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TO OLS FOR ARCHIT ECTURE H U M A N B E H A V I O UR A A I N T E R M E D I AT E O N E LARA LESMES + FREDRIK HELLBERG


TOOLS FOR ARCHITECTURE

A A

I N T E R M E D I A T E

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T O O L S

F O R

ARCHITECTURE

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B E H A V I O U R

Cover Image: The Invisible City of Overlapping Realities. Max Celar.

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O N E


Human Behaviour

for humans we must understand

up designing us back.

ourselves – our investigations will

Intermediate 1 –

emphasise how humans inhabit

Tools for Architecture – designs

space and speculate on its many

from the inside–out, beginning

possible alterations. Simulating the spatial

architecture, working our way

experience in real-time using

towards the immediate space

virtual digital models will give us

around the body, then towards

insight into our mental and bodily

elements of a building system

understanding of architecture.

that can generate experience

Building a vocabulary that

across multiple places and for

can objectively describe

different purposes.

architectural experiences

This year we will look at the

will enable us to accurately

relationship between space and

design them. Designing and

behaviour, focusing in ontological

resolving building systems to

terms on the feedback loop that

deliver such experiences will

exists between us and what we

give us the chance to learn

design. From the first primitive

from the past and imagine the

hut to the ISS, it is increasingly

future of construction. And our

difficult to draw the line between

collaborations with professionals

us and architecture. The

in the fields of psychology,

boundaries get blurred. Maybe

neurology, VR and sense-analysis

we are the architecture we

technologies will give us insight

design. With this in mind – and

into the worlds to come.

ONE

with the psychological effects of

INTERMEDIATE

W

hat we design ends

with a firm belief that to design / 05


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TOOLS FOR ARCHITECTURE

Isotropic Space of Freedom. Yana Kushpitovska.

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Human Behaviour

TFA

believes

that

TFA understands that

in

the most fundamental

the

will

work

purpose of architecture

architecture will always

new

and

is to protect and comfort

be

more accurate linguistic

the

but

reality and will explore

system to describe and

believes that its driving

the power of ideology in

create space

force is to serve the

architecture

ideas

are

words

and

towards

a

formed

human

body

TFA

believes

that

perception

of

stronger

than

its

architectural

supports

considers

TFA

embraces

and

to

virtual inhabitation as

celebrates the potential

exist in their own right

relevant as its physical

in the new nearly urban-

and without restriction

counterpart,

sized

by focussing on tools

psychology

of

(building systems) rather

perception

our

than ends (buildings)

frontier as architects

TFA

ideas

TFA

recognizes

TFA

and

the

spatial final

as

megastructures

the

contemporary

pioneers of immersive experiences

believes

that

mastering

of

TFA

the

discipline is a collective

geometry is imperative

thickening

continuum and believes

for

modern

that our visions of the

meaningful and efficient

a fascinating world of

future are deeply rooted

architecture

increasing

complexity

in our knowledge from

ultimately

responsible

the past

for the qualities of space

making

of

lies

within

that

that architecture as a

the

what

believes

INTERMEDIATE

TFA

ONE

human mind

the

section

of

buildings

is

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// HUMAN BEHAVIOUR //

evolve.

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Behaviour is a part of architecture, just as much as

// MIND AS SITE //

architecture plays a role in how we

As perceived through the

behave. Often architecture finds its

senses, architecture is ultimately

limit to evolve where the limit of

an experience. Beyond plans and

acceptable behaviour is.

sections, narratives, construction

The way we live and the way we build are both in constant parallel change. In renaissance Italy, homes with numerous connections between rooms were the ideal; with bedrooms having as many as four doors connecting to other parts of the house1. Until the early middle ages in northern Europe entire tribes slept in the same room with a tall pitched roof above to collect the smoke from the fire. The way we live and the way we build are both in constant parallel change. In order for architecture to evolve, human behaviour has to

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details and beyond materials;


Human Behaviour

If we focus on designing the experience of architecture, the human mind is the site.

architecture is an accumulation of perceived sensations brought together in each of our minds. Thus, if we focus on designing the experience of architecture, the human mind is the site, and designing for human experience means designing architecture according to cognitive principles. // ONTOLOGY // Furthermore, the built environment is central to the formation of our identities2. Our

and respond to the places we occupy. This creates a loop, particularly interesting in those who both design

