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Covers This month world attention is focused on the Inauguration of the 37th President of the United States. The front and back cover portraits of Mr. Richard Nixon and his Vice President, Governor Spiro Agnew of Maryland, are by Mysore artist S.N. Swamy, who has done pencil sketches of national and international leaders for 30 years. Illustrated biographies of the new American President and Vice President begin on pages 2 and 8. W. D. Miller, Publisher; Dean Brown, Editor; V. S. Nanda, Mg. Editor.





Editorial Staff: Carmen Kagal, Avinash Pasricha, Nirmal K. Sharma, Krishan G. Gabrani, P.R. Gupta. Art Staff: B. Roy Choudhury, Nand K. Katyal, Kanti Roy, KuldjpSingh Jus, Gopi Gajwani. Production Staff: Awtar S. Marwaha, Mam 'liilip. Photographic Services: SlS·Photo Lab. Published by the !i1formation Service Ur House, Sikandra Ro~. la New Delhi. Printed" .... Narandas Building, .·· .•S

Manuscripts and photbgra by stamped, self-addresse lope for return. SPAN is nbi:.responsible for any loss in transit, Use of SPAN articles in other Pllblications is encouraged except when they are copyrighted. For details,wr!te to the Editor, SPAN. Subscription; One year, rupees five; single copy, fifty paise. For change of address, send old address from a recent SPAN envelope along with new address to A.K. Mitra, Circulation .. Manager. Allow six weeks for change of address to become effective.

SPAN OF EVENTS THE zoo in Washington has at last opened the door between the bedrooms of Tarun and Raji, two Indian rhinos. The suspense is immense, and so are they. Tarun is the male. He weighs three or four tons, and he is ugly, even for a rhino. Raji, whose full name is Rajkumari, is female and relatively sleek, weighing probably no more than a couple of tons. They are Great-Horned Indian Rhinos, but both of them have worn out their horns, rubbing them against things. It has taken years to get them together. It is not merely that Zoo officials are against scandal. They wanted to be sure Raji could survive the rigours of the courtship, or at least defend herself. She is big enough now, they have decided, and they have beeI1 introducing the rhinos in the big backyard behind their cages in the Elephant House. The yard is big enough for Raji to run away when she feels like it, and save herself from ruin. "She'd squeal and run around and carryon," said Marion Me Crane, the Zoo's director of information and education. "And he\.. get curious, of course, and follow her."

Progressing, hopefully, from 10ve-at-first-sight to nose-rubbing, these Indian rhinos in Washington Zoo seem all set for romance .

She got over this in just a cew days, however, and the couple are . in a new phase of their courtship. So far, no one has been hurt much. "We don't really know much about it," confessed Don Bridgewater, co-ordinator of the Department of Living Vertebrates at the Zoo. "It's apparently very ritualistic, and very violent, from our point of view. "They charge at each other and bump around a lot. They snort and grunt and groan and squeal at each other. When they shared a watermelon in Tarun's cage, it was like the eating scene from Tom Jones. You couldn't tell what might happen." There are so few Great-Horned Indian Rhinos in the worldonly about 400-that Zoo Director Theodore H. Reed is hoping mightily that Tarun and Raji will take to each other and that both survive the courtship, and produce offspring. The chances look good, for they are built for survival. Their skin is like armour plate, and they are so ugly they make hippos look good. But even with all the snorting and nuzzling, no Zoo official is prepared to say that they even like each other, for no one really knows what a rhino in love is lik~. -PHIL CASEY


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Gateway Arch

completed in 1965 is a majestic, yet uncomplicated, reminder of the historic role of St. Louis as gateway to the American West. And it is a triumph of architectural engineerill~..

GATEWAY TOthe American West-that's how the Midwestern city of St. Louis has been remembered. In 1804, the Lewis and Clark expedition set out from here to make the first transcontihental trip to the Pacific. Charting the westward passage, these explorers opened the other half of the American continent to waves of settlers. Today, a majestic monument to their dream stands at St. Louis-the Gateway Arch, a soaring sentinel in stainless steel which rises 630 feet above the ground. Standing simply yet grandly on the west bank of the Mississippi River, the Gateway Arch frames the metropolitan skyline with an awe-inspiring sweep of grace and elegance. Completed in 1965, the $11.4-million Gateway. Arch has been acclaimed a triumph of architectural design and engineering achievement. Conceived by the Finnish-born American architect, Eero Saarinen, the Arch is, as his widow said at the completion ceremony, "a monument for our time out of the materials of our time." Planning of the Arch began in 1948 when Saarinen's daring design won over some 200 proposals submitted, including cine by his father Eliel. The challenge was to symbolize St. Louis's role as the gateway to the west. "Across time," said architect Saarinen, "an absolutely simple shape has given the great memorials their significance and dignity. Here, neither an obelisk, a pyramid, nor a dome would do. In this place, for our time, a great-yet simple-arch did seem right!" The Arch, he believed, could be the triumphal arch for our age as the triumphal arches of classical antiquity were for theirs. He rejected, however, the Roman semi-circular arch as "too much like a rainbow," the pointed, Gothic arch as "too ecclesiastical." Finally, he decided on the simple but gravity-defying "inverted, weighted, catenary curve." A catenary curve is the shape produced by a chain hanging freely between two points of support on the same level. "Inverted" means that the curve is projected upward to form an arch. "Weighted" means having the heavier links of the chain towards the base instead of at the centre. The monument's principal geometric expression, however, is a triumphant re-statement of the triangle that lends the structure an illusion of exaggerated height. The Arch spans a distance equal to its height. The legs of the Arch are equilateral triangles with sides that are fifty-four feet wide at the ground level and taper to seventeen feet at the top. . "Not since the building of the Great Pyramid," one ~nthusiastic design critic stated, "has the triangle been used to create a more impressive blend of structural soundness and exquisite simplicity." The simplicity, however, is deceptive. The straightforward, buoyant lines of the Arch give little hint of the brawn of materials used in the construction-900 tons of stainless steel, 3,100 tons of structural steel, and 36,000 tons of concrete. Nor does the unadorned symmetry of the monument's exterior offer any clue to the complex engineering cloaked within the hollow of its ¡legs. Although the Arch has only two legs-many lay visitors confess that they would feel better if it had been built with three-it is the strongest of arches. The stress is not placed on the crown but passes down through the two legs, each sunk sixty feet into the

ground and anchored with some 13,000 tons of concrete. Th. stability of the Arch is such that the top will deflect only eighteer inches in a 150-mph wind. Inside the core of each leg, Saarinen has thoughtfully provide( room for a forty-passenger, eight-coach train that takes more tha 10,000 visitors weekly from the underground platform to tL observation gallery at the top. Sixteen portholes on each side gh the onlooker-on a clear day-a forty-mile viewof the countrysid. To lift the sightseers to the top, conventional elevators we] ruled out by the Arch's curving shape and a new form of vertic; transportation was designed. A train, propelled by a lifting cabl, runs along a track built into the structure. Each drumlike coaci hangs, free to rotate, in bearings at front and rear. Its below-centn. weight keeps it upright, like a Ferris wheel seat that adjusts to the revolution of the wheel. The result: the train coach maintains a level stability and the passengers remain in a comfortable upright position throughout the four-minute ascent at just under four miles an hour. After passing through the observation gallery, the visitor rides down the other leg in a "down" train. Erection of the Arch was a complicated engineering job requiring ingenious applications of conventional construction procedures. Such a structure had never been built before. Unlike the arches of antiquity, it was too high to be built with scaffolds. B@th legs had to be self-supporting until they were met and joined together. And,each leg carried on its back up to 630 feet the machines and men who built it. Like a giant beetle, a special eighty-ton rig mounted on rail climbed each leg of the Arch as it was built. A USIS colour film, entitled "Monument to the Dream," tells this story of how the Arch was built. Construction of the Arch required exacting precision. An error of 0.001 of a foot between the legs could have produced a gross. error. of as much as ten feet at the apex. The Arch rose from the bottom, built by piecing together triangular forty-five-ton, twelvefoot high sections on top of one another from two sides. Once seated, each section was brought into line with the one below, and the weldirlg gap honed to its proper eighth-of-an-inch width. After being tack welded to true fit, they were permanently joined- bonded together along three sides-to create a continuity of strength. Work on the Arch was begun in the winter of 1962. Three years later on October 28, the last section bridging the two legs was being hauled up. Before it could fit into its place, the two legs had to be jacked apart under 500 tons of pressure to provide the four-feet space needed. Between the legs of the 16,878-ton Arch, a sunken entrance opens into a 100,000-square-foot underground Visitor's Centre. Its highlight is the Museum of Westward Expansion. Some 200 exhibits in twelve galleries depict with the help of paintings, dioramas and other similar media the opening of the west and the role played by St. Louis in America's expansion. The Arch is the most spectacular part of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial, a $30-million renewal for the city's muchneglected riverfront commemorating America's nineteenth century westward expansion, located in a ninety-one-acre landscaped-park on the original townsite of St. Louis. END

PICTURES ON PRECEDING PAGES AND OPPOSITE: Towering 630 feet above the Mississippi River. Gateway Arch dominates the St. Louis skyline with its stark simplicity. This distinc,tive landmark identifies St. Louis as readily as other monuments distinguish Paris, New York and New Delhi.

