. Even today some farmers believe that manure is the best fertilizer. And there have been special problems of education. For example, a major TVA achievement was that of turning ammonium nitrate, used as an explosive during World War II, into a fertilizer. "The farmers had to be convinced it wouldn't blow them up!" says Dr. Nelson. TVA also has had to convince the fertilizer industry
that it was trying to help it, not compete with it. "TVA could have set itself up as a private producer and forced the prices of fertilizer down," says A.B. Phillips, assistant manager of agricultural and chemical development at TVA. "But we chose to work through industry by giving information and assistance, then counting on normal competition to reduce prices." To achieve this TVA follows an "open-house" policy: anyone from industry, the universities or the farming community may come to Muscle Shoals any time for information, advice or assistance. TVA plays host to approximately 2,100 technically-oriented visitors a year, plus thousands of tourists. In fact, officials of many fertilizer companies schedule one or two visits a year to Muscle Shoals just to see what's new in ferti~ lizers and production techniques.
Perhaps TVA's most effective programme for spreading the use of improved fertilizers is its practice of licensing equipment to private industry. Whenever TVA develops a new process it takes out a patent on it, then licenses it royalty-free to any industry that wishes to use it. Over 450 licences have been granted to use TVA developm~nts. Foreign countries can also use techniques developed by TVA. In fact TVA is anxious to make the fruits of its research and development available to industry and farmers abroad as well as in the United States. In 1966, a total of 463 persons from fifty-six countries came to Muscle Shoals to seek information and advice about plant nutrients and fertilizer techniques. And the same "open-house" treatment is accorded to foreigners. "I have travelled in many countries studying fertilizer techniques," a Turkish sugar chemist said recently in commenting on the TVA Fertilizer Centre, "but this is the only place in the world where I have been able to get any answer I need or tour any facility I see." TVA offers assistance to foreign countries in various other ways-all in co-operation with the U.S. Agency for International Development (A.LD.): (1) Upon request from A.LD., TVA will send a team-usually an economist, an agronomist and a chemical engineer-to help a coun~ry evaluate its fertilizer requirements, determine the type, size and location of fertilizer plants needed. (Such teams have been sent thus far to such countries as Korea, Thailand, Turkey, Morocco, Iraq, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela and India, as well as Afghanistan to which a TVA team went in March 1967 to study and make recommendations on that country's fertilizer needs through 1975.)
(2) Experimental fertilizers-primarily urea-ammonium phosphate-have been shipped to India, Iran, Ireland, Korea, Laos, the Philippines, Thailand and Uruguay. (3) Upon request from A.LD., TVA chemists will evaluate phosphate rocks for their fertilizer potential. They have made such evaluations for Turkey, Iran, Peru and Morocco.
One of the most interesting and unusual programmes TVA conducts to assist other nations has been set up through an agreement with A.LD. under which the Fertilizer Centre offers a series of eight-to-nine-week training courses (in fertilizer production, marketing and use) for technical representatives of developing countries. These courses employ a unique and highly successful teaching method. TVA created a fictitious nation and gave it a location somewhere on the northern coast of Africa. Named "New Devland," the country has a total land area of 740,016 square kilometres and a population of twentynine million that is increasing at the rate of three per cent a year. The climate is moderate, and New Devland has four distinct geographic areas-fertile "Chama Valley," highlands, a plateau area and foothills extending to the sea. It has one good deep-water port-the capital city of "Las Lumas." Never under the domination of a colonial power', New Devland became a constitutional monarchy in 1938 when a group of army officers revolted against the absolute authority of the king and were given a constitution. The mythical country now has an elected parliament and a fourteenmember cabinet headed by a prime minister. The technique has worked beautifully. As Amalendu Ganguly, an Indian Fertilizer expert who attended a recent TVA training session, said: "We did not come to the United States to play games. But we learned a lot. The New Devland method is excellent. We shall be taking the method to India." In the TVA classes for visitors from abroad, those attending first read a manual outlining the essential facts about New Devland. Then the instructor poses a question, such as "What should the New Devland agriculture minister do about phosphate fertilizers?" The result is invariably a stimulating discussion which has the immediacy of solving a current, pressing problem. It proveQ so valuable to at least one class member-a fertilizer expert from Venezuela-that he left the class, flew home to suggest some changes in the fertilizer programme his country was establishing, then returned to
finish the course. He said later that his suggested changes had saved his country six million dollars. If the world is to meet the challenge of feeding future generations with little prospect of expanding the area of land under cultivation, increased use of fertilizers, in combination with other improved techniques, is absolutely essential. Studies have shown that the current fertilizer consumption of five million tons in developing regions will have to expand to thirty-three million tons in 1980 and eighty-six million tons by the year 2,000 if food needs are to be met. The TVA Fertilizer Centre will remain one of the most important sources of the knowledge bound to play a large part in the world's struggle to meet its food demands. Since 1950, the United States has fed fortyfour million more people on forty-five million fewer acres of cropland, at the same time releasing four million people to other occupations-and has had food left over for export. A great deal of credit for this performance must go to the fertilizers and fertilizer techniques developed at Muscle Shoals. In the years ahead, the U.S. Government hopes that these same facilities can help to feed the millions of new mouths in countries already using all of their cultivable land.
Created in the midst of the Great Depression to rehabilitate one of the nation's poorest regions, the Tennessee Valley Authority has come through decades of controversy to win almost universal recognition of its achievements. Encompassing parts of seven southern States, TVA was assigned by President Roosevelt and the Congress "the broadest duty of planning for the proper use, conservation and development of the natural resources" of the Tennessee River Valley for "the general social and economic welfare of the nation." With its network of dams, including twenty-one built since 1933, TVA has brought the region low-cost electric power, a modern inland waterway, and regulation of Tennessee River floods. Its lakes attract travellers from across the nation for outdoor recreation. TVA agricultural and forestry activities have helped curtail erosion and make the land more productive. Once heavily dependent on agriculture, the Tennessee Valley has achieved a rapid industrial growth with the help of the river transport, power supply, water supply and flood protection. In conducting these activities TVA works co-operatively with State and local agencies, citizens' organizations, industry and landowners.
A man, his guitar, .hismusiC ; .. . . , .
. I I
TWELVE YEARS AGO,a Washington, D.C., guitar teacher named Charlie Byrd had sixty-five pupils and aspirations for a modest concert career to go along with his teaching schedule. By 1961, there wasn't room in Byrd's schedulefor a single student. Instead oflesson notations, his datebook was crammed with reminders of recitals, television appearances, jazz concerts, recording appointments and nightclub engagements. The ingredients of this success story are talent, a love of music, and a Spanish guitar. With these, Charlie Byrd has bridged the gap between the classics and jazz, commanding a rapt audience in both idioms. He is, of course, best known as a jazz artist, and here too his range is considerable-from the blues and old-time jazz classics to his treatment of folk music and popular song hits. At the Byrd's Nest, a restaurant he owns in Silver Spring, just outside Washington, the guitarist puts his two-sided talent to work by playing unaccompanied sets of classical selections and presenting jazz numbers with bass and drum accompaniment. He mounts the bandstand, guitar in hand, then seats himself and without announcement begins his classical set. Bald and stern-faced, Byrd rarely smiles while playing. His facial expression is stern; his jaw muscles visibly tighten as he concentrates. At the conclusion of a number applause floods the room, and Byrd's expression relaxes into a warm, broad smile.
The guitarist seems to engender in his audience something of the feeling of a mediaeval minstrel, even in a restaurant, and the Byrd's Nest audience responds with rapt attention to Charlie's innate artistry. The audience is almost as varied as the music itself. In age, the listeners range from college students to people in their forties and fifties. A large percentage are drawn by the classical guitar offerings; others are hard-core jazz fans.Byrd plays Bach, Bela Bartok, the broad range of the Spanish guitar literature (flamencos, Villa-Lobos, Fernando Sor) and folk melodies. Near the end of his classical set, he begins a Duke Ellington medley or perhaps "Play, Fiddle Play." Outside the range of the spotlight, Charlie's jazz partners-a bass, a drumlller and sometimes a flute playerquietly take their places. Suddenly, lights illuminate the entire stage and with the other musicians joining in, Byrd ends the set with a lightly swinging chorus or two. The quartet immediately begins its jazz segment which may include "Salty Dog" (a blues so old it can't be traced), Count Basie's "Jive at Five," Django Reinhardt's "Clouds," a Broadway show tune or two, Charlie Parker's "Now's the Time," and some Charlie Byrd originals. A guitarist for thirty-two of his forty-two years, Charlie Byrd reflects a large segment of jazz guitar history, in his work. But the first continued
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Guitarist Charlie Byrd, who performs in New Delhi, Calcutta and Madras this month, is best known for his inimitable brand of fiery, hardswinging jazz. But he is also a brilliant classical guitarist, learned in the history and literature of the instrument. On his current concert tour, Byrd is accompanied by Bill Reichenback on drums, Mario Darpino on flute and his brother Gene Byrd on bass. This article describes the development of one of the most unusual musical talents of today.
of the real guitar giants to appear on the jazz scene was Django Reinhardt, a Belgian-born gypsy. He played incredibly fast "single string" solos (passages with very few chords) on the classical guitar. By the mid-'thirties word sped across the Atlantic that here was a man who must be heard and scores of American jazzmen made a point of hearing Django during European tours. In 1939-apparently out of nowhere, but really out of Oklahoma City-burst Charlie Christian, a full-blown talent the first time he was ever heard in New York. Christian played the conventional electric guitar, attaining a sound quite different from that of the classicalinstrument. Christian worked with Benny Goodman for three years, and his musical inventiveness earned him a lasting place among the pioneers of the type of jazz known as "bop," along with Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker, Thelonious Monk, and Kenny Clark. Christian was also a "swinger" of major proportions. After a tragically short career, he died at twenty-two, the unchallenged top man on his instrument. Charlie Byrd; growing up in the ReinhardtChristian era, is an admirer of both these men, but an imitator of neither. "You couldn't help being influenced by Christian because he had such an easy, unaffected way of playing jazz on the guitar. It was as natural as breathing with him," Byrd says. Byrd's first guitar teacher was his father, who played all the stringed instruments. Charlie and his two brothers grew up in a musical atmosphere. Their father owned a general store in rural Chuckatuck in Southern Virginia. "On Saturday afternoons, a lot of the farm hands used to gather -at my father's store. They brought their guitars along and there was a long afternoon of singin', stompin', playin' and spittin' tobacco juice. It was a real rousing type of music," Byrd recalls. Living well off the beaten track of touring jazz attractions, Charlie Byrd was forced to move ahead on his own. He says, quite matterof-factly, "From the time I was eleven until I went into the Army, I never sat down with a guitar player who could play better than I could. It wasn't that I was so good, but just that the people around me played at my level. "I heard a lot of guitar players who weren't strictly jazz players. The big names in the business I heard on records-never in person. I naturally liked Django and Charlie Christian. In those days, I played like everyone else -using a lot of single-string work, fast and flashy," he says. After high school and two years at the VirginiaPolytechnic Institute-with the guitar
still very much on the scene-Byrd entered the Army. He spent one year in the infantry before being assigned to an entertainment unit which was sent to Europe. "As soon as we reached Paris, we set out to find Django Reinhardt. We located his brother in a club on the Pigalle. He shrugged when we asked where Django was, telling us he might be anywhere between the outskirts of Paris and the Riviera. With nothing better to go on, we sat down to hear the club band. Within a short time, Django walked in. "He had his usual entourage along. Someone produced a guitar-Django never carried his own-and he began to play. We met him later and became good friends during our stay in Paris. He even came out to camp to see our show," Charlie says. "I met Django again when he toured the United States with Duke Ellington just after World War II. We had a wonderful reunion
"In music, nothing is more important than integrity-that's something money can't buy."