INTERMEDIATE

and our minds change as we learn

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memories are attached to spaces

and inhabit spaces, that is referred to as ontological design. What ontological design defines is the idea that what we create has an effect on us and on what we would consequently create, how we would behave or how we feel and develop. Blur. Taek Gyun Won

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// INSIDE OUT //

of who we are and who we were but

Such claims have been

seldom who we could be.

considered too subjective, oversimplifications and overgeneralisations of the complex individuals we are. This often leaves the issue of how architecture is experienced out of the discussion and prioritises arguments for how

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architecture is designed following other narratives. Yet, advances in environmental neuroscience and

3

psychology are proving that at a basic level as humans we share

We will study existing and past

our cognitive capacities. Therefore

architectural styles and typologies

a design criteria for experience-

to understand its implications on

based design can be developed,

the present and the future. An

leading to the inside out approach:

architectural proposition always has

designing an experience first and

ancestors, the more we know about

then constructing architecture to

them the better we will understand

deliver it.

our visions.

// ARCHITECTURAL CONTEXT // We are inhabiting and creating architecture simultaneously, this

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“I thought we were actually misplaced to deal with the present, but what we offer the present is memory.�

// UNKNOWN MIND UNKNOWN HUMAN // In order to design for humans

is an unbroken process several

we need to understand humans.

thousand years old. Every new

This means not only learning from

building is a child of its elders no

existing studies but also developing

matter how radical. Our past is

our own. As humans ourselves

constantly present in the buildings

there is a great deal to be learnt

and cities we live in, reminding us

just from reflecting upon our own


Human Behaviour

experience of spaces and from

at all. In the same way, having a

observing others. Most of our

vocabulary for spatial experience

experience of the built environment

would enhance our awareness and

is nonconscious. Nonconscious

allow us to develop criteria for

refers to cognitions that we could

designing them.

access consciously, but mostly don’t. Stopping to observe spaces

// BUILDING SYSTEMS //

and how they affect how we feel and

We propose to develop building

behave means developing enhanced

systems rather than particular

spatial awareness applicable to later

instances (buildings). In doing

designs.

so, the usual factors that drive architectural discourse such as program or context become less relevant and we can refocus experience achieved through tectonic means as the main purpose of architecture. If the architect was responsible for bringing in content not in the form of programs but as

// LINGUISTIC RELATIVITY //

experiential intent, spaces would

Such observations can be

then be filled with architecture first,

enhanced further by being

to then accommodate programs,

articulated. Our world of cognition

respond to context and so on.

ONE

attention towards the architectural

INTERMEDIATE

In order to design for humans we need to understand humans.

is affected by language, therefore if we can name it we can better

// SIMULATION //

perceive it. A good example of this is

Architects do not build, they

the experience of colour. Numerous

communicate. Drawings, models

studies show that lacking the words

and views are our main tools when

for describing shades would prevent

transmitting designs from our

us from being able to perceive them

minds to the physical world -where / 11


TOOLS FOR ARCHITECTURE

it manifests in structures by the hand of humans and machines. Over centuries, strong conventions have been established as the introduction of orthographic projections (plans, sections, elevations) and the development of perspective projection (rendering) during the renaissance gave architects

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powerful tools to communicate across the canyon between virtual and physical. Today we are on the verge of a new technological revolution in the representation of architecture as digital real-time rendering and immersive VR devices are improving. We can now inhabit a virtual simulation of a space before it is constructed, we can be inside the space as we are designing it. We propose a new creative process where the design of space and its experience are not separated by mystical alchemical techniques with unpredictable outcomes, but inseparably and simultaneously one and the same. 12 \

“There’s no such thing as a neutral environment: your built environment is either helping you, or it’s hurting you.” 4


Human Behaviour

// CONCLUSION //

human mind as site are tailored

The aim of the studio is to design

to and trigger specific human

experiences delivered through

behaviour. There will be absolute

adaptive building systems, in which

freedom with regards to the type

all structural and infrastructural

of architecture that the system

details are purpose-designed to

creates and there is no site or

trigger the human mind; and to

program restrictions since the aim

develop design criteria and methods

is not to design a singular product

that taking

Architecture.