¡RICHARD M. NIXON 37th President of the United States The Inauguration on January 20 of Richard M. Nixon as the thirty-seventh President of the United States marks the zenith of an unusually exciting political career. It is a fitting climax to more than two decages of public activity by the President-ele~t and his serious preoccupation over the years with the country's many and diverse problems~domestic as well as international. In the concluding chap!er of his book Six Crises, Nixon explains why men who have once been in public life are irresistibly drawn to it time and again. He writes: "Those who have known great crisis-its challenge and tension, its victory and defeat-can never become adjusted to a more leisurely and orderly pace." Few public careers illustrate more convincingly either the vicissitudes of politics or its challenges and tensions than that of the man whom the American people have elected as the new President of the United States. The path which has led Richard M. Nixon to the White House, twenty-:two years after his first venture into politics at the age of thirty-three, has been rough and rugged but during the journey, to quote his own words, he has "drunk deeply of the stuff which makes life exciting and worth living." Victo,ry and defeat--and ultimately a victory which has installe'd him in the continued

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highest office of the nation-have alternated in Nixon's exciting political life. Success came to him early when, in 1946, after service with the U.S. Navy during the Second World War, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. Four years later he won election to the Senate, and for eight years-from 1953 to 1960-he was Vice President in the Eisenhower Administration. Then Nixon suffered what was perhaps the biggest disappointment of his career-his "hairline" defeat by John F. Kennedy in the Presidential election of 1960. He lost the Presidential race by one of the narrowest margins in the history of American elections -113,000 popular votes out of a total of some 68,800,000. Divided over the country's 166,137 election precincts or polling stations, the margin was less than one vote per station. Following this defeat, his opponents predicted that Nixon would go into political wilderness indefinitely. Yet two years later he was back in the arena to contest the election for Governor of California, his home State. When he lost this contest to the incumbent Democrat Governor Edmund G. Brown and on the morning after the election addressed his "last press conference," it certainly looked as if he had finally bidden farewell to politics. The magazine Time opined that, barring a miracle, his public career had ended. And a television network presented a programme "The Political Obituary of Richard Nixon." That the miracle did occur is a tribute to Nixon's remarkable persistence and resilience. Although much of his time, after joining a New York law firm in 1963, was devoted to legal practice, he made numerous trips abroad and kept abreast of international developments. At home he worked strenuously to rebuild and unify the Republican Party, which was torn by factions. In the 1964 Presfdential elections he campaigned to rally support for the party nominee Barry Goldwater. The severe reverses suffered by the party that year and the emergence of the Vietnam war issue led, says Nixon, to "the feel~ngon the part of many Republicans that I could unite the party and that I could provide national leadership." The tempo of Nixon's political activity increased considerably in 1966. Some of the large Republican gains in the U.S. Congress in that year's elections may well have been due to his intensive campaigning and persistent efforts at promoting unity within the party. Nixon's sweeping successes in the 1968 Presidential primaries left little doubt that he would win the 'Republican nomination and stage "one of the great comebacks in American political history." After the nomination, and as the party campaigns gathered momentum, public opinion polls consistently forecast his victory in the national election. And the pollsters and political prophets proved right, although the contest turned out to be .one of the keenest and most thrilling within living memory. November 5, 1968, saw the crowning achievement of Richard Milhous Nixon's career-his elevation to the nation's highest office, unique in its prestige, influence and awesome responsibility. If experience is an important element in the Presidential makeup, the new President should be particularly well qualified to fulfil his responsibilities. During his first year in Congress he had the opportunity of visiting war-ravaged Europe as a member of the Hunter Committee which investigated economic conditions in the Continent. He came back a firm supporter of foreign aid and of continued

Portrait of America's new first family shows, left to right: Julie, 20, who was recently married to David Eisenhower, grandson afthe former President; Tricia, 22; Mr. Nixon and Mrs. Nixon.

"We extend the hand of friendship to all people .... And we shall work towards the goal of an open world, open sky, open cities, open hearts, open minds." the proposals which were later embodied into the Marshall Plan. He was also a member of a small sub-committee that drafted the Taft-Hartley Labour Law. But it was his role in the Un-American Activities Committee and his handling of the Alger Hiss case which first brought Nixon to national prominence. Hiss, a former State Department official, was accused of being a member of a spy ring and of having passed on classified Government documents to the Communists. He denied the charges, putting up a plausible and stout defence, and public opinion at first seemed to support him. It was only Nixon's perseverance and skill as a lawyer that led to Hiss' eventual exposure and conviction for perjury. The net result was a triumph for the Republicans and a considerable rise in Nixon's political stock. One of the biggest ordeals Nixon faced early in his career was on the eve of his election as Vice President in 1952. Shortly after he had been nominated as Dwight Eisenhower's running mate, a story began to circulate-and soon made headlines in the pressthat a group of wealthy Californians had set up a special fund to give financial assistance to Nixon. His opponents exploited the

charge to demand that he should withdraw as a candidate, and even some of Eisenhower's political advisers were inclined to ~gree with them. Nixon realized that he was a man on trial and at stake was not only his own political future but the fortunes of the Republican Party. He made the bold decision of taking his case to the people. In a half-hour televised talk he explained that not one cent of the money had gone to him for his personal use. He then proceeded to give his own detailed financial history and ended it by saying that there was one gift from a man in Texas which, "regardless Of what they say about it, we are going to keep." It was a cocker spaniel dog named Checkers. "It isn't easy to come before a national audience and bare your life as I've done," said Nixon, "I don't believe I ought to quit because I am not a quitter." But he left it to the Republican National Committee to decide whether his position on the ticket would help or hurt. He asked his listeners to wire or write their opinions to the Committee to help it reach a decision. The "Checkers" broadcast, as it came to be known, had a treDuring the Second World War, Nixon served in the U.S. Navy. At far left he is seen (circle) with some of his colleagues on an island in the South Pacific.

Reflected light from the mirrorstudded walls of the Taj fascinates Mr. and Mrs. Nixon, as the guide holds up the lantern.

As the U.S. Vice President, Nixon welcomes Prime Minister â&#x20AC;˘ lawaharlal Nehru on arrival at Washington, D.C., in 1956.

mendous impact on the country.* More than two million Americans responded to Nixon's request and their verdict was almost unanimous in his favour. The attack on the "Nixon fund" thus turned from a possible liability into a positive asset, both for Nixon and his party. In the Eisenhower Administration, Nixon soon became an effective deputy to the President. At the end of his first year in office,a press commentator wrote: "He has made the Vice Presidency, hitherto the butt of ridicule, an important office and has established himself as an 'assistant President,' a mover and shaper of world ahd national affairs." Between 1953 and 1959 he visited fifty-six countries including India and the Soviet Union. One of the highlights of his visit to the Soviet Union in 1959 was the famous "kitchen debate" with Nikita Khrushchev. Nixon's political philosophy has its basis in the principle of

* A dog figured prominently in at least one other American election campaign. In 1944 the Republicans charged that Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt had sent a U.S. Navy destroyer to Alaska-at the taxpayers' expense-to retrieve the President's pet dog, a Scottie named "Fala," who had inadvertently been left behind during a Presidential inspection visit. At a labour rally which was nationally broadcast, FDR answered the charge: "These Republican leaders have not been content with attacks on me, or on my wife. or on my sons ... they now include my little dog Fala .... " Roosevelt won the election.