plus a great all-night jam session with some of Duke's men. I've never heard Django play any better than he did at such informal sessions." After his discharge from the Army, Byrd stayed on the jazz road, playing with a large orchestra and small groups in New York. He also studied at the jazz-oriented Hartnett National Music Studios. Although he was receiving constant encouragement and gaining more experience, he was beginning to develop a split in his musical personality. A growing admiration for the work of the world's master classical guitarist-Andres Segovia-plus an expanding interest in the art and literature of the classical guitar finally forced the issue. Byrd temporarily left a promising career in the jazz field. He moved to Washington to begin studying the classical or Spanish guitar. His teacher was Sophocles Pappas, a friend of Segovia's, whose teaching methods had been endorsed by the maestro himself. At the same time, he began teaching the guitar and, in addition, playing engagements around Washington. He played for private parties, performed in jazz clubs, played in pit bands for stage shows, and sat in wherever a guitarist was needed. The changeover from the electric or conventional guitar to the classical guitar required years of work. The basic difference between the two instruments is the way the
strings are sounded: a pick is used on the electric guitar; the strings on the classical guitar are plucked with the fingers. There are other refinements in tone and technique and subtleties apparent only to guitarists. Climaxing Charlie Byrd's period of reorientation was a summer scholarship he won to study with Segovia in Siena, Italy. "We were constantly in a musical atmosphere," he recalls. "There was a group of about sixteen students from many nations. The maestro, who is quite a linguist, conducted one lesson in one language, the next lesson in another, and so on. Everyone listened to everyone else's lesson. Segovia himself only instructed in interpretation. Another teacher answered our questions on technique. There were concerts every night and the entire experience was a challenge to produce better music." After slowly gaining mastery of the new instrument, Charlie began to use the Spanish guitar in classical recitals and folk songs. The classical repertoire, however, did not replace Charlie's first love-jazz. It merely added another dimension to his musical expression. He uses both the classical and electric guitar today, but while equally at home in the jazz and classical fields, Byrd refuses to mix the two. "If you try to combine them, the best qualities of both are lost. Jazz should be fiery and hard-swinging. Classical music is neither of these. Mix the two and the result is at best a poor imitation," he says. His emergence as a front-rank jazz artist has not interfered with his work in the classical field. Byrd still plays classical recitals and has made several long-play recordings of early guitar music and selections written for pre-guitar instruments, the lute and vihuela. Outside his regular routine, Byrd has toured with the Woody Herman Orchestra in Europe and the Near East, appeared at the Monterey Jazz Festival and worked in New York jazz clubs. In 1961, on his return from a three-month tour of South America, he began to experiment with the bossa nova, a variation of the Brazilian samba. Later he made a record called "Jazz Samba" and, according to the jazz authority Leonard Feather, "the entire bossa nova craze in the U.S. may be said to have sprung directly from his album." Byrd writes and arranges a great deal of music, both for his own use and for others. He has written accompaniments for modern dance troupes and composed incidental music for several plays. For one, The Purification by Tennessee Williams, be played his original scor'e from the stage as a member of the cast. The guitarist lives in a world far removed
from the peripatetic existence of the jazz musIcIan. Despite his occasional tours, his roots are in Washington, with a home and family there. The family consists of his wife Ginny, a singer, and two children, Carol and Jeffrey. "The main compensation for working at night is the amount of time I can spend at home with my family," Charlie says. While deadly serious in his approach to music, Byrd has an impish sense of humour which sometimes dictates the numbers he plays. On one March 21, the "official" first day of spring, snow blanketed Washington's streets. That night his audience heard the Charlie Byrd Trio playas its opening set, "Spring Is Here," "Summertime" and "It Might As Well Be Spring." A Charlie Byrd performance, whether a classical recital or a jazz concert, points up Charlie's regard for his musical product. "You can't play down to any audience. You must lift it up and carry it with you. At the Byrd's Nest, we probably play music a lot more difficult to comprehend than our customers would select for themselves, but once we have established a high musical level, we can maintain it. "Actually, people applaud effort almost as much as perfection. If you make a mistake or get hung up in a solo, you'll try extra hard to make up for this slip and will probably come up with a truly superior chorus or solo. Your best music comes when you are having these highs and lows. When everything goes along smoothly, the music may be more consistent, but less exciting. "This is one of the reasons recordings are rarely as good as in-person appearances. Everyone is trying so hard that the music is too cautious and as a result, unexciting. At a recital or club, you can start off with a 'throwaway' tune just to get things started, but on television or on records, you have to score immediately or your audience is gone." From unknown guitar teacher to national celebrity in a few short years is a big jump. How does such a change affect an artist's life? Not too much, according to Charlie. "I still practise an average of four hours a day, sharpening my technique and working on new things. I've always had financial security. If you love what you are doing, what more can money buy? I'm playing where I want to play and what I want to play. In music, nothing is more important than integrity and that's something money can't buy." Equally at home in jazz and the classics, Byrd refuses to mix the two. He says, HI/you try to combine them, the best qualities of both are lost:'
In numerous unusual ways, the "fall-out" from space technology is coming back to earth with benefits for millions of people who never expect to set foot on the moon. As a wag put it, "spacecraft in the sky mean better plates for your pie." THAT CHANGE colour with temperature, a wheelchair that can climb stairs, a switch that can be turned on by batting an eyelash-these are only three of the many down-to-earth consumer benefits of American space research, that vast complex industry whose original and loftier aim is to propel man to the moon, to the planets, and beyond. Many benefits of space technology are already well known-weather, communication and navigation satellites. But few of us know that paints originally designed to reflect or absorb the sun's rays in outer space can also be used on rooftops to control temperature in houses and buildings. Strong sunlight will change theircolourto a whitish hue for reflecting the rays; under weak sun the paint turns dark to absorb more heat. The "lunar walker," a remote-controlled robot-like vehicle with mechanical legs, was originally designed for unmanned exploration of heavenly bodies. Soon to be adapted into a revolutionary "walking chair" for invalids, it will be able to climb street kerbs, even stairs, and "walk" its riders over terrain impossible for conventional wheelchairs, such as grassy hills and sandy beaches. An amazing switch developed by space research can be mounted on the frame of spectacles and actually turned on by nothing more than the movement of the eye. It may revolutionize the life of the paralysed and the limblessby enabling them to switch room lights on and off, turn pages of books, control thermostats, radio and TV sets, operate typewriters and other devices. One manufacturer has adapted the switch to a motorized wheelchair completely controllable by eye movements. It's hard to find an industry that U.S. space technology hasn't touched. Shockabsorbing aluminium tubes, originally designed to cushion landings on the moon, are now being installed as safety devices at the bottom of elevator shafts. Heat-resistant electronic components, developed to withstand the extreme temperatures of outer space, are prolonging the lives of radio and television PAINTS
Performing tasks impossible for conventional wheel chairs, this "walking" chairfor invalids climbs stairs and kerbs, traverses sandy beaches. It was developed/rom designs/or lunar vehicle.
The spin-off of space
Mere movement of an eyeball will actuate this electric switch, mounted on the frame of eye glasses. It does varied jobs-opening doors, turning lights off and on, and even turningpages of a book for the disabled.
Retrometer, above, has been developed to use light for carrying voice communication over vast distances, such as between earth and astronauts on another planet. The sketch below illustrates the principle.
sets. Earthbound polar and desert explorers NASA, the U.S. National Aeronautics and are using the same compact special foods Space Administration. NASA created an developed for long, manned space flights. Office of Technology Utilization to ferret out Railway tank cars made of lightweight plas- those space inventions, techniques and ideas tics developed for rockets weigh half as much with industrial potential. Various concepts, as the old steel tank cars. Spaceship sealants designs and tools were studied and analysed. are being used to hold auto windshields in Many of the findings and recommendations place as well as for lining concrete water were published in trade journals and newstanks. Sterilized rubber and plastics, designed papers before being "transferred" to private to prevent possible contamination of the at- industry for modification and application. NASA's technology transfer is still going mospheres of other planets, are being used in the manufacture of surgical gloves and elec- strong. It sponsors films and exhibits, pretrical insulation. pares handbooks and calls conferences at In testing the stability of new cars, one of which experts make reports and answer quesAmerica's largest automobile manufacturers tions. It microfilms documents about every is using a small solid-fuel rocket originally innovation, indexes them in computer tapes developed for the space programme. Mounted and stores the microfilms and tapes for on the side of a car, the rocket exerts a force ready reference. equal to a forty-kilometre-an-hour crosswind Right now many other novel products and hitting the car travelling ninety-six kilometres processes are being analysed by NASA to an hour. adapt them to industrial application and conSome of the breakthroughs are discoveries sumer use. of new techniques or facts, such as the disThe conversion of sunlight to electricitycovery that roller bearings last five times a concept demonstrated by satellites using longer when the rolling elements are slightly solar cells to recharge their batteries-may harder than the grooves. This new insight eventually replace mankind's conventional alone will save millions of dollars a year. heating and cooling systems. Small solar cells These samples, culled at random from to replace batteries in transistorized radios thousands, illustrate the unusual ways in are already on the U.S. market. Insulation which U.S. space technology is coming back techniques developed to combat the extremes to earth, with benefits for millions of people of heat and cold in outer space may soon rewho never expect to set foot on the moon or place the insulation systems now used in Mars. American industry, which nursed the buildings and refrigerators. Instruments despace effort by researching, designing and signed for lunar and planetary probes may manufacturing space equipment, is now reap- become an invaluable aid in locating mineral ing dividends from its efforts. This "fall-out" deposits' on earth. Spacesuits used by astro-or as some call it, "spin-off"-from the nauts are being studied for use by workers in space race is exerting a profound impact on industrial plants and foundries to protect industry, medicine, chemistry, transportation, them from extremes of hot and cold. physics, biology and scientific research. As space research accelerates like a geomeThe "spin-off" is no surprise. The dramatic trical progression, there's no predicting what breakthroughs are the results of detailed plan- astounding inventions the future will bring. ning and foresight. In officially inaugurating One scientist has predicted that tomorrow's the U.S. space programme in 1958, the U.S. well-dressed man will probably be able to Congress declared: "It is the policy of the control the temperature of the air surroundUnited States that activities in space should ing him with a tiny dial attached to his lapel. be devoted to peaceful purposes for the bene- Most developments may be more mundane. fit of all mankind." Looking at the non-stick easy-to-clean teflon The colossal job of effecting the "technofrying pans developed from space research, logy transfer," the channelling of space inno- one wag blushlessly quipped: "Spacecraft in vations to private industry, was assigned to the sky may mean better plates for your pie." END
America's second â€˘ movie capital
New York's famous skyline provides the backdrop for this scene from a new movie. In recent months the city has been enjoying a boom in film-making, Soaring skyscrapers, above right, offer cameramen opportunities for dramatic photography. New York also offers the exciting tempo of big-city life. Julie Andrews was the centre of traffic tie-up in the theatre district as cameras shot footage for Star, life story of actress Gertrude Lawrence.
Plywood track was laid over Central Park promenade, left, so that a mounted camera could shoot Zero Mastel and Gene Wilders. Michele Lee does rooftop caper in How to
Succeedin Businesswithout Really Trying. B"hind her, Chrysler and Panam buildings.
THEAVERAGE NEWYORKERis no longer thrilled at the prospect of seeing himself on the silver screen. With the sudden influx of film companies into New York, chances are fairly good for the casual onlooker to get into the act. There are times indeed when the whole city seemsto have become one vast movie set. New York's claim as America's second movie capital is only about two years old. And the man most responsible for luring filmmakers to the city is Mayor John V. Lindsay,
who has abolished municipal regulations that had made cinematography in New York virtually impossible. He has reduced the number of permits needed from fifty to one; he has removed city taxes, negotiated with film unions, and assigned police units to control traffic. Typical of the active interest Lindsay takes is the case of Up.the Down Staircase, based on the best-seller about a New York public school. Frustrated at every step, the company
making the film was ready to leave for Chicago when Lindsay intervened-and finally obtained permission to film from New York's Board of Education. The extent of Lindsay's co-operation with the film-makers can be gauged from the fact that his own office was once used as a movie setting. The hectic movie activity in New York has made the city more film-conscious than ever. Even the police are beginning to speak in established Hollywood jargon. (continued)
drawn to New Y orl' by ti,e exciteme"t "lid variety of life ill the big city.