INTERMEDIATE

ONE

the

but a versatile system: a Tool for

FOOTNOTES 1. Robin Evans. Translation from Drawing to Building. 1997. Architectural Association 2. Sarah Williams Goldhagen. Welcome to Your World: How the Built Environment Shapes Our Lives. 2017. Harper Collins. 3. Rem Koolhaas interviewed by Dianna Budds

Architecture has a serious problem today. 2016. FastCoDesign 4. Sarah Williams Goldhagen interviewed by Martin Pedersen How Architecture Affects Your Brain: the Link

Between Neuriscience and the Built Environment. 2017. Yewen Jin.

ArchDaily

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SCENES

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SPACES TRIP CASE STUDIES SIMULATION

M

1


Human Behaviour

During term one we will also journey

dedicated to constructing

to Bavaria were we will see a wide range

architectural agendas

of canonical buildings from present and

visualization of spaces. We will begin the project from

past. Establishing a research framework is key for the project to develop.

the inside, designing the experiential

Possible categories to indicate what

qualities of the spaces that the building

defines your research field are:

system will generate. This will be

Architectural Style, Spatial Typology,

done through a series of scenes that

Architectural Element. The spaces

communicate the atmosphere that the

researched will serve as reference for

space will evoke. Such experiences will

spatial composition, surface treatment,

also be described in words, developing a

material strategy, structural type,

vocabulary specific to each project.

behavioural precedent and other

The scenes will serve as models for

qualities of each project, as well as

a project to take shape as we work our

place it within the larger architectural

way from viscera to skin, and be the

context. The final weeks of term 1

means for analysing the psychological

will be dedicated to constructing

response in the user and speculate on

an experiential simulation. The

their behaviour. From the scenes we will

atmospheric qualities of architecture

develop behavioural patterns in space,

are commonly represented in frozen

defined first through plans, indicating

frames representing a moment in time.

circulation and movement, use,

We use fully immersive design and

arrangements, densities, subdivision

representation techniques were both

and interconnectedness.

time and space are present throughout.

ONE

through the study, design and

INTERMEDIATE

T

The first term will be

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PROTOTYPES

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BUILDING ELEMENTS FABRICATION & ASSEMBLY

2


Human Behaviour

in physical reality. Elements might be

building system proposal

structural, spatial or infrastructural.

will be fully resolved. By

Each project might transform, evolve

focussing on the fragment, the larger

or hybridize existing elements, rescue

spatial goal can be subdivided into

obsolete ones or invent completely new

smaller pieces each of them taking care

ones. Understanding architecture as

of different effects and contributing to a

parts that perform together towards a whole -rather than a whole

also opens to a wider scope of

that needs to be resolved in

references since each

parts- will bring issues

element or part can

pertaining to fabrication

be informed by

and assembly into the core design process, thus loading them with architectural

completely

and

different sets of precedents.

experiential

We will begin by developing

value. A

spatial and structural prototypes that

variety of

demonstrate volume, organisation,

users must be able to

structural principles and detailing, whilst retaining the experiential qualities of the project. This will be followed by the design of building elements, parts or details that are capable of delivering the experience

ONE

collective end. The fragment approach

INTERMEDIATE

D

uring the second term the

benefit from the building system. This implies that the user group is defined not only as those who will experience the architecture but also those who will design it or build it. Hyunjun Kim.

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SCENARIOS

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REPRESENTATION

3


Human Behaviour

T

he third term will be

Finding the most suitable

occupied by concluding

representation formats for the project

speculation on the

will ensure better communication

applications of the building system and

and help others and yourself reflect

project-specific representations.

upon the proposal, its meaning and

In order to demonstrate versatility, a

consequences.

series of speculative scenarios will be presented as examples peculiar enough to portray the maximum potential of ONE

the system in how it can be used and assembled in a confined variety of ways.

INTERMEDIATE

Considering not only the end product that can be achieved but also the means to construct it will serve as vehicle for reflection upon what the system is good for, where it belongs, how can it make a difference or better fit in. Different situations will lead to different results yet the core spatial values must be constant, thus retaining the intended experiential properties even when implemented for different situations.

