Illustrated Middle East Arabic

Page 1


1-02

alwaqt

‫الوقت‬

Time

althaniya wa daqiqataan

althalitha wa thuloth

liǎng diǎn shí fēn 兩點十分

sān diăn èr shí fēn 三点二十分

althalitha wa niSf 'illa khamsa

althalitha wa niSf wa khamsa

sān diăn èr shí wǔ fēn 三点二十五分

sān diăn sān shí wǔ fēn 三点三十五分

alrabi'a 'illa thuloth

alrabi'a 'illa rubo'

sān diăn sì shí fēn 三点四十分

sān diăn sì shí wǔ fēn‧sān diăn sān kè 三点四十五分 ‧ 三点三刻

‫الثانية ودقيقتان‬

Formal way: Two ten

‫الثالثة ونصف ّإل خمسة‬ Three twenty-five

‫الرابعة ّإل ثلث‬

‫الثالثة وثلث‬

Three twenty

‫الثالثة ونصف وخمسة‬ Three thirty-five

‫الرابعة ّإل ربع‬

Three forty

Three forty-five‧A quarter to four

alrabi'a 'illa 'ashara

alrabi'a 'illa khamsa

sān diăn wǔ shí fēn 三点五十分

sān diăn wǔ shí wǔ fēn 三点五十五分

‫الرابعة ّإل عشرة‬ Three fifty

32

shí jiān

时间

‫الرابعة ّإل خمسة‬

Three fifty-five


SabaHan

dhhuran

shàng wǔ 上午

zhōng wǔ 中午

‫صباح ًا‬

‫ظهر ًا‬

Morning

Noon

ba'ada aldhur

masa'an

lailan

xià wǔ 下午

bàng wǎn‧huáng hūn 傍晚 ‧ 黄昏

wǎn shang 晚上

‫بعد الظهر‬

Afternoon

‫مسا ًء‬

Evening

‫ليال‬

Night

報時 Telling time 阿拉伯語官方報時方式與英語相似,而日用口語則如 p.32 黃色框內所列。 Formal ways of telling time are similar to English, while the yellow list on p.32 is used handily in dailylifes.

33


有趣資訊 - 齋戒月 齋戒月(萊麥丹)是伊曆第九個月,也是穆斯林(伊斯蘭教徒)最重 視的一個月份。從清晨日出開始直至日落,信徒(除小孩及孕婦外) 會嚴格遵守齋戒月的習俗,整天禁食、禱告以及多作善行。 於阿拉伯國家的齋戒月內,公司辦公時間會縮短,大部份餐廳也會關 門直至日落之後。訪客雖然不被要求遵守禁食,但也不應該於公眾場 合大吃大喝,公然違反齋戒精神。 而緊接齋戒月後,就是穆斯林最重要的節日之一:開齋節。這是根據 觀察新月出現的時刻而定。

Interesting Facts - Ramadan Ramadan is the 9th month in Hijri calendar. It is also the most important month for Muslims. From dawn until sunset, believers do extensive fasting (children and pregnant woman are exempt), praying and charity. During Ramadan, in most Arab countries, working hours are shortened, and most restaurants are closed during daytime. Travelers should keep in mind that even though they are not requested to follow the ritual, they should not do anything violating the spirit of the tradition, for instance, to have feast publicly during the fasting hours. Right after Ramadan follows one of the most important holidays in muslim world – Eid-al-Fitr (Feast of breaking the fast). It is marked by a close observation of the crescent.