Highlight of one film was scripted as a spirited hop-step-and-jump routine in the very centre of New York City. Actor Robert Morse dances along
BIGGESTATTRACTION for movie makers in New York is the city itself. Director Sidney Lumet says, "There is a hysteria about New York, its very ugliness makes it beautiful. It has the highest energy level of any city in the world. And this energy reaches the screen." The appeal of New York drew twenty-five feature films to the city in the first six months of 1967, and it is estimated that more than $40 million has been spent making movies in the big city. With all this, New York is not yet a real threat to Hollywood. The city has only a handful of inadequate sound stages, film processing facilities are poor, and weather conditions are uncertain. So at present, no one can tell whether New York will ever rival Hollywood. But Mayor Lindsay is optimistic. "If everything goes right," he says, "I can see New York as the film capital of the country."
a busy street, then suddenly takes the big leap. He times his movements to music played by a tape recorder hidden in his attache case. In order to
capture the candid reactions of passersby to his eccentric behaviour, members of the camera crew were concealed in a station wagon parked nearby.
Cameraman, at far left, shoots scene on stairway leading to the Mayor's office, which itse~f was setting for What's So Bad About Feeling Good? The bit of slapstick at left was shot in Central Park, popular movie location along with Greenwich Village, Times Square, the Staten Island Ferry. Ingenious mechanics designed the double platform apparatlls shown below to photograph this subway action shot for the movie New Face in Hell.
THE BURNED-OUT jetliner at right crash-landed at Salt Lake City, Utah, on November 11, 1965. All ninety-one passengers aboard survived the impact, but forty-three, unable to escape quickly enough, were killed by fire or suffocation. Despite such grim tragedies, the overall safety record of commercial aviation is impressive. According to figures for 1966 issued by the U.S. Civil Aeronautics Board, there was only one fatality per 1,420,000,000 passenger-miles flown. Nevertheless, all major carriers are now intensifying their already massive programmes to improve air safety standards particularly because of burgeoning air traffic and the increased size of new aircraft. Already, airliners carrying 250 passengers are in operation, and as early as 1970, it is expected that others may be carrying up to 700 people at near supersonic speeds. High on the list of safety programmes is stepped-up crew training in swifter, safer evacuation methods. Others include experimentation with flame-resistant fuel and fireproof plastic bags to prevent smoke inhalation. One company is looking into a device which, within seconds, could fill a fuselage with flameproof-but breathable-foam. Preventing fire in a survivable crash (where impact carries less than fatal force) could cut fatalities by fifty per cent, sums up one official. Many imaginative ideas for air safety, illustrated on pages twenty-four to twenty-six-some in current use and others under development-will help to minimize deaths in survivable crashes. Airlines, aircraft manufacturers and government agencies are working together to prepare for the unexpected. (Text continued on page twenty-seven.)
Practising survival techniques, stewardess enacts role of a mother with child, above. Making an exit from window of smoke-filled mock airplane, shefollows emergency instructions from a trainee at right. To prevent asphyxiation, a new safety device being tested is the fireproof plastic sack at right. The bag has its own source of oxygen and wil/not burn or char up to a temperature of 482 Centigrade. 0
Training and technology are adding a rell}arkable element of safety to air travel.
In an effort to reduce fire hazards, airlines are experimenting with a new jellied fuel which burns with a smaller flame than conventional liquid fuel, gives less smoke and heat, dies more quickly. The contrast is portrayed in the two pictures, above. Underwater test at left perfects quick-exit procedures after ditching airplane in sea. During experiment, a scuba diver stands by to observe and ensure safety of participants in the exercise.
Volunteers in a pool, above, demonstrate "chemical light" painted on life jackets and on side of raft. The substance glows on contact with air, helps attract rescue-craft in an actual mid-ocean crash. Most potentially dangerous seconds of any flight are takl;off and landing. Multi-coloured approach lighting system at Dulles Airport, Washington, runway, above right, ensures aI/-weather landings. "Three-dimensional" radar tracks each airplane on screen with radar hlip, electronically tagged with flight number, altitude. This ensures accuracy, eliminates need to compute information manual/y.
Although flying by commercial airlines in the U.S. is now six times safer than travelling by car, efforts are continuing to improve the record. Fire prevention and control and pilot error are among the main areas of concern. IN APRIL 1964, a DC-7 A plane, with sixteen "passengers" aboard, roared down the runway apparently for takeoff. But suddenly it veered offthe runway and crashed into a rocky desert slope. After the crash, twelve of the sixteen "passengers"-actually instrumented dummies to record a wide range of scientific data-were strapped in their seats and many of them were still "alive." Part of continuing research conducted by the U.S. Federal Aviation Agency(FAA), this deliberate crash-a rehearsal for the unexpectedaimedto find ways of reducing passenger fatalities in air accidents. For this purpose, this experiment studied the passenger reaction in a marginally survivable crash. It also tested several new devices that would improve plane design and make the skies safer for air travellers. One promising safety device that emerged from this experiment was an air bag that inflated in front of some "dummy" passengers. It successfully cushioned the shock of forward motion upon impact. The "passengers" protected by the air bag recorded only a force of eight-G's (eight times the pull of gravity) compared to the forty-G's that hit those strapped only with the seat belt. Following the crash, the bag deflated automatically to free the passenger for escape from the aircraft. This experiment is one of the many in a sustained effort by industry and government to make air travel more safe. In 1959, one accident occurred in every 85,000 hours of flight in the U.S.; in 1965, this rate was one in every 800,000 hours. Flying on commercial airliners is now six times safer than driving in a motor car, and chances of airplane accidents are rated at one in a million. But for all the care tended on air safety, accidents do-and willoccur; they are usually made up of a sequence of contributory events in the system that links the airplane, pilots, communications and weather. And, the casualty toll (205 passenger deaths for domestic commercial flights vs. 32,500 fatalities for car passengers in the U.S. in 1965)may go up, as more people fly. Within ten years, the number of air passengers in the United States is expected to triple to 353 million, and takeoffs and landings will rise to 139 million. Today, skies over many major cities are crowded with the big jets. At Chicago's O'Hare International Airport, the world's busiest, more than 2,000 takeoffs and landings with some 80,000 passengers per day are common. During a peak hour at O'Hare, as many as 172 takeoffs and landings have been recorded-one every twenty-one seconds. Because sixty per cent of all airplane accidents occur during these crucialmoments, more attention is now being given to survival during thesephases of air flights. Experts estimate that the number of deaths in survivableair crashes could be cut by half, iffire could be prevented. In the 1965crash at Salt Lake City (see pages 23-24), all the ninety-one passengerssurvived the impact, but forty-three died of fumes, fire and smoke. Since 1961, at least 270 persons have been killed in similar circumstances-unable to escape on the ground. To improve passenger safety in such situations, FAA announced last year a series of new regulations that calls for changes in equipment and flight procedures. Under the new rules, the aircraft must be designedso all passengers, in an emergency, can evacuate the plane within ninety seconds, as against the prevailing 120 seconds rule. Among other changes which would be incorporated during the next eighteen months are; installation of automatic escape slides on aircraft doors more than six feet above the ground; use of fireproof or self-extinguishing material for interior fittings; and, shrouding of fuel lines
from electric power lines to reduce the possibilities of fire. Besides these changes in design and equipment, scientists are developing many imaginative ideas, principally aimed to reduce passenger fatalities in survivable crashes. To minimize fire, researchers have tested a new jelly-like fuel that on crash impact will reduce explosions and fires in airplane fuel tanks. As a result, liquid jet fuel may be replaced withjellied fuel. Experiments conducted at FAA's experimental centre at Atlantic City, N.J., have vividly demonstrated (see page 25) the efficacy of jellied fuel. While a tank of liquid jet fuel exploded into a fiery ball of fire, the same volume of jellied fuel made a small fire that sputtered and died quickly. Its use may require extensive modification of airliner fuel systems but if the new fuel proves as good in engine performance as the conventional liquid fuel, changes in engine fuel systems will be worthwhile. Last year, U.S. Air Force scientists reported another development to "tame" aviation fuel: a polyurethane foam that is stuffed into aircraft fuel tanks. This sponge-like material, while filling the tank, absorbs the fuel and its vapour. This technique reduces the possibility of explosion or fire when the tank ruptures during a crash, and does not significantly reduce fuel tank capacity. The material has been successfully tested in Viet-Nam, and is now being investigated for use in civil aviation. At the Flight Safety Foundation in the U.S., fuel tanks made of nylon and polyurethane are being developed. They can withstand greater impact without bursting than the stainless steel tanks now in use. To give passengers extra minutes of breathing time in a smoke-filled cabin, the FAA is testing a fireproof plastic sack that passengers can put over their heads (see page 24) and breathe from a cartridge of compressed air to reduce possibilities of suffocation. The new heatresistant plastic does not burn or char up to 482Â°C temperature. Attention is also being given to passenger survival in mid-ocean crashes. As shown on page 25, improved underwater evacuation techniques are being investigated at the FAA's Civil Aeromedical Centre in Oklahoma City. To minimize the scope of pilot error-the "probable cause" of sixty per cent of air crashes-new, ultrasophisticated equipment is being developed. A "Big Brother" device can watch nearly every move a pilot makes during flight, spot his errors and provide information to help him correct them before they cause serious damage. To prevent mid-air collisions, a new split-second warning system alerts the pilots of approaching planes and directs them to go up or down. The system is called EROS (Eliminate Range Zero System). With aircraft getting bigger and faster and their number increasing rapidly, the need for this device is obvious. But by the end of this decade, the skies are going to get even more crowded with ever bigger planes. Boeing's 747 jumbo jets, carrying 490 passengers, are expected to be in service next year and will be followed by Lockheed's 700-seat capacity airbuses. The era of supersonic transport (SST), flying at an incredible 1,800 miles an hour, is also in the offing. All this will create greater traffic problems and greater pressure for air safety. In this situation, the air safety record takes on added importance. Preventing just one accident would save a priceless fund of human ability represented by hundreds of passengers on board and tens of crores of rupees worth of hardware. It also makes all efforts to maintain-and improve-the presently admirable air safety record a worthwhile investment. END
IT~SNOW BIG-TIME Though it is the oldest sport played in the U.S,) soccer has always lagged in popularity behind other American games. But lately there have been signs of it staging a comeback. TRUEFOOTBALL-thekind played in India-is fast becoming a major sport in the United States. Although it has been played in America since the early l600s, its popularity was limited to Asian and European immigrants. These immigrants were avid participants in the sport, but when their children grew up as Americans, they gravitated to the U.S.-invented sports of baseball, basketball and football, which bears little relation to football as known in India. In America, true football is known as soccer-and soccer suddenly is catching on. Where once it was rare to see the game played on an American field, today there are nearly 2,500 high school and college teams spread over the country. But the biggest boost the game has received came a year ago-in April of 1967-when two U.S. professional soccer leagues made their debut on playing fields throughout the nation. The National Professional Soccer League (NPSL), stocked with players from Europe and South America as well as from the amateur leagues in America, signed up teams in ten U.S. cities. The other league, the United Soccer Association (USA), imported whole teams from abroad to represent their cities. Aberdeen of Scotland became the Washington (D.C.) Whips, Stoke City of England became the Cleveland team, and so forth. This year both leagues plan to have their own teams, though they might still have to depend on some players from abroad. Shortly after last year's season opened, the magazine Sports Illustrated commented: "Soccer has much to offer and, potentially, a large audience. It has the advantage ... of continuous motion, exciting and
sometimes violent action and obvious rules easy to understand. It is rather like hockey (ice hockey) on a grand scale, but with a ball easy enough to see that the goal-scoring is never lost to view." An interesting feature of the 1967 soccer scene was the effort to educate sports fans in the intricacies of the game. National magazines and newspapers around the country ran illustrated articles on how to watch soccer. In Atlanta, advertisements and posters publicizing the sport were placed in buses and trains. In Baltimore, the team set up a speakers' bureau and produced a twelve-minute film on soccer. In Pittsburgh, members of the team appeared at local shopping centres to help arouse public interest in the game. To promote its 1967 season, the United Soccer Association set up a series of exhibition games with some of the world's top-flight teams: Red Star of Yugoslavia played Athletico-Bilbao of Spain in Chicago; Real Madrid played England's West Ham in Houston; Eintracht of Frankfurt played Cruzeiro of Brazil in Washington; and Glasgow's Rangers played Dukla of Czechoslovakia. But the real test of soccer's success in the United States, everyone agrees, is the time when American boys will play the game in the country's stadiums and playgrounds and backyards. As one soccer coach says, "If you can produce interest in the schools you're likely to get plenty of American spectators before you get American-born players. Boys will persuade their parents to come along to games even though it may be another ten years before those boys become top-class players in their own right." According to some experts, this time will nbt be long in coming, because the football associations are setting up a nation-wide programme of soccer demonstration clinics and are promoting the sport at a large number of schools and colleges. As this programme begins to payoff, the big-league teams will be stocked with American boys. A big factor in the spread of soccer's popularity is television. Last
