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National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NASA-owned

Historic Properties and Districts (Including the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station National Historic Landmark District)

Kennedy Space Center 2017

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Acronyms

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Introduction

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NASA-Owned Historic Properties

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Atlantis (OV-104)

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Banana River, Haulover Canal, and Indian River Bridges

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Beach House

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Bioastronautics Operational Support Unit

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Canister Rotation Facility

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Central Instrumentation Facility

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Crawler Transporters

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Crawlerway

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Flight Crew Training Building

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Headquarters Building

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Launch Control Center

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Mobile Launcher Platforms

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Operations & Checkout Building

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Orbiter Payload Canisters

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Parachute Refurbishment Facility

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Press Site: Clock and Flag Pole

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Rotation Processing Surge Facility

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Space Station Processing Facility

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Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility, Manufacturing Building

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Vehicle Assembly Building

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Vehicle Assembly Building Annex

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Barge Terminal Facility

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NASA-Owned Historic Districts

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Hypergol Maintenance and Checkout Area Historic District

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Launch Complex 39A and 39B Historic Districts

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NASA KSC Railroad System Historic District

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NASA-owned Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Industrial Area Historic District

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Orbiter Processing Historic District

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Thermal Protection System Facility

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Shuttle Landing Facility Historic District

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SLF Runway

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Mate-Demate Device

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Landing Aids Control Building

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Solid Rocket Booster Disassembly and Refurbishment Complex Historic District

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Cape Canaveral Air Force Station National Historic Landmark District

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Launch Complex 5/6 — NASA

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Launch Complex 14 — U.S. Air Force

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Launch Complex 19 — U.S. Air Force

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Launch Complex 26 — U.S. Air Force

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Launch Complex 34 — U.S. Air Force

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Mission Control Center — NASA

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ACRONYMS

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BOSU

Bioastronautics Operational Support Unit

CCAFS

Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

CIF

Central Instrumentation Facility

CRF

Canister Rotation Facility

DOD

Department of Defense

E&O

Engineering and Operations

EDL

Engineering Development Laboratory

ET

External Tank

FL

Florida

HABS

Historic American Building Survey

HAER

Historic American Engineering Record

HMP

Hypergol Module Processing

HSB

Hypergol Support Building

ISS

International Space Station

JSC

Johnson Space Center

KSC

Kennedy Space Center

LACB

Landing Aids Control Building

LC

Launch Complex

LPS

Launch Processing System

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LUT

Launch Umbilical Tower

MDD

Mate-Demate Device

MLP

Mobile Launcher Platform

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NASCAR

National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NHPA

National Historic Preservation Act

NRHP

National Register of Historic Places

OPF

Orbiter Processing Facility

RCS

Reaction Control System

SLF

Shuttle Landing Facility

SLS

Space Launch System

SR

State Road

SRB

Solid Rocket Booster

SSP

Space Shuttle Program

STS

Space Transportation System

TPSF

Thermal Protection System Facility

U.S.

United States

VAB

Vehicle Assembly Building

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INTRODUCTION This booklet describes the Historic Properties and Districts owned and managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that are listed or eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and are located at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The Register is the Nation’s official list of historic properties worthy of preservation, authorized under the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of 1966, and administered by the National Park Service. Properties listed in the Register include districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects that are significant in American history, architecture, and engineering. The distinguished properties are documented and evaluated according to uniform standards. The Register also includes landmarks that reflect the properties of the Nation’s space exploration programs, such as the CCAFS National Historic Landmark District. In July 2016, NASA KSC managed over 930 facilities and infrastructures, and 89 of these properties are determined eligible for listing in the NRHP. Forty-nine of these properties are individually and/or contributing resources currently listed in the NRHP in association with the Apollo program. Since 1968, every NASA human space flight program originated from KSC. The Space Shuttle Program (SSP) has been the longest running American space program to date. Unlike the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs, the emphasis for the SSP was on reusability for the next generation of vehicles, as well as carrying crews and cargo to the International Space Station (ISS) and beyond. The following space programs were conducted by NASA or are still on-going:

• Unmanned Space Programs (1958—present) • Project Mercury (1959—1963) • Project Gemini (1961—1972) • Project Apollo (1961—1972) • Skylab (1965—1979) • Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (1972—1975) • Space Shuttle Program (1972—2011)

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• International Space Station (1992—present) • Constellation Program (2005—2009) • Commercial Resupply Services (2006—present) • Commercial Crew Program (2010—present) • Beyond Low Earth Orbit Program (2010—present) • Space Launch System (2011—present)

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With the Federal and Agency mandates to reduce its footprint and limited funding to maintain its aging properties, KSC is consolidating its functions and technical capabilities to maintain a world class, multiuser commercial spaceport. This may affect a number of KSC’s properties that are awaiting their fate for reuse, repurpose, or modification to support a NASA, commercial, or Department of Defense (DOD) program. As stewards under the NHPA, NASA KSC has completed historic recordation efforts on all its managed properties. More information can be found on KSC’s Historic Properties and Districts at http://environmental.ksc.nasa.gov/projects/cultural.htm located on NASA KSC’s Cultural Resources Web site under the Historic American Building Survey / Historic American Engineering Record (HABS/HAER) Section.

“For time and the world do not stand still. Change is the law of life. And those who look only to the past, or the present, are certain to miss the future.” President John F. Kennedy

Glenn Semmel

Chief, Medical and Environmental Services Division 7/27/2017 Date NASA-OWNED HISTORIC PROPERTIES, DISTRICTS & LANDMARKS

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NASA-OWNED HISTORIC PROPERTIES

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This section describes 28 Historic Properties and their Contributing Resources managed by NASA KSC. Nineteen of these properties are eligible for listing in the NRHP due to their roles in the Apollo, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station programs. These properties are: •

Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB)

VAB Annex

Launch Control Center

Crawlerway

Crawler Transporter 1

Crawler Transporter 2

Press Site: Clock and Flagpole

Headquarters Building

Operations and Checkout Building

Central Instrumentation Facility

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KSC Historic Properties

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Map of NASA-owned Historic Properties Located at KSC and CCAFS

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Atlantis (OV-104)

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Construction Date: 1980—1984 Builder: Boeing/Rockwell International of Palmdale, California Weight: Approximately 154,670 pounds Flights: Thirty-three times in space Historic Significance: For its association with the SSP in the areas of Space Exploration, Transportation and Engineering HAER: TX-116 (No BR#) Atlantis was NASA’s fourth space-related orbiter that served as the crew’s home in space during both long and short missions. It was named after a research vessel for the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute in Massachusetts. Thanks to lessons learned in the construction and testing of previous orbiters (Enterprise, Columbia, and Challenger), Atlantis was completed in about half the time in man-hours that was spent on Columbia, and was nearly 3.5 tons lighter than Columbia. This was mainly attributed to the use of large thermal protection blankets on the orbiter’s upper body, rather than individual tiles requiring more attention. Prior to liftoff, Atlantis was attached to the Space Shuttle system that was composed of three main components (two Solid Rocket Boosters [SRBs] and one external tank) and three Space Shuttle main engines. She arrived at KSC on April 9, 1985, and over the next seven months prepared for her maiden voyage. Atlantis carried on the spirit of exploration with several important missions of her own. On October 3, 1985, Atlantis launched on her first space flight (Space Transportation System [STS]-51-J) with a classified payload for the DOD and later went on to carry four more DOD payloads. Atlantis also served as the on-orbit launch vehicle for many noteworthy spacecraft, including planetary probes Magellan and Galileo, as well as the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. In addition, an impressive array of onboard science experiments took place during most missions to further enhance space research in low Earth orbit. Starting with STS-71, Atlantis pioneered the Shuttle-Mir missions, flying the first seven missions docking with the Russian space station. When linked together, they formed the largest spacecraft in orbit at that time. The missions to Mir included the first on-orbit U.S. crew exchange, now a common occurrence on the ISS. On STS-79, the fourth docking mission, Atlantis ferried astronaut Shannon Lucid back to Earth after her record-setting 188 days in orbit aboard Mir. Atlantis delivered several vital components to the ISS, including the U.S. laboratory module, Destiny, as well as the Joint Airlock Quest and multiple sections of the Integrated Truss structure that makes up the station’s backbone. You can find Atlantis on display at the KSC Visitor Complex.