freedom of enterprise and opportunity. He holds that concentration of power is dangerous even when it is necessary. In a speech delivered in 1953 he said: "We must examine with a fresh eye every function of the Federal Government. The question must arise time and again-is this power necessary? Could the State handle it better? Should it be left to private groups? Is it a matter for business, labour or farmers to handle themselves?" He reiterated his belief in these principles at the 1968 Republican Convention when he said the Government must "enlist in this battle (for social and economic uplift) the greatest engine of progress ever developed in the history of man: America's private enterprise. " , His strong faith in private enterprise stems partly from his own experience and the realization of the "American dream" in his own life. As a boy he worked in his father's small grocery store in Whittier, California, and to supplement the family income had to take on such odd jobs as a handyman in a packing house and a janitor at a public swimming school. Hard work and his Quaker family's religious and moral principles went into his upbringing and laid the foundation of his later success. After graduating from Whittier, Nixon won a scholarship to the Duke University Law School and qualified as a lawyer. It was as a fledgling attorney in Whittier that he met Patricia Ryan. They were married in 1940 and now have two daughters-Tricia, 22, and Julie, 20, who was married last month to David Eisenhower, grandson of former President Dwight D. Eisenhower. With his legal background and deep-rooted respect for law, it is not surprising that Nixon has expressed deep concern over the' rise in the crime rate in the United States. On other domestic issues his stand is that of a "progressive conservative." He has concistently supported civil rights legislation and measures aimed at broader education, more job opportunities and improved housing for the poor. But he feels that better results could be achieved by giving Federal money to the States and cities. On the vital issue of the war in Vietnam, Nixon has said: "The war must be ended. It must be ended honourably, consistent with America's aims and with the long-term requirements of peace." During the past eight years Nixon has been to Vietnam six times and observed the war at first hand. He has also visited India twice, as Vice President at the end of 1953 and again in 1967. Referring to his friendly interest in India and support for economic aid to this country, Mr. Morarji Desai, India's Deputy Prime Minister, recently quoted an excerpt from one of Nixon's speeches. It reads: "As far as our friends in India are concerned, we should assure those in that great land so far away, in which We have always had a warm and friendly interest, that we welcome the opportunity to work with them in economic development so that it may be proved to all the world that it is possible to have progress with freedom." The new 55-year-old President takes an optimistic view of the prospects of world peace and international co-operation. Noting that the Communist world today is "a split world, schizophrenic, with very great diversity," Nixon feels that the "era of confrontations" has ended and the time has come for an "era of negotiations" and peaceful competition and friendship. In his acceptance speech at the Convention he said: "We extend the hand of friendship to all people. To the Russian people. To the Chinese people. To all people in the world. And we shall work towards the goal of an open world, open sky, open cities, open hearts, open minds." END

In appearances before the Maryland StaJe legislature, left, Governor Agnew urged enactment of a number of liberal aild progressive measures. Mrs. Agnew, above, is a cheerful housewife who, she says, "majored in marriage." Below, the Agnew family, from right to left, Spiro T. Agnew, wife Judy, son Randy, daughters Kim, Susan, Pamela.

THE VICE PRESIDENT The new American Vice President isa plain-speaking, hard-working man who, as Governor of Maryland, was "an eminently competent and imaginative chief executive." ONE OF THE BIGGEST surprises of the 1968 election year was the selection by Richard M. Nixon of Maryland Governor Spiro T. Agnew, 50, as his Vice Presidential running mate. Apparently Agnew himself was surprised at the choice because, in accepting the nomination at the Republican National Convention, he spoke of "a deep senseof the improbability of this moment." Most criticism of Agnew stemmed from the fact that he was a political unknown, a charge he readily-and rather disarmingly -admitted. "Spiro Agnew," he is reported to have said, "is. not exactly a household word." Outside the State of Maryland, in fact, Agnew was known chiefly as the first American Governor of Greek descent. Though the governorship of Maryland is the only important political post that Agnew has held, his two-year record in that officeis excellent. According to Time magazine, "he proved to be an eminently competent and imaginative chief executive." The fifth Republican Governor in traditionally Democratic Maryland, Agnewwas responsible for enacting the first openhousing law south of the Mason-Dixon line (the commonly-accepted border between Northern and Southern U.S. States).Under his governorship, a 306-year-old anti-miscegenation law was repealed and the State's public accommodations law was broadened. Agnew was. the first Governor of Maryland to appoint a Negro to his personal staff and to issue a comprehensive "code of fair practice" banning racial discrimination in State service and in any firms doing business with the State. Working with a Democratic-controlled legislature, Governor Agnew pushed through tax reform proposals which changed the State's flat three per cent income tax to a graduated tax. He modernized State administration, put money into much-needed State services, obtainyd pas-

sage of one of America's strongest antipollution laws, and revamped highway construction procedures. Agnew's record as Governor has been liberal and progressive by any standard, but in recent months he has been attacked by his critics for what they term his increasingly hard line on civil rights. Those who have been following his career trace the change directly to the riots in Baltimore last April which, as someone remarked at the time, "he took practically as a personal offence." After the riots Agnew spoke out harshly against disobediencc in the streets. Though he has always described his stand as "pro civil rights," he said: "No civil rights can be realistically achieved without the restoration of order, without the abandonment of the condoning of civil disobedience." Agnew's candour was evident also during the election campaign when he made statements that Nixon as a more mature politician avoided. When reporters pointed this out to him, Agnew explained, "I am more . blunt than Mr. Nixon. I can't change. I'm made that way." In a sense, Agnew's plain speaking and unaffected manner are typical of many Americans who have come up the hard way. He was born on November 9, 1918, the only son of Theodore Spiro Agnew, a restaurant owner who had migrated from Greece in 1897 (he had shortened his name from Anagnostopoulous). During the Depression, Agnew Sr. went bankrupt and had to sell vegetables from the back of a truck. As aboy, Agnew attended public schools in Baltimore, then studied chemistry for three years at Johns Hopkins University. After four years in the Army during World War II, he turned to the law and earned his degree at night from the University of Baltimore. Throughout his school career, he helped the family by taking odd jobs, and he worked his way all through college. In 1952. Agnew joined a law firm, later established his own law officein Baltimore. His interest in politics developed about this time as he worked in the four successful election campaigns of a Congressman

from Maryland. A few years earlier, Agnew had changed his party affiliation from Democratic to Republican. His first elective office was as County Executive (chief administrator) of Baltimore County, a sprawling suburban complex that rings the city of Baltimore. After four years in this post, he was elected Governor of Maryland in November 1966. Married in 1942, Agnew and his wife Judy settled in the suburbs to raise their family of three daughters and a son. Mrs. Agnew is a plump, cheerful housewife who, she says, "majored in marriage." According to news reports, she is awed at the prospect of becoming Second Lady of the U.S. A tall, heavy-set, impeccably-groomed man, Agnew spends considerable time with the family-playing billiards or ping-pong, or listening to music. He avidly follows his favourite football team, the Baltimore Colts, and some claim that his constant squint comes from watching too many football games on television. While many Americans still bemoan Agnew's lack of political sophistication (during the campaign someone dubbed him Spiro the Tyro), his close friends have always liked him for his simple tastes, personal decency and quiet sense of humour. As Vice President, political observers predict, Agnew will enjoy a harmonious relationship with Nixon, largely because the two men agree on many of the important issues of the day. Both broadly support the purpose of the Vietnam war, and both see law and order as the paramount domestic problem facing the U.S. today. It is unlikely, however, that Agnew will become a "yes" man. In an interview with the New York Times, he said that as Vice President he would not attempt to conceal any differences he might have with the President. In the Number Two job in America, then, the chances are that Spiro T. Agnew will retain the independence and fierce individuality that have characterized him all his life. Perhaps Nixon best summed him up when he said, "Spiro Agnew is an oldfashioned patriot. ... He has a good heart. Under pressure he's one of the best." END


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U.S. elections have come and gone and a new President will be installed in the White House in Washington, D.C., before the month ends. In the cartoons on these two pages, Sudhir Dar lets his fancy (and pen) roam to portray the reactions of some typical lnd ians-the sophisticated, the notso-sophisticated, the teen-agers, the ubiquitous roadside astrologer-to this momentous event. THE

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I Above right: Pennsylvania Avenue as it looked in 1865. Though it has sidewalks, rows of trees, and a newly-laid horse-drawn railway, it is dusty and unevenj Right: Twenty years later, in 1885,fewer trees remain on the Avenue, bllt the street is paved with wooden blocks, and buildings have appeared on either side.. Below right: By 1910, the Avenue has a more metropolitan look. Though horses still pull carriages, autos are parked at the curb and streetcars are electrified. Far right: Modern view of the Avenuc, taken in 1967. Some old landmarks still remain, but parks, new buildings and multilane traffic have been added.

For more than a century and a half, Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington has been the scene of Presidential Inaugural parades, receptions for foreign dignitaries and diverse processions, gay and sombre. On January 20, large crowds will once again converge onto the stately Avenue to watch and cheer President Richard M. Nixon as he drives down the historic boulevard amid the pomp and pageantry ot the Inaugural parade. The story of Pennsylvania Avenue-its growth from an unpaved and undistinguished street to America's principal ceremonial route-is presented on these pages.