year's league games were shown on network and local television, and the NPSL has a ten-year contract with the Columbia Broadcasting System. In July 1966 some ten million Americans had their appetite whetted for soccer when they watched the World Cup game between England and Germany over television. Throughout the United States, then, there are signs that soccer is gaining a foothold on the sports scene. The question now is: Will it survive?Experts feel that it certainly never had a better chance. Curiously enough, soccer is the oldest international sport to be played in America. An early historical reference mentions Virginia colonistsplaying "football" as early as 1609. However, the first serious interest in the game didn't develop until undergraduates at Harvard, Princeton and Yale took up the sport on an informal basis in the 1840s. After the Civil War, soccer seemed to be taking hold. The first intercollegiate game was played in 1869 at New Brunswick, New Jersey, betweenRutgers and Princeton. But by the 1870s soccer began to suffer from a combination of Yankee inventiveness and Harvard indifference.During this period baseball was becoming a national passion (the first league was organized in 1871), basketball was about to be invented (in 1891) and, most significantly, American college football was being born. The turning point came in 1873, the year Harvard decided it preferred its own "Boston game" (a type of rugby) to soccer and declined to attend a New York meeting at which Yale, Columbia, Princeton and Rutgers were to form the Intercollegiate Football (soccer) Association. From that point on, soccer had to play second fiddle to the evolvingAmerican football game. Tradition has it that the first independent soccer team in the United Stateswas organized in Boston in 1862. Known as the Oneida Football Club, it was made up of schoolboys who met all comers on a field in the Common-a park in central Boston. The boys wore no special continued
«Soccer is perfectly tailored to the American sports fan/' says a U.S. sports official, «because it has speed, it has action, it has roughness, it hasfinesse-it has everything." clothing during games, using only coloured handkerchiefs to mark opposing players. For three consecutive years the formidable Oneida Club never allo)¥ed its goal line to be crossed by another team. It was not until the early 1900s that soccer began to make much headway in the United States. At about the same time it was being organized on a sound basis internationally. In 1904, the Federation Internationale de Football Associations (FIFA) was formed in Paris. It now governs the game all over the world from its headquarters in Switzerland. Started by immigrants from many lands, and particularly those
from Great Britain, soccer organizations began to emerge in many American cities. The American Football Association was formed in 1884; the first international game between the United States and Canada was played in 1886; the Intercollegiate Association Football League was started in 1905; and the same year the Pilgrim Football Club of England made its first touring visit of the United States. Soccer finally seemed to be taking root. By 1913, the United States Soccer Football Association (USSFA) was formed and assumed full control of the game, both on a professional and amateur level. USSFA was also recognized by FIFA as America's official soccer governing body. But soccer in America continued to have its ups and downs. In the late 1920s, the game flourished on the professional level, particularly in parts of the U.S. with large immigrant populations. There was even a brief moment of international glory in 1930, when the United States
reached the semi-finals of the World Cup in Montevideo, Uruguay. WorldWar II removed many star footballers from the playing fields to the battlefield, and public interest in the sport plummeted. In 1946,soccer was revitalized primarily through the resumption of visitsof foreign teams. Added impetus came from servicemen who had been introduced to the game while overseas or had been exposed to first-classsoccer. The current upsurge of interest in soccer began in the summer of 1966when a group of venturesome men decided that soccer could succeed-if well promoted. They argued that if soccer entrances-and evenmaddens-such disparate peoples as Britons and Byelorussians, Braziliansand Germans, it must be a sport that could also hold the attentionof Americans. More important, they agreed to spend millions of dollars to prove their point. This is the movement that led to the two current professional leagues.
Last year, the Dallas Tornado Soccer Club undertook the first world tour by an American professional soccer team, playing fifty matches in some twenty countries. Sponsored by the All India Football Federation, the Dallas Tornados played against local sides in the major Indian cities. In an exhibition match in New Delhi, for instance, the visitors lost 1-0 to the President's XI. Today, the prospects for soccer in the United States are bright-in fact, brighter than ever before. One U.S. sports writer says, "The American sun is shining on this great international sport." An NSPL official points out: "Soccer is perfectly tailored to the American sports fan because it has speed, it has action, it has roughness, it has beauty, it has finesse-it has everything." But only time will tell whether the Big Three of American sports-baseball, basketball and U.S. football-will have to make room for soccer, an ancient game that is END suddenly enjoying rejuvenation.
SOCCER COMES TO Mil YO HIGH
the game. "The first thing I had to do," he "Even parents take a great deal of interest says, "was to explain the rules, which most of in sports," he adds. "At one inter-school the boys were ignorant of. Then there were soccer match, for which admission was $2 per the basic skills-kicking, heading, trapping head, I noticed that the stadium was packed and passing. And finally there were the vari- to capacity." ous positions and the peCUliarities of each." "One advantage of soccer for the American Juneja taught soccer to around 100 stu- schoolboy," Juneja says, "is that it gives dents, in addition to training the school's phy- everybody a chance. Basketball is monoposical education instructor. In groups of lized by those who are tall, and American twenty-thirty the boys would assemble out- football is only for the big and brawny. But doors for about three months of the year; dur- soccer is a game where the small person can ing the long, harsh Minnesota winters, how- be extremely effective." A SLIGHTLY-BUILT Indian holding a football ever, training was confined to the gymnasium. Though soccer absorbed a great deal of in his hands stood in the centre of a group of In the informal atmosphere that exists Juneja's time during his year in the United seventeen-year-old American high school between teachers and students in the U.S., States, it was only one aspect of his stay. He students. "When you 'head' the ball, don't Juneja jokingly told his pupils: "Just because gave about 100 talks on Indian culture, hiscloseyour eyes," he instructed. "I know it's you revolted against the British, you have a tory and religion to civic groups, and was prejudice against their games. So you changed impressed by the general interest shown in a natural instinct, but don't do it." The youngsters, members of the senior their cricket into your baseball; and because India by Americans of all kinds. "I was also class of Mayo High School of Rochester, they play football with their feet, you decided impressed by the liberal school curriculum," Minnesota, watched intently as their instruc- to use your arms and hands. But enough time he says, "under which children learn about tor, never once blinking, bounced the ball off has passed since the Revolution to allow you foreign countries at the elementary level." his head. The students may not have realized now to take up soccer." While Juneja was in Rochester, a Mayo Juneja's success at Mayo School was testi- School teacher, Mr. George Hemenway, was it, but the coaching credentials of their instructor,Gulzari Lal Juneja, were impeccable. mony both to his ability as a coach and to the in New Delhi teaching social studies at ModA well-known Delhi footballer, Juneja prowess of his students. Within a short time, ern School. The exchange programme bespenta year in the United States-starting in the boys were playing good soccer, and tween the two schools is the result of a visit September 1966-as an exchange teacher at matches were arranged with other schools. to Rochester made a few years ago by Dr. The prospects of Americans becoming first- M.N. Kapur, Modern School principal. the Mayo School. Head of the social studies The exchange programme gave students of and civics department at Modern School, rate soccer players are excellent, Juneja beboth schools a rare opportunity to learn of New Delhi, Juneja's formal assignment was lieves. "For any sport," he says, "physical one another's country. But it also has had a to teach his subject, blending into his curri- fitness is essential. And the American-beculuma heavy emphasis on India. But before cause of diet, climate and other reasons-is . side benefit to Mayo High School that has Juneja knew what happened, Indian football physically well equipped for soccer. All he lasted past the departure of Juneja. He relacks at present is the technique." ceived a letter recently from the principal becameone of his major assignments. Another factor that would contribute to of Mayo. "The first day I arrived in Rochester," Juneja recalls, "there was a sports page fea- the success of soccer, he feels, is the general "You will be happy to know that this ture saying I would be teaching soccer at enthusiasm for sports in American schools. morning I visited a physical education class MayoHigh. I was rather surprised to see this, "For example," he says, "take the system of which was working on soccer," the letter girls chosen to lead the read. "Our football team is undefeated in its but I think it was a measure of the school's cheerleaders-the cheering at school matches. There is terrific first four games." Which would indicate that interest in the game." Soccer did exist in the Rochester school competition for this honour, and the whole the seeds sown by Gulzari Lal Juneja have taken root. END systembefore he arrived, Juneja explains, but school is caught up in the excitement." only at the elementary. level. "It was not soccer as it should be played," he observes. On the playing fields of Mayo High School, Juneja (second from left) conducts a soccer session, "It wasjust a sort of kick-and-run affair." explaining the rules of the game as well as its basic skills-kicking, heading, trapping and passing. Juneja himself has had extensive experience in the sport. He has represented Delhi University,Delhi State and the Prime Minister's XI, besides being soccer coach at Modern School for several years. As a member of a touring football team, he visited Ceylon, Pakistan and Afghanistan. He is a qualified refereeof the Delhi Football Association. On thefield, he has played in various positionsone sports writer called him "the all-position player"-but his normal position is fullback. Backed by his deep knowledge of soccer, Juneja's classes were a revelation to Mayo studentsas he taught them the finer points of
In 1966 Indian school-teacher Gulzari Lal Juneja went to Rochester, Minnesota, to teach social studies. But hefound that he spent almost as much time teaching a subject far removed from his academic field. His success in introducing soccer to Mayo High School is evidence of the game's rising popularity in the United States.
THE UNITED STATES GETS A TOUGH NEW ATTORNEY GENERAL IN RAMSEY CLARK:
THE STANCEISforthright and unequivocal; the look is friendly but stern. Arguing a point of law, forty-year-old Ramsey Clark is stubbornly determined to win his caseand no lawyer ever had greater responsibilities. His job: legal adviser to the President of the United States, protector of the U.S. Government's complex statutory involvements, national defender against crime. As U.S. Attorney General and head of the 30,000-man Department of Justice, Ramsey Clark is, in short, legal counsel for the entire American public-some 200,000,000 clients. The office of Attorney General was created in 1789 as a one-man department. Its first incumbent had no salary or office space and had to buy his own equipment and fuel. Today, however, Clark presides over the biggest legal bureau in the world and like his immediate predecessors, Nicholas Katzenbach and Robert Kennedy, he has had to learn to live at the centre of
handled litigation involving the government's 2,271 million acres of public lands, reduced by one-half the backlog of 32,000 cases he had inherited, and astounded government officials all over Washington by turning back $300,000 of his budgeted $3.5 million each year. Moreover, Ramsey's father, former U.S. Supreme Court Justice Tom Clark, had himself served as Attorney General from 1945 until 1949-making Ramsey the first Justice Department chief ever to follow in his father's footsteps. "Mr. Clark has proved to be a skilled and energetic administrator," said the New York Times after his appointment by President Johnson in February 1967. "On difficult issues of equal rights and criminal law, he has shown himself to be a man of 'Conscience with an alert concern for individual liberties." Within the Justice Department itself, Clark's reputation couldn't be higher.
an endless legal storm. States, institutions, private citizens can and do sue the government for myriad reasons. There are nearly 14,000 such cases in process today-from disputed taxes to personal damage-and in each case the Justice Department must defend the government in the courts. But the role of defence counsel is just part of Clark's job. Guardian of the public's rights as well as the government's, he must vigorously fight against their infringement. The Justice Department is now prosecuting 21,000 cases in fields like civil liberties, equal rights, business ethics, public property. On top of this awesome workload, Clark oversees the complex operations of the l6,000-man Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its manypronged war against crime. How good an Attorney General is Clark? Insiders say there is every chance he will rank among the best the country has had. No stranger to the Department's complex operations, he had gone to work as Assistant Attorney General in 1961. His speciality: .the Lands Division where he
"Ramsey's appearance is deceptive," says one official. "He moves slowly and at first you get the idea that he thinks slowly. But his mind works fast, and he isn't afraid of innovations. Precedent doesn't impress him-he questions everything, why things are done this way, why they're not done tRat way. I'm beginning to suspect he's not merely bright, he may be brilliant." Through it all, Texas-born Clark retains the same calm, imperturbable coolness he has shown since he left Dallas at ten with his family to live in Washington. "Ramsey," his mother once said, "was born an old man." She had a point. During his early years in Dallas and Washington, Ramsey seemed anything but a young-man-in-ahurry. Schoolmates remember him as a diffident, thin, slow-moving youngster, even slower in his country-style speech, last to collect his books and leave the classroom, likeable but never elected to any student office, shy, content to follow a routine pace. While others engaged in the whirlwind life, he shunned dances,
LAWYER WITH 200,000,000 CLIENTS As U.S. Attorney General and Head of the Department of Justice, Ramsey Clark, left, presides' over the world's biggest legal bureau. His clients: 200 million Americans. His Department, created in 1789 as a one-man office, has since grown to its present strength of some 30,000. As legal adviser to the President of the United States, Mr. Clark lives constantly at the centre of many storms.