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Photo taken from a Space Shuttle simulator, 2004

Atlantis on display at the KSC Visitor Complex, 2013

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Banana River, Haulover Canal, and Indian River Bridges

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Construction Date: 1964—1965 Builder: B. B. McCormick and Sons of Titusville, Florida Length of Bridge: Approximately 225 feet for the Haulover Canal Bridge; 772 feet for the Banana River Bridge; and 2,993 feet for the Indian River Bridge Historic Significance: For their association with the Apollo program, SSP, and the ISS for Space Exploration, Community Planning and Development, Transportation, and Engineering HAER: FL-8-C (8BR2957) These three bridges were associated with the early 1960s development of KSC and contributed to the economic growth of the surrounding communities that spread south and west into Cocoa Beach, Cocoa, Titusville, and other areas. The main route into KSC was originally up State Road (SR) 3 prior to completion of the Indian River and Banana River bridges. Before the Banana River Bridge was built, driving from KSC to the CCAFS required some planning time due to its long travel route. From 1950—1960, the population of Brevard County grew from 23,653 to 111,435-an increase of 371 percent-making it one of the fastest growing counties in the country with no major city in the area to absorb this population boom. Construction of the bridges and other transportation infrastructure, along with dredging of the Banana River to create the NASA Causeway, was essential for the flow of thousands of new employees, building materials, and spacecraft parts to and from KSC. The Haulover Canal Bridge, located outside of the KSC-controlled access area in the northern part of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, replaced an existing onelane bridge. The Indian River Bridge, also located outside the controlled access area to the west, provides entry into the KSC Visitor Complex and to the KSC Industrial Area. The Banana River Bridge sits to the east between KSC and CCAFS. Each bridge features a double-leaf, simple trunnion bascule design that is found along Florida’s coast. The Haulover Canal Bridge and the Banana River Bridge (renamed the Roy D. Bridge Jr. Bridge in 2003) both operate on demand both operate on demand, whereas the Indian River Bridge does not open for normal boat traffic during morning and afternoon rush hours. The bridges are nearly identical and the key difference is the number of approach spans due to the width of the body of water they cross. The bridges will continue to bring in employees, cargo, and visitors to the space center.

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Haulover Canal Bridge, May 2013

Banana River Bridge, March 2014

Indian River Bridge, March 2014

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Beach House

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Construction Date: 1962 Builder: Unknown Square Footage: Approximately 2,675 square feet Historic Significance:  For its association with the Apollo program and the SSP for Space Exploration and training of Astronauts. HABS: FL-583-B (8BR2990) This was originally a modest two-story concrete and wooden frame beach house, built as part of the Neptune Beach Subdivision in Cape Canaveral, and typical for the Florida coast in the 1960s. Located on the eastern shoreline of KSC on the Atlantic Ocean, it faces a stretch of isolated beach and is surrounded by low dunes predominately covered in sea grapes, saw palmettos, and sea oats, as well as other vegetation. The first floor was built with a garage and storage area, as the second floor occupied a den, two bedrooms, small kitchen, bathroom, and an outside deck.   In 1963, NASA obtained the home, and later modified the property. The ground floor contains a finished living room with a small kitchen and a dining area. Two display cases are filled with ceremonial wine bottles and other beverage bottles decorated with flight mission stickers and astronauts’ signatures. The second floor is an open space used for planned meetings, allowing teams to focus on issues away from the office.  During the Shuttle-era, special events were held here for the astronauts to wish their spouses and families farewell. This was also the place where astronauts would rest from their intense training programs as a refuge before launches. The Beach House is also known as the Center Director’s Conference Building, and will continue to be used by KSC and its astronauts in the near future.

Beach House, June 2005

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Ceremonial wine bottles, July 2011

Original house, 1974

View of beach from deck, March 2007

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Bioastronautics Operational Support Unit

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Construction Date: 1965 Builder: Unknown Square Footage: Approximately 19,440 square feet Historic Significance: For its association with the Apollo program for Space Exploration HABS: FL-583-1 (8BR2095) This one-story facility was constructed for the U.S. Air Force. It housed the Gemini Launch Site Recovery Command Post, a group of military personnel trained to rescue astronauts in the event of an emergency.  Although no emergencies ever occurred during a manned space flight launch under Project Gemini and the Apollo program, this facility played a vital role in the U.S. Manned Space Program.  With a completely equipped surgical suite, it was the place where the Apollo 1 astronauts were first taken following the capsule fire during a simulation at Launch Complex (LC)-34 held on January 27, 1967.  It also housed the Pan American Weather Group, who monitored the weather during planned launch activities. NASA took over the building in December 1972. The north end of the facility conducted preflight physicals for the astronauts and medical exams and X-ray imaging for approximately 1,000 patients each month.  The south end contained a Planetary Quarantine Lab that tested the air and surface samples taken from the interiors of the spacecraft vehicles.  It validated the sterilization cycle of the Viking spacecraft to ensure the number of microorganisms on the spacecraft met the Planetary Protection requirements to prevent contamination.  These similar activities were also conducted for the Apollo lunar missions and later for the SSP missions.  In addition, the lab analyzed samples from the astronauts for occupational health wellness checks.  NASA demolished the building in 2013.

BOSU, February 2012

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Interior Hallway, 2013

Operating Room, 2013

Recovery Room, 1966

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Canister Rotation Facility

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Construction Date: 1992 Builder: Ivey’s Construction, Inc. of Merritt Island, Florida Square Footage: Approximately 25,121 square feet Historic Significance: For its association with the SSP for Space Exploration and Engineering HAER: FL-8-11-K (8BR2016) This facility supported the horizontal and vertical rotation of the payload canister in preparation for payloads that were installed in the Space Shuttle orbiter payload bay. These activities were previously performed in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), but later transferred to the Canister Rotation Facility (CRF) making it a more efficient process. The payloads were inserted either horizontally in the Orbiter Processing Facilities (OPFs) or vertically at the launch pads. The CRF contains an administrative office area and a 142-foot high bay. The high bay is designed as a 300,000-class clean room that houses a 100-ton bridge crane, four floor-mounted payload canister support stanchions, and other specialized equipment required for lifting operations. After delivery of the payload to one of the launch pads, the canister was returned to the CRF for reconfiguration for the next SSP mission. The facility is under a use permit with the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in support of the Orion vehicle for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) Program. The facility was renamed to the Launch Abort System Facility in 2012.

CRF, September 2011

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Canister rotated to a vertical position, 2011

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Central Instrumentation Facility

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Construction Date: 1965 Builder: Blount Brothers Construction Company of Montgomery, Alabama Square Footage: Approximately 137,000 square feet Historic Significance: For its association with the Apollo program for Space Exploration and Communication and its Architectural Style HABS: FL-581-B (8BR1692) This three-story structure was the hub of KSC’s Instrumentation, Timing, and Countdown Systems and housed computers for receiving, evaluating, and recording telemetry data from space launch vehicles, in addition to housing the Calibration and Standards Laboratories for the Center. The equipment was designed specifically for the Apollo program, although technicians learned that it was flexible enough to use for monitoring the Gemini launch vehicles, as well as the Atlas-Agena target vehicles. The antennas, mounted on top of the facility, gathered data from these vehicles as they passed over KSC.  This experience with the simpler, smaller-scale Gemini vehicles helped engineers and technicians practice for the more complicated Apollo missions.  With the advent of the SSP and the new Launch Processing System (LPS) developed in the mid-1970s, many of the original telemetry functions became obsolete.  The LPS was a single automated computer system that replaced multiple systems used in previous programs.  It supported the Checkout, Control, and Monitor Subsystem that included the operator-manned consoles in the firing rooms, the Central Data Subsystem, and the Record and Playback Subsystem that recorded unprocessed Shuttle instrumentation data during tests and launch countdowns that could be played back for post-test analysis. The Central Instrumentation Facility (CIF) is planned for demolition. 

CIF, June 1966

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Calibration/Pressure Laboratory, December 2012

Timing Room/countdown clock, December 2012

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Crawler Transporters

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Construction Date: 1964—1966 Builder: Marion Power Shovel Company of Marion, Ohio Size: Approximately 131 feet in length by 114 feet in width and 26 feet in height Historic Significance: For its association with the Apollo program and the SSP for Space Exploration, Transportation, and Engineering HABS: FL-8-11C (8BR1688) These two structures were believed to be the largest tracked vehicles in the world. They were constructed specifically for the task of transporting assembled space flight vehicles from the VAB to the launch pads - the round trip took approximately 12 hours. During the Apollo program and in preparation for flight, they carried the Launch Umbilical Tower (LUT) and the launch vehicle to the pad. Whereas for Shuttle, the fixed structures were already in place at the launch pads, awaiting the space flight vehicle. Each crawler, weighing approximately 6 million pounds, utilizes 4 pairs of tracks powered by 16 traction motors and controlled by 2 operator cabs. During Shuttle, each crawler was capable of carrying a weight of 12.6 million pounds. They moved at a maximum speed of 2 miles per hour unloaded and 1 mile per hour loaded with a turning radius of 500 feet. NASA plans to upgrade and reuse one of these structures in support of its SLS program.