The Mechanisms of Spatial Awe

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U N I T

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P R O G R A M M E

TECHINICAL STUDIES LECTURES WORKSHOPS & COLLABS. TOOLS PORTFOLIO WEBSITE SUBMISSIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY


Human Behaviour

TECHNICAL STUDIES

A summary document will be crucial for concluding your technical studies

The technical studies will be an

submission: a manual illustrating

inherent part of the project from the

the building system fabrication and

very early stages of design. Already in

assembly procedures through drawings,

term 1 the projects will benefit from the

diagrams and animations.

advice of technical studies tutors and consultants to find relevant precedents to study and inquire into material and structural principles. During the second term we will work together to architectural solutions coherent with the Visceral Scenes and Vocabulary. Through physical prototypes and virtual simulations we will test the atmospheric capacity of each project and refine them until they align with the intended spatial

Isotropic Space of Freedom. Yana Kushpitovska.

qualities, and perhaps implement them

INTERMEDIATE

ONE

design Building Systems that provide

in unanticipated ways. The technical studies submission will consist of: large scale prototypes and drawings of different elements of the building system; documentation of the testing that led to their design; parameter charts that define the versatility of the system; and images and diagrams linking the technical resolution of the elements to the psychological effects they generate.

Isotropic Space of Freedom. Yana Kushpitovska.

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TOOLS FOR ARCHITECTURE

LECTURES Term 1: L.1 - The Capriccio and the Veduta: A brief history of Architectural Representation L.2 - Architecture from Above: Plans through the ages L.3- Humans in Architecture: Human Perception and Behaviour L.4 - Architectural Communication: Canonical Graphics in Books and Plates Term 2: L.5 - A brief history of Building Systems L.6 - Dictionaries of Architecture Term 3:

WORKSHOPS & COLLABORATIONS

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L.7 - Portfolio Structure

Term 1: W.1 - Order in the Drive: File structure and file security using Google Drive W.2 - Digital Real-Time: Unreal Engine 4 introductions W.3 - Designing in Plan: Constructing space in 2D digitally and by hand. W.4 - Digital Real-Time: Unreal Engine 4 with Sergio Irigoyen W.5 - Digital Humans: Animating human figures in Adobe Fuse with Mixamo W.6 - Scanning the World: Photogrammetric Scanning with AutoDesk Remake W.7 - Virtual Reality: HTC Vive and Unreal Engine 4 W.8 - Constructing a Book: Layout in Adobe Indesign

TOOLS TFA embraces experimental tools to both represent and construct architecture. You will be encouraged to find the tools to best fit the project and throughout the three terms you will be introduced to a wide range of digital tools, which you will be expected to use. No prior knowledge is required as unitspecific tutorials will be available. 22 \

Xuecheng Wang


Human Behaviour

PORTFOLIO The unit will provide tutorials on the following software:

TFA supports varied and innovative representation methods that express each project uniquely and does

Animations / Simulations

therefore not have any technical or

Unreal Engine 4

stylistic restrictions. Your final project

Adobe Fuse / Mixamo

will be represented with a wide range of

C4D / Cineware

media ranging from text to immersive digital simulations. You will therefore

Generative

be expected to consider your project

Grasshopper

portfolio from the very beginning of

Autodesk Remake

the year. Each phase of the project will be presented in sub-briefs outlining

Modelling

specific deliverables and in some cases

limitations regarding format and size

Rhinoceros 3D

structured set of presentation material.

Adobe Illustrator

These sub-briefs will be handed out at

Adobe After Effects

the start of each new phase.

Portfolio/Books

Adobe Indesign

SUBMISSIONS TFA values punctuality and

BLOG & WEBSITE

INTERMEDIATE

Diagrams

ONE

might apply in order to help you form a

professionalism. You will be asked to submit both digital and physical

TFA believes in sharing. Our site

presentation material on the day before

www.toolsforarchitecture.org will

pinups and juries. This will encourage

function both as a communication

you to reflect upon your work and rest

tool to the world outside as well as an

before important events where you

internal platform where everyone’s

are not only expected to present your

work is regularly updated. You will all

arguments with focus but also listen

be uploading work in tandem with our

and participate in the presentations of

pinups and juries.