A STRIKING CIRCUMSTANCE of most capital cities around the world is their possession of a street which, through its location and historical role, symbolizes the public life of the nation. Paris has its Champs Elysees and New Delhi its Rajpath. In Washington, D.C., this "ceremonial way" is called Pennsylvania Avenue. The Avenue's place in history did not come about by accident. When the French architect Pierre Charles L'Enfant was commissioned to design the U.S. capital in 1791, he gave the city two dramatic points-the White House and the Capitol or House of Congress-and linked these classical, columned buildings on separate hills with a broad thoroughfare. Thomas Jefferson was the first to use the Avenue for a national ceremony. In 1805, elected to a second term as President, he rode a horse from the White House to the Capitol, took his oath of office, and rode back again. Since his time, thirty other U.S. Presidents have followed the Inaugural route amidst shouts and applause, drumbeats and trumpet fanfare. The Avenue has at other times welcomed visiting dignitaries such as former President Radhakrishnan of India. It also has carried more sombre processions. To the beat of muffied drums, seven Presidents and ten other U.S. statesmen have been borne past silent, mourning crowds on flag-draped funeral caissons. In between times of sorrow and celebration, the Avenue stirs with a less ritualistic life: congested traffic, government workers moving in and out of some fifteen public buildings, tourists visiting tbe White House, the Capitol or other cultural sites. Some sixteen million visitors from the country and around the world come to Washington each year. On January 20, however. cheering Americans and tourists will again converge onto the "ceremonial way" to witness an impressive ceremony. On this date, the 37th U.S. President Richard M. Nixon will drive down the Avenue ",,;ithhis Inaugural parade and unite 200 million of his countrymen in a common ritual.

The 1965 Inaugural parade of President Lyndon B. Johnson, right, replete with floats and bands from every State, moves down the Avenue amid cheering crowds. High-kicking girls, below, add zest to parade.


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For the people of Washington, D.C., the Inaugural parade is an event eagerly looked forward to, and enjoyed by all. The colour, pomp and pageantry of the occasion combine to make it an unforgettable experience.

Cheering crowds line Pennsylvania Avenue, right, during President Johnson's Inaugural parade in 1965. Children particularly are fascinated by the glitter of a parade. The little girl holding umbrella, below, watches spellbound, but her younger sister's attention seems momentarily diverted.

During 1963 visit to Washington, India's former President, Dr. S. Radhakrishnan (standing) drives down Pennsylvania Avenue acknowledging the cheers of thousands who turned out to greet him. In car beside him is President John F. 4ennedy.

President and Mrs. John F. Kennedy drive down the Avenue in the back of a streamlined convertible. left, as they lead the Inaugural parade from Capitol to White House.

The State of Hawaii float. below, passes the Presidential Reviewing Stand during 1965 parade. In stand are President and Mrs. Johnson. Vice President and Mrs. Humphrey.


AVENUE continued I.y

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Plans to revitalize "the ceremonial way" will replace shabby blocks of buildings with handsome new structures, plazas and grassy plots. its unique position linking the two principal centres of government, the Avenue has always received the nation's greatest attention. President Kennedy, appalled by the drabness along most of the historic boulevard, felt strongly that the Avenue should be lively, inviting and friendly, as well as dignified and impressive. In 1961 he appointed a committee to find a solution. The committee's findings were emphatic: "Pennsylvania Avenue should be the great thoroughfare of the City of Washington. Instead, it remains a vast, unformed, cluttered expanse at the heart of the nation's capita!." On its recommendations, President Kennedy appointed the President's Council on Pennsylvania 'Avenue to draw plans for the revitalization of the "ceremonial way." In its final report, submitted to President Johnson in 1964, the Council proposed imaginative and radical changes. They include replacing shabby blocks of decaying buildings with handsome new structures, paved plazas and grassy plots; underground parking areas and tunnels to 'keep the Avenue's fresh beauty unmarred by traffic; and a two-level shopping section, each with its own set of stores. After this development, the historic Avenue, which has been called "the Grand Axis of the Nation," should indeed be the great thoroughfare of the U.S. capital. BECAUSE OF

Le/t, model 0/ area to be rn'alJlped includes. between Capitol (I) and White HOllse (2), restoration 0/ trees, sidewalks sheltered hy arcades and tiered for parade-watching. Also in plan: Capitol Plaza (3), Market Square (4), Centre for Advanced Stlldies (5), National Square (6), Post Office formal garden (7). and National Sculpture Garden (8). Postal tower (9) would be retained but the-building replaced. Most structures at right ~/ Avenue will remain, hut those shown at left are mainly visualizations-except private office building IInder construction (/0), existing U.S. COllrthouse (11), and buildings /01' Federal Bureau a/Investigation ( 12), Labour Departmenr (/3). District 0/ Columbia ( 14).

The proposed Capitol Plaza, above, with its landscaped walkways, and reflecting pool (/01' lighted dome) will be graceful refinement of existing area. Motor traffic will be diverted to new circumferential roadways.

National Square will provide ceremonial terminus /01' parades, a place for informal gatherings. Central fountain will be low enough to permit unobstructed view across square of new approach to White House.

During America's recent Presidential election campaign, Republican Party centres displayed colourful, stuffed elephants made in India. The new look for the old party symbol is the work of an enterprising and energetic Ahmedabad merchant who literally turns rags into riches.

DAYLASTAUGUST,an American professor was walking along a narrow lane in Ahmedabad when he was stopped by doz¡ ens of colourful stuffed elephants in assorted sizes, lined up on the footpath. Turning to a companion, he asked, "Are they holding a Republican Convention here too?" The professor's joke, referring to the fact that the elephant is the symbol of the Republican Party in the United States, was not too far from the truth. These elephants had been ordered by the Republican Party for publicity and were about to be shipped to the U.S. In the weeks before the November election, the gaily-coloured rag elephants decorated many Republican Party campaign centres. The enterprising produ~er of these elephants, Bacharbhai Madhavji, hOl:es that by the next U.S. Presidential election in 1972 he will be supplying the Democrats their party symbol, the donkey, as well. Already his creations-elephants, horses, cows, donkeys, bulls and bears-are on display, not only in America, but also in Brussels, Paris, Rome and Tokyo. ONE

In business only four years, Bacharbhai was formerly a rag merchant who toured the villages of Saurashtra and Gujarat buying hand-embroidered cloth and old pots and pans. Later he re-sold these to ['eople in low-income groups in the cities. He soon discovered that even the more affluent would buy what he had to offer, and he changed from a dealer in rags to a stockist of "antiques." His big break came in 1964, when the Ahmedabad Design Institute was commissioned to prepare the prestigious Nehru Exhibit by the Government of India. The noted American architect and designer Charles Eames, and his associates, who were consultants to the Institute, needed suitable background material for Nehru's wedding panel; Bacharbhai was asked to supply the special fabrics used for pandals. Around this time, one of the American designers, Alexander Girard, visited Bacharbhai's one-room, house-cum-store where he saw a small rag toy horse Bacharbhai had made for his child. Girard offered ideas for other animals and suggested that

he export them to foreign countries. Ariother American consultant gave him an order for several elephants to be given to his Republican friends in the United States. What started as a trickle four years ago has become, if not yet a flood, at least a steady stream of foreign orders. Today Bacharbhai owns four shops, where his workmen spill out on the pavement to cope with the rush of orders. His wares are sold through the Indian Handicrafts Board as well as private exporters. Last year Bacharbhai's sales reached nearly Rs. 4 lakhs. This year he hopes the sales will touch the Rs. 6-lakh mark, ten times more than he netted four years ago. While Bacharbhai was still in the first flush of success, an American customer warned him about the dangers of massproducing handicrafts. He remembers this advice-and follows it by employing more craftsmen and avoiding mechanical shortcuts. Even today every rag toy receive,s the same personal care that went into the first little horse that Bacharbhai made for his child.

Ele~hants enliven U.S. elections



Students at four art schools in the United States were commissioned by the American Greeting Card Corporation to design posters based on quotations from thirty-six U.S. Presidents. Now being exhibited throughout America, some of the posters are shown on these pages.


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('I:.:,:.) Bill Buchanan of Layton School of Art at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, selects for his poster memorable words of James Knox Polk, America's 11th President (1845-49). Newell Nesheim of Minneapolis School of Art in Minnesota goes "pop," opposite page, to depict words of Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President (1901·09), who was youngest at 42 to take office, and first American Nobel Laureate, winning Peace Prize in 1906. "1 would rather belong to a poor nation that wasfree than to a rich nation tltat had ceased to be in love with liberty." These words, below, of Woodrow Wilson. chief architect of the League of Nations, inspired Hazel Seck of Minneapolis School of Art to turn to the U.S. flag for poster's basic design element. Wilson, 28th President (1913-21), was awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1919.








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-Kn-u-t Simo-ns-on'of Layton School ~~es s~veral techniques to give graphic meaning to words of James Garfield, 20th President (1881), born in a log cabin.