Within the Justice Department, Ramsey Clark has "stood out as a man never afraid to dissent, never afraid to be in the minority." When he discusses a problem, his position is invariably based on ethical principles. avoided sports and read books. At seventeen, young Clark suddenly and mysteriously caught fire. In five and a half years, setting some kind of unofficial record, he earned his secondary school diploma in summer class; enlisted in the Marines and was discharged at the relatively high rank of corporal; earned a Bachelor's Degree at the University of Texas; married; won a Master's Degree in history at the University of Chicago; graduated with a doctor of jurisprudence degree from the University of Chicago Law School; and began a law practice in Dallas. Calculated at the average pace of a young man's advancement, he had compressed twelve years of a typical career into less than half the time. He still sets a tough pace for himself. Up at six-thirty every morning, he grinds his coffee by hand, starts it hrewing, then reads his newspaper until his family (wife - Georgia and two children) joins him for breakfast. By 9: 15 he is in his office, in shirt-sleeves and hard at work. Unless he has a lunch date, he eats just a sandwich at his desk but also nibbles all day long. An office closet is crammed full of big tins of potato chips, jars of instant tea and candy bars. Clark rarely leaves for ~ome before 8 p.m. (Saturdays he ends work at 5 p.m.) As his office eating habits indicate, one apt word for the Attorney General is "unassuming." Clark insists on flying tourist class when he travels, and for a while he ignored the long-standing tradition of having the top FBI agent at each destination meet him at the airport with transportation. He was finally persuaded to accept this time-honoured arrangement only because it kept him closely in touch with his headquarters back in Washington. One other Washington tradition, however, is still a victim of the Ramsey Clark style. He refuses to travel to and from his office in the Cabinet member's most impressive status symbol-a chauffeur-driven limousine with built-in telephone. Instead, he drives alone from his home in a dilapidated convertible. The convertible was handed down to
Ramsey from his father. When Tom Clark was Attorney General, he too was famous for driving a bulky, ancient jalopy of his own. Father and son are alike in many ways. Both are known for their massive, glacial calm. ("I think if I ran into his office now," an aide says, "and told Ramsey the building was on fire, he would just look at me with that very grave look of his, calmly gather up his papers, and prepare to leave.") Each of the Clarks is tall, slender, easy in manner and gracious in a way that might be called "Texas folksy." Moreover, the two men have remained very close through the years. One reason Ramsey quits "early" on Saturdays is a standing engagement with his father. For two years they have dined together nearly every Saturday night. The date is hardly ever broken when the two are in town. But despite the strong bond between the two men, their friends claim that the only way Tom Clark discovers what Ramsey Clark thinks about most key legal issues is by reading about it in the papers. Both men stick scrupulously to the rule that legal matters should not be discussed outside of court, and from the time the son went to work in the Department his father once headed, they have never discussed professional details of their jobs. After his son's appointment as Attorney General, Justice Clark, who is sixty-seven, resigned from the Supreme Court to avoid any possible conflict of interest. Father and son, moreover, do not share the same basic views. On the Supreme Court bench for nineteen years, Tom Clark sat mostly with the conservative wing, taking a status quo-and usually minority-position on matters such as the rights of criminal defendants and control of alleged subversives. Ramsey follows a firm, independent line on these and many other issues. Once the younger Clark sat down with a group of law enforcement people in Memphis, Tennessee, and heard them complain about a new Supreme Court ruling which limited police powers to question suspects. When they had finished their attack on the ruling, Clark said he
didn't agree. Early statistIcs showed no drop in the proportion of confessions obtained by police, he pointed out, al1d furthermore he didn't think court rulings caused crime. Clark's listeners looked at him with bewilderment, knowing his father had dissented from this very same Supreme Court ruling. "Isn't Justice Tom Clark your father?" one of them asked. "Yes," Ramsey replied. "But you're taking an entirely different position than he is," the man continued. "Well," said Ramsey, his usually serious expression briefly effaced by a smile of some charm, "don't tell him what I said." Similarly, the Attorney General is not his father's son on a number of other key issues that have come up since his appointment. Although everything about his manner suggests extreme caution, he is a breed of Texas liberal. Unafraid of controversy, he is for the abolition of capital punishment. He believes the Justice Department should continue and strengthen its activist role in the equal rights movement. He is against all forms of wiretapping or electronic ,"eavesdropping" by police except in cases involving the national security. And as De'puty Attorney General in 1966 he came before Congress to argue forcibly against a bill that would set criminal penalties for the country's small "obstructionist" movement against the VietNam war. One area where he is in full agreement with his father, however, is in the vigorous pursuit of "anti-trust" litigation against business mergers or acquisitions that serve to restrain free competition. Ramsey apparently developed his own sharp political and legal views years agoand he has a st,ubborn insistence on expressing them where it counts. As Assistant Attorney General under Robert Kennedy, he soon became part of his chief's inner council-the men summoned when any important decision was to be made on equal rights, anti-trust or organized crime matters. "Nobody was around Kennedy to say 'yes' to him," recalls a former aide, "but even so, Ramsey stood out as a man never afraid to dissent, never afraid to be
in the minority. And always, when he discussed a problem, his position would be based on the ethical principles involved." In fact, those who know Clark well say that his one weakness, if any, is not to acquiesce to pressure but to stand on principle when more practical men would compromise. Long before his rise to the top job at Justice, his penchant for introducing questions of principle in day-to-day matters sometimes drove more bureaucratic co-workers to distraction. "Even though the Department had been long committed to some policy," recalls one official, "Ramsey would balk at working out the mechanics. There we'd be, facing a deadline, and Ramsey would be saying he was bothered by the principle of the thing. I think he has an absolute desire even to die on principle." Thus, those who wondered, soon after Clark's appointment, whether he would "be under President Johnson's thumb" needn't have asked. Late in 1966 President Johnson invited Clark to his Texas ranch for the ceremonial signing of two anti-crime bills. Afterwards they drove around the ranch looking at cattle and chatting. The President casually mentioned a tough new anticrime bill Congress had just passed for the District of Columbia authorizing mass "dragnet" arrests and the questioning of people who were not officially under arrest. Clark immediately advised Johnson not to sign the bill, knowing full well that other White House aides had already recommended its acceptance. A few days later Johnson vetoed the legislation, citing the arguments his Attorney General had used on the ranch. Whatever father-and-son informality had coloured their previous personal dealings, -itwas now clear that the Attorney General and the President enjoyed a relationship of mutual, down-to-business respect. And the pattern has continued ever since. Today, both in Washington and throughout the legal profession, there is common agreement that the young new Attorney General is very definitely his own man. END
No CHAPTER in the record of the Ford Motor Company is more dramatic than its introduction in 1913-14of the most advanced labour policies yet known in largescale American industry. To understand the full significance, we must set it against the labour history of the decade 1903-13in general a depressing history. When the century began, the workers at first won some notable gains. But the enemiesof organized labour soon moved to a counter-attack. Throughout the country well-financed groups, denouncing labour tyranny, battled for the open shop. When a fewlabour extremists turned to terrorism and murder, they sadly injured the moral standing of unionism. In few cities during these years did Excerpts reprinted with permission from the book "FORD: the Times, the Man, the Company," written by Allan Nevins. Published by Charles Scribner's Sons. ÂŠ 1954 by Columbia University.
labour have more discouraging pages to turn than in Detroit. This city became one of the. open-shop capitals of the land, where workers had to fight with flimsy weapons against well-armed employers upholding a tradition as to hours, wages and working conditions that was firmly opportunistic rather than liberal. The most prominent features of the labour situation in Detroit were five: the determined hostility of most industrialists to unions; the large pool of immigrant (particularly East Europeans) labour; the wide-spread use of adolescent workers; the prevalence of piece work; and the scant attention paid to safety. In the automobile industry, by 1910predominant in southern Michigan over all others, rapid turnover constituted a grim problem to which all too little thought was given. The tremendous growth of Detroit industries in 1908-14, with the Ford Com-
pany in the van, made the provision of an adequate labour pool an urgent problem. The Employers' Association of Detroit systematically exerted itself through agents, circulars, and news stories to draw men to the city. A heavy majority of the newcomers were foreign born, and a great part of them recent arrivals from Poland, Austria-Hungary, the Balkans, or Italy. By the spring of 1911 the whole labour force in Detroit was computed by the Employers' Association at 175,000and of these 160,000were mal1ageable men on the Bureau's index! Even so, jobs were multiplying so fast that demand often exceeded the supply. Living conditions' for labour were' in great part deplorable. There were plenty of shanty districts, of jerrybuilt two-andfour-family houses, and of mere hovels; schools, churches, and street railways lagged behind population growth. Vice ran
OnJanuary 5~1914, Henry Ford announced the introduction of the live-dol'ar-a-day p'an for his workers and 'aunched
The Ford Revolution
wide open, and crimes of violence were frequent. Detroit was a frontier town. The foreign-born who had flooded the city made a practice of rearing numerous children and exploiting their earningpower from an early age. For young and mature alike, piece work (detested by Ford, but then the rule in Detroit machine shops and factories) and monotonous repetitive labour contributed, at least subconsciously, to the pervasive discontent. The more intelligent the employee, the less he liked this degraded status. Restless, energetic youths were quick to rebel. Ford and his associates made some honest attempts, which did not get far, to keep men moving from one department to another to vary their experience. In most factories, however, monotony was the rule, and the inevitable consequences appeared. Taking the country at large, the disregard of life in mines, steel mills, machine shops, and transportation industries was frightful. During 1907 more than 4,500 men were killed on steam railroads, and 87,644 injured. In the manufacturing industries alone casualties for the war year 1917 (with 11,338 killed, and 1,363,000 injured) far exceeded those on the battlefield. In Detroit, as elsewhere, the rapid introduction of complicated new machinery,
the high proportion of inexperienced, illiterate immigrants in the labour force, and the negligence of employers were the chief factors in the appalling loss of life. Bad living conditions, child labour, piecework, high accident rates, were national rather than local evils, while the peculiar grievances of Detroit workers were the militancy of the open-shop movement and the shattering effect of the subdivision of work on craft skills and craft cohesion. The existence of a "labour problem" transcending mere questions of demand and supply hardly reached the consciousness of Ford Company leaders before 1911-12. Henry Ford retained a lively recollection of the fact that he had been a mechanic himself, and he never lost his sociable interest in human beings and his liking for young men. James Couzens, Ford's rough-tempered partner, was absorbed in company expansion and finance but had kindly flashes and a strong civic spirit. For several reasons, however, labour got no special consideration until the tardy date mentioned. One reason is that until after 1910 the Ford Company was not one of the largest employers. Another reason for the delay is that during the creation of Ford's Model T
SORRY AFtE WE ~OR
OUR GOOD LUCK S Af\E.