your fellow unit members.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Hogarth, William. The Analysis of Beauty. 1753 Wรถlfflin, Heinrich. Prolegomena to a Psychology of Architecture. 1886 Gombrich, Ernst. Art and Illusion. 1960 Vernon, Magdalen Dorothea. Psychology of perception. 1965

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Hall, Edward T. The Hidden Dimension. 1966 Bloomer, Kent & Moore, Charles. Body, Memory and Architecture. 1977

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Gregory, Richard. Eye and the brain: the psychology of seeing. 1966

Gombrich, Ernst. The Sense of Order: A Study in the Psychology of Decorative Art. 1979 Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses. 1996 Evans, Robin. Translations from drawing to building. 1997 Batchelor, David. Chromophobia. 2000 Frank, Isabelle. The Theory of Decorative Art, 1750-1940. 2000 Grosz, Elizabeth. Architecture from the Outside, Essays on Virtual and Real Space. 2001

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Human Behaviour

Solso, Robert L.. Psychology of art and the evolution of the conscious brain. 2003 Deplazes, Andrea. Constructing Architecture. 2008 Latour, Bruno. A Cautious Prometheus? A Few Steps Toward a Philosophy of Design. 2008 Koolhaas, Rem. Elements. 2014 Sussman, Ann. Cognitive Architecture: Designing for How We Respond to the Built Environment. 2014 Robinson, Sarah. Mind in Architecture: Neuroscience, Embodiment, and the

Ellard, Colin. Places of the Heart: The Psychogeography of Everyday Life. 2015

ONE

Future of Design. 2015

Colomina, Beatriz & Wigley, Mark. Are We Human?: The Archeology of Design. 2016 Williams Goldhagen, Sarah. Welcome to Your World: How the Built Environment

