Page 1

Uncovered: An Uncovered: An Exploration of Exploration of the Controversy the Controversy Surrounding thethe Surrounding Male Nude in Male Nude in Contemporary Contemporary Photography Photography. Student Name and Number: Sophie Haigh W13006864 Module Title and Code: Project Research Student Name and Number: Sophie Haigh 13006864 Module Title and Code: Project Research DE0929

Northumbria University BA (Hons) Fashion Communication

Northumbria University Course Title: BA (Hons) Fashion Communication

Word Count: 3,843

Bare Men by Abigail Ekue (Ekue, n.d.).


contents

Introduction

T

he nude in photography sprang out of a long tradition of undress in painting and sculpture (Martineau, 2014, p.6) and like still life and landscape it is considered one of the most traditional subjects in art (Foster, 1998, p.39). This research document will explore the male nude and how it is challenged in contemporary photography by a means of visual communication.

03

Introduction

05

Methodology

In contrast to the omnipresent female nude, the unclothed male is conspicuous by his near absence in contemporary photography. In a society that is not familiar with the portrayal of men as the spectacle of nude photography, when he appears he is often covered by suppression and outrage. Frayser and Whitby (1995, p.576) explain that this is a trend that prevailed in painting, sculpture and photography from the nineteenth century onwards.

06

Men Vs. Women

10

Gender Stereotypes and Masculinity

Analysing photographs as well as the discourses that surround male nudity, this essay will examine the standardised female nude as well as the disputes that underpin contemporary aesthetics, including masculinity and gender stereotypes. The final part of this report will address the psychological anxieties and prejudices accountable for the absence of the male nude in photography.

16

Homoeroticism and Sexuality

18

Non-conventionality

24

Conclusion

25

References

30

Image References

32

Bibliography Heat by Drasko Bogdanovic (Bogdanovic, 2006).


Methodology

B

oth primary and secondary research has been undertaken in order to create a thorough and detailed study into the controversy surrounding male nudity in contemporary photography.

Primary research for this document has been conducted ethically (Appendix A) and all contributors have provided informed consent (Appendix B; Appendix C; Appendix D). No participants have been subject to harm and all persons and data have been treated with respect. The research project includes highly structured email interviews with Vivienne Maricevic; author of ‘She Shoots Men’ (Appendix G), Abigail Ekue; photographer, artist and provocateur (Appendix F) and Drasko Bogdanovic; who specialises in the male nude and erotic photography (Appendix E). These participants have been selected not only because of their experience photographing the male nude, but due to their unique and keen interest in the research area. The interviews will provide qualitative information about their experiences, viewpoints and feelings which are considered sensitive. The use of email interviews, allows communication with interviewees from vastly varying geographical locations, rendering the obtained knowledge with global relevance. Secondary research consists of information from academic texts including: ‘Fully Exposed: The Male Nude in Photography’ by Emmanuel Cooper; ‘Behold the Man: The Male Nude in Photography’ by Alasdair Foster; and ‘The Naked and the Nude: A History of Nude Photography’ by Jorge Lewkinski. Quality literature provides a permanent and invariable source of information that can be contemporary or historical, giving general background information and putting research findings into context. Literary texts will assist in proving and disproving arguments and theories because they are precisely dated.

The Shepherd Paris painting (Desmarais, 1787).

In addition, factual and opinion pieces have been sourced from respected publications and journal reports. Written for scholars and researched by experts in the field, they contribute an in-depth examination of the topic. This document analysis will assist in providing an up to date methodology and a valid conclusion. These are from extensive online sources covering the subjects of gender, social perception, sexuality and audience immersion in regards to the male nude.


MEn VS. Women

‘Women are more sexually depicted in photos, since our society is accustomed to seeing them this way’.

The male nude in photography is not a new subject (Lewinsky, 1987, p.198). In the Greek and Roman periods as well as in the Renaissance, the male figure was a major theme for most of the great artists (Nelson, 2001), both heterosexual and homosexual (Harageones, 2016). According to Nelson (2001) female nudes were not as common during this time, however over the last century the female figure has come to dominate contemporary art (Appendix F).

familiar standardised nude that Vivienne Maricevic believes is being constructed for general consumption. She explains that, ‘women are more sexually depicted in photos, since society is accustomed to seeing them this way’ (Appendix G). Consequently, women have regularly had aesthetic ideals forced on them, which has more often than not lead to feelings of inadequacy (Wade, 2011). These ideals are inclusive of beautiful, slim female figures, that encourage comparisons of shape and sexual desirability (Cooper, 1996, p.185) offering ‘lessons on how ‘women’ look’ (Eck, 2003).

T

With more female than male models suggestively clothed, partially clothed, or nude (Thompson, 2000, p.179), exhibitions of female exposure have been relatively commonplace since the 20th century (Cooper, 1996, p.184). Their image during that time was inflated into a predominant symbol of erotic inclination (Weiermair, 1995, p.7) and it is believed that in contemporary society, the representation of women is still hyper-sexualised and more so than the representation of men (Davis, 2014). As a result of the afore mentioned sexualisation, a widespread agreement has developed proposing that sociocultural environments, including personal encounters and photography, tend to depict women in an objectified manner (Lindner, 2004; Reichert and Carpenter, 2004; Stankiewiez and Roselli, 2008). The objectification theory as developed by Fredrickson and Roberts (1997) defines sexual objectification as ‘the appraisal of women in terms of their bodies and the subsequent view of these bodies as objects for utilisation’. Abigail Ekue underpins this, explaining that women in photography to this day, are depicted as ‘helpless, wanton or used’ (Appendix F). In general, it is argued that women are routinely portrayed in a way that places the attention on the appearance of their body (Archer et al., 1983); a view that has been held since the 20th century. Hall (1984) proposes that women were gazed at more frequently than men in dyadic interactions during this time, whilst men in visual media were shown looking directly at a female partner (Goffman, 1979). As it stands, the female body is considered more aesthetically pleasing than its contemporary male equivalent, warranting the