automobile and its rise to dazzling success, the morale of the Ford workers had found a special stimulus; the men felt that they were working together towards a goal which promised handsome rewards for all. An atmosphere of creative excitement filled the plant. Ford himself in this developmental period, elated and optimistic, moved about the shops radiating cheery good feeling. Democratic, affable, his "mean streak" suppressed by the happy sense of achievement, he showed sides of his nature which inspired loyalty and exceptional effort. But beginning in 1911-12, the company was forced to recognize the existence of an intricate labour problem. The employment market was tight; many workers were increasingly restive; sociologists and reformers were outspoken about abuses. Certain incidents, moreover, dramatized the blind confusion of the situation. John R. Lee, who on coming to Ford from the Keirn Works had been given charge of employment, later recounted one. An experienced drop hammer opera for suddenly showed a total inability to meet moderate production standards. His health was sound; he had no grievance against the company. But an inquiry showed that his wife was ill and that as a result his children were neglected~ and his debts mounting. As soon as the company removed that worry, his production rose to normal. Lee and others suddenly comprehended the intimate relation between an employee's efficiency and his home life, recreations, and sense of security or insecurity. Lee burned with an ambition to make the Ford plant a model in labour management. He found Ford and Couzens in a responsive mood, for both had been pondering the subject. After discussion, they asked him to investigate the methods of other factories in handling workers, and sent him on a tour of inspection. He returned convinced that not a single plant had met the situation wisely, and that the Ford Company would have to devise its own policies. As a matter offact, Lee himself was quite equal to the situation. As a ( continued)
Behind the concept 0/ the Model T and the moving assembly-line was the genius oj Henry Ford, centre. With his partner James Couzens, left, Ford also pioneered a new era in relationship between labour and management.
land Park plant near Detroit. Besides deal- active officers suggested (if Couzens was first step towards a better labour regime, ing with representation in Argentina, it really hostile at first, he had fallen into he at once began to systematize the chaotic decided to pay all employees who did not line) that a better equalization of earnings wage structure of the Fprd Company. and labour was come under the efficiency bonus plan of between stockholders Another powerful factor in compelling the preceding month and who had been needed. "The plan was gone over at conthe company to formulate a carefully studied labour policy was the sheer pressure of with the company three years or more a siderable length," state the minutes. Then Rackham assented, and the five-dollar its profits. The net income went above $4 ten per cent bonus. This meant that about wage was unanimously approved, to- take 640 company employees would divide millions in the calendar year 1910, above force on the twelfth. "Which plan," run $60,000. The action emphasized the bleak $7 millions in 1911, and above $13.5 milthe minutes, "it was distinctly understood position of wage earners. lions in 1913. Dividends declared during Either next day-New Year's Day of would approximate an additional expend1913 aggregated $15.2 millions. As Ford the following Su'nday (for the iture for the same volume of business of and Couzens became colossally rich, as 19l4-or they paid executives higher salaries and evidence is conflicting) Ford convened a Ten Million ($10,000,000) dollars, for the year 1914." meeting in his office to discuss production bonuses, and as they gave the public Later that day Ford and Couzens gave cheaper and cheaper cars, they had to ask and wages for the coming year. Essenthe press an announcement that the comtially, the group was dealing with the themselves: "What of our workers?" Was pany was reducing the work day to eight it fair of a corporation which by 1913 had company budget. hours, converting the factory to three more than $28 millions in surplus to keep shifts instead of two, and instituting a fivepaying Tom Smith and Carlo Pastucci "This is neither eharity dollar basic wage. They handed out a only $2 or $2.50 a day? nor waces, but profit typed two-page statement explaining the The time had come to turn a new leaf in sharinc and etrieieney." policy. Its crude rhetorical flourishes were Ford policy. A liberal course had become not without justification: "the greatest and desirable both industrially and socially; Ford, presiding, was in a thoughtful most successful" automobile company In and developing rapidly along several lines, it reached its climax early in the year in an mood. He had recently walked through the the world would "inaugurate the greatest factory (so he later reported to a colleague) revolution in the matter of rewards for its announcement that shook the country. with his son Edsel. He saw two men fightworkers ever known to the industrial For management was increasingly conscious of the need for a well-planned la- ing, and was ashamed that workers in the world." Every worker of twenty-two or plant should fight before his son. Going over would receive "a share in the profits bour policy; it did not indicate a revoluof the house" sufficient to make the minitionary approach to that policy. A really home that night, he had begun to think. Why should grown men in a shop get mum wage five dollars; nine-tenths of the drastic approach would be animated by the spirit of a statement made in 1912 by angry at each other and use their fists? employees would get this increase at once; Lee's words had made an impression; he young men under twenty-two might share Ford's old employer and long-time friend, concluded that men acted like savages if they had dependents; and the working Thomas A. Edison, inventor of the electric 'when they had barbarous living condiforce was thus expected to divide an addilight bulb: "You see, getting down to the bottom of things, this is a pretty raw, tions, and that living conditions were bar- tional ten millions in the current year. barous when they were paid a mere sub- "This," said Ford to reporters, "is neither crude civilization of ours-pretty wasteful, pretty cruel, which often comes to the sistence wage. Executives shared the huge charity nor wages, but profit sharing and shared the profits; efficiency engineering." same thing, doesn't it? And in a lot of re- profits--customers In that quiet January; the world for the spects we Americans are the rawest and what of the workers? most part lapped in peace, the current of As discussion of the 1914 programme crudest of all. Our production, our factory Wilsonian reform in America running progressed, Ford covered his blackboard laws, our charities, our relations between strong, Ford's announcement was like the with figures. When he set down the totals capital and labour, our distribution-all for wages, they seemed too small com- dazzling burst of a rocket in velvet skies. wrong, out of gear. We've stumbled along Headlines blazed throughout the globe. pared with anticipated profits. He kept for a while, trying to run a new civilization Overnight both Ford and Couzens became raising the average-to $3, to $3.50; then, in old ways, but we've got to start to make over some vehement protest but with sup- international celebrities. this world over." The public response was overwhelmingMake the world oYer! That was the chal- port from others, to $4 and $4.50. Couzens, ly approbatory. Nine-tenths of the newsaccording to one account, had been watchlenge of Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and progressives and radicals in ing with ill-concealed hostility. "Well," he paper commeilt was favourable, much 1913. And as a global war and the rise of finally snapped, "so it's up to $4.75. I of it almost ecstatic. Industrialists; labour ministers, politidare you to make it $5!" And at once leaders, sociologists, Communism were soon to show, a start cians, all hailed the innovation in glowing Ford did so. could not be made too soon. terms. Not a few commentators perceived On January 5, another directors' meetBut the Ford Company now did its bit the underlying connection which linked towards a start. On December 31, 1913, a ing was held, with only Ford, Couzens, high production, high wages, and high and Horace Rackham present. The two directors' meeting was held at the High-
consumption, pomtmg out that a new economic era might find in the Ford announcement a convenient birth date. Already, by virtue of the Model T, his swift rise from overalls to millions, and his democratic expansiveness and folksiness, all well publicized, Ford had become something of a popular hero, particularly in his own Middle West. That his talents in mechanics and plant organization amounted to hardly less than genius was well understood; and touches were now added to the portrait which gave him the more dOUbtful lineaments of a great philanthropist, economist, and social scientist. Beneath the froth of immediate comment, the new wage policy unquestionably built a solid foundation of popularity for the Ford Company and its principal founder. Millions who had their doubts about Ford's judgment, who regarded him as slightly eccentric, who even wondered if his motives were not mixed, nevertheless found an underlying admiration forming in their minds. To have fought so stubbornly to get an automobile factory started; to have toiled still more stubbornly to devote that factory to just one durable, versatile, and very cheap car; to have assembled a staff which pioneered so creatively in mass production; to have welcomed competition, battled for full freedom to produce, scorned protective tariffs, fought clear of Wall Street, and remained a man of the people-all this was impressive enough. But, while doubling the prevalent wage rate, to proclaim that the roughest day labourer could be made worth $5 a day was even more appealing; it touched men's imaginations. Ford's ways might be unusual, but men's hearts beat more warmly after that January news. When some critics expressed fear that such big wages would go to the workers' heads and harm them, the general instinct of Americans disdained that cynic view. As one journal said: "Greater earning power never had any other effect than elevation." The inevitable criticism pursued three main lines: the Ford announcement was unfair to less prosperous industrialists, it was essentially uneconomic as a longrange policy, and its surface altruism masked a deep selfishness. To be sure, some industrialists har-
Bryant Ford, credited by her husband Henry with "foresighted policy," read letters from Ford employees and their wives, and may have been helpful in moulding Henry Ford's attitudes in humanitarian matters. And finally, the brilliant young Englishman, Percival Perry, who had made so great a success of the Ford factory at Manchester, England, may well have played an important part in preparing Ford for the decision. When Perry opened the factory in Manchester, he found the ruling wage-rate for unskilled labour to be sixpence-halfpenny an hour for a fiftysix-hour week. This was a starvation wage, on which decent family life was impossible. By systematic investigation, he found that one shilling threepence an hour, or ÂŁ3 sterling a week, would keep a family properly. He adopted the ruk of paying no employee less. It worked admirably; in a happier factory More tban a successful he obtained better production. When in enterprise, Ford Motors 1912 Ford visited the British Isles, Perry was exemplar of forces accompanied him to Ireland. Missing the resbaping tbe world. boat at Fishguard, they had to spend the entire day there; and Perry explained to What, then, was the actual motivation? the interested manufacturer his plan of Henry Ford correctly summed up most "high wages and straight wages" in of it when he spoke of "profit sharing complete detail. and efficiency engineering." With net Thus the Ford Company, which in 1911 income of more than $27 millions in 1913 had no labour policy at all, possessed and dividends of well over $5 millions, three years later the most advanced labour the management felt that it had to share policy in the world, and was regarded by its wealth; and if huge slices of the pudwage earners from Sydney to Bangkok, ding went to consumers, and other slices from New York to Copenhagen, as a to officers, a great slice logically had to go source of hope and inspiration. The ceto workers. Just how great? All the de- lerity of its progress in this field was of a mands of efficiency engineering would piece with the rapidity of its success in have been satisfied by Lee's administrative others. Plain people the world over were reforms and a moderate new wage in- .providing mass consumption for the crease. P.E. Martin, responsible for pro- Model T; engineers the world over were duction results, did not wish to go beyond arrested by the Ford techniques of mass this point. He was hardboiled. Happily, production; economists and sociologists others had a broader vision and keener the world over were deeply interested in sense of responsibility .. Practical idealism the suggestion of high wages for the masses. was part of the motive; the practical ideal- The Ford Motor Company was someism Ford expressed when he said: "Well, thing more than a successful manufacturyou know when you pay men well, you ing enterprise. It was an exemplar, almost can talk to them." miraculous in its swift rise, of forces that' Some credit, too, should probably be were reshaping the world. given three persons whose influence lay When the Ford Company announced in the background. John R. Lee had the five-dollar day, the country lay in the brought to labour problems a broadÂˇ un- trough of a depression. For wage-earners derstanding and a humane outlook. Clara the winter of 1913-14 was the worst since
boured a resentful feeling that Ford was "a traitor to his class"-a sentiment deepened by the applause which went up from labour, socialists, and leftists generally. What were the true motives of the Ford Management, and what was the precise genesis of the five-dollar-a-day plan? Both questions are exceedingly difficult to answer. A combination of several different factors explains the adoption of the fivedollar day. Ford and his associates freely declared on many occasions that the high wage policy had turned out to be good business. By this they meant that it had improved the discipline of the workers, given them a more loyal interest in the institution, and raised their personal efficiency through better living standards, all this lifting production.