Mobile Launcher Platform on top of Crawler Transporter, 2013

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Crawler Transporter, June 2011

Close-up of Crawler treads, September 2009

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Crawlerway

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Construction Date(s): 1963—1966 Builders: Blount Brothers Construction Company of Montgomery, Alabama, and M. M. Sundt Construction Company of Tucson, Arizona Size: Approximately 130 feet wide, comprised of two 40-foot wide tracks, and separated by a 50-foot wide grass median Distance to Pads: Extends 3.4 to 4.2 miles from the VAB to each launch pad (LC-39A and LC-39B, respectively) Historic Significance: For its association with the Apollo program and the SSP for Space Exploration, Transportation, and Engineering HAER: FL-8-11-P (8BR1689) This unique dual-lane surface structure was the roadway for transporting the Mobile Servicing Structure, LUT, Saturn rocket, and Crawler Transporter between the VAB and the launch pads for the Apollo program. It served as the same function in the transportation of the Space Shuttle stack. The Crawlerway is composed of four layers of materials with a combined depth of 8 feet. The top layer consists of river gravel - 8 inches deep at the curves and 4 inches deep on the straight section - and the second layer contains 4 feet of graded crushed stone. The third layer includes 2.4 feet of select fill, and finally, the fourth layer consists of 1 foot of compact fill.  Refurbishment of the track occurs every 15 to 20 years depending on its use.  From 1982 to 1984, NASA replaced all of the rocks, as well as some of the limestone bedding. In 2006, much of the rocks between the VAB and LC-39A were replaced.  The Crawlerway has undergone several other upgrades that will provide for a much smoother ride for the next generation of launch vehicles to the launch pads.

Close-up of Crawlerway rocks, April 2012

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Crawlerway, August 1996

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Flight Crew Training Building

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Construction Date: 1964—1966 Builder: Smith & Sapp Construction Company of Orlando, Florida Size: Approximately 68,775 square feet Historic Significance: For its association with the Apollo program for Space Exploration and Astronaut Training HABS: FL-581-C (8BR2969) This two-story building is modeled after the astronaut training facilities at JSC in Houston, Texas. It contains a high bay, low bay, offices, and laboratory areas. When the Apollo astronaut crews arrived at KSC approximately three months before launch, they were required to perform training on three simulators (the Command Module, the Service Module, and the Lunar Excursion Module) that were located in the high bay area. The key component of each simulator was the crew station, the inside of which was an exact replica of the spacecraft with control switches and instruments in the exact and operable position as it was in the flight vehicle. This training allowed the astronauts to become more familiar with the flight instrumentation, prepared them for specific mission activities, and gave them more confidence on how to handle any potential emergency situation that may arise in flight. In 1969 NASA constructed a simulation of the lunar surface called the Lunar Surface Training Area in the exterior southeastern corner of the building. Here, astronauts practiced and replicated conducting experiments as if on the Moon. They also trained with a one-gravity version of the Lunar Roving Vehicle over a roughly 1.1 mile course, referred to as the “rover racetrack.” Due to budget restrictions, NASA closed down the KSC training area after the Apollo 17 mission in December 1972. Later, in 1975, NASA dismantled the three simulators. Since 1985, the facility has been used as a laboratory and renamed to the Engineering Development Laboratory. The building continues to be in an active state for NASA’s upcoming missions.

EDL, June 2003

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Lunar Roving Vehicle, 1972

Lunar Module simulator, November 1966

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Headquarters Building

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Construction Date: 1965 Builders: Franchi Construction Company of Indian River City, Florida; East and West Additions: H. J. Construction Company of Orlando, Florida Size: Approximately 440,000 square feet Historic Significance: For its association with the Apollo program and the SSP for Space Exploration and its Architectural Style HABS: FL-581-A (8BR1691) This three- to four-story building with a front canopy and six wings was designed so it could be enlarged incrementally. It is the main administrative facility that houses the Center Director’s offices, as well as people engaged in scientific, engineering, and administrative work. It supported the majority of the Nation’s space programs, such as the Saturn C-1 and Advanced Saturn programs during Apollo, the Space Shuttle and Constellation programs, and now the planning of the Space Launch System. This is essentially the place where NASA KSC conducted all major meetings and made decisions for Center activities. During the Apollo program, it housed offices such as the Chief Counsel, Logistics Planning Branch, Ground Processing, Procurement, Design Engineering, Labor Relations/Human Resources, Weather Office/Hurricane Control Center, Quality Engineering and Control, Information Technology, and Communications Services, and today continues to house many supporting directorates for the Center. Employee services include an exchange store, barbershop, post office, library and archives department, credit union, and a cafeteria/snack bar. As part of the new Central Campus design, NASA is constructing a more modern, energy efficient seven-story building to consolidate functions in a central location. Upon completion of this new facility, the original Headquarters Building will be demolished.

Headquarters Building, May 1995

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Center Director’s office, November 2012

Aerial view showing the six wings of the building, November 2009

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Launch Control Center

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Construction Date: 1965 Builders: Morrison-Knudsen Company, Inc., Perini Corporation, and Paul Hardeman, Inc., all based in California Size: Approximately 230,436 square feet Historic Significance: For its association with the Apollo program and SSP for Space Exploration and Communication, and its Architectural Style HAER: FL-8-11-A (8BR1685) This four-story building provides launch support control during launch countdown activities. NASA KSC’s mission responsibilities are transferred to the Mission Control Center at JSC in Houston, Texas, once the SRBs are ignited at liftoff from the launch pads. The firing rooms have conducted 13 Apollo missions, 3 Skylab missions, and 1 Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission from 1967 to 1975. In addition, all SSP mission flights from 1981 to 2011 were conducted here, along with the Aries test flight (October 28, 2009) under the Constellation Program. The Constellation Program was cancelled in 2010, and replaced with the new SLS Program for NASA. The large windows mounted along the east wall provide a memorable view of the launch pads, as its vital operations are integral to the prelaunch preparation and launch of the space flight vehicles. The number of personnel required to support launch activities within the firing rooms has decreased over time. As technology is changing rapidly, NASA has upgraded its support equipment in the firing rooms in order to meet the goals and objects of a multiuser spaceport. You can find some of the historic consoles from these rooms on display throughout the U.S. The original exterior sun louvers and windows and the interior bow trusses have been replaced, with a portion of these items reused in NASA’s Propellants North Facility (2010). The facility remains in an active state and will support NASA future missions and its multiuser space flight launch activities.

Launch Control Center, April 2013

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Firing Room 4, May 2012

STS-133 launch from Firing Room 4, February 2011

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Mobile Launcher Platforms

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Construction Date: 1963—1967 Builder: Ingalls Iron Works of Birmingham, Alabama Size: Approximately 160 feet in length by 135 feet in width and 25 feet in height Historic Significance: For its association with the SSP for Space Exploration and Engineering HAER: FL-8-11-D (8BR2021) These three large structures served as a platform base for the vertical stacking operations of the Saturn launch vehicles during Apollo, and were later modified extensively for the SSP. Each Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP) is a two-story steel structure that carried the weight of a fueled Space Shuttle stack, or 13.72 million pounds. Decks A and B contain rooms for control and service panels and other necessary mechanical and electrical equipment. The roof, referred to as Deck 0, contains the blast area, the liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen Tail Service Masts, numerous blast shields, and sound suppression mechanisms, along with eight SRB supports. When stacking operations were completed within the VAB, a Crawler Transporter carried the MLP and launch vehicle to the launch pad for final flight preparation. During launch, the pyrotechnic bolts that attached the SRBs to their hold-down posts exploded, thus breaking the booster connections from the platform and allowing the vehicle to lift-off. If a NASA or commercial program cannot reuse these structures, then the MLPs will be disposed by NASA.