方 向 Directions ����������������������������������������������������� 88

chǎng suǒ

场 所 Places �������������������������������������������������������� 90

jiāotōng

交通 Transportation ������������������������������������������������� 96 jiā

家 Home ������������������������������������������������������������ 104 gōng jù

工 具 Tools ��������������������������������������������������������� 118 yī yuàn

医院 Hospital ������������������������������������������������������ 120 yín háng

银 行 Banks �������������������������������������������������������� 134 yóu jú jí dì qū

邮局及地区 Post Offices and Regions ����������������������������� 136 jī chǎng

机场 Airport �������������������������������������������������������� 138 jiǔ diàn

酒店 Hotel ��������������������������������������������������������� 140

「住」在中東・Living in Middle East

fāngxiàng


chǎng suǒ

amaken

2-02

Places

场所

‫أماكن‬

maqha ‫مقهى‬

kā fēi diàn‧kā fēi wū 咖啡店 ‧ 咖啡屋

Coffeehouse

kanisa ‫كنيسة‬

jiào huì 教会

Church

masjid ‫مسجد‬

qīng zhēn sì 清真寺

Mosque

Hammaam aam‧ ‧‫ح ّمام عام‬ Hammaam alsouq ‫ح ّمام السوق‬ zăo táng 澡堂

Bathhouse

94

souq ‫سوق‬

shì jí 市集

Souk


1

2 jazira

muHeeT

dǎo 岛

hǎi 海

‫جزيرة‬

Island

1

Ocean

3

3

2

‫محيط‬

shaTi'

shā tān 沙滩

‫شاطئ‬

jabal ‫جبل‬

waHa

shān 山

‫واحة‬

Mountain

nahr ‫نهر‬

hé 河

River

Beach

SaHraa'

lǜ zhōu 綠洲

‫صحراء‬

Oasis

buHayra ‫بحيرة‬

shā mò 沙漠

Desert

hú 湖

Lake

95


3-04

malabes‧hudoom

‫مالبس‧هدوم‬

azyaa' alrijaal ‫أزياء الرجال‬

nán zhuāng 男装

fú zhuāng

Clothes

Men’s Fashion

Hizaam

rabTat 'unoq

pí dài 皮带

lǐng dài 领带

‫حزام‬

yī fu

服 装 ‧ 衣服

‫ربطة عنق‬

Belt

Tie

badla ‫بدلة‬

xī zhuāng‧tào zhuāng 西装 ‧ 套装

Suit

sotra‧*kanza* *‫سترة‧*كنزة‬ máo yī 毛衣

qameeS ‫قميص‬

152

chèn shān 衬衫

Shirt

Woolen sweather‧Cardigan * 只限於叙利亞口語稱呼, 其他國家名稱各有不同,不能盡錄。 * Informal usage in Syria, other countries with other variations.


1

aba'a‧'abaya ‫عباءة‧عباية‬ ā bā yà 阿巴亚

5

iqaal

Tarboosh

yī gài 'ěr 伊盖尔

Tŭ 'ěr qí mào 土耳其帽

3

Egal [Thick doubledblack cord which holds the Keffiyeh in place.]

Ā lā bó bái tóu jīn 阿拉伯白头巾

5

‫طربوش‬

Tarboosh

3

6

Ghutrah [White cotton, popular in the Gulf states.]

kufiya ‫كوف ّية‬

Ā lā bó tóu jīn 阿拉伯头巾

6

‫ثوب‬

chángpáo 长袍

Man's dress

‫عقال‬

ghatra ‫غترة‬

thawb

Abaya

1

4

2

4

Keffiyeh [Black check pattern, common in Lebanon, Palestinian, Syria and Egypt

shimaagh

2

‫شماغ‬

shèng mǎ hè fāng jīn 聖馬赫方巾

Shemagh [Check pattern in red, usually associated with Saudi Arabia]

153


muntajaat al'albaan

4-07

‫منتجات األلبان‬

năi lèi zhì pĭn

奶類製品

Dairy Products

2

1 3

1 jubna

jubna qareesh

năi lào (qǐ sī) 奶酪 ( 起司 )

Āi jí gān lào 埃及干酪

‫جبنة‬

‫جبنة قريش‬

Cheese

2

3 jubna shilal

jubna majdula

Xù lì yà năi lào 叙利亚奶酪

Xù lì yà năi lào 叙利亚奶酪

[ 幼絲狀芝士(奶酪)] [String cheese]

[ 編織好的芝士(奶酪)] [Braided cheese]

‫جبنة شلل‬ Shelal

218

Karish

[ 與茅屋芝士(奶酪)相類似 ] [Similar to cottage cheese]