the panic year 1907. Detroit, where the automotive factories remained prosperous but other industries were hard hit, had as serious a problem of poverty as other centres. The five-dollar announcement fell upon the ears of thousands like the signal-gun of a rescue force. Here was a company which had more money than it wanted; which, changing from two shifts to three, needed 4,000 to 5,000 new men; which expected to expand its business at higher wage rates. Had Ford and his associates acted with less precipitancy, they would have realized the necessity of forestalling a mass assault on their plant. They might quietly have hired enough men before they made the announcement; or they might have served notice that no new men would be hired for a month while written applications were studied; or they might have let the Detroit Employers Association deal with the problem. The announcement was published on Monday afternoon, January 5, 191'4. By two o'clock next morning men began gathering before the company's employment office at Highland Park. Dawn broke upon solid masses filling Manchester Street; and ten thousand had collected before a "No Hiring" sign sent them home in muttering despair. Next day, despite public notices that nobody would be hired, another throng gathered, including many from other cities and other automobile plants. The company announced that men who formed crowds would not be considered. On the third day the jobhunters therefore milled loosely about the streets near the great factory. Ford agents, circulating among them, surreptitiously handed slips to a number for admission to the employment office. As soon as word circulated that hiring had actually begun, still greater numbers turned out, so that on Friday nearly fifteen thousand appeared. By this time all Detroit was alarmed by the restless mob that the Ford Company had conjured up by its new wage policy. Since the first day Highland Park police had been mustered in force to maintain order. Reporters were busy gathering poignant stories. One found a mother of nine children in interior Michigan who had spent the last dollar of the family to
come and ask a job for her husband. City officials learned that many of the arriving job-hunters were without funds to get home to their own cities; naturally they blamed Ford. The newspapers hastily published articles warning away the unemployed of other areas. On Saturday large signs appeared on the factory announcing in several languages that all hiring had ceased, and these and the biting weather combined to keep the crowd to four thousand. The worst seemed over. When Monday dawned colder than ever, a bitter wind-whirling snow along the streets, city and plant officials alike hoped for an end of the crisis. Henry Ford was returning on that morning's train from the New York automobile show and a visit to Thomas A. Edison. But cold was no deterrent to men made desperate by family want and excited by dreams of the highest wage paid in the history of American industry. Long before dawn groups were shuffling into Manchester Street; and by seven-thirty ten thousand men, massed about the factory, were displaying a temper that alarmed the police. When employees wearing Ford badges began to push through, the sight of these privileged holders of keys to warmth, food, and security was too much for the shivering unfortunates.
'I'he Ford factory, ~vrote one re.)orter, bad Âˇbecome a bouse of Irood-will. Tempers snapped. Isolated hoots and yells turned into a mob roar. The crowd surged against the gates, hundreds fighting past the helpless guards into the plant. More police, arriving on the run, were unable to restore order. The mob pinned them and the factory guards against the walls, prevented workers from entering, and threatened to break down the doors. When the fire hose was hauled out and waved threateningly (this was before the day of tear gas), the crowd simply yelled in derision. Then somebody barked an order, and the water was poured full force into the front ranks. With the thermometer reading nine degrees above zero Fahrenheit, this ended the demonstration.
Everyone in front of the factory broke for cover. A little planning might have prevented this explosive disorder. Neither governors nor mayors in the upper Middle West had realized how great was the mass of unemployed within a short journey of Detroit, or how hard they would be to control. But if thousands were turned away from the Highland Park gates in despair, the thousands inside were (so far as we can discover) elated. It is curious that among the millions of words of reporting devoted to the five-dollar day, only a few columns dealt with its impact upon Joe, Mike, and Steve in the plant. Yet their enthusiasm may have been as poignant in one way as the frustration of the unemployed was in another; for they unquestionably glimpsed an enlargement of health, hope, and enjoyment in their pay envelopes. One reporter did talk to the hands. "A great wave," he declared, "has swept over the factory, the wave that has brought above the roar of the machinery a faint happy sound that is the singing of happy men, the wave that has brought a lightness of step, a smile that glows through the mask of oil and dirt, a lifting of tired shoulders, a gleam of manhoo~ to eyes that were weary, a dawn of a new day to visions that had long known only the gloom of a dull existence." He told of Woljeck Manijklisjiski, a labourer in the steel-receiving yard. Said Woljeck: "My boy don't sell no more papers. My girl don't work in the house of another and see her mother but once in the week no more. Again we are a family." The Ford factory, wrote the reporter, had become a house of good-will. "Enemies are friends, universal brotherhood has come with industrial freedom ...." Evidence of a brighter outlook on life was supplied by the marriage licence clerk of Detroit, who reported a fortnight after the five-dollar announcement that he had issued fifty licences to Ford men. One worker celebrated the abandonment of the $2.50 day in verse, a sample quatrain running: Nothing to worry when rent day comes, Nothing but good clothes to wear. Sorry are we for the poor devils who Cannot our good luck share.
Dear Sir: Dear Sir:
I was rather amused to read sculptor Claes Oldenburg's statement in the February issue of SPAN. He says, "It is important to me that a work of art be constantly elusive, mean many different things to many different people .... " While this is a valid enough statement for many artists, I fail to see its relevance to the works of Oldenburg himself-for instance, his "Oranges Advertisement" and "Soft Toaster" at the New Delhi Triennale. I am still looking for someone for whom the toaster was not just a toaster.
S.S. ROY New Delhi Editor's Note: For a picture of Oldenburg's work turn to pages 46-47.
Dear Sir: Lives of great men are indeed an unending source of inspiration. The excerpts from the play "Abe Lincoln in Illinois," published in the February 1968 issue of SPAN, show some aspects of Abraham Lincoln's personality and character which are perhaps insufficiently known. Is it not a tribute to his tact and ability as a conversationist-and also, of course, to the playwright's talent in creating such a realistic scene-that the three political bosses who interviewed him on the eve of the Presidential election gathered the impression that, when Lincoln got into the White House, he would do just what they told
' , hlffi.
Lincoln's domestic life was obviously not a bed of roses. The fit of passion into which he was goaded by his wife only reveals how human he was in spite of all his serenity and self-control. TRIPTA DEVI New Delhi
Dear Sir: Although I lived in the residential area of the Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, for nearly three years, until I read your article in the February 1968 issue of SPAN, I did not realize that such comprehensive research was being undertaken at the institute. I was greatly interested-and surprised-to read that wood can replace steel in reinforced concrete and that wooden bridges can carry heavy vehicular traffic. The way in which the institute makes use of wood waste to make attractive table-tops, trays, toys and other articles, is indeed commendable. I look forward to many more informative articles of this kind in your future issues. ARUNA AGARWAL Delhi
Dear Sir: Urmila
Devgon's article "When Brothers Work Together," in SPAN, February 1968 issue, was interesting. Korea is another instance of a country which is making spectacular economic progress, and whose example has relevance to our own economy. Some of South Korea's problems, such as
population growth which is being successfully curbed, are similar to our own. The success of development plans undertaken by the Republic of China and Korea is a beacon of hope to India and other developing countries engaged in programmes of national uplift. K.S. VENKATACHALAM New Delhi
Dear Sir: I was much impressed with the "Span of Events" in your January 1968 issue. You remembered and reminded your readers of the death anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, the great Indian patriot who struggled all his life to secure civil rights and freedom for his people through non-violent means. The tributes paid to the "Apostle of Peace" by Mr. Harry S. Truman and other American leaders, at the time of his death, moved me deeply. SHALIGRAM
MAHESHW ARI Calcutta
Dear Sir: I was under the impression that collections of Oriental art in the United States were made as a hobby and displayed mostly at public museums. It was therefore revealing to learn that universities throughout America are taking keen interest in Indian and other Oriental art and that it has such widespread appeal for the younger generation of Americans. Stimulation of interest in Oriental art forms among American youth can in my view be a valuable means of creating increased international understanding. It may also well lead to a new break-through in art techniques. May I add that the article "A Collector's Lifetime," SPAN February 1968 issue, is written in the finest traditions of journalism and the photographs were completely realistic. Hats off to Brundage for his foresight in making the collection and to SPAN for giving us an insight into it. ASHOK MAHINDROO New Delhi
Dear Sir: The numerous colour photographs accompanying the article "Harvesting Tanjore's Bumper Crop," in the January 1968 issue, took me to the fertile Tanjore district. As one belonging to Tanjore district, it was a feast for my eyes. Another interesting feature in this issue, with splendid photographs, was on the White House. Would you please explain, for the information of SPAN readers, why the White House is called as such? U. VAIDYA RAMAN Neyveli
Editor's Note: After the British burned the U.S. President's house in Washington during the war of 1812-14, it was renovated and the walls were painted white to obliterate marks of the fire. Thereafter the President's residence came to be known as the White House.
Continuity in modern American art TWENTY YEARS AGOJackson Pollock declared, "I intend to paint large movable pictures which will function between the easel and mural. ... I believe the easel picture to be a dying form, and the tendency of modern feeling is towards the wall picture or mural. I believethe time is not yet ripe for afull transition from easel to mural. The pictures I contemplate painting would constitute a halfway state, and an attempt to point out the direction of the future, without arriving there completely." A major part of contemporary American art continues to be conceived and executed on a large scale which, whatever its drawbacks, is commensurate with the scale of American architecture and the rural and urban landscape in the United States. While many American artists begin by working in comparatively small sizes, as they grow in command of their powers, the scale of their work tends to become increasingly monumental. It is as though many contemporary Americans were saying what one of them, Barnett Newman, phrased so succinctly, "I wish to declare space." The boundless and mysterious fields of coloured space and the austerely simplified three-dimensional structures created by American artists are curiously both personal and public, immediate and remote. In Robert Morris' view, size determines whether a work be in the public or intimate mode. "It is obvious yet important to take note of the fact that things smaller than ourselves are seen differently than things larger. The quality of intimacy is attached to an object in a fairly direct proportion as its size diminishes in relation to oneself. The quality of publicness is attached in proportion as the size increases in relation to oneself. . . . In this sense space does not exist for intimate objects." Moreover, the large work involves the spectator more directly in a physical sense. He shares its space; he cannot escape it; it shuts out everything else and has the power to absorb him completely in his contemplation of it.
This power results from scale, which is related to largeness of physical size, but is not, however, contingent upon it. The American entry in the First India Triennale clearly reveals that while a powerful scale calls for gigantic size, it does not absolutely require it. More than forty years ago Georgia O'Keeffe implied that she wished to paint large pictures when she said, "I have kept my pictures small because space in New York necessitated that." Recently she has made a painting eight feet high by twenty-four feet wide; but even her smallest pictures have a breadth and magnitude which prove that scale is not just a matter of feet or yards but of the artist's concept and forming. A quality of concentration, clarity and oneness, giving no harbour to the irrelevant, distinguishes the American tradition in art. It is a tradition not in the sense of an inherited method but of a shared attitude towards art and reality: an emotive factualism which uncovers the unknown in the familiar and a stubborn need on the part of the artist to wrest the image from his own experience. Much of the best of American art, from the work of the unknown portraitists in the seventeenth century to that of the painters and object-makers of today, has evolved from an intense examination of the object seen to the creation of new objects which, while sometimes alluding to visual reality, refuse to evoke the illusion of it. By isolating and concentrating on single objects from his daily environment (a flower in the garden, a toaster in his kitchen) the artist creates an image which may be an intensification of his experience-of the mysterious power of simple things, of the wond~r with which he regards his world-but which he has brought into an entirely different state of being from the source object. Whether the new objects are built directly of other objects, as Joseph Cornell's boxes are, or whether they make reference to other objects, as many of O'Keeffe's paintings do, or whether they refer to nothing but themselves, as Donald Judd insists is the case in his work, is as irrelevant a
Ellen Johnson, Professor of Art at Oberlin College, Ohio, selected the American exhibits at the First India Triennale of Contemporary World Art which recently ended in New Delhi. In this article, Miss Johnson describes the forces that have shapedAmerican art, discusses the work of the twelve U.S. artists represented in the Triennale. question as whether they are constructed in two or three dimensions. These created objects "lead their own lives" and find their meaning in the realm of shape, line, colour, texture, volume, plane. Although the life they lead may be silent or boisterous, abundant or austere, mobile or still, harsh orelegant, the objects in the American section at the Triennale have in common a distinct presence. They are concentrated, exclusive, sometimes obsessive or hypnotic. To suggest that the qualities which are often met in American art are not found elsewhere is far from my intention. While this art may speak the language of modern art with something of an American accent, reflecting the environment, values, sensibilities and artistic tradition of the United States, that language itself is universal. Contemporary American art is based on the great traditions of Western and Eastern art and its vitality rests on that foundation as well as on the willingness of modern art to change, and to shatter hierarchies of subject and medium. In 1944, Jackson Pollock, with whom the break-through occurring in American art during the 1940's is most often identified, answered the question, "Do you think there can be a purely American art?" in these words, "The idea of an isolated American painting ... seems absurd to me, just as the idea of creating a purely American mathematics or physics would seem absurd .... And in another sense, the problem doesn't exist
at all; or, if it did, would solve itself: An American is an American and his painting would naturally be qualified by that fact, whether he wills it or not. But the basic problems of contemporary painting are independent of anyone country." Like Pollock, the old masters of an earlier generation, Georgia O'Keeffe and Stuart Davis, worked out their own deeply personal and inventive art from grappling with the problems and understanding the solutions in other art. Stuart Davis' work, which looks so American in its staccato rhythms, found itself through his response to modern French painting, while Miss O'Keeffe was able to create her startlingly avant-garde abstractions of the second decade from a profound comprehension of the structural principles of both Eastern and Western art. The paintings by O'Keeffe and Davis and theboxes of Cornell, which that solitary artist has been making since the 1930's, illuminate much of the later work in the Triennale's American section and in the exhibition, "Two Decades of American Painting," held in New Delhi a year ago. The extreme simplification and intrinsic scale of Miss O'Keeffe's images and their singular presence in a non-illusionistic space anticipate qualities in the work of such diverse younger artists as Helen Frankenthaler, Darby Bannard, Robert Morris and many others. Moreover, the openness and
WHITE ON BLACK, 1949, by Jackson Pollock, oil on canvas, 24i x 171 inches.