MLP, July 2011

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MLP supported by stands, September 2012

VAB and MLP, November 2012

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Operations and Checkout Building

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Construction Date: 1964 Builders: Paul Hardeman, Inc. of Stanton, California, and Morrison-Knudsen Company, Inc. of Los Angeles, California Size: Approximately 601,404 square feet Historic Significance: For its association with the Apollo program for Space Exploration, Engineering, and its Architectural Style HAER: FL-8-11-E (8BR1693) This three- to five-story building was originally used to assemble and test the Apollo spacecraft before launching. It housed the Florida operations of the Manned Spacecraft Center located in Houston, Texas, where it provided crew training, preflight preparations, and astronaut housing. It has an administrative area in the front and a high and low bay area in the back. In addition, it accommodated laboratories, medical facilities, and the Apollo mission highaltitude chambers that were used to assemble and test the integrated command, service, and docking modules in a simulated space environment. The Astronaut Crew Quarters, located on the third floor, provided a home away from home for the astronauts in the days leading up to flight. The Crew Quarters have a fully-equipped kitchen, dining room, gym, medical suite, bedrooms, and conference rooms. The building was later modified to support the SSP for horizontal payload processing. In 2007, all equipment and the Apollo Telescope Mount Clean Room from the Apollo era, except for the altitude chambers, were removed to make way for the processing of the Orion spacecraft. This included Workstands 2 and 3 (the Cargo Integration Test Equipment), Workstand 4 (the Experiment Integration Test Stand, north stand), and the Rack, Floor, and Pallet Stand (the mid-east stand). The high bay is leased to JSC with Lockheed Martin manufacturing the new Orion crew vehicle for NASA’s SLS Program. The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Program will carry astronauts beyond low Earth orbit and into deep space. In 2014, the building was renamed to honor Neil Armstrong, the first man on the moon.

Operations and Checkout Building, August 2009

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Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle in High Bay September 2014

Apollo 16 crew in suit room, April 1972

Facility renamed, July 2014

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Orbiter Payload Canisters

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Construction Date: 1978 Builders: Belko Steel of Orlando, Florida, and Specialty Maintenance and Construction, Inc. of Lakeland, Florida Size: Approximately 65 feet long by 22 feet wide by 18 feet 7 inches high Historic Significance: For its association with the SSP for Space Exploration, Transportation and Engineering HAER: FL-8-11-I (8BR2016) Designed to match the size of the orbiter cargo bay, these two large, environmentally-controlled containers safely transported the fully-integrated Space Shuttle payloads from various assembly and processing facilities to the launch pads. The payloads ranged from communications and scientific spacecraft to components for the ISS and were inserted into the canister either horizontally or vertically prior to delivery to the launch pads. The internal environmental control system was specifically designed to manage the temperature, pressure, and humidity for each payload. The empty canister weighed 107,000 pounds and held payloads up to 15 feet in diameter, 60 feet in length, and weighing a maximum of 65,000 pounds. The canisters were decommissioned and disposed of in late 2011.

Orbiter Payload Canister, September 2011

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The Orbiter Payload Canister is lifted toward the Payload Changeout Room, November 2000

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Parachute Refurbishment Facility

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Construction Date: 1964 Builder: Wellman-Lord Engineering of Lakeland, Florida Size: Approximately 35,758 square feet Historic Significance: For its association with the SSP for Space Exploration HAER: FL-8-11-Q (8BR2014) This one-story building supported the parachute processing for the Gemini and Apollo flights and later for the SSP. In 1968, it was known as the NASA News Center to house journalists and public relations activities. In the late 1970s, it was renovated and expanded to receive, clean, inspect, pack, store, and refurbish the pilot, drogue, and main parachutes used on the SRBs and for the drag parachute used during the Space Shuttle orbiter landings. Built under an exterior canopy were the massive washing and drying equipment with a monorail system that aided in the movement of the parachutes, each of which weighed approximately 2,100 pounds. In addition, this facility refurbished the thermal blankets and tested the materials used to repair the parachutes. NASA demolished the property in 2015.

Parachute Refurbishment Facility, March 2009

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Parachute ready for packing, June 2008

Overall view of facility, January 2010

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Press Site: Clock and Flag Pole

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Construction Date: 1964 Builder: Unknown Site Area: Approximately 12 acres Historic Significance: For its association with the Apollo program and the SSP for Space Exploration and Communication HAER: FL-8-11-N (8BR2014) This site serves as the primary area for news media coverage. It is historically associated with the launches in the minds of people worldwide, as they witnessed the Nation’s space missions during television launch broadcasts. It is still an integral facility used by media and guests during the countdown sequence, as the countdown clock marks the time to liftoff and the U.S. flag stands in the direct line of site of the launch pads. A grandstand was built in 1967 that seated approximately 350 people, and was later demolished in 2004. The historic clock’s mechanisms have been updated throughout the years, while the exterior shell with a digital read-out was original to the Apollo program and SSP. The retired historic clock is now on display at the entrance of the KSC Visitor Complex. In 2014, a new and modern multi-digital video screen replaced the aging historic clock, while keeping the look and feel of the original one. This site will be reused for NASA’s next space program.

Press Site, November 2009

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Original clock, January 2012

New clock, December 2014

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Rotation Processing and Surge Facility

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Construction Date: 1984 Builder: W&J Construction Company of Cocoa, Florida Size: Approximately 18,000 square feet Historic Significance: For its association with the SSP for Space Exploration and Engineering HAER: FL-8-11-G (8BR1997) This facility supported the inspection, rotation, and build-up of the SRB segments for the Space Shuttle stack, a vital function to the preparation of the launch vehicle; operations that were previously conducted in the VAB. It houses four workstations or build-up cells. When the segments arrived by railroad from Utah, technicians rotated them from a horizontal to a vertical position. The aft segment, unlike the other segments, required additional modifications and buildup with an aft skirt and exit cone. The Surge Buildings within the Complex held these segments until they were needed for final assembly in the VAB in preparation for flight. NASA is planning to reuse the facility for its next space program.

Conducting inspections, July 2007

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Rotation Processing and Surge Facility, November 2004

Delivery of booster segment, December 2010

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Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility, Manufacturing Building

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Construction Date: 1986 Builder: Booster Production Company, location unknown Size: Approximately 168,014 square feet Historic Significance: For its association with the SSP for Space Exploration HAER: FL-8-11-R (8BR1998) This two-story facility with three wings supported the fabrication, processing, and assembly of the SRB non-motor components for the Space Shuttle stack. It features a central high bay, machine shop, preparation area, and painting booth. It produced and refurbished the forward and aft skirts, the frustums, and other small components essential to the reusability of the Space Shuttle. Functions included the installation of electronic and guidance systems, integration of the SRB recovery parachutes, and automated checkout of the SRB electrical and guidance systems. In addition, the Thrust Vector Control System steering elements were assembled and tested here, along with the installation of the Range Safety Destruct System, parachute deployment, and booster separation functions. Under a separate property agreement, the building is currently being used by the Marshall Space Flight Center for solid rocket booster assembly and motor integration. The building was renamed to the Booster Fabrication Facility in 2013.

Manufacturing Building, date unknown

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Industrial robot with spray gun, March 2013

SRB aft skirts ready for flight, March 2013

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Space Station Processing Facility

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Construction Date: 1992 Builder: Metric Constructors, Inc. of Tampa, Florida Size: Approximately 522,313 square feet Historic Significance: For its association with the ISS for Space Exploration, Science and Engineering Contributing Resource: One contributing resource HAER: FL-8-11-M (8BR1997) This facility supported the preflight checkout and processing of the ISS flight hardware. It contains a high bay, a Payload Rack Checkout Unit Room, an airlock, and nine associated control rooms. The high bay housed a variety of ground support equipment, uniquely designed to meet the processing requirements of the flight hardware. The conductive, airbearing floor within the processing area provides infinite flexibility, eliminates buildup of static electricity, and provides ease of movement for relocating large equipment. A viewing gallery was constructed for visitors in 1997 to see up-close and first-hand the ongoing hardware processing activities for the ISS - this area is currently closed. As of 2016, all but three of the nearly four dozen components of the Space Station have undergone final preparations here. The three Russian components launched from Kazakhstan were Zarya, Pirs, and Poisk, which carried equipment, experiments, and supplies to the ISS. Many of these materials were brought back for unloading at the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). The first element processed was the Russian-built Mir-2 Docking Module flown aboard Atlantis during the STS-74 mission in 1995. The first U.S.-built element processed was Unity (Node 1) flown aboard Endeavour (STS-88) in 1998. The Ammonia Vapor Containment Building (No 8BR # and a contributing resource) sits east of the facility and houses the servicing equipment needed for processing the ISS elements that contain ammonia. Both facilities will be reused to support NASA’s next space program.