Dennis Blazer of Minneapolis School uses bold typography to illustrate words of Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of American Independence, 3rd U.S. President (1801-09) and first to be inaugurated in Washington.

Ronald Kriss of California Institute of the Arts, Los Angeles, more literal expression to Garfield's view of the printing press as weapon offreedom.




" ... The American people have encountered together great dan/?ersand sustained severe trials with sllccess. They constitute one great family with a common interest," declared James Monroe, America's 5th President (1817-25). Jerry Scott of Layton School of Art presents unity theme by using map of the United States to show the nation as one big family of fifty States. Artist Joe Garnett of California Institute symbolically represents great words of George Washington, America's first President (1789-97) and Father of his Country.

Memorial toaman of the people


shall we praise him," Jawaharlal Nehru once asked, «and how shall we measure him, because he was not of common clay .... " True though it was that this gentle, physically frail Indian was a giant among men, yet Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi possessed the kind of basic humanity that found a response among people everywhere. He is respected by the world's political thinkers, but he is also held in affection by children, such as those shown at right and below. And while his countrymen called him Mahatma or «great soul," they also called him Bapu, the simple word for <'father."

On Delhi's Ring Road, just where the old walled city ends and the new begins, stands a simple two-storeyed building half hidden behind a hedge of flowering bougainvillaea. Here, in the Gandhi Memorial Museum, the spirit of the Father of the Nation still lingers. One of several museums established by the Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya Samiti, the institution houses a library, a photographic exhibit detailing events in Gandhi's life, and an assortment of Gandhi memorabilia. Since it was moved to its present site ten years ago, and particularly during the current Gandhi Centenary Year, the Museum has drawn a stream of visitors who come from all parts of th~ country to pay tribute to one who was a great leader and also a man of the people.

Taken together, the photographs along the Museum's wall present a capsule history of indian independ(']1ce-from the first faint stirrings of freedom to the final transfer of power in 1947. Below, Gandhiji addresses social workers from Karnatak. Map at bottom shows the route of the famous Dandi salt march in 1930; beside it is the stick used by Gandhi on that historic 24-day trek.

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Gandhi once spoke of ÂŤcomplete identification with the poorest of mankind, an intense longing to live no better than they." And the contrast between the power of a man who held sway over millions and the meagreness of his personal belongings is one of the dominant impressions left by the Museum. Some of the objects on display signify international recognition: a medal from the Community Church of New York commemorating his efforts for peace. Others provide intimate glimpses of the man: an >'b -l-.5--'2-:;. t

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ink-stand on which a yellow pencil stub has been inserted into a paper tube to make it last longer. But most of them-his glasses, his chappals, his razor-proclaim Gandhi's essential humility. Perhaps most eloquent of all is his thali, worn and stained from constant scouring. It recalls the Mahatma's ever-present concern with hunger and poverty, which he revealed when he said: ((To a people famishing and idle, the only acceptable form in which God can dare appear is work and the promise of food as wages." - )....) tfi-')....32--l-O

Little girl, right, peers into Gandhi's house ill Sevagram, the village dedicated to service that he founded near Wardha in Central India. At one troubled moment ill a life marked by turbulence, Gandhi said, ÂŤI needed the solitude of Sevagram. It has been my experience that I can draw my inspiration only from my natural setting, the surroundings in which I live."

Ground-floor wing of the Museum houses the library where research scholars, such as the one at left, come to consult the largest single collection of Gandhi literature-more than 15,000 volumes, files of the journals he edited, thousands of manuscripts and letters. An indefatigable letter-writer, Gandhi never failed to reply, usually in his own hand. And if the right hand tired, he would write with the left.

Visitors to the Museum, above, examine a white khadi sari (not shown in picture) that once belonged to Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. A wedding gift from the Mahatma, it was wovenfrom yarn spun by his wife Kasturba. In her letter donating it to the Gandhi Museum, the Prime Minister'says: HI have worn this sari for 22 years, and I have a special corner in my heart for it, but I now feel that its rightful place is in the Museum."

DWARF WHEAT FOR GIANT HARVEST Development of the sensational, high-yielding, rustresistant Mexican wheat, now cultivated in India and other countries, owes much to the painstaking research of U.S. scientist Dr. Norman E. Borlaug.

"THERE ARE THREE reasons for the big change in Mexican wheat production," an American agronomist said recently. "They are water, fertilizer and Borlaug. Of the three, Borlaug is the most important-he produced the wheat that could take fertilizer and irrigation without falling flat on its face." Borlaug is Dr. Norman E. Borlaug, who is director of the International Wheat Improvement Project of the Rockefeller Foundation. The big change mentioned by the agronomist is very real. Historically the increase in wheat production in Mexico has been prodigious. In 1950, the average wheat yield was eleven bushels per acre. By 1958, this figure had jumped 118 per cent, to twenty-four bushels an acre; by 1965, the average was almost 400 per cent of the 1950 yield. The best farmers harvested seventy-five to ninety bushels an acre. Mexico had been traditionally a wheatimporting nation. In 1950, she imported 400,000 tons of wheat. By 1956, she had become self-sufficient. Today she is a wheatexporting nation. For the past twenty years Dr. Borlaug's home office has been Mexico City, but he is rarely there. He is a fieldworker rather than an office man. From early February, until wheat harvest time in May, he works in the crossing blocks and laboratory at the experiment station, CIANO (Centro de Investigaciones Agricolas del Noroeste), near Ciudad Obregon on the coastal plain of northwest Mexico. Here, from six in the morning, when he begins the day by fixing breakfast in the lab, until the light begins to fail in the evening, this gray-haired, vigorous scientist is, making crosses and advising others in the crossing of thousands of varieties of wheat ; directing irrigation; checking growth, rust susceptibility, head formation, quality, and all the other factors vital to the production of a good new wheat variety. In the summer and autumn, Dr. Borlaug works in the greenhouses, laboratories and breeding blocks at Chapingo and Toluca in the high valleys near Mexico City. Here he is able to plant the seed grown at CIANO and continue his crossing for a second generation of wheat in the same year. When Borlaug first went to Ciudad Obregon in 1944, he was working on a few acres of rented ground and using a shack for his headquarters. Since then the farmers in Sonora have contributed 250 acres of land on the great coastal plain and the labora-

Reprinted/rom The Farm Quarterly. Š 1965, F. & W. Publishing Corp. Photographs courtesy Rockefeller


tory and work buildings which are CIANO were built by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Mexican Ministry of Agriculture. Through the years Borlaug's influence has been felt. There is hardly a wheat farmer in Sonora or in all Mexico who has not planted and profited by Borlaug-bred wheat. Standing in a field at CIANO and using the back of his hand to shield his forehead and his eyes from the sun (he insists on visitors wearing hats but often forgets his own), Dr. Borlaug said, "The only way I know for a scientist to be effective in solving food production problems is for him to get out and work, sweat and get dirty in the fields." In the field Dr. Borlaug has a distinctively international appearance. His gray hair, pale-blue eyes, and fair skin look Scandinavian, but his clothing-usually in quiet pastel colours, with occasionally a vibrant red shirt-looks decidedly Mexican. Dr. Borlaug was born on a farm at Cresco, Iowa, fifty-four years ago. He attended the University of Minnesota, both as an undergraduate and graduate student. Perhaps because of his own farm background he has an almost mystical belief in man's need for the soil ifhe is to remain vigorous and productive. "When I was a boy, thirty-five per cent of the population lived on the farm," he said, "now about seven per cent are farmers." Borlaug, himself, inherited great vitality from his Norwegian parents and he remains tough. He can and does work his students and younger colleagues to exhaustion when they try to keep up with him. And this gray-haired, handsome scientist is not above taking part in a wrestling match in the fields at CIANO and proving that I).e has not slowed down too much since he was an outstanding wrestling champion. As a student fresh from the farmwork of Iowa, Norman Borlaug was a natural for the University of Minnesota wrestling team. He won the 135-pound, the 145-pound classes as a freshman and a sophomore. He even wrestled successfully in the heavyweight division. After completion of his undergraduate studies, he chose the outdoor life, working in Hopkins Experimental Forest at Williamstown, Massachusetts, in the Idaho National Forests, and again with the U.S. Forest Service in Massachusetts, before returning to Minnesota to study under Dr. Elvin C. Stakman for his master's and doctor's degrees in plant pathology. Today, he has the athletic build of a twenty-year-old-amazingly slim for one who has probably contributed more to the

Dr. Borlaug tells his students: "These (wheat) plants can speak to you, but they cannot shout. If you are sitting at a desk in an office, you will never hear them."