‫جبنة مجدولة‬ Majdouli


7 4

5

6

4

5 jubna Hallum

jubna roomi

hā luó mĭ gān lào 哈罗米干酪

lŭ mĭ năi lào 鲁米奶酪

[ 乾芝士(奶酪)] [Dried cheese]

[ 硬芝士(奶酪)] [Hard aged cheese]

‫جبنة حلّوم‬

‫جبنة رومي‬

Halloumi‧Hellim

6

Rumi

7 shankleesh

jubna baladi

Lí bā nèn năi lào 黎巴嫩奶酪

bā lā dí năi lào 巴拉迪奶酪

[ 表面鋪滿香料的乾芝士(奶酪)] [Dried aged cheese covered with spices and herbs]

[ 軟身白芝士(奶酪)] [Soft white cheese]

‫شنكليش‬‎

Shanklish‧Shankleesh

‫جبنة بلدي‬ Baladi

219


4-17

aTbaaq ra'esiya

‫أطباق رئيسية‬

10 kabsa ‫كبسة‬

Shā tè shǒu zhuā fàn 沙特手抓饭

Kabsa

11 mandi ‫مندي‬

ròu zhī shǒu zhuā fàn 肉汁手抓饭

Mandi

zhǔ shí

主食

洋蔥粒及蕃茄粒加入香料煮成飯,配 大塊肉及果仁。 Rice mixed with finely chopped onions and tomatoes and cooked with a mixture of spices. Served with nuts and big chunks of meat on top. 香料煮肉配煙燻香料飯。 Meat boiled in spiced water, the resulting stock then used to cook rice. The rice then smoked, and the meat is baked before they are served together.

12 oozi ‫أوزي‬

sū pí fàn tuán 酥皮饭团

Oozy

青豆果仁肉碎拌飯,常見於重要場合, 並以酥皮包裹成小飯團。 A cooked mixture of rice, green peas, minced meat, and nuts is wrapped in a pocket of dough then baked.

13 baTT maHshi ‫بط محشي‬

zhōng dōng tián yā 中东填鸭

Batt Mahshi

烤鴨子,內部填滿青麥、香料等。 A duck stuffed with Freekeh, spices and herbs, boiled in spiced water first, then roasted.

14 Hamaam maHshi ‫حمام محشي‬ Āi jí tián gē 埃及填鸽

Hamam Mahshi

264

焗鴿子,內部填滿飯粒及香料。 Baked rice-stuffed pigeons.

Main Dishes


10

12

13

11

265


有趣資訊 - 阿拉伯咖啡 咖啡源自阿拉伯,單看咖啡名字的詞源,就會發現是阿拉伯文的 (qahwa ‫。)قهوة‬如果你是咖啡的擁躉,你也不可不知道巧克力口味 的「摩卡咖啡」(Mocha)名字由來,其實也是按也門的一個重要港 口「摩卡港」命名(這港口多年來都是極品咖啡豆的出口港,也是阿 拉比卡品種的源頭)。大約於十五至十六世紀,人們於埃塞俄比亞與 也門一帶首先發現咖啡豆,也開始以咖啡豆製作成飲品飲用,但礙於 傳統及宗教考慮,咖啡在歐洲進口國的受歡迎程度遠遠拋離它的中東 發源地。直至最近二百至三百年,阿拉伯人才開始重新肯定咖啡的地 位,更把它納入為招待客人、貴賓不可或缺的元素之一。因此,不論 你是否咖啡愛好者,當作客於阿拉伯人家中時,就沒有辦法不嚐嚐一 兩杯真正地道的阿拉伯咖啡了。

Interesting Facts - qahwa Arab world is actually the origin of coffee, even the English word “coffee” comes from the Arabic word (qahwa ‫) قهوة‬. For coffee lovers, you should by now know that “Mocha” (- name for chocolate flavored coffee) is named after Yemen’s port of Mocha, an extremely popular port where best coffee beans were shipped from, (and those beans, to be accurate, are now called Arabica beans). During 15th – 16th century, coffee bean and coffee drinking was first discovered in Ethopia-Yemen region. However, due to religious and tradition reasons, coffee in its origin was not well-received when compared to other European countries. It is only until recent 200-300 years do the Arabs developed a fondness in coffee, and even made it the key element in their heartwarming guest reception, an activity that they most valued. Therefore, no matter how deep your love for coffee goes, always prepare to drink 1-2 cups of coffee when visiting an Arab friend or business partner.