Preparing Global Positioning System satellite for launching, January 2016

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SSPF, February 2012

Countries contributing to the ISS, May 2009

Processing components for the ISS, November 2000

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Vehicle Assembly Building

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Construction Date: 1965 Builder: Blount Brothers Corp. of Birmingham, Alabama; American Bridge Division of U.S. Steel of Atlanta, Georgia; and the firms of Morrison-Knudsen Co., Inc., Perini Corp., and Paul Hardeman, Inc., all of California Size: Approximately 1,831,549 square feet Historic Significance: For its association with the Apollo program and the SSP for Space Exploration and Engineering Contributing Resource: Two contributing resources HAER: FL-8-11-B (8BR1684) Prior to 1965, the building was referred to as the “Vertical Assembly Building” and supported the stacking of the massive Saturn V rocket. Apollo 4, launched on November 9, 1967, was the first mission flight vehicle integrated in the VAB. In anticipation of the post-Saturn projects, such as the SSP, the VAB was used for the Shuttle’s flight hardware to mate the Space Shuttle orbiters to their SRBs and external fuel tanks. Once assembled, the complete Space Shuttle stack was supported by the MLP and transported by the Crawler Transporter to the launch pad. The interior of the building is comprised of four cells within each high bay area. It also has a low bay area and a transfer aisle. Each cell contains a combination of stationary and movable platforms set at various levels to provide access to the spacecraft. It is one of the largest, singlestory buildings in the world by volume at 3,665,883 cubic meters (129,459,435 cubic feet). Until 1974, it was one of the tallest buildings in Florida, and is still the tallest in the U.S. outside of an urban area. The VAB Annex (8BR3150) and the Barge Terminal Facility (8BR2986) are contributing resources to the VAB. High Bay 3 is being modified to support NASA’s next launch vehicle.

VAB, February 2015

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VAB transfer aisle, July 2014

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Vehicle Assembly Building Annex (Contributing Resource to the VAB)

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Construction Date: 1965 Builders: Joint venture of Morrison-Knudsen Company, Inc., Perini Corporation, and Paul Hardeman, Inc. of South Gate, California Size: Approximately 31,230 square feet Historic Significance: For its association with the Apollo program for Space Exploration and Engineering HAER: FL-8-11-B (8BR1684) This facility is a rectangular, one-story building with an open plan, mezzanine, and support area that provides utility service to the LC 39 and VAB areas. It controls the main heating, ventilation, air conditioning, fire protection services, and water system for these areas and other auxiliary facilities. The cooling towers are located outside of the Annex. A control room operates these services with the support of chillers, boilers, water pumps, fire suppression equipment, air compressors, and compressed air tanks. An electrical equipment room was built as an addition in 1996. Scheduled modifications are planned to modernize the historic control room equipment area. The Annex will be reused in the next space program for NASA.

VAB Annex, January 2013

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Control Room, January 2013

Chillers, January 2013

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Barge Terminal Facility (Contributing Resource to the VAB)

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Construction Date: 1965 Builders: Gahagan Dredging Corporation of Tampa, Florida, and R. E. Clarson, Inc. of St. Petersburg, Florida Size: Approximately 31,230 square feet Historic Significance: For its association with the Apollo program and the SSP for Space Exploration and Transportation HAER: FL-8-11-B (8BR1684) This facility is the focal point for the arrival of various stages of rocket components that were integrated into space flight vehicles for NASA. It contains a headwall, wharf, and pad area. The following space components arrived here or were sent off from this point: •

The first Apollo component (the AS-500F) test vehicles arrived aboard KSC1 barge on November 2, 1965.

The first stage of an actual flight vehicle that supported the Apollo 4 mission arrived on September 12, 1966.

The first SSP external tank (ET-1) used on STS-1 arrived aboard the Poseidon barge on March 28, 1979.

The last tank (ET-122) used on STS-134 arrived from the Pegasus barge on September 27, 2010.

Over a span of 31 years, approximately 136 external tanks were unloaded from this area.

The first and second stages of a Saturn 1B (the aft interface and spacecraft capsule) were delivered on April 5, 1978, to Tokyo, Japan, for an upcoming Space Science Exhibition.

A Space Shuttle orbiter replica, Explorer, was delivered to the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, on May 24, 2012. It is displayed on top of a Shuttle Carrier Aircraft.

It also supported deliveries of various SSP-era artifacts during the Space Shuttle Transition and Retirement process.

The Barge Terminal Facility will be reused in the next space program for NASA.

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Barge Terminal Facility, September 2006

Shuttle replica, Explorer, ready for transport to JSC, May 2012

Delivery of ET by barge, January 1997

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NASA-OWNED HISTORIC DISTRICTS

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A Historic District possesses a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, buildings, structures, or objects united historically or aesthetically by plan or physical development. All resources within a District are either contributing or non-contributing. The non-contributing resources can be found within the historic survey reports on NASA KSC’s Cultural Resources Management Web site at http://environmental.ksc.nasa.gov/projects/ cultural.htm under Surveys and Studies. Since the Apollo program, eight NASA-owned Historic Districts were found eligible for listing in the NRHP at KSC or CCAFS. This section describes those eight Districts by highlighting the facilities and processes conducted in support of NASA’s space programs. They are: •

Hypergol Maintenance and Checkout Area Historic District

LC-39A Historic District*

LC-39B Historic District*

NASA KSC Railroad System Historic District

NASA-owned Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Industrial Area Historic District

Orbiter Processing Historic District

Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) Historic District

Solid Rocket Booster Disassembly and Refurbishment Complex Historic District (known as Hangar AF Complex)

*NASA listed the “Missile Launch Complex 39A Site” in the NRHP on May 24, 1973, for its association with the Man in Space Program that included LC-39B. It was re-evaluated in 1996 in the context of the Apollo program (ca. 1961 through 1975) and re-listed in the NRHP on January 21, 2000.

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Historic Districts

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Map of NASA-owned Historic Districts Located at KSC and CCAFS

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Hypergol Maintenance and Checkout Area Historic District

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Construction Date: 1964 Builder: Unknown Size: Approximately 6,549 - 17,295 square feet Historic Significance: For its association with the SSP for Space Exploration Contributing Resources: Three contributing resources and one non-contributing resource HAER: FL-8-11-T (8BR2015) This District, originally known as the Fluid Test Area, consists of three properties: the Hypergol Module Processing (HMP) North (8BR1993), the HMP South (8BR2933), and the Hypergol Support Building (HSB), (8BR2000). HMP North and HMP South processed the hypergolic-fueled modules that comprised the orbiter’s Reaction Control System (RCS), Orbiter Maneuvering System, and the Auxiliary Power Units for the Space Shuttle main engines. The HSB housed the control room that monitored these operations, and a laboratory and data processing area conducted all non-hazardous test operations. Once inside the HMP, the Space Shuttle components underwent an inspection shakedown after each flight to check out, refurbish, and revalidate these systems. Lines were flushed and drained, however, if any discrepancies were found, they were replaced or repaired for the next flight. Technicians were suited in protective clothing due to the hazardous operations with the nature of the hypergolic fuels (monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide) that are toxic and can explode on contact, and vapor concentration monitors were placed throughout the facilities. In 2014, two of the three buildings (HMP North and the HSB) were demolished by NASA. With only one facility standing (HMP South), NASA removed the name of the Historic District with the concurrence of the Florida State Historic Preservation Office (2014). HMP South is currently scheduled for demolition activities. HMP South Hypergol Support Building

HMP North

Hypergol Maintenance and Checkout Area Historic District, July 1996

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HSB, June 2003

HMP South, March 2012

Forward RCS Module, March 2012

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Launch Complex 39A and 39B Historic Districts

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Construction Date(s): 1965 (LC-39A) and 1968 (LC-39B) Builder: Blount Brothers Corp. of Birmingham, Alabama Size: Octagon configuration, roughly .25 square miles Historic Significance: For its association with the Apollo program and the SSP for Space Exploration and Engineering Contributing Resources: Twenty-three contributing and 21 non-contributing resources HAER: FL-8-11-F (8BR1686, Launch Complex 39A or known as Pad A) These two Districts were designed to launch space vehicles into orbit and are similar in design. Since becoming operational, LC-39A (8BR1686) has performed 95 missions and LC-39B (8BR1687) has performed 55 space flight missions.  The first launch from Pad A (Apollo 4) lifted off on November 9, 1967, and the first launch from Pad B (Apollo 10) was on May 18, 1969.  During the SSP-era, the tall structures elevated on top of the launch pad’s hardstand were comprised of the Fixed Service Structure, the Rotating Service Structure, Flame Deflectors, and the Service Access Tower with Payload Rooms.  The property types within the Districts contain Electrical Equipment Buildings, Camera Pads, Hypergol Fuel and Oxidizer Facilities, a Water Chiller Building, a Slidewire Termination Facility, an Azimuth Alignment Station, an Operations Support Building, a Flare Stack, a Water Tank, Liquid Hydrogen and Oxygen Facilities, a Foam Building, a Pump House, a Compressed Air Building, a Remote Air Intake Building, and a High Pressure Gaseous Hydrogen Facility.   LC-39A and LC-39B are currently undergoing modifications in support of future NASA and commercial launches. NASA will conduct launches for the SLS program from LC-39B, and and SpaceX has begun launching its Falcon 9 rocket (and soon will launch its Falcon Heavy rocket) from LC-39A. In 2011 the fixed two piece tower structures (the Fixed Service Structure and the Rotating Service Structure) were removed along with other contributing resources from LC-39B.  LC-39A has retained most of its contributing resources after the removal of the Gaseous Oxygen Vent Arm (nicknamed the “beanie cap”) and the White Room attached to the Orbiter Access Arm used to enter the Space Shuttle orbiter. Both were supported by the pad’s Fixed Service Structure. In 2015 LC-39C was added within the LC-39B Historic District to accommodate smallclass vehicles, taking the name “LC-39C” from a planned third Apollo pad that was never constructed.