Abigail Ekue advocates that in photography ‘many scenarios are of a partial or full nude woman and a fully clothed man’. She explains that as a perpetrator fashion photographer Helmut Newton comes to mind (Appendix F). Arguably, the fashion industry is led by men (Sherman, 2015), a view supported by Vivienne Maricevic: ‘there are more male photographers photographing in the fashion industry.’ Since one photographs what they love and for heterosexual males that is women, ‘this could be one of the reasons why there are less male nudes’ (Appendix G). However, Bogdanovic proposes that there are also homosexual males who photograph the naked female form: ‘The fashion industry is dominated by men, gay men in particular, who create images of an ideal woman by their own fantasies and rather unrealistic standards’ (Appendix E). Given that Helmut Newton was a heterosexual male (McCord, 2016) the sexuality of the photographer is irrelevant when it comes to objectifying women. On the other hand, it has been argued that women objectify themselves (Margossian, 2013). In an interview with Nick Knight, as part of the ‘Subjective’ series for SHOWstudio, Lily Cole discusses the conscious decision she made to use her position as a model to make comment. Cole discusses the step she took to sexualise her own image, challenging preconceived perceptions of her as a model, whilst being photographed nude by Jurgen Teller. (SHOWstudio, n.d.). According to Margossian (2013) the sexualisation of women’s


bodies is used as a way to empower other women, frequently sold to women under the disguise of ‘feminism and liberation’ (Walter, 2010). Drasko Bogdanovic supports this, explaining that, ‘with feminism in the late 20th century, they have been able to reclaim their bodies and sexuality’ (Appendix E). Nevertheless, Cole proposes that although there is a certain amount of control from the model, ‘really you’re just trying to facilitate the photographers vision’ (SHOWstudio, n.d.). In such a context, Civil and Obhi (2016) advise that sexual objectification in the 21st century, is thought of as something that men do to women. This is a notion that risks combining the gender of the perpetrator with the belief that men often hold more social power (Civil and Obhi, 2016), a concept that is identifiable in the following quote from Grosz (1994). She pinpoints the basic distinctions between the masculine and feminine, and male and female: Cyberwoman 2, 2000 by Helmut Newton (Newton, 2000). Lily Cole for Parod Magazine by Juergen Teller (Teller, 2007).

‘Reason and passion, sense and sensibility, outside and inside, self and other, depth and surface, reality and appearance, mechanism and vitalism, transcendence and immanence, temporality and spatiality, psychology and physiology, form and matter’ (Grosz, 1994, p.3). Willson (2015, p.116) proposes that one side of these pairings is deemed less significant, a negative imprint of what is believed to be the stronger, more dominant side. She explains that ‘femaleness is inextricably linked with this subservient, unreflective ‘feminine’ side of the pairing’; when matched with the instinct, the everyday and the corporeal, the long-established social construction of male superiority is alluded to (Edwards, 2015). This reinforces the concept that women in photography are objects to be viewed; an outlook that is informed by the availability of female nudes. In this regard, their availability has affected how they are received by men and women (Eck, 2003).


Gender Stereotypes And MAsculinity

I

n the 20th century Cooper (1996, p.184) proposed that the male nude in photography signified abstract forces which served in many ways to create, maintain and strengthen the power of men in society. It is believed that many of these simplifications lead to the construction of stereotypes that result in subjectively incomplete and occasionally false images of the real world. Eddlestone, Veiga and Powell (2003) believe that ‘stereotypes are one of the most important types of schemes used for orientation in the social environment’. Internalised during socialisation, these schemes are established through observation or acquired through influence from significant others. This includes the media, which they consider ‘a persuasive factor to strive for consistency between biological sex and what is expected of them’. Merchant (2012, p.27) proposes that these psychologically established gender stereotypes are instilled in peoples minds at an early age. ‘By age four, children have a clear understanding of appropriate attributes of their gender and strive to abide by these existing roles’. She explains that people form judgements about their own social surroundings and the world around them by arranging information that has been received and making generalisations. In addition, Wolska (2011) proposes that schemes are created that are accountable for characterising peoples viewpoints and have ‘significant influence on social cognition’. In such a context, women and men are expected to comply with these binary sexual differences that are seen to be visually unavoidable. In this regard, the naming of sex, according to Butler (1990, p.115) is ‘an act of domination and compulsion’, a way of making people welcome the concept of masculinity and femininity as an inevitable binary opposition. Berger, Wallis and Watson (1995, p.4) propose that these false stabilisations of gender engrave onto the logical perception of masculinity and femininity, ‘in which the sexes are understood to mirror the flat, nearly oppositional roles of a compulsory, socially sanctioned heterosexuality’. But social and cultural constructions of the masculine and feminine are never so inevitable and unitary. As a contemporary photographer, Bogdanovic is convinced that

‘masculinity is an incredibly fragile thing. Men are expected to be portrayed as dominant, strong creatures’, and that playing with those stereotypes is a ‘fun and exiting way to break binary codes’ (Appendix E). Difficulties in differentiating gender roles in modern society according to Wolska (2011) act as a ‘perfect example of the negative effects of using stereotypes’. A separation of gender roles is embedded in social archetypes and according to Bruzzi and Gibson (2013, p.167), when analysing decisive moments in photography, photographs that have constituted techniques of representation and self formation serve as an index of changing ideas about gender. This can be identified in Robbert Mapplethorpe’s photographs for Italian Vogue taken in 1983, starring Jill Chapman and Ken Moody (artnet, n.d.). In addition, Steven Meisel’s ‘Asexual Revolution’ photoshoot for W Magazine, pairs nude males with fully clothed women. Harold Koda, the chief costume curator at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York proposed that ‘W’s photographs can be a really potent social critique’ (Ferla, 2004). Arguably this critiques a traditional society whereby: ‘Nude men challenge the ideal of masculinity, because they are the object of others’ gazes, leaving men in the passive position of being the spectacle rather than the spectators’ (Frayser and Whitby, 1995, p.576). However, Goldstein (1994, p.176) proposes that masculinity has no meaning and that it only has significance brought to it through social construction and history: ‘The male body is only one aspect of what masculinity might be. This body has component parts and in some way their parts differ from those that occupy that we would define as female’. He explains that to voice what is male or masculine is another thing entirely and that such things can only be prescribed, however these are notions commonly supported by social conventions that are unaffected by change. Cooper (1996, p.184) explains that even