yùndòng

运动 Sports ��������������������������������������������������������� 296 xiāoqiǎn

yú lè

消 遣 ‧ 娱乐 Entertainment‧Recreation ������������������������� 298 fà xíng

发型 Hairstyles ����������������������������������������������������� 304 měiróng

美容 Cosmetology ������������������������������������������������� 306 mĕi jiă

美甲 Nail Art ������������������������������������������������������� 310 yóu xì

游戏 Games �������������������������������������������������������� 312

「樂」在中東・ Having Fun in Middle East

lǚ yóu

旅 游 Touring ������������������������������������������������������� 278


lǚ yóu

siyaHa

5-01

Touring

旅 游

‫سياحة‬

ta'shira ‫تأشيرة‬

qiān zhèng 签证

Visa

al'imaraat alarabiya almuttaHida

Ā lā bó lián hé dà gōng guó 阿拉伯聯合大公國

United Arab Emirates

abo dhabi

Ā bù zhá bǐ 阿布扎比

Abu Dhabi

‫اإلمارات العرب ّية املتّحدة‬ ‫أبو ظبي‬

alam firari ‫عالم فيراري‬

Fǎ lā lì shì jiè 法拉利世界

Ferrari World

matHaf alluvar abo dhabi ‫متحف اللوفر أبو ظبي‬

Ā bù zhá bǐ lú fú gōng 阿布扎比卢浮宫

Louvre Abu Dhabi

masjid alshaikh zayed alkabeer ‫مسجد الشيخ زايد الكبير‬

Xiè hè zhā yé dé dà qīng zhēn sì 谢赫扎耶德大清真寺

Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque *不建議於週五日間時間造訪。* Not recommended to visit on Fridaydaytimes.

278


alshariqa

Shā jiā 沙迦

‫الشارقة‬

Sharjah

almadina alqadima altarikhiya ‫املدينة القدمية التاريخية‬ Shā jiā gǔ chéng 沙迦古城

Historic old town

matHaf alshariqa lilHaDara al'islamiya ‫متحف الشارقة للحضارة اإلسالمية‬

Shā jiā yī sī lán wén míng bó wù guǎn 沙迦伊斯兰文明博物馆

Sharjah Museum of Islamic Civilization

alsouq almarkazi‧alsouq alazraq ‫السوق املركزي‧ السوق األزرق‬ zhōng yāng shì jí‧lán sè shì jí 中央市集 ‧ 蓝色市集

The Central Souq‧The Blue Souq *建議於下午五時後造訪。* Recommended to visit after 5 pm.

279


6-04

fi almaHal

‫في المحل‬

yú diàn nèi

In the Shop

于店內

SabaaH alkhayr. .‫صباح اخلير‬

zăo shang hăo. 早上好。

Good morning.

SabaaH alkhayr. hal min almumken an 'o'aayn haTHa? ‫ هل من املمكن أن أعاين هذا؟‬.‫صباح اخلير‬ zăo 'ān, wŏ kě yĭ kàn kan nà ge ma? 早安,我可以看看那个吗?

Good morning. May I take a look at that?

322


tafaDDal. .‫تفضل‬

bikam haTHa? ayojad Hasm? ‫بكم هذا؟ أيوجد حسم؟‬

zhè ge duō shăo qián? yŏu dă zhé ma? 这个多少钱?有打折吗?

zhè jiù shì. 这就是。

Here you are.

How much is this? Any discount?

innah rakheeS jiddan. .‫إنه رخيص جدا‬ hěn pián yi le. 很便宜了。

la, shukran.

It's very cheap.

.‫ شكرا‬،‫ال‬

bù yòng le, xiè xie. 不用了,谢谢。

No, thanks.

323


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