Launch from Titusville, date unknown

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Aerial view of LC-39A (foreground) and LC-39B, March 2006

LC-39A (foreground) and LC-39B, May 2009

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NASA KSC Railroad System Historic District

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Construction Date(s): 1963—1965 (track) and 1963 (bridge) Built Date of Locomotives: 1968 (Locomotive #1) and 1970 (Locomotives #2 and #3) Built Date of Aft Skirt Railcar: 1985 Builder of R/R Track: Florida East Coast Railway Track Size: Approximately 19 miles Historic Significance: For its association with the SSP for Space Exploration and Transportation Contributing Resources: Seven contributing resources HAER: FL-8-A (8BR2932) This District consists of the Jay Jay Bridge (8BR2906), railroad track (8BR2931), three locomotives (8BR2923, 8BR3043, and 8BR3044), and two 70-ton Aft Skirt railcars (8BR2908 and 8BR3042). The rail transportation system contributed to the development of KSC by bringing in rough aggregate, cement, and river rock for the construction of the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) and the Crawlerway. In addition, it delivered fuel, SRB segments from Utah, and the SRB Aft Skirts from California. The bridge is a single-leaf, bascule type that provides entry into KSC over the Indian River. The three used, multi-purpose, switching locomotives were purchased in 1984 by NASA and repainted in 2008. Locomotives #1 and #2 were painted with a red, black, and gray color scheme, and Locomotive #3 was painted with a black, blue, and white color scheme with red stripes. The two Aft Skirt railcars, referred to as the “Carnival Cars,” are the only ones of their kind in the world. NASA transferred or disposed of most of the railcars between 2014 and 2015. Locomotive #1 was transferred to Natchitoches Parish Port in Natchitoches, Louisiana; Locomotive #2 and one 70-ton Aft Skirt railcar were transferred to the Gold Coast Railroad Museum in Miami, Florida, and are on display; and Locomotive #3 was transferred to the Madison Railroad in Madison, Indiana, for reuse. NASA is retaining the second 70-ton Aft Skirt railcar for reuse in the next space program.

Aerial view of the Jay Jay Draw Bridge, August 2010

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Jay Jay Bridge and Locomotive #3, December 2010

Locomotive #1, January 2012

70-ton Aft Skirt Railcar, date unknown

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NASA-owned Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Industrial Area Historic District

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Construction Date(s): 1957—1979 Builders: Engineering and Operations (E&O) Building - Biltmore Construction Company and R. E. Clarson, Inc. of St. Petersburg, Florida; Hangar AF Complex - Douglass Aircraft Company, Boeing Aircraft Company, and Bendix Corporation, Inc., location unknown; and for the rest of the District, builders unknown Size: Hangar N - 43,062 square feet; Little N - 5,300; Hangar M Annex - 20,510; Solar Array Test Building - 1,186; E&O Building - 36,488; Hangar AE - 40,333; Hangar S - 41,666; and Hangar AF Complex - 11,581 square feet, plus 214 linear feet for the hangar slip Historic Significance: For their association with Project Mercury, Expendable Launch Vehicle Program, and the SSP for Space Exploration and its Architectural Style Contributing Resources: Sixteen contributing and three non-contributing resources HABS/HAER: FL-583-F/Hangar M Annex (8BR2972); FL-583-E/Solar Array Test Building (8BR2799); FL-583-C/E&O Building (8BR2975); FL-8-B/Hangar AE (8BR2976); FL-583-D/ Hangar S (8BR3070); and FL-8-11-B/Hangar AF Complex (8BR3073) This District consists of Hangar N (8BR3069), Little N Storage Building (8BR2190), Hangar M Annex, the Solar Array Test Building, the E&O Building, the Missile Assembly Building AE, Hangar S, and nine properties within the Hangar AF Complex, all located on CCAFS. Overall, the buildings have functional industrial vernacular designs. Hangar M Annex and the E&O Building display modern designs, derived from the International style that was popular in the 1950s and 1960s military and institutional buildings, and share a standardized characteristic with an overall distinctive look and feel. For safety reasons, these facilities were grouped together away from the seaside launch complexes. Approximately 14 percent of the buildings on CCAFS are owned by NASA, with the remainder owned and managed by the U.S. Air Force. The unmanned and manned space flight missions of NASA and the Air Force have overlapping histories, and a number of buildings have changed hands between the two agencies. The functions for these facilities range from engineering and administration to vehicle processing. In 2016 NASA owned Hangar AE, Hangar S, and Hangar AF Complex, while Hangar M Annex and the Solar Array Test Building have been demolished. Hangar S is scheduled for for transfer to the Air Force in 2017. The E&O Building, Hangar N, and the Little N Storage Building were transferred to the Air Force in 2014 and 2015. The remaining NASA-owned buildings will support NASA’s next space missions.

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View of Hangar S and Hangar Road, May 2013

Hangar N Little N Storage Building

Hangar N/Little N, 1962

E&O Building

Hangar M Annex

Hangar AF

Hangar S Missile Assembly Building AE Solar Array Test Building

CCAFS Industrial Area, 1973

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Orbiter Processing Historic District

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Construction Date(s): 1977 (Orbiter Processing Facility [OPF-1/2]) and 1987 (OPF-3) Builders: OPF-1/2 - Frank Briscoe Company of New Jersey; OPF-3 - W&J Construction Company of Cocoa, Florida; and SSMEPF - Ivey’s Construction Company of Merritt Island, Florida Size: Approximately 511,554 square feet Historic Significance: For its association with the SSP for Space Exploration and Engineering Contributing Resources: Three contributing resources HABS/HAER: FL-8-11-O (8BR1990) This District consists of OPF-1/2 (8BR1991), OPF-3 (8BR1992), and the Thermal Protection System Facility (TPSF), (8BR1994) that supported the SSP preflight and postlanding orbiter processing activities. All five Space Shuttle orbiters were processed in OPF-1/2 and OPF-3.  Similar in design, each OPF contained a high bay with stationary and movable platforms, set at various levels, to provide access to the major areas of the Space Shuttle orbiter.  After the Columbia and Challenger accidents each bay was dedicated to a specific orbiter: OPF-1 housed Atlantis, OPF-2 housed Endeavour, and OPF-3 housed Discovery.  The Space Shuttle Main Engine Processing Facility was an addition to OPF-3 that contained a high and low bay for the preparation of engine components and avionics verification for the Space Shuttle orbiters.  These activities were previously conducted within the VAB where the solid rocket motors were handled and processed.  Much like the OPFs, platforms were fitted around the engines to provide access for technicians.  Approximately 50,000 parts composed a main engine and about 7,000 of these were tracked periodically for replacement.  Both OPFs are being used for space hardware processing by non-NASA entities: OPF 1/2 is used by the U.S. Air Force for X-37B processing, and OPF 3 (now known as the Commercial Crew and Cargo Processing Facility) is leased to Space Florida and used by Boeing for the manufacturing and testing of the company's CST-100 Starliner spacecraft.  The TPSF is a contributing resource to the OPF Historic District.