‘Men are cast in the role of creator, owner, and viewer.’

though some arguments may refute stereotypes, ‘people would rather treat it as an exception that proves the rule, than change their way of thinking’ (Cooper, 1996, p.184). In addition to this, researchers Elizabeth L. Haines, Kay Deaux and Nicole Lofaro (PHYS ORG, 2016) found that gender stereotypes prevail as much today as they did thirty years ago. They explain that human beings are more willing to assume that men evade female roles that may be considered traditional: ‘Changes in the activities and representation of women and men in society have unquestionably occurred since the early 1980s; however, those changes apparently have not been sufficient to alter strongly held and seemingly functional beliefs about the basic social category of gender’. Given the belief that females and males are not equal, contemporary photography uses mostly conventional gender stereotypes that objectifying women, as recognised in Helmut Newton and Jurgen Teller’s work. This is based on the assumption that for the content of the message to be accepted and understood, these familiar stereotypes need to be used (Wolska, 2011). While few do not identify the negativity involved with stereotyping, it has been argued that as a result females are routinely objectified (Musaeva, n.d.).

Robbert Mapplethorpe’s shoot for Italian Vogue in 1983, starring Jill Chapman and Ken Moody (Mapplethorpe, 1983).

Steven Meisel’s ‘Asexual Revolution’ photoshoot for W Magazine (Meisel, 2004).

The Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe by Edouard Manet from 1863, for example, portrays the afore mentioned gender stereotypes. Contemporary photographer Mario Sorrenti referenced the  Le Déjeuner in his 1998 campaign for the Spring/Summer collection of Yves Saint Laurent. Reversing the gender conventions, Sorrenti photographed Kate Moss fully clothed, while the two men took on the role of nude (Brown, 2012). Such endeavours have questioned preconceived ideals in a way that their conventional counterparts have not (Bruzzi and Gibson, 2013, p.167). Vivienne Maricevic proposes that, ‘as one becomes less judgmental and enlightened about the imbalance that has existed among all genders’ his appearance will be welcomed (Appendix G).


However, according to Foster and McGrath (1998, p.7) humans are conditioned by a patriarchal system in which ‘men are cast in the role of creator, owner, and viewer, and in which women are represent as the object to be owned and looked at’. They argue that making images of the male nude goes ‘against the grain’. These photographs of male nudity face the challenge of ‘confronting a tradition that equates males with aggression and nudity with loss of dignity’ (Frayser & Whitby, 1995, p. 576). This is supported by Frayser and Whitby (1995, p.576) who propose that photographs show the naked truth, ‘a body unadorned by fashionable ideas or presuppositions about gender’. They believe that manly action ideals lead to censorship of male nudity in photographs.

The Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe (Manet, 1863). Kate Moss photographed by Mario Sorrenti for Yves Saint Laurent, 1998 (Sorrenti, 1998).

Goldstein (1994, p.176) explains that in the present day, masculinity and femininity are now more than ever fragile notions. Certain photographers perceive the precariousness of this situation. Abigail Ekue for example, chooses to confront masculinity and the male body for herself allowing the viewer to interpret gender for themselves. ‘I’m not bound by the masculine vs. feminine. I allow men to pose in any way that comes natural to them’. She believes with the gender line continuing to blur, this approach to photography will become more mainstream (Appendix F). Drasko Bogdanovic supports this advocating that stereotypes can be overcome, however he also pinpoints the established system of social hierarchy in which men are considered to be in a position of power. He explains that it will take time to revolutionise photography: ‘Nudity was and always will be part of artistic expression, however in patriarchal society and culture, it will take a long time to loosen the binary gender codes and roles and see it being enjoyed in culture without stigma or perceived provocation’ (Appendix E).


Homoeroticism And Sexuality

W

hile in the past century the male nude has been slowly reviving through photography, the greater part of its revitalisation is believed to be associated with homoeroticism. In contemporary society, failure of the heterosexual male to accept the male nude has been credited to the power relations that exist in Western culture (Harageones, 2016). In the 20th century is was believed that photographs which included genital detail may have embodied elements of role reversal, of ‘men being made to experience feelings of inadequacy in comparison to other men’ (Cooper, 1996, p.185). Florence Dee Boodakian supports this, explaining that the heterosexual man’s desire to keep the unclothed male from view is a way of protecting the nude male body: ‘Protection against his own surveillance (Is my penis too small? Am I muscular enough? Too fat?…) and protection of the power he possesses as the one who is typically the “gazer”’ (Boodakian, 2008). In this context, it is apparent that photography of the male nude which includes images of the penis enables comparisons to be made, not only between the models, but also between the model and the male viewer (Cooper, 1996, p.185). Drasko Bogdanovic shares this perspective, explaining that ‘men immediately compare themselves... regardless of if it’s intentional or not’ (Appendix E). In a world where men are generally regarded as the leaders, literature proposes that photographs of the male nude may be experienced as an intrusion on masculinity. Cooper (1996, p.148) explains that the naked male form is considered a homosexual assault on their ability to retain social status. This supports Roberta McGrath who suggested that: ‘Patriarchy is too fearful of cracks appearing in the monumental edifice of heterosexual masculinity to allow even the most gentle ripples of laughter to lap at its walls’ (Forster, 1988, p.45).

‘Satisfying the male gaze is the main objective of nude art’.