LITTLE GIANT STILL LIFE,
1950, by Stuart Davis, oil on
canvas, 33 x 43 inches.
DARK RED LEAVES ON WHITE, 1925, by Georgia O'Keeffe, oil on canvas, 32 x 21 inches
quiet grace of colour in her paintings are analogous to those of Morris Louis, while their sensuous modulation of colour values calls to mind an entirely different painter, James Rosenquist, whose work is otherwise closer in subject to Stuart Davis. Like O'Keeffe's is the intensity which Claes Oldenburg gains through isolating the single object or a fragment of it and presenting it close-up in expanded size, thus destroying while exaggerating its normal existence as an object. Both artists educe from the ordinary the extraordinary and from the real the dream, as they move from actuality to abstraction. Miss O'Keeffe's relation to recent American art is more in the nature of prophecy than specific influence. Stuart Davis, on the other hand, stands directly behind several younger artists. Like O'Keeffe's, Davis' space is non-
illusionistic and his images are simplified, but his paintings are built of a greater number and variety of parts whose interaction and colour contrast are more dynamic and harsher, less tender and contemplative. Davis wrote in 1943, "I have enjoyed the dynamic American scene for many years past, and all of my pictures ... are referential to it. They all have their originating impulse in the impact of the contemporary American environment. And it is certainly a fact that the relevant art, literature, and music of other times and places are among the most cherished realities of that environment." His iconographical sources in the everyday American visual patterns is not such a significant aspect of his influence as the astringent clarity of his shapes and colour. His urbanity as well as succinctness find echoes not only in Roy Lichtenstein but also in Oldenburg, Judd and Larry Zox, among others. Where Davis' paintings vibrate with the rhythms and even the sounds of our modern world, Cornell's boxes are as silent as the fall of snow and as remote as Watteau's Isle of Cythera. No wind stirs the inviolate calm which Cornell preserves in a small rectangle of space behind glass. Light moves quietly in mirrors, glasses and marbles; and a single shell glows more intensely white than paint could capture against the night blue sky of Auriga. Although time is suspended in the constructions of this artist who lives and works apart from the frenzied market, Cornell has contributed directly to the art of his own time and many of the younger painters and sculptors have looked with profit at his work. But only a few of the countless boxes made by others after World War II can approach Cornell's in purity of form-akin to Mondrian's-and enigmatic content. (Although Cornell had been associated with surrealist poets and painters for a decade, his writings, films and constructions are of a different order and sensibility from theirs.) In 1942, Cornell exhibited, together with Duchamp and Lawrence Vail, at Peggy Guggenheim's Art of This Century gallery, where Jackson Pollock was given his first one-man show the next year. At Miss Guggenheim's gallery and home Pollock came in contact with several European surrealists about whom he remarked, "I am particularly impressed with their concept of the source of art being the subconscious." In freeing the subconPhoto report appears on following pages, text continues on page 48.
An eloquent document
of today's world artthis is how one critic described the Triennale, which was organized by the Lalit Kala Akademi. Among thousands of visitors, many would agree with this view, though reactions ranged from admiration through mystification to derision. Dominant impression left by the show was the similarity in styles and tendencies among artists from widely-scattered parts of the globe, a similarity that might reflect what one critic called "the spirit of man in search of his significance."
scious, Pollock and the whole generation of Anierican artists whom he represents freed painting, opening it into entirely new possibilities. Pollock has been the least imitated of the masters in his generation but none of the others, except Barnett Newman, has generated such far-reaching innovations on the part of younger artists who drew their courage from his. Pollock's importance lies less in his unorthodox attitude towards materials and their application than in his daring to make painting something different than it was before, to transform coloured line from its earlier role of describing or defining shapes into streams of energy charging through space, winding in and out and back and forth, building homogeneous webs of movement without beginning or end. At first sight this frenzied activity may appear completely undirected and it goes without saying that these pictures are born of intuition, spontaneity and chance, the artist himself only discovering their form in the process of painting them; however, a more careful look reveals that they are indeed controlled, often self-contained as the gestures swing back from the edges, turning inward. Among the numerous artists who have gone forth from Pollock (or from a combination of Pollock and others) are such strikingly different individuals as Oldenburg, Frankenthaler and Larry Poons. Oldenburg's layers of dripping colours on an undulating plaster ground vibrate with an independent energy akin to Pollock's (and his work can also be as surprisingly delicate)'. Oldenburg could just as well have been speaking for Pollock as for himselfwhen he said, "I know that down to the last simple detail experience is totally mysterious ... what I want to do more than anything is to create things just as mysterious as nature." Although the immediate sources of Oldenburg's subjects are almost exclusively manufactured products (advertisements, foodstuffs, objects used in the home and displayed in the city) still the content of his art is related to natural processes-mobility and change. His soft objects fundamentally revised our conception of sculpture and its nature, and opened the way for further departures. Our pleasure in Oldenburg's humour and his wit, as evident for example in the ironic play between his soft, yielding, mobile constructions and the hard, rigid, fixed original objects, should not obscure the historic significance of his sewn sculpture. The audacity of this soft sculpture, first exhibited in 1962, as well as of his earlier plaster objects, was recognized by many other imaginative artists
and served as a stimulus, directly or indirectly, to their creativity. In this general rather than specific sense, it might be said that Oldenburg's premises and accomplishments stand behind or at least beside the work of many contemporary artists who share his ideas. Oldenburg's objects have an immediacy of impact, a wholeness, and a monumentality of scale (even when their size is distorted downwards from the original object rather than greatly enlarged as is more often the case) which link them to the structures of Judd and Morris, for example. Donald Judd's work is strictly non-referential. His "specific objects," as he has defined them, are "just there." They refer to what they are and nothing else; they are there to be looked at-beautiful objects which command the space they occupy with a clear, uncompromising order. Like Morris' they are not composed traditionally by relating and balancing dissimilar parts; they are "wholistic," one-minded. When constructed of several similar units, as is the small example exhibited at the Triennale, the sequence can be extended indefinitely and still the work will maintain its all-of-one-piece quality. Robert Morris' recent work made of automotive felt is on first sight shockingly different from anything he has done before; but its "unitary" impressiveness relates it to his earlier oeuvre and to Judd's. Moreover, it has the majestic sobriety and the mysteriousness which one often encounters in Morris' structures (even though such a response may be alien to the artist's intention). Shape in Morris' earlier work remained
CLUSTER WITH VIOLET, 1967, by Charles acrylic on canvas, 27 x 38 x 22 inches.
constant except to the extent that it could appear to be altered by the viewer's changing of his position. In Morris' piece at the Triennale there is no constancy of shape; as the viewer decides at what points to hang it, he even participates to some degree in modifying its form. But only so far; its character is fundamentally determined by the artist: in his plan, in his awareness of how the work would exist in the observer's space and obviously in his choice as well as cutting of the material. In one way, Morris' new phase extends an idea which he expressed last summer in writing of the type of structures made by himself, Judd, and other young artists. "Successful work in this direction differs from both previous sculpture (and from objects) in that its focus is not singularly inward and exclusive of the context of its spatial setting. It is less introverted in respect to its surroundings. Sometimes this is achieved by literally opening up the form in order that the surroundings must of necessity be seen with the piece."
1967, by Donald Judd, painted galvanized iron, 5 x 25t x 9 inches.
1966, by Larry Zox, acrylic on canvas,
60x 70 inches. 1967, by Stanley Landsman, chromiumplated glass, wood, light bulbs, 52 x 27 x 24 inches.
One might interpret the felt piece as though Morris has taken the structure of a painting physically in his hands and nailed that illusory element to the wall as an actual substantial thing. Pictorial line and shape have become physical facts existing in space which surrounds them on all sides. Less fancifully, his new venture can be understood as sculpture made from a material which has no structural properties of its own. (Most of his previous structures of the last two years have been industrially produced in fibreglass or steel according to his specifications.) Morris, Judd, Landsman and Oldenburg take advantage of modern technology, but they use it to their own ends rather than displaying technological means as an end in themselves, as some of the kinetic and light artists still do. Among the artists working in light who have succeeded in creating something personal and significant in that medium is Stanley Landsman, as is abundantly clear from the superbly crafted and poetic construction which he made for the Triennale. Through his use of ordinary manufactured products, Landsman builds a wonderland of light sparkling to infinity. Another current mode, the three-dImensional canvas construction, is represented by Charles Hinman. He translates the ambiguous interaction between two-dimensionality and implied three-dimensionality of synthetic cubist painting into structures whose air-filled solids and flat surfaces play against each other in actual space; and he does so with a refinement reminiscent of Braque's. Hinman seeks further paradoxical spatial relationships by painting the illusion of a volume in "reverse perspective" as he calls it; his art is a continual shifting between statement and denial of plane and volume, weight and lightness, gravity and suspension. While Will Insley also shapes his paintings, he maintains a single surface and his images .,. remain consistently flat. They are tersely reduced in colour, almost never Âˇmore than two tones. Often pierced in the centre, his shaped paintings have a power of expansion which forms and enlivens the space around them. Sometimes, as in his Triennale piece, the implied motion of the outer shape is in opposition to that of the internal aperture; but, consistent with his idea of his paintings as "wall fragments," he keeps these tensions equalized and strictly planar. Unlike Insley, Zox and Bannard retain the rectangular format of traditional painting; but, like Hinman, they create an ambiguous relationship between depth and surface, combining an inconsistent illusion of space with
RED STEP, 1963, by Darby Bannard, canvas, 67 x 63 inches.
alkyd resin on
UNTITLED, 1967. by Robert Morris, felt, ! inch thick, height and width variable.
consistent flatness. Against the severity of Zox's diagonally formed paintings, Darby Bannard's appear sensuous, although they are no less simplified and, in the example shown above, even limited to one shape and one colour. But that single red form immediately delights one as it steps down and back and out again in a play between perspectival illusion and flat surface. Although the paintings of both these artists are composed of interrelated parts, in variance to the "non-relational" structures of Judd and Morris, still those individual parts are brought together with the powerful scale, simplification, and directness which have been noted throughout this survey. These and all the other works assembled for the Triennale give evidence of the continuity in modern American art asÂˇ well as its inventive diversity and openness. END
Guitarist Charlie Byrd