production of carbohydrates than any living man. His adherence to a life of work and sweat has paid off. Dr. Ralph Caldwell of Purdue, one of the top wheat scientists in the United States, said recently, "Dr. Borlaug is one of the few wheat breeders in the world who has refused to stay on the treadmill of producing a long series of wheat varieties with resistance to the equally long series of races of stem rust that attack them. Usually, except for the resistance, the new variety is not worth the turn of your hand as far as yield is concerned, when compared with the old. "Norman Borlaug has bred his wheats for both rust resistance and high yield. He has produced a whole group of wheats which are as far advanced over the old lines as today's hybrid corn is over the old open-pollinated varieties we used to plant. The energy he throws into his work and the amount of work he accomplishes make one feel humble. We probably make more wheat crosses at Purdue than anywhere else in the United States, but for every 100 crosses we make, Borlaug makes at least a thousand." Shortly after the end of World War II, S.C. Salmon, who had been head of the wheat improvement project of U.S. Department of Agriculture, went to Japan as an agricultural adviser to General MacArthur. One of the most interesting sights Dr. Salmon saw in this exotic land was a wheat with very short, stiff straw. This dwarf wheat was called Norin. Dr. Salmon collected three outstanding Norin vaaeties and sent them back to the wheat breeders in the United States. These varieties were not an immediate success with the breeders. Though they were able to transmit the dwarf quality in crosses with American wheats, the yield was very low and the grain quality poor. Then Orville Vogel, of Washington State University, was able to use Norin 10 to produce the sensationally high-yielding dwarf winter wheat, Gaines. During this time, Dr. Borlaug and his Mexican associates were incorporating this valuable dwarfing factor into a number of spring wheats. Six years ago, some of these dwarf varieties were released to the wheat-growers of Mexico. In 1965 some eight of them were being grown, the most popular of which are: Sonora 64, Pitic 62, Penjamo 62, Mayo 64 and Lerma Rojo 64. An old hybrid corngrower who has watched the introduction of these wheats said, "I have never seen farmers take to a new variety so readily. It took us ten years to get farmers¡to accept hybrid corn. In two years, Borlaug had converted the Mexican famlers to the new dwarfs. Now, they practically stand in line waiting for each improved variety as it is released." Because the wheat has short, stiff straw, farmers can pour on the fertilizer-up to 120 pounds of actual nitrogen per acre-and irrigate with all the water the crop needs. The wheat stands straight and stiff, without lodging, and produces yields of some eighty to 100 bushels per acre. Another exciting characteristic of these Borlaug wheats is their insensitivity to wide variations in day length. When grown in Canada where the summer days are almost endless, Sonora 64 and the others mature only two days earlier than the Canadian spring wheat Selkirk. But when the two varieties are grown in Mexico, where daylight hours are fewer, Selkirk-which is light sensitive and needs the long days-matures two months later than Sonora.

A visitor to CIANO said recently, "Dr. Borlaug showed me,the light-sensitive and the light-insensitive wheats and crosses between them. I became fascinated with Borlaug's personal identification with the wheat itself. He was showing me two wheats side by side -one dead ripe and the other not yet in the boot stage. He said, 'Look at this light-sensitive wheat from Argentina. This sister is screaming, 'I can't stand it here! I need more light!' " One of Dr. Borlaug's former students said, "Dr. Borlaug really believes wheat can talk to you. He often tells us, 'These plants can speak to you, but they cannot shout. If you are sitting at a desk in an office, you will never hear them. If you are out in the fields with them they will tell you,' 'I am a good plant. I have a strong stem and good grain head.' " Having achieved quantity, Dr. Borlaug is now working with characteristic energy on quality. "Our first job was to put bread in the bellies of our people," he said, "but now that we are a wheat-exporting country, we need good milling and baking quality." (Dr. Borlaug often speaks of Mexico and the Mexicans as "we" and "us.") "Borlaug has revolutionized quality testing and I predict that one result will be that Mexico will have not only the highest yielding wheat, but the best-quality wheat, within five years," a fellow scientist said recently. In spite of his great accomplishments, Dr. Borlaug takes greater pride in the Mexican research team and other students he has trained than he does in the varieties of wheat he has produced. Actually, Dr. Borlaug strongly implies that in his world you work to produce the scientist and the rest follows. He said recently, "An ever improving production of new wheat varieties and research results are the automatic by-product of a dedicated, well-trained, disciplined, imaginative team of scientists. Excellence in ability and training alone are not enough. There is nothing more disgusting than a poorly motivated scientist." Since 1943, when the Rockefeller Foundation became actively interested in agricultural development in Mexico, some 500 Mexican scholars have worked under the Foundation's training programme. With the aid of Rockefeller grants, almost half of these have gone on to seek advanced degrees. Some sixty of these trainees have received their Ph.Ds. Today many of the leading young scientists in Mexico's vigorous Department of Agriculture are alumni of this programme. CIANO and the other stations conducting research are staffed by Mexican scientists and technicians whom Borlaug describes as "the greatest wheat research team in the world." "One of the real problems of many underdeveloped nations is that their scientists usually come from well-to-do families and therefore they have no contact with the soil," Dr. Borlaug said. "They don't know the land, they don't know how to work the soil, they know nothing about actual dirt farming. Unless they first receive the kind of training we try to give them here, sending them on to get a Ph.D. in agriculture is like building the spire of a church without any foundation. They go back to their country knowing scientific agriculture, but they find they can't apply their learning. TIley are not dirt farmers. They come to distrust their own data. On top of that, they live in countries where a mistake on

their part may bring on a famine. Rather than make a mistake they do nothing. They lock themselves up in their offices and laboratories and write learned papers and chase academic butterflies. It is tragic, for some of these men are able, talented scientists. "The young men who come to study with us here are thrown into hard, dirty, physical work. I deliberately make it tough on themand so does the staff here at CIANO. We have to. They have got to learn to be tough and to rely on themselves if they are to survive when they get back to their own countries and start working on their own. They make wheat crosses with their own hands, they take soil samples, they put on the fertilizer, they plant the crop, they measure the response, they get chaff down their necks at harvest-time. They've got to learn that being an agricultural scientistis being a worker who is not afraid to get his hands in the dirt. The only way you can teach them to do this is to do it yourself. You've got to work harder, sweat more, get dirtier, right beside them in the field. "In addition to our Mexican and South American students, young wheat scientists from twelve different countries of Africa and Asia have trained with us in Mexico. These young scientists are selected and sponsored by Food and Agriculture Organization of the U.N., but financed under a grant made by the Rockefeller Foundation to FAO. "These young men have to be intelligent, they have to be mentally and physically tough, and they have to have the sheer physicalvitality to stand up under the hard work, the flies, the hot sun, the rough beds, the dirt, and the disappointments that they will have to endure when they go back to work in the fields. After they have worked here.and gone on to get advanced degrees," Dr. Borlaug said, shielding his eyes with his fist, "they go back to their own countries to carryon the work for their governments. There they are like a time bomb. Their new approaches and experiencesgenerally bring new vigour into programmes that are too often static. . "These young men are bringing in the new Mexican wheat varieties and many are now producing high-yielding varieties of their own. They are showing the farmers that these dwarf wheats willtake fertilizer and irrigation, and wiII produce double, triple, and even quadruple anything the farmer has seen before. Once any group offarmers has been convinced of this, it is going to set up a clamour for fertilizer production and irrigation projects that wiII shake the government out of its lethargy and usher in a new era." In spite of his love of teaching and of communicating knowledge, Dr. Borlaug can grow quite impatient with writing letters, reports, or scientific papers simply to take par-tin out endless concern with paper work. When asked about writing he replies, "Which do you want, bread or papers?" . He has been honoured a number oftimes for his scientific work. But one gets the feeling that with Dr. Borlaug rewards and honours are incidental to the joy he gets from working with wheats in the testing plots at CIANO. Here, in what his fellow scientists laughingly call the zoo because of the fantastic variety of the growing plants, Dr. Borlaug works with his young men, plotting the thousands of crosses made each year. Some of them seem almost outrageous, such as the cross between the dwarfed wheat with a heavy, many-branched head, to a wheat-rye cross. To the raised eyebrows, Dr. Borlaug grins and says, "Sometimes you've got to think roundabout." But from these crosses, both conventional and fantastic, have come the wheats that are doing more than any others to feed the world.


Dr. Norman E. Borlaug, centre, inspects a wheat field in Tara! area oj / Northem India. Flanking him are: at left, Dr. R. L. Paliwal, Research Director, U.P. Agricultural University, Pantnagar; Mr. M. S. Swaminathan, Director, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi.