As it stands, those who ’are not sexually attracted to other men don’t want their sexuality or masculinity challenged by viewing male nudes’, a viewpoint put forward by Abigail Ekue (Appendix F). Cooper (1996, p.184) proposes that there is a real, but largely hidden fear with regard to the male nude, referencing the paranoid anxiety that to show any interest in the male body, is to express homoerotic feelings. This is supported by Bogdanovic who suggests that, ‘men’s nudity it’s instantly considered sexual or pornographic’ (Appendix E). Considering this, by and large, only openly acknowledged homosexual photographers, who have ‘come out’ in their work, have felt able to celebrate and explore the diverse and divergent sexuality of the naked male body. This includes Bogdanovic: ‘As a queer artist, male nudity always attracted me’ (Appendix E). Some challenge the traditional masculine roles, using humour or satire, others interrogate wider aspects of heterosexuality. This is not to say however, that only gay men take celebratory and challenging photographs of the naked male, for it is a subject which now attracts attention from men and women, heterosexual, homosexual and bisexual (Cooper, 1996, p.184). Contemporary photographers including Vivienne Maricevic advocate that ‘celebrating the male nude will render his image with positiveness’ (Appendix G). In contrast, female nudes are believed to function as generators of lust. Frayser and Whitby (1995, p.576) suggest that they are passive objects to be actively viewed by a male audience and that their visibility is encouraged rather than censured, at least by a men. However, Cooper (1996, p.184) suggests that when contrasting female and male nudes, photographic images of female nudity are not thought to indicate any homophobic anxieties. This is in women who by the logic of their interpretation would be thought to turn lesbian. This supports Abigail Ekue who explains that ‘satisfying the male gaze is the main objective of nude art’ (Appendix F).


Non-Conventionality

S

ome believe that fashion has found a newly discovered obsession in nude men (Chilvers, 2015). This was noted during the Rick Owens Autumn/Winter 2015 ‘SPHINX’ show when the designer sent models down the runway in oversized garments that revealed their genitals (Gorton, 2015). Owens stated: ‘I was just questioning why we keep penises concealed and why exactly it’s bad to show them’ (Chilvers, 2015). This can be translated into contemporary fashion photography with Michael Morgan appearing naked on the cover of the Spring/Summer 2015 Man About Town publication. Alasdair Mclellan shot the image to be deliberately raw and natural rather than erotic or sexualised (Braukämper, n.d.). The belief that there is a new confidence through fresh experimentation (Chilvers, 2015) supports Lewinski (1987, p.198) who predicted that the male nude would eventually: ‘Shake off its pubertal period and settle down alongside the traditional nude, refraining from striving merely for shock effects and concentration on displaying the undeniable beauty of the male body’. However, in Vivienne Maricevic’s opinion not much has changed in regards to male nudity within society, despite contemporary attempts to alter his appearance (Appendix G). The female nude is so prevalent in modern society that it is accepted by all genders, but the male nude is not. Beth Eck (2003) says that looking at the male nude is complicated for women as well as men explaining that, ‘neither men nor women are culturally adept at the interpretation and use of nude male images’. In this regard, Cooper (1996, p.206) suggested that the lack of the male nude in photography emphasises the unusualness of the naked male body in artistic representation and its non-conventionality. Its absence enables it to become a focus for discourse on the complexities of ‘being naked’. This relates closely to the psychological aspect of vulnerability and exposure, or to the power enshrined in the fragile concept and reality of ‘man’. He believes that though fully exposed, the male nude is an icon and a fascinating subject to be examined;

Haavard Kleppe backstage for Rick Owens Autumn/Winter 2015 (Colombo, 2015).

Micheal Morgan on the cover of the Spring/Summer Man About Town publication (McLellan, 2015).


‘Cisgender, hetero men want to see the nude female form and have no interest in viewing male nudes’.

‘its physical strength and emblematic power a constant subject for analysis, for interrogation’. This is reflected in Vivienne Maricevic’s work, author of ‘She Shoots Men’, who firmly believes that ‘there is a stigma attached to seeing the male penis’ (Appendix G). Her photography aims to challenge and alter the disparity between the recurrent portrayal of female nudity and the commonly perceived ‘rarity of male nudity’ (Wray, 2016). Given its non-conventionality most exhibitions of the male nude invoke theories of beauty and summations about what is considered ‘natural’. Artistically, the male nude can be perceived as insufficiently beautiful and has been regarded as ‘plain embarrassing’ by Cooper (1996, pp.183-184), ‘unless the genitals are not shown’. Nevertheless, the task of the photographer is often to bring to light what is hidden, even when this produces an effect of catharsis in the viewer, as Weiermair (1995, p.13) explains; ‘confronting him with his own self and his most secret desires’. Psychologically, Lewinski (1987, p.197) believes that photographs of the naked male body are often rendered as threatening, or as a reinforcement of patriarchal power. The photographic male nude carries with it the frisson of ‘the real’ and no matter how much emphasis is placed on the fictional qualities of the image, it continues to be seen as fact. This is supported by Rene Ricard, an art critic, who said: ‘There is something unnatural about elevating men to sex symbols. Women are traditionally the decorative half of humanity and men are the functional. It seems to upset the gross national image to promote men’s bodies as something pretty. People seem to feel threatened by a man’s sex. It is, unlike a woman’s, overt. But don’t men’s genitals have a certain anomalously decorative look, like an accessory thrown in to be amusing, to decorate the finished product like an earring?’ (Huntington, 1989). The male nude in photography was disputed into the 1990’s as Cooper (1996, p.8) states: ‘a constant battle for it has resulted in wider representations, but it remains controversial, likely to be censored and subject to careful control in most cases’. For these

reasons, photographers in the 21st century approach the male nude, that is often accepted only in precisely defined situations or in the private domain, with a great deal of caution. The majority of male nudes are taken by men and hence they are seen as an extension of the male view, rather than a critique of masculinity (Cooper 1996, p.185). Accordingly, one of the major changes with regards to its representation has come from homosexual men, who aim to reflect the diversity of emerging subcultures (Cooper, 1996, p.186; Appendix E). They look at the male nude in the same way that many men look at a female nude - as sexual titillation (Lewinski, 1987, p.197). This alludes to the conception of the male nude within an erotic or sexual context, which has been at best hidden and not openly expressed (Weiermair, 1995, p.7). In this respect, the male nude in photography has become more visible and more blatant, but ‘that art is created for a niche market yet still for the male gaze. And that work is created by male photographers’, suggests Abigail Ekue, proposing that male nudity in photography is predominantly commissioned based on the sexuality of the onlooker. Consequently ‘cisgender, hetero men want to see the nude female form and have no interest in viewing male nudes’ (Appendix F). Under other circumstances, female photographers approach the male nude in some sense as ‘the other’, as something they can only ever observe, but can never experience from the inside; for some women the male nude can be a curiosity or a challenge. For others it is seen as embodying all the patriarchal power of society, a force to be interrogated, to de-construct (Cooper, 1996, p.185). These photographers after a century or more of seeing their own sex being used and misused as the sole sex symbol, want to reverse the trend and get their own back in the process (Lewinski, 1987, p.197). This symbolises a turning point in photography that represents successive styles and new moods (Bruzzi and Gibson, 2013, p.167). For Abigail Ekue, it is the desire to remove the double standard of female and male nudity that influences her approach to photography. ‘Men are exhibited in my nude photography the way women are -


full-frontal nudity with visible faces’. ‘I think with the gender line continuing to blur that will become more mainstream’ (Appendix F). Yet, for all its increased and welcomed presence, the male nude, in the words of Bogdanovic ‘is still a big taboo’, its visibility an area of controversy (Appendix E).