OPF-1/2, June 1996

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Workers in OPF-1 prepare Atlantis for transfer to the VAB, October 2009

Atlantis in OPF-1, October 2009

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Thermal Protection System Facility (Contributing to the Orbiter Processing Historic District)

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Construction Date: 1988 Builder: Holloway Construction of Titusville, Florida Size: 44,000 square feet Historic Significance: For its association with the SSP for Space Exploration HAER: FL-8-11-L (8BR1994) This two-story building was used for manufacturing and repairing of the thermal protection system (tiles) and thermal control system for the Space Shuttle orbiters, which included the gap fillers, insulation blankets, coatings, and adhesives. Construction of the TPSF was set to begin in 1980, but it was delayed until 1986 for unidentified reasons. Prior to the construction of the TPSF, most Thermal Protection System work was being done at Rockwell International’s plant in Downey, California (roughly 2,200 miles from KSC), or at temporary quarters in KSC. Although the facility was officially declared open at its ribbon cutting ceremony (May 2, 1988), final checkouts and installation of equipment continued until August of that year. Tile manufacturing was first completed here in 1994; blanket manufacturing did not occur until 2004. Each tile was unique, with a serial number to identify its location on the vehicle, and underwent a process that took it from raw materials to a finished product. Gap fillers and insulation blankets were assembled from premade fabrics and the final products were installed in the OPFs. Approximately 24,300 tiles and 2,300 insulation blankets were installed on the outside of each orbiter. NASA has donated approximately 7,000 Space Shuttle orbiter tiles to schools, universities, and museums for educational use. The facility will be reused for NASA’s SLS Program, as tiles for the Orion spacecraft are under production here.

TPSF, February 2014

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Gap filler being removed, August 2005

Close-up of orbiter tile, February 2011

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Shuttle Landing Facility Historic District

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Construction Date: 1976 (Runway and Landing Aids Control Building [LACB]) and 1977-1978 (Mate-Demate Device [MDD]) Builders: Runway/MDD - Morrison Knudson, Inc. of Dorien Connecticut and LACB - Reinhold Construction Company of Cocoa, Florida Size: Runway - 4,500,000 square feet; LACB - 4,560 square feet; and MDD - 105 feet in length by 93 feet wide and 106 feet in height Historic Significance: For its association with the SSP for Space Exploration, Transportation and Engineering Contributing Resources: Three contributing resources HAER: FL-8-11-J (8B1996, Runway); (8BR1988, LACB); and (8BR1989, MDD)

MDD

LACB

Shuttle Runway

SLF Runway 33 aerial view, April 2012

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SLF Runway

KHB-1201

(Contributing to the SLF Historic District)

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The SLF Runway supported the launch and landing operations for the Space Shuttle orbiter, or as a return from landing site when weather or other issues warranted the use of Edwards Air Force Base in California as the primary landing site. It is approximately 15,000 feet by 300 feet wide (excluding its 1,000-foot overruns at each end), with a thickness of 16 inches at the center and 15 inches on each side. The thickness calculations were determined by the Space Shuttle orbiter’s speed (~303 miles per hour) to accommodate for the weight of the vehicle. It is one of the longest runways in the world, has been utilized as the operational home for F-104 Starfighters and as a testing area for NASCAR’s (the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing) performance cars, among other uses.

STS-89 Endeavour Landing, January 1998

Endeavor/Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) on SLF Runway, September 2012

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Mate-Demate Device

(Contributing to the SLF Historic District)

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This facility provided the structural support for the attachment…of the Space Shuttle orbiter from the SCA. It had an open steel truss frame with six deck levels located at the 4-, 20-, 40-, 60-, 80-, and 100-foot levels, and two sets of movable platforms located at the 15- and 44foot levels. It featured two orbiter side access platforms that could be raised and lowered to provide access to the Space Shuttle orbiter within the first 60 feet.  Between these platforms was the Space Shuttle orbiter lifting sling that attached to the orbiter in order to lift it with the assistance of three 50-ton hoists.  It was first used to detach Columbia on March 24, 1979, upon delivery from California. The facility at KSC was demolished in 2014. 

Space Shuttle orbiter, 747, and MDD, April 2012

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Landing Aids Control Building (Contributing to the SLF Historic District)

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This single-story building served as the control center for flight operations supporting the reentry landings of the Space Shuttle orbiters. It functioned as the main organizational hub for fire and rescue operations, security officers, safety and medical teams, and other KSC support operations during both landing and takeoff in the event of an emergency return-to-launchsite maneuver. Its large, fixed windows allowed the flight controllers and others to view the on-going activities for the SLF Runway and the MDD, and it contains equipment associated with these activities. It also supported astronaut training exercises for the SSP. In 2015, NASA signed a 30-year property agreement with Space Florida for the operations and management of the SLF Historic District.

Landing Aids Control Building, April 2011

Control Room, April 2011

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Solid Rocket Booster Disassembly and Refurbishment Complex Historic District

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Construction Date: 1963—1992 Builders: Hangar AF - Douglass Aircraft Co., Boeing Aircraft Co., and Bendix Corporation, Inc., location unknown Size: Approximately 11,581 square feet plus 214 linear feet for the slip Historic Significance: For its association with the SSP for Space Exploration Contributing Resources: Nine contributing and 11 non-contributing resources HAER: FL-8-11-S (8BR1996) This District, known as the Hangar AF Complex, consists of Hangar AF (8BR2001), the High Pressure Gas Facility (8BR2002), the High Pressure Wash Facility (8BR2002), the First Wash Building (8BR2004), the SRB Recovery Slip (8BR2005), the SRB Paint Building (8BR2006), the Robot Wash Building (8BR2007), the Thrust Vector Control Deservicing Building (8BR2008), and the Multi-Media Blast Facility (8BR2009). These facilities supported the processing of the SRBs, which were components of the Space Shuttle stack. Most of these buildings were designed for processing SRBs from prelaunch manufacture and assembly to post-launch recovery, disassembly, cleaning, and refurbishment in preparation for their next use. It is also contributing to the NASA-owned CCAFS Industrial Area Historic District. The SRB Recovery Slip was transferred to the U.S. Air Force in 2014, the First Wash Building and the Robot Wash Building were demolished by NASA in 2012, and the others are awaiting their fate for reuse in the next space program.

SRB enters First Wash Building, October 2009

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SRB Paint Bldg. High Pressure Wash Bldg. Robot Wash Facility Hangar AF

First Wash Bldg.

SRB Recovery Ship

Aerial View of Hangar AF Complex, 1983* *The photo does not show the Thrust Vector Control Deservicing Building (scheduled for demolition), the Multi-Media Blast Facility, or the High Pressure Gas Building, which were built later.

Technicians inspect a spent SRB, October 2009

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CAPE CANAVERAL AIR FORCE STATION NATONAL HISTORIC LANDMARK DISTRICT

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The Cape Canaveral Air Force Station National Historic Landmark District consists of launch pads, control rooms, and contributing resources. The District was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1984 from the Man in Space Study conducted by the National Park Service. This section describes six sites that are owned by NASA and the U.S. Air Force—LC-13 was delisted, date unknown. They are: •

LC 5/6

LC 14

LC 19

LC 26

LC 34

Mission Control Center

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Map of Cape Canaveral Air Force Station National Historic Landmark District (highlighted in green)

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Launch Complex 5/6 — NASA

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Construction Date: 1954 Builder: Unknown Size of Area: Approximately four acres Historic Significance: For its association with the Intermediate-Range Ballistic Missiles, including the Redstone, Pershing, Polaris/Poseidon, and Thor vehicles HAER: N/A This site shares a single blockhouse with dual pads and was associated with the Redstone, Jupiter, Jupiter A, Jupiter C, and the Juno I and II vehicles that supported the Explorer, Beacon, Pioneer, and Mercury programs. Twenty-three launches were conducted from Pad 5 between July 19, 1956 and July 21, 1961. Eighteen Redstone launches were conducted from Pad 6 between April 20, 1955 and June 27, 1961. Below are some additional highlights from these sites: •

Jupiter C launched Explorer 3, 4, and 5, plus one test flight from Pad 5 between September 20, 1956, and August 24, 1958. In addition, two Jupiter C rockets were launched from Pad 6 between May 15, 1957, and August 8, 1957.

Juno I was launched from Pad 5 on October 23, 1958. Juno II launched Pioneer 3, 4, and 8 from Pad 5 between December 6, 1958, and October 13, 1959.

Four Jupiter launches were conducted from Pad 5 between October 1, 1959, and February 5, 1960.

The first Mercury Capsule 1 was launched on a Redstone Rocket from Pad 5 on November 21, 1960.

The first Chimpanzee “Ham” was launched from a Mercury Redstone from Pad 5 on January 31, 1961.