Borlaug and the Indian wheat revolution NORMANBORLAUGwas one of the few observers of the Indian agricultural scene who was not surprised by the huge size of India's wheat crop last summer. He had predicted that the crop would exceed the most optimistic estimates. Borlaug, who was visiting India briefly, spoke from experience. He had found that in Mexico, too, farmers surprised the government, the trade, and the press by their ability to grow huge crops when they used the dwarf wheat seeds BorIaug's team of Mexican and American scientists had developed. Only two years ago when the monsoon failed for the second continued


The new varieties of Mexican dwarf wheats introduced in India have been remarkably successful and hold the promise of unprecedented, abundant harvests.

time in succession over large parts of the Indian sub-continent a feeling of utter pessimism over the world food situation was widespread. Today the situation has changed dramatically. Last summer's Indian wheat crop was some thirty-five per cent higher than the best ever harvested in this country. Comparable increases in production have been achieved by several other developing countries. By the end of this decade 1ndia confidently expects to achieve self-sufficiency in food. So do several other countries which are today importing large amounts of foodgrains. Food production, particularly in the developing half of the world, is poised for an unprecedented expansion. No one man, of course, authored this change from penury to plenitude. The credit for developing the Mexican dwarf wheats goes not to Borlaug alone, but also to the gifted team he heads. And wheat is not the only grain in whose production a breakthrough has been achieved. Thanks to IR-8 and other "miracle" rice strains developed by the International Rice Research Institute, Manila, the Philippines, which had a sizable deficit in rice, has today become an exporter. By using these and other improved strains, many Indian rice farmers are this year undergoing the same exhilarating and profitable experience as that which gre~ted the Punjabi farmers who took to the dwarf wheats last year. But if one scientist could represent the thousands of dedicated men of many nationalities' who have laboured to launch the Green Revolution, that man would probably be Norman E. Borlaug. Dr. S.P. Kohli, the Co-ordinator of the All-India Wheat Improvement Programme, has described Boriaug as "the world's most outstanding breeder" and as "the Miracle Man of Mexico." Dr. Kohli was a member of the Indian group which visited Mexico in 1966 to purchase 18,000 tons of dwarf wheat seeds-until that time a world record for seed purchase. It was this seed consignment which led to the present breakthrough in Indian wheat production. Dwarf strains of wheat were not unknown to India even centuries ago. Excavations at Mohenjo-Daro have revealed that the Indians of 4,000 years ago planted a dwarf strain. But, over the centuries, it had been found that dwarf strains did not yield as much as strains with thinner and longer straws. When interest was aroused in dwarf strains once again as a result of discoveries in Japan, Indian agricultural scientists joined the world-wide search for a productive variety. From 1960 onwards, experiments were conducted in India on a dwarf strain of Italian origin. When, however, in 1964 seed developed by Borlaug in Mexico became available, Indian scientists went in for large-scale experiments with it. Two years later they took an enormous gamble: they advised the government to import a massive consignment of seed from Mexico and make the dwarf seed from that country the spearhead of India's desperate drive to increase wheat production. Introducing a foreign crop variety into one's country is not like buying a foreign car. Th~ former can bring along with it new

Triticale, a new variety of Mexican wheat, is now being tried out in India and may prOI'e suitable for cultivation in the dry areas.

plant diseases. It may not be able to resist attacks by local fungi, bacteria and insects. In the past a cereal strain developed in one American state would not be planted in another state without undergoing years of testing and adaptation. But now wheat seeds developed in Mexico were to be planted in a country halfway around the globe. As last year's crop testified, the gamble has paid off. Today Indian scientists are busy conducting many breeding experiments on Mexican seeds. Dr. M.S. Swami nathan, Director of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, has used both radiation and chemical treatment of the Mexican wheats in an effort to change their genetic make-up. He has created mutants of these red varieties which are amber (the colour preferred by the Indian consumer), higher in protein, and harder. "We are constantly increasing our control in the development of mutants," says Dr. Swaminathan. "Yet it took 500,000 treated seeds to produce seven heads with these desirable qualities. The other 499,993 plants were mainly undesirable monstrosities." Indian scientists are also engaged in crossing tall local varieties with Mexican dwarfs so that the hybrids would have the good chapati-making qualities of the Indian varieties and the abundant production of the Mexican. Some of these crossbreeds may be available for large-scale cultivation within a year. Several such strains of hybrid wheat have been sent to Mexico and have been found to make the best tortillas-the Mexican equivalent of the Indian chapatis. END

Dear Sir: Dear Sir: I read with interest the excerpt from Will Durant's "Our Oriental Heritage" published in the October 1968 issue of SPAN. This excellent and informative feature contains one factual error in the following statement in respect of frequency of intercalary month in the Hindu Calendar. "These men and their followers adapted to Hindu usage the Babylonian division of the skies into Zodiacal constellations; they made a calendar of twelve months, each of thirty days, each of thirty hours, inserting an intercalary month every five years." It is a matter of common knowledge in India that this inauspicious intercalary month ('Adhika') in the Hindu Calendar occurs once in thirty-three months or approximately three years. The 'moon performs one complete rev,olution in relation to the sun in approximately thirty days and each lunar month (synodic-ordinary) has 29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes and 02.9 seconds. Each lunar year of twel~e months (Chaitra to Phalguna) is of 354 days and 12 hours or nearly eleven days less than the tropical solar year of 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 45.6 seconds. In order to reconcile the difference between solar and lunar , years the Hindu astronomers hit upon this ingenious device of intercalary month. If the lunar year was retained, the months would move back round the year by about eleven days annually. This is what actually happens in the Mohammedan calendar where the twelve lunar months have been retained and the Muharram and other festivals come earlier every year by about eleven days. In this device of intercalary month it was ordained that any lunar month in which the sun did not enter a new sign of the Zodiac would not count and would be followed by another month of the same name. Intercalary months occur generally in the 3rd, 5th, 8th, lIth, 14th, 16th and 18th years ora: cycle of nineteen years, or seven times in nineteen years. According to this method intercalary months would now occur in 1969 (Asadha), 1972 (Vaisakha), 1974 (Bhadra), 1977 (Asadha), 1980 (Jayaistha) and so on. It seems not improbable that the unlucky character of the number thirteen may have arisen from its being the number of the intercalary month devised by the Hindu astronomers. Though the superstition against thirteen people sitting down to a meal is, no doubt, associated particularly with the Last Supper, the number is often considered unlucky as a date and in other contexts too. And this is not only the case in Europe; the Hindus, Persians and Pars is also

consider thirteen an unlucky number. The Mohammedans associate a similar superstition with the month 'Safar.' M.M.MANGRULKAR Bhopal

Dear Sir: The two excellent articles "My Teammate, My Spouse" and "The Life of the Mind; Hindu Science" in the October number of SPAN prompt me to continue the story ofIndian science a little further. Following a long period of somnolence after the golden age of Aryabhata, Brahmagupta and Bhaskara, mention may be made of the revival of astronomy in India in the eighteenth century. This time also astronomy emerges as an appurtenance of astrology. The moving spirit of the new school of astronomy was Maharaja Sawai Jaisingh of Jaipur (1686-1743), who collected in his court many scholars from all parts of the world. Th~y included learned Brahmins from Maharashtra, Gujarat, Bengal and Rajputana; Arabic scholars from Iran and the Muslim lands; and Europeans, mostly Catholic priests. Jaisingh was guided mainly by the astronomical system propounded by another prince-astronomer, Mirza Ulugh Beg, the Emir of Samarkand, 300 years earlier. Ulugh Beg's observatory was famous in the mediaeval ages. Jaisingh's observatories were on a more ambitious scale; and the flowering of the efforts of his school is to be seen principally in his two observatories at Jaipur and Delhi, popularly known as the Jantar Mantar. Their enormous stone and masonry instruments may represent the stone age of astronomy in India compared with the highly developed observatories of the present time; but even so they are a monument to the insatiable thirst of the human mind for knowledge. Your examples of the husband-and-wife teams relate, of course, to the American scene only. Many such cases come to mind from various fields of acti vity all over the world. In the sciences we have such famous names as those of Pierre Curie and his-wife Marie Curie, followed a generation later by their gifted daughter, Irene JoliotCurie and her team-mate spouse, Frederick Joliot. Incidentally, all four of them won the Nobel Prize at one time or the other. In literature. we have the monumental work of Sidney and Beatrice Webb on their economic theories, and the brother-and-sister team of Charles and Mary Lamb. In politics we have the famous royal couples, Ferdinand and Isabella, William and Mary, and Stephen and Matilda. M. FRAMJI Bangalore