Sleeping Beauty by Abigail Ekue (Ekue, n.d.).


Conclusion

References

udity was and always will be part of artistic expression, but it is clear that there is controversy surrounding the male nude in contemporary art. It is considered a taboo; a much stronger magnet for sexual curiosity than its female counterpart and as a result, the male nude is approached with caution leading to its near absence from photography.

Archer, D., Iritani, B., Kimes, D. D., and Barrios, M., 1983. Faceism: five studies of sex differences in facial prominence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, [e-journal] 45, pp.725 - 735. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.45.4.725.

N

The male nude in contemporary photography is seen as an intrusion on male power, therefore traditional stereotypes are used to visually communicate. These stereotypes are engrained in peoples minds and still exist in todays society as a result of the long established patriarchal system. Arguably, photography acts as a component that strives for unity between biological sex and traditional gender roles, constituting the concept that men hold more social power. As it stands, it is believed that binary gender codes and roles will take a long time to loosen to be enjoyed in culture without stigma or perceived provocation. Photographs of male nudity are associated with homoeroticism; they are constructed primarily for the private domain with homosexual men in mind. Censorship has come from homosexual men who do not want their sexuality interrogated. This has led to the opinion that photography is produced primarily for the male gaze, consequently resulting in the objectification of women. The female dominates nude photography which results in it being the standardised nude for general consumption. It is comfortably accepted by both genders because of its prevalence. Whilst images of the male nude are deemed unnatural, contemporary photographers agree that turning the lens on the male nude will in due course render his image with positivity. The want for change aims to challenging masculinity and gender stereotypes in order to prevent future dismissal, that occurs as a result of psychological anxieties. In this regard, if traditions and customs continue to be challenged and the male nude in photography continues to be uncovered, with hope he will become as commonly accepted as his female counterpart and the culturally constructed gaze will become more comfortable with his visibility.

artnet, n.d. Robert Mapplethorpe: Jill Chapman and Ken Moody Italian Vogue. [online] Available at: <http://www.artnet.com/artists/ robert-mapplethorpe/jill-chapman-and-ken-moody-italian-voguelq_m7iHEdXpVNq4ZjAJnPQ2> [Accessed 30 December 2016]. Berger, M., Wallis, B., and Watson, S., 1995. Constructing masculinity. New York: Routledge. Boodakian, F. D., 2008. Resisting nudities: a study in the aesthetics of eroticism. Frankfurt: Peter Lang Publishing. Braukämper, T., n.d. Free the penis: naked Michael Morgan covers Man About Town. [online] Available at: <http://www.fashionising. com/pictures/b--michael-morgan-naked-man-about-town-87934. html> [Accessed 24 December 2016]. Brown, D., 2012. Persistently mysterious; indubitable genius: Manet’s Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe. [online] Available at: < https://daily-norm. com/2012/03/14/persistently-mysterious-indubitable-geniusmanets-le-dejeuner-sur-lherbe/> [Accessed 30 December 2016]. Bruzzi, S. and Gibson, P. C., 2013. Fashion cultures revisited: theories, explorations and analysis. New York: Routledge. Butler, J., 1990. Gender trouble, feminism and the subversion of identity. New York: Routledge. Chilvers, S., 2015. Why the penis is having a moment in men’s fashion. [online] Available at: <https://www.theguardian.com/fashion/2015/ apr/30/why-the-penis-is-having-a-moment-in-mens-fashion> [Accessed 29 October 2016]. Civile, C. and Obhi, S., 2015. Power, objectification, and recognition of sexualized women and men. Psychology of Women Quarterly, [e-journal] 40(2), pp.199 - 212. http://dx.doi. org/10.1177/0361684315604820.


Cooper, E., 1996. Fully exposed: the male nude in photography. 2nd edn. London: Routledge. Davis, C., 2014. The sexualisation and objectification of women in modern media and its subsequent impact on female body image. [online] Available at: <https://charlkatedavies.wordpress. com/2014/05/15/the-sexualisation-and-objectification-of-womenin-modern-media-and-its-subsequent-impact-on-female-bodyimage/> [Accessed 10 October 2016]. Eck, B. A., 2003. Men are much harder: gendered viewing of nude images. Gender & Society, [e-journal] 17(5), pp.691 - 710. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891243203255604. Edwards, A., 2015. It’s a man’s world: the effect of traditional masculinity on gender equality. [online] Available at: <http://www.eir.info/2015/03/29/its-a-mans-world-the-effect-of-traditionalmasculinity-on-gender-equality/> [Accessed 30 December 2016]. Foster, A. and McGrath, R., 1988. Behold the man: the male nude in photography. 2nd edn. Edinburgh: Stills Gallery. Frayser, S., and Whitby, T., 1995. Studies in human sexuality: a selected guide. 2nd edn. Englewood, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, Inc. Fredrickson, B., and Roberts, T., 1997. Objectification theory: towards understanding women’s lived experiences and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, [e-journal] 21, pp.173 206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00108.x.