INTERMEDIATE

Urist, Jacoba. The Psychological Cost of Boring Buildings. 2016

Shapes Our Lives. 2017

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U N I T

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S C H E D U L E

TERM ONE


Human Behaviour

SCENES WEEK 1

WEEK 2

WEEK 3

THU

SEP 28

1.1 UNIT INTRO + W.1

TUE

OCT 03

1.1 PIN UP + L.1

FRI

OCT 06

1.1 TUTORIAL

TUE

OCT 10

1.1 W.2 UE4 + TUTORIALS

THU

OCT 12

1.1 EARLY SUBMISSION

FRI

OCT 13

1.1 JURY

TUE

OCT 17

1.2 INTRODUCTION - L.2, L.4, W.3 & W.8

FRI

OCT 20

1.2 TUTORIALS

TUE

OCT 24

1.2 PINUP + UNIT TRIP INTRO + L.3, W.6

THU

OCT 26

1.3 UNIT TRIP DEPARTURE (EVENING)

WED

NOV 01

1.3 UNIT TRIP RETURN

FRI

NOV 03

UNDERGRADUATE OPEN JURY

TUE

NOV 07

1.3 TURORIAL

FRI

NOV 10

1.3 W.4 UE4 TRANING. SERGIO IRIGOYEN

MON

NOV 13

EARLY SUBMISSION

TUE

NOV 14

1.3 JURY

FRI

NOV 17

1.4 W.4 UE4 TRANING. SERGIO IRIGOYEN + FUSE MIXAMO W.5

TUE

NOV 21

1.4 TUTORIALS

FRI

NOV 24

1.4 TUTORIALS + W.7

TUE

NOV 28

1.4 TUTORIALS

FRI

DEC 01

1.4 TUTORIALS

TUE

DEC 05

1.4 TUTORIALS

FRI

DEC 08

1.4 TUTORIALS

MON

DEC 11

EARLY SUBMISSION

TUE

DEC 12

END OF TERM JURY

FRI

DEC 15

DEBRIEFING

SPACES WEEK 4

WEEK 6

WEEK 7

SIMMULATION WEEK 8

WEEK 9

WEEK 10

WEEK 11

WEEK 12

INTERMEDIATE

WEEK 5

ONE

CASE STUDIES

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S C H E D U L E

TERM TWO


Human Behaviour

PROTOTYPES WEEK 1

WEEK 2

WEEK 3

MON

JAN 08

2.1 BRIEF INTRO + L.5 + TUTORIALS

TUE

JAN 09

2.1 TUTORIALS

TUE

JAN 16

2.1 PINUP (PROTOTYPES) + L.6

FRI

JAN 19

2.1 TUTORIALS (TS Y3)

SAT

JAN 20

2.1 TUTORIALS (Y2)

THU

JAN 25

EARLY SUBMISSION

FRI

JAN 26

2.1 JURY

WEEK 5

WEEK 6

WEEK 7

WEEK 8

JAN 29

2.2 TUTORIALS

TUE

JAN 30

2.2 TUTORIALS

FRI

FEB 02

2.2 GROUP SESSION

MON

FEB 05

2.2 TUTORIALS

TUE

FEB 06

2.2 TUTORIALS

MON

FEB 12

2.2 TUTORIALS

TUE

FEB 13

2.2 TUTORIALS

FRI

FEB 16

TS INTERIM JURY Y3 + PINUP Y2

MON

FEB 19

2.2 TUTORIALS

TUE

FEB 20

2.2 TUTORIALS

FRI

FEB 23

2.2 GROUP SESSION

MON

FEB 26

2.2 TUTORIALS

TUE

FEB 27

2.2 TUTORIALS

FRI

MAR 02

2.2 PINUP

INTERMEDIATE

WEEK 4

MON

ONE

BUILDING ELEMENTS

FABRICATION & ASSEMBLY WEEK 9

WEEK 10

WEEK 11

MON

MAR 05

2.3 TUTORIALS

TUE

MAR 06

2.3 TUTORIALS

MON

MAR 12

Y2 PREVIEWS

TUE

MAR 13

Y2 PREVIEWS

MON

MAR 19

Y3 PREVIEWS

TUE

MAR 20

Y3 PREVIEWS

FRI

MAR 23

DEBRIEFING

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S C H E D U L E

TERM THREE


Human Behaviour

SCENARIOS

WEEK 1

WEEK 2

WEEK 3

MON

APR 23

3.1 BRIEF INTRO + L.7 + TUTORIALS

TUE

APR 24

3.1 TUTORIALS

FRI

APR 27

3.1 GROUP SESSION

MON

APR 30

3.1 VR PINUP - GROUP ONE

TUE

MAY 01

3.1 VR PINUP - GROUP TWO

MON

MAY 07

3.1 TUTORIALS (SCENARIO WRAP UP)

TUE

MAY 08

3.1 TUTORIALS (SCENARIO WRAP UP)

WEEK 5 WEEK 6

WEEK 7

WEEK 8 WEEK 9

MAY 14

3.2 TUTORIALS

TUE

MAY 15

3.2 TUTORIALS

FRI

MAY 18

3.2 TUTORIALS (OPTIONAL)

TUE

MAY 22

EARLY SUBMISSION

WED

MAY 23

FINAL JURY

THU

MAY 24

TUTORIALS - JURY DEBRIEF

TUE

MAY 29

Y2 FINAL TABLE REHEARSAL

MON

JUN 04

Y2 END OF YEAR REVIEWS

TUE

JUN 05

Y2 END OF YEAR REVIEWS

WED

JUN 06

Y3 FINAL TABLE REHEARSAL

MON

JUN 11

INTERMEDIATE PART 1 FINAL CHECK

TUE

JUN 12

INTERMEDIATE PART 1 FINAL CHECK

TUE

JUN 19

ARB/RIBA PART 1

INTERMEDIATE

WEEK 4

MON

ONE

REPRESENTATION

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TOOLS FOR ARCHITECTURE

Tools for Architecture investigates the psychological and environmental effects of architecture via large scale prototyping and advanced virtual simulations. With an agenda focussed on experience, atmosphere and aesthetics, our projects are as concerned with theory as they are with practice and we are as fascinated by the teachings from the past as by the visions of the future. www.TOOLS FOR ARCHITECTURE.org 32 \


INTERMEDIATE

ONE

Human Behaviour

Ezgi Terzioglu

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ARCHI TE CTUR A L A SS O C I AT I O N SCHOO L O F A R C H I T E CT U RE

P OW ERED B Y SPAC E P OP ULAR

Tools for Architecture - Human Behaviour  
Tools for Architecture - Human Behaviour  

Full brief for Intermediate unit One 2017-18 at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London directed by Lara Lesmes and F...

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