The first manned suborbital Mercury launch was conducted from Pad 5 on May 5, 1961, with Alan Shepard becoming the first American in space. The second manned suborbital Mercury launch was conducted from Pad 5 on July 21, 1961, with Gus Grissom in Liberty Bell 7.

LC 5/6 blockhouse (repurposed into a museum), 2005

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Alan Shepard launched on Freedom 7, May 1961

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Launch Complex 14 — U.S. Air Force

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Construction Date: 1956 Builder: Unknown Size of Area: Approximately one acre Historic Significance: For its association with the Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles, including the Atlas, Titan, Juno, and Saturn vehicles HAER: HAER FL-8-7 This site was associated with the Atlas A, Atlas B, Atlas D, Atlas-Able, Mercury-Atlas, and the Atlas-Agena vehicles that supported the Pioneer, Midas, Project Mercury, and Project Gemini programs. Thirty-two launches were conducted between June 11, 1957, and November 11, 1966. Below are some additional highlights from this site: •

Chimpanzee “Enos” was the first living creature launched into Earth orbit from the U.S. on November 29, 1961.

John Glenn, aboard Friendship 7, became the first American to orbit the Earth on February 20, 1962.

From 1962 to 1963, John Glenn, Scott Carpenter, Walter Schirra, and Gordon Cooper became the first four astronauts who manned the orbital Mercury flights.

On November 10, 1964, this site was dedicated in honor of the “Original Seven” astronauts (Scott Carpenter, Gordon Cooper, John Glenn, Gus Grissom, Wally Schirra, Alan Shepard, and Deke Slayton).

The astronomical symbol on the monument (photo on page 79, bottom right) represents the planet Mercury. A time capsule buried in this same location contains photos, film footage, capsule blueprints, and technical documents from the Mercury program, along with John Glenn’s Marine Corps pilot wings, and is scheduled to be opened in the year 2464 (500 years after conclusion of the Mercury program).

Out of the four Atlas pads, it was the only pad where a booster never exploded.

In 1998, the blockhouse was later repurposed into a conference facility.

Entrance into LC-14, August 2007

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Commemorative sign at entrance, June 2010

Launch of Friendship 7, 1962

Mercury 7 Monument, 1964

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Launch Complex 19 — U.S. Air Force

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Construction Date: 1959 Builders: Corps of Engineering and Martin Company, with subs MacDonald Construction Company and Diversified Construction Company of California Size of Area: Approximately six acres Historic Significance: For its association with the Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles, including the Atlas, Titan, Juno, and Saturn vehicles HAER: N/A This site was used by NASA to launch 12 Gemini missions - 2 unmanned test missions followed by 10 manned missions. The goals of the missions were to subject man and equipment to space flight up to two weeks in duration, rendezvous and dock with orbiting vehicles, and perfect methods of entering the atmosphere and landing at a preselected point on Earth. The infrastructure on the launch pad utilized a booster erector to lift the vehicle from a horizontal to vertical position so the vehicle could be attached to the launching base. An environmentally-controlled White Room was located at the top of the booster erector that was used in processing the spacecraft. Prior to launch, the erector was lowered to its horizontal position. The complex closed on November 11, 1966, following the departure of Gemini XII launch. The Gemini White Room has been partially restored and is on display at the Air Force Space & Missile Museum located at LC-26.

White Room, 2003

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Booster erector lowered prior to launch, August 1965

Gemini 10 launch time exposure, July 1966

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Launch Complex 26 — U.S. Air Force

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Construction Date: 1956 Builder: Unknown Size of Area: Approximately 72 acres Historic Significance: For its association with the Intermediate-Range Ballistic Missile, including the Redstone, Pershing, Polaris/Poseidon, and Thor vehicles HAER: HAER FL-8-2 This site consists of two pads (LC-26A and LC-26B) and was associated with the Redstone, Jupiter, Jupiter C, Juno I, and Juno II vehicles that supported the Explorer, Bioflights, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Combat Launch Training, and Beacon programs. The Jupiter missiles were launched by the NATO combat unit, and crews from Italy and Turkey evaluated capabilities of launching under operational alert conditions. Thirty-six launches were conducted between August 28, 1957, and January 22, 1963. Below are some additional highlights from this site: •

Pad A was used for the Jupiter C and Juno I rockets; Pad B was used for the Juno II rockets, and both pads were used for the Jupiter Intermediate-Range Ballistic Missile launches.

Explorer I was the first U.S. satellite launched from Pad A on January 31, 1958.

Two Bioflights carrying three monkeys were launched to determine if human life could be sustained in the space environment. Gordo was launched on December 13, 1958, and Able and Miss Baker were launched on May 28, 1959.

On November 20, 1964, the site was repurposed for use as a museum, which eventually became known as the Air Force Space and Missile Museum.

LC-26 blockhouse (repurposed into a museum), 2012

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Control Room, 2005

Scale to weigh rockets, 2012

Explorer 1, January 1958

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Launch Complex 34 — U.S. Air Force

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Construction Date: 1961 Builders: Diversified Buildings, Inc. and Kaiser Steel Corporation’s Fabricating Division of Montebello, California, and Henry C. Beck Company of Palm Beach, Florida Size of Area: Approximately 79 acres Historic Significance: For its association with the Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles, including Atlas, Titan, Juno, and Saturn vehicles HAER: HAER FL-8-6 This site was associated with the Saturn I and Saturn IB vehicles that supported Project Highwater and Project Apollo. A total of seven launches were conducted between October 27, 1961, and October 11, 1968. The umbilical tower and service structure have been removed, leaving only the launch platform standing at the center of the pad that serves as a memorial to the crew of Apollo 1. Below are some additional highlights from this site: •

On January 27, 1967, it was the site where the capsule fire took the lives of the Apollo 1 astronauts (Roger B. Chaffee, Virgil I. “Gus” Grissom, and Edward H. White II).

On October 11, 1968, this was the place where the first U.S. three-man mission was conducted with the Apollo 7 astronauts (Don Elsele, Walter Cunningham, and Walter Schirra), and it was the last manned launch from CCAFS. All subsequent manned missions were conducted from KSC at LC-39.

This was the site that held the first live television broadcast that took place for the manned American spacecraft.

Launch Platform, January 2013

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Apollo 1 Crew, January 1967

NASA-OWNED HISTORIC PROPERTIES, DISTRICTS & LANDMARKS


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Saturn I, 1961

Apollo 7 Mission, October 1968

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KHB-1201

Mission Control Center — NASA

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Construction Date: 1956 — 1958 Builder: Carlson-Ewell, location unknown Square Footage: Approximately 30,837 square feet Historic Significance: For its association with Project Mercury HAER: FL-8-AV This site was associated with the first U.S. mission control for both unmanned and manned space programs. First called Mercury Control, later renamed Mission Control, it housed the program's critical launch equipment. The front wall of the control room was dominated by a worldwide map and two large projector boards. The map used a series of circles to pinpoint tracking stations, and a miniature spacecraft model, suspended by wires, traced the spacecraft’s orbital path. The projector boards were used to display flight measurements plotted by sliding beads. Teams inside the facility controlled both suborbital and orbital missions, including all flights launched aboard Redstone and Atlas rockets, as well as the first three Gemini flights on Titan II vehicles. After mission control functions were relocated to Houston, Texas, the facility provided backup for the initial launch and trajectory. The original consoles, tracking map, and essential components were removed for historic preservation and some of these components can be found at the KSC Visitor Complex. NASA demolished the facility in 2010, and a historic marker stands in its place.

Aerial View of Mission Control Center, 1962—1963

Historic Marker, 2011

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Mission Control Center, December 1963

Mission Control Room, October 1962

Alan Shepard works as capsule communicator, July 1961

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PREPARED BY: Spaceport Integration and Services Medical and Environmental Services Division Environmental Management Branch Environmental Planning Group

This booklet was prepared to highlight the Historic Properties and Districts owned and managed by NASA KSC, including the CCAFS National Historic Landmark District shared by NASA and the U.S. Air Force. A special thanks to the Abacus/Information Management Communication Support group for the design and publication of the booklet and to the writers and editors that included Nancy English and Natasha Darre, Cultural Resources Management Specialists; Elaine Liston, KSC Archivist; Barbara Naylor, KSC Historic Preservation Officer; and others.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration John F. Kennedy Space Center Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899 www.nasa.gov SP-2017-07-833-KSC

NASA-owned Kennedy Space Center Historic Properties and Districts 2017  

This booklet describes the Historic Properties and Districts owned and managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) t...

NASA-owned Kennedy Space Center Historic Properties and Districts 2017  

This booklet describes the Historic Properties and Districts owned and managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) t...

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