Greer, G., 1970. The female eunuch. London: MacGibbon & Kee. Grosz, E. A., 1994. Volatile bodies: toward a corporeal feminism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Hall, J. A., 1984. Nonverbal sex differences: communication accuracy and expressive style. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. Harageones, S., 2016. Men want to be looked at: a look at the male nude in western photography. [online] Available at: <http:// dotphotozine.com/Dot/men-want-to-be-looked-at-a-look-atthe-male-nude-in-western-photography-by-sandi-harageones/> [Accessed 29 December 2016]. Huntington, R., 1989. Censored by congress a touch of hysteria about photo exhibit afflicts lawmakers. [online] Available at: <http:// buffalonews.com/1989/07/30/censored-by-congress-a-touch-ofhysteria-about-photo-exhibit-afflicts-lawmakers/> [Accessed 30 December 2016]. Lewinski, J., 1987. The naked and the nude: a history of nude photography. London: George Weidenfeld and Nicolson Ltd. Lindner, K., 2004. Images of women in general interest and fashion magazine advertisements from 1995 to 2002. Sex Roles, [e-journal] 51, pp.409 - 421. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B: SERS.0000049230.86869.4d.

Goffman, E., 1979. Gender advertisements. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Margossian, M., 2013. Mistaking degradation for empowerment in feminism. [online] Available at: <http://dailycollegian. com/2013/10/10/mistaking-degradation-for-empowerment-infeminism/> [Accessed 12 December 2016].

Goldstein, L., 1994. The male body: features, destinies, exposures, part 1. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press.

Martineau, P., 2014. The nude in photography. Los Angeles: Getty Publications.

Gorton, T., 2015. Models bare their penises at Rick Owens. [online] Available at: <http://www.dazeddigital.com/fashion/article/23336/1/ models-bare-their-penises-at-rick-owens> [Accessed 24 December 2016].

McCord, B., 2016. Your ultimate guide to Helmut Newton. [online] Available at: <http://www.dazeddigital.com/photography/ article/31247/1/your-ultimate-guide-to-helmut-newton> [Accessed 29 December 2016].


Merchant, K., 2012. How men and women differ, gender differences in communication styles, influence tactics, and leadership styles. [online] Available at: <http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cgi/viewcontent. cgi?article=1521&context=cmc_theses> [Accessed: 17 October 2016]. Musaeva, Z., n.d. Objectification of women’s bodies in the media. [online] Available at: <https://www.academia.edu/29163468/ Objectification_of_women_s_bodies_in_the_media> [Accessed 17 October 2016]. Nelson, P., 2001. Why so few male nudes? [online] Available at: <http://photo.net/bboard/q-and-a-fetch-msg?topic_id=23&msg_ id=001P84> [Accessed 29 October 2016]. PHYS ORG, 2016. How have gender stereotypes changed in the last 30 years? [online] Available at: <http://phys.org/news/2016-03-genderstereotypes-years.html> [Accessed 22 December 2016]. Peters, L., 2016. Fashion photography and the feminist aesthetics of disgust. [online] Available at: <https://www.psychologytoday.com/ blog/fashion-identity-and-the-body/201609/fashion-photographyand-the-feminist-aesthetics-disgust> [Accessed 21 October 2016]. Reichert, T., and Carpenter, C., 2004. An update on sex in magazine advertising: 1983 to 2003. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, [e-journal] 81, pp.823 - 837. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/ 107769900408100407. Sherman, L., 2015. Why is fashion, of all places, still a man’s world? [online] Available at: <http://www.manrepeller.com/2015/03/ female-ceos-in-fashion.html> [Accessed 24 December 2016]. SHOWstudio, n.d. Subjective: Lily Cole by Jurgen Teller. [video online] Available at: <http://showstudio.com/project/subjective/ lily_cole_by_juergen_teller> [Accessed 28 December 2016].

Stankiewiez, J. M., and Roselli, F., 2008. Women as sex objects and victims in print advertisements. Sex Roles, [e-journal] 58, pp.579 589. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-007-9359-1. Thompson, M., 2000. Gender in magazine advertising: skin sells best. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, [e-journal] 18(3), pp.178 - 181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0887302X0001800306. Wade, L., 2011. The nudity effect on men versus women. [online] Available at: <http://jezebel.com/5761392/the-nudity-effect-onmen-versus-women> [Accessed 24 December 2016]. Walter, N., 2010. Living dolls: the return of sexism. London : Virago Weiermair, P., 1995. The male nude - a male view: an anthology. Edition Stemmle. Willson, J., 2015. Being gorgeous: feminism, sexuality and the pleasures of the visual. London: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd. Wolska, M., 2011. Mass media. Case study: analysis of the gender stereotyping phenomenon in TV commercials. [online] Available at: http://krytyka.org/gender-stereotypes-in-mass-media-casestudy-analysis-of-the-gender-stereotyping-phenomenon-in-tvcommercials/> [Accessed 18 October 2016]. Wray, T., 2016. Doin’ work: flash interviews with contemporary photographers: Vivienne Maricevic. [online] Available at: <http:// www.huffingtonpost.com/tara-wray/doin-work-flashinterview_12_b_12232070.html> [Accessed 15 October 2016].


Image References Bogdanovic, D., 2006. Heat. [electronic print] Available at: <http://www.energygallery.com/23d9/DraskoBogdanovic/ DraskoBogdanovic3.jpg> [Accessed 3 January 2016].

Meisel, S., 2004. Asexual revolution. [electronic print] Available at: <https://www.artandcommerce.com/artists/photographers/stevenmeisel/Asexual-Revolution> [Accessed 28 December 2016].

Colombo, L., 2015. Haavard Kleppe (Success Models) backstage at Rick Owens AW15. [electronic print] Available at: <http://www. dazeddigital.com/fashion/gallery/19153/3/rick-owens-aw15> [Accessed 27 December 2016].

Newton, H., 2000. Cyberwoman 2, 2000. [electronic print] Available at: <http://www.dreweatts.com/media/dreweatts/ inventory/4/5/6/456865-4.jpg> [Accessed 26 December 2016.