After four year.~ in doldrums, new lnanagelRent produced


OH SURE, said these amateur tennis players, members of the winningest U.S. Davis Cup team in ten years. Oh sure, it would be nice to win at Wimbledon-this Wimbledon, the first major tennis tournament open to amateurs and professionals. They did not win, but they were the big news. Two of the five, Clark Graebner and Arthur Ashe, startled the tennis world by advancing to the semi-finals, the last amateurs to survive a competition the pros were expected to dominate. Along the way they deliberately outraged some local proprieties. Although no Davis Cup points were at stake, Wimbledon seemed an excellent opportunity to beef up the team's new spirit. They were there to perform as individuals, but they also performed boisterously as a sideline cheering section whenever a Davis Cup teammate was in combat. Applause, whistles and cries of "Attaway, Art, baby!"-more appropriate to night baseball-upended the traditional quietude of tennis at correct old Wimbledon. Naturally there were cries of "By Jove!" and indignation unmatched since Gussie Moran played Wimbledon in lace panties. What's come over our Davis Cup team anyway? In recent years the U.S. entries have been either unmanageable or a joke. The U.S. lost the challenge round in 1964 and did not win it again until last December. But last year's Davis Cuppers behaved like Green Berets on a "must succeed" mission against the cup defender, Australia. In elimination matches they defeated Ecuador, Mexico and the British Caribbean team by identical-and astonishing-5-0 scores. What has come over them is a toughtalking Washington attorney and former - top tennis amateur named Donald Dell, who believes in" cheering athletes to victory-the louder the better. As the team's non-playing captain, Dell is young enough (30) to be trusted and old enough to backhand anyone who steps out of line. A Davis Cup player himself in 1963, the last time Reprinted with permission from Life magazine. Copyright Š 1968 Time Incorporated.

the U.S. won, Dell combines a thorough knowledge of tennis strategy with an extraordinary flair for keeping tennis temperaments under control. "A lot of other men could do the job," says player Arthur Ashe, "but with Donald you get this special feeling. Having him as captain is like having John Kennedy for President. " The captain would consider that the highest compliment a team member could pay him, since it was partly through the Kennedys that he got the job. As a young trial attorney for Hogan & Harston, Washington's second largest law firm, he got to know members of the Kennedy family. In 1966 he joined Bobby's campaign for Democratic office-seekers in the Midwest and soon was playing tennis with the Senator himself. Inevitably, he was invited to week-ends in Hyannis Port. "It was unbelievable," says Dell. "Everyone there was a General Gavin or a William Styron or a Lillian Hellman. I just sat in corners and sucked my thumb." In 1967 Sargent Shriver asked Dell to become his personal assistant at the Office of Economic Opportunity-a job that lasted eight months. Early last spring, on the day that Shriver was named ambassador to France, Dell was named Davis Cup captain. "Everyone but Shriver tried to talk me out of it," says Dell. "They told me I was nuts to get involved with what is supposed to be the most thankless job in sports. But Shriver told me it would be good for U.S. prestige if I could make the team succeed." From the outset it was apparent to Dell that the team was suffering from acute depression. "When we started," says Dell, "there was dissension, no confidence, a lot of likes and dislikes. They were awfully tired of answering 'What the hell's wrong with American tennis?' I told them we had plenty of depth, that we didn't need guys who dress well or have beautiful strokes or whom the girls all like. We needed winners and I'd do anything I had to win. They were here to sweat, run around and hit tennis balls for three hours a day." Dell began building their confidence in him and in themselves in dozens of little ways. At playing engagements on the road, continued

Hippie-beaded U.S. Davis Cup Team for 1968 startled tennis world with both impressive wins and mod clothes. From left are Captain Donald Dell, a 1963 Davis Cup player, Coach Dennis Ralston, players Stan Smith, Arthur Ashe, Charles Pasarell, Clark Graebner, Bob Lutz.

Accepting what was regarded as ((the most thankless job in sports," U.S. Davis Cup Team Captain Donald Dell helped his players win by combining his thorough knowledge of tennis with flair for keeping tennis tempers under control.

Arthur Ashe, first Negro to win the U.S. men's singles tennis, proudly holds his trophy, right. His Forest Hills open tournament win last September was his 25th consecutive singles victory. His father, bottom right, tearfully shares his son's triumph. Ashe, grew up next to a tennis court, was handling a racket at age 4, and at 11 won the under-12 championship (far left). In his formative years, he was coached by Dr. R. Walter Johnson, left. At 17, he was a junior champ, and at 20 named to the 1963 U.S. Davis Cup Team~ His opponents fear his strong serves, but he is also known for relaxed game, below.

he insisted that every man must have a private room. But to banish gloom from the training table he allowed no one to eat breakfast alone. Everyone had to have a ride to the courts before anyone could leave the motel. He arranged rest-and-rehabilitation side trips to Lake Tahoe or Las Vegas after important victories. Before any match the player involved was ordered to stay in the motel until the last minute, comforted by a "baby sitter" of his choice-a teammate who could play gin rummy, chat about the weather and finally chauffeur the player to the club when the time was right.

He also hired the pro star Dennis Ralston as coach and conditioner. Ralston supervises a series of exercises borrowed from the Australian team trainer-twelve one-minute intervals of running, sit-ups, lying pikes, push-ups, 90° leg lifts, 30° flutter kicks, knee and chest jumps and a drill known as the "two-on-one." In this exercise, two men hit balls to a single opponent who must return them on the first bounce. "We put that in," says Dell with a grin, "just to wake up in the morning." The players, once they realized they were in the best shape of their lives, found their own elan. Dell's most important accomplishment was to bring diverse individuals together as a team. He spent hours thinking about his cast of characters, analyzing their personalities and trying to figure how to fire up each man. "If Arthur's out there fouling the ball off or if Graebner is mad at the crowd, I'm stuck with what I've got," says Dell. "I have to know how to straighten them out." Recently, Dell articulated his findings. On Arthur Ashe: "He is outwardly so blase, inwardly a man of so many sensitivities. He gets bugged by the Army, is harassed by SNCC and Uncle Toms alike, and sometimes he looks like he's carrying the weight of the world around on his shoulders. You could call him Mr. Inside because you are never quite sure what he's thinking. He's still trying to find out who Arthur Ashe is. Maybe that's why he stays behind those sunglasses. We met President Johnson at the White House last March and just before we got to him in the line I had to yell at him, 'For God's sake, Art, take off those shades!' I've heard that if Arthur plays against South Africa, the Black Panthers have guaranteed to break his arm. You better believe I've got a few plans about that South Africa match, but I'm not telling them just yet." On Clark Graebner: "He is my Mr. Outside. He wears everything he thinks right on his chin. He's high-strung, married, a businessman with two childrenand here he is on the road with a bunch of bachelors. He gets pretty homesick and he's a nervous wreck before a match. Well, I told Clark I'd like to see him turn that bad guy reputation of his around. I told him it would be tough but I also told him ifhe couldn't do it my way not to deal himself in. He's going great." On Stan Smith: "He and Bob Lutz have

been playing together for four years although I'd only seen them maybe twice in my life. We haven't had a doubles team like this since McKinley and Ralston. Stan is beautiful-a strong, silent type who, because he's just a kid, pushes the others. My God, he eats Wheaties in the morningevery morning he eats these Wheaties with sugar and cream! A guy like that is so great to have around, so trouble-free." On Bob Lutz: "He is our baby swinger. I mean, the girls really dig him and he likes beer. We limit him to two beers a day. You can't tell Bob and Stan too many things at once because they're so young. They were at match game against Mexico in Berkeley and I told them during the changeover, 'just get that first serve in.' Bob starts yelling, 'Don't talk about it! Don't talk about it!' and Stan whispers, 'Don't worry, Coach, he knows all the moves, he knows all the moves!' Phew, did I back off in a hurry." On Charley Pasarell: "He is the proudest and funniest guy on the team. He keeps everyone loose. It was Charley who dis- • covered the blazers and turtlenecks and beads. He came into Richmond for the British Caribbean matches with only his buck private'S uniform on his back. There wasn't anything to do but appoint him team fashion consultant. He is automatically a one-man fact-finding committee on such matters as where to eat or What's on TV. He's this kind of a guy-he'd do your laundry if you asked him to." In addition to this chaplain-like understanding of his team, Dell has to be an instant expert on such matters as lobbing the ball to left-handed opponents; the speed of various tennis surfaces, such as Grasstex, Laykold, Har- Tru, Supreme and European clay; and the staggering details of organizing and paying for transportation, lodging, tickets and countless other items. Dell's room on the road resembles a combination laundry bin and stationery store. In June last year the team overwhelmed Ecuador at a time when they themselves were overwhelmed by the assassination of Robert Kennedy. They had all campaigned for the Senator in California with Tennisfor-Kennedy clinics. Said one tennis official: "We all knew how emotionally involved they were. They showed their class." Class, and Dell's work, made possible America's success in regaining the Davis Cup in 1968. END

SPIRO T. AGNEW Vice President of the United States

SPAN: January 1969  

Richard M. Nixon: 37th President of the United States

SPAN: January 1969  

Richard M. Nixon: 37th President of the United States