Desmarais, J. B. F., 1787. The Shepherd Paris. [electronic print] Available at: <http://www.musee-orsay.fr/en/ events/exhibitions/in-the-musee-dorsay/exhibitions-inthe-musee-dorsay-more.html?zoom=1&tx_damzoom_ pi1%5BshowUid%5D=130054&cHash=638446d61b> [Accessed 29 December 2016]. Ekue, A., n.d. Bare men. [electronic print] Available at: <http://www. widewalls.ch/male-nudes-abigail-ekue-bare-men/censorship/> [Accessed 3 January 2017]. Ekue, A., n.d. Sleeping beauty. [electronic print] Available at: <http://www.widewalls.ch/male-nudes-abigail-ekue-bare-men/ censorship/> [Accessed 4 January 2017]. Mapplethorpe, R., 1983. Jill Chapman and Ken Moody, Italian Vogue. [electronic print]. Available at: <http://www.artnet.com/artists/ robert-mapplethorpe/jill-chapman-and-ken-moody-italian-voguelq_m7iHEdXpVNq4ZjAJnPQ2> [Accessed 28 December 2016]. Manet, E., 1863. Le DĂŠjeuner sur lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;herbe. [electronic print] Available at: <https://daily-norm.com/2012/03/14/persistently-mysteriousindubitable-genius-manets-le-dejeuner-sur-lherbe/> [Accessed 29 december 2016]. McLellan, A., 2015. Michael. [electronic print] Available at: <https:// www.theguardian.com/fashion/2015/apr/30/why-the-penis-ishaving-a-moment-in-mens-fashion> [Accessed 26 December 2016].

Sorrenti, M., 1999. Yves Saint Laurent Spring Summer. [electronic print] Available at: <https://daily-norm.com/2012/03/14/ persistently-mysterious-indubitable-genius-manets-le-dejeunersur-lherbe/> [Accessed 30 December]. Teller, J., 2007. Lily Cole. [electronic print] Available at: <http:// www.lilycole.com/juergen-teller-1/> [Accessed 26 December 2016].


Bibliography Archer, D., Iritani, B., Kimes, D. D., and Barrios, M., 1983. Faceism: five studies of sex differences in facial prominence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, [e-journal] 45, pp.725 - 735. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.45.4.725. artnet, n.d. Robert Mapplethorpe: Jill Chapman and Ken Moody Italian Vogue. [online] Available at: <http://www.artnet.com/artists/ robert-mapplethorpe/jill-chapman-and-ken-moody-italian-voguelq_m7iHEdXpVNq4ZjAJnPQ2> [Accessed 30 December 2016]. Bahadur, N., 2014. If fashion ads treated men and women the same way. [online] Available at: <http://www.huffingtonpost. com/2014/07/17/fashion-ads-treated-men-and-womensame_n_5589243.html> [Accessed 2 October 2016]. Baker, L., 2001. Helmut Newton: a perverse romantic. [online] Available at: <https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2001/ may/05/weekend.lindsaybaker> [Accessed 29 December 2016]. Berger, M., Wallis, B., and Watson, S., 1995. Constructing masculinity. New York: Routledge. Boodakian, F. D., 2008. Resisting nudities: a study in the aesthetics of eroticism. Frankfurt: Peter Lang Publishing. Braukämper, T., n.d. Free the penis: naked Michael Morgan covers Man About Town. [online] Available at: <http://www.fashionising. com/pictures/b--michael-morgan-naked-man-about-town-87934. html> [Accessed 24 December 2016]. Brown, D., 2012. Persistently mysterious; indubitable genius: Manet’s Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe. [online] Available at: < https://daily-norm. com/2012/03/14/persistently-mysterious-indubitable-geniusmanets-le-dejeuner-sur-lherbe/> [Accessed 30 December 2016]. Brumfitt, S., 2015. Meet tomorrow’s man. [online] Available at: <https://i-d.vice.com/en_gb/article/meet-tomorrowsman> [Accessed 10 October 2016].

Bruzzi, S. and Gibson, P. C., 2013. Fashion cultures revisited: theories, explorations and analysis. New York: Routledge. Butler, J., 1990. Gender trouble, feminism and the subversion of identity. New York: Routledge. Butler, T., 2005. Fashion photography as semiotics: Barthes and the limitations of classification. [online] Available at: <https://news. mongabay.com/2005/04/fashion-photography-as-semioticsbarthes-and-the-limitations-of-classification/> [Accessed 12 December 2016]. Carr, E., Moffitt, L., and Szymanski, D., 2011. Sexual objectification of women: advances to theory and research. Major Section on Sexual Objectification of Women, [e-journal] 39(1), pp.6 - 38. http://dx.doi. org/10.1177/0011000010378402. Cantagallo, D., 2013. The bad and the beautiful: Helmut Newton. [online] Available at: <http://www.alvarmagazine.com/thoughts/ the-bad-and-the-beautiful-helmut-newton/> [Accessed 19 December 2016]. Chilvers, S., 2015. Why the penis is having a moment in men’s fashion. [online] Available at: <https://www.theguardian.com/fashion/2015/ apr/30/why-the-penis-is-having-a-moment-in-mens-fashion> [Accessed 29 October 2016]. Civile, C. and Obhi, S., 2015. Power, objectification, and recognition of sexualized women and men. Psychology of Women Quarterly, [e-journal] 40(2), pp.199 - 212. http://dx.doi. org/10.1177/0361684315604820. Colebrook, C., 2004. Gender. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. Gorton, T, 2015. Models bare their penises at Rick Owens. [online] Available at: <http://www.dazeddigital.com/fashion/article/23336/1/ models-bare-their-penises-at-rick-owens> [Accessed 24 December 2016].


Cooper, E., 1996. Fully exposed: the male nude in photography. 2nd edn. London: Routledge. Davis, C., 2014. The sexualisation and objectification of women in modern media and its subsequent impact on female body image. [online] Available at: <https://charlkatedavies.wordpress. com/2014/05/15/the-sexualisation-and-objectification-of-womenin-modern-media-and-its-subsequent-impact-on-female-bodyimage/> [Accessed 10 October 2016]. Davis, D., 2014. Emma Gruner. [online] Available at: <http:// tripmag.co.uk/emma-gruner/. [Accessed 12 November 2016]. Dazed Digital., n.d. Controversial fashion ads. [online] Available at: <http://www.dazeddigital.com/fashion/gallery/19779/16/ controversial-fashion-ads> [Accessed 15 October 2016]. De Melker, S., 2013. Researchers measure increasing sexualisation of images in magazines. [online] Available at: <http://www. pbs.org/newshour/updates/social_issues-july-dec13sexualization_12-21/> [Accessed 4 October 2016]. Drexler, P., 2015. Nudity doesn’t shock us anymore. [online] Available at: <http://edition.cnn.com/2015/01/25/opinion/drexler-parisfashion-shock/> [Accessed 23 October 2016]. Eck, B. A., 2003. Men are much harder: gendered viewing of nude images. Gender & Society, [e-journal] 17(5), pp.691 - 710. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891243203255604.

Ekue, A., 2014. Bare men preview. [online] Available at: <http:// abigailekuewrites.blogspot.co.uk/2014/03/bare-men-preview-video. html> [Accessed 22 December 2016]. Ferla, R. L., 2004. Don’t try this in Vogue. [online] Available at: <http://www.nytimes.com/2004/09/12/fashion/dont-try-this-invogue.html?_r=0> [Accessed 28 December 2016]. Foster, A., 1988. Behold the man: the male nude in photography. 2nd edn. Edinburgh: Stills Gallery. Frayser, S. and Whitby, T., 1995. Studies in human sexuality: a selected guide. 2nd edn. Englewood, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, Inc. Fredrickson, B., and Roberts, T., 1997. Objectification theory: towards understanding women’s lived experiences and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, [e-journal] 21, pp.173 206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00108.x. Gloudeman, N., 2015. Female photographer turns the lens, for once, on naked men. [online] Available at: <http://www.huffingtonpost. com/nikki-gloudeman/female-photographer-turns-the-lens-onnaked-men_b_6367422.html> [Accessed 30 October 2016]. Goffman, E., 1979. Gender advertisements. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Goldstein, L., 1994. The male body: features, destinies, exposures, part 1. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press.

Edwards, A., 2015. It’s a man’s world: the effect of traditional masculinity on gender equality. [online] Available at: <http://www.eir.info/2015/03/29/its-a-mans-world-the-effect-of-traditionalmasculinity-on-gender-equality/> [Accessed 30 December 2016].

Greer, G., 1970. The female eunuch. London: MacGibbon & Kee.

Ekue, A., 2016. See images from “bare men,” a new photo book on male nudity. [online] Available at: <http://www.papermag.com/ bare-men-abigail-ekue-1904957210.html> [Accessed 15 October 2016].

Hall, J. A., 1984. Nonverbal sex differences: communication accuracy and expressive style. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Grosz, E. A., 1994. Volatile bodies: toward a corporeal feminism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.


Hall, J., 2013. Sexualisation? Or exploitation? [online] Available at: <http://stylejourno.blogspot.co.uk/2013/10/sexualisation-orexploitation.html> [Accessed 3 October 2016].

Leibovitz, A., n.d. Annie Leibovitz. [online] Available at: <http:// www.widewalls.ch/artist/annie-leibovitz/> [Accessed 7 November 2016].

Harageones, S., 2016. Men want to be looked at: a look at the male nude in western photography. [online] Available at: <http:// dotphotozine.com/Dot/men-want-to-be-looked-at-a-look-atthe-male-nude-in-western-photography-by-sandi-harageones/> [Accessed 29 December 2016].

Lewkinski, J., 1987. The naked and the nude: a history of nude photography. London: George Weidenfeld and Nicolson Ltd.

Hoyle, E., 2013. The female gaze. [online] Available at: <http:// zodculture.com/the-female-gaze/> [Accessed 12 December 2016]. Huntington, R., 1989. Censored by congress a touch of hysteria about photo exhibit afflicts lawmakers. [online] Available at: <http:// buffalonews.com/1989/07/30/censored-by-congress-a-touch-ofhysteria-about-photo-exhibit-afflicts-lawmakers/> [Accessed 30 December 2016]. Hutson, M., 2013. What goes on in our minds when we see someone naked? [online] Available at: <https://aeon.co/essays/what-goes-onin-our-minds-when-we-see-someone-naked> [Accessed 15 October 2016]. Kordic, A., n.d. The intimacy of the male nude - the bare men series by Abigail Ekue. [online] Available at: <http://www.widewalls.ch/ male-nudes-abigail-ekue-bare-men/> [Accessed 15 October 2016]. Kordic, A., n.d. Heroines of feminist photography we admire. [online] Available at: <http://www.widewalls.ch/feminist-photographyheroines/> [Accessed 7 November 2016]. Kostov, A., n.d. Juergen Teller: different nudes. [online] Available at: <http://www.widewalls.ch/juergen-teller-different-nudesprovoke/> [Accessed 4 October 2016].  Lehrer, J., 2011. The psychology of nakedness. [online] Available at: <https://www.wired.com/2011/11/the-psychology-of-nakedness/> [Accessed 2 November 2016].

Lindner, K., 2004. Images of women in general interest and fashion magazine advertisements from 1995 to 2002. Sex Roles, [e-journal] 51, pp.409 - 421. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B: SERS.0000049230.86869.4d. Macho Media., n.d. Ideal masculinity. [online] Available at: <http://fmst-20h-g1-spring-15.wikispaces.com/ Hypersexuality+in+Media> [Accessed 30 October 2016]. MacMillan, G., 2003. Sophie Dahl wants to see less nudity in advertising. [online] Available at: <http://www.campaignlive. co.uk/article/170214/sophie-dahl-wants-less-nudity-advertising#> [Accessed 13 December 2016]. Margossian, M., 2013. Mistaking degradation for empowerment in feminism. [online] Available at: <http://dailycollegian. com/2013/10/10/mistaking-degradation-for-empowerment-infeminism/> [Accessed 12 December 2016]. Maric, B., n.d. Newton’s nudes. [online] Available at: <http://www. widewalls.ch/newtons-nudes/> [Accessed 26 december 2016]. Martineau, P., 2014. The nude in photography. Los Angeles: Getty Publications. McCord, B., 2016. Your ultimate guide to Helmut Newton. [online] Available at: <http://www.dazeddigital.com/photography/ article/31247/1/your-ultimate-guide-to-helmut-newton> [Accessed 29 December 2016]. Merchant, K., 2012. How men and women differ, gender differences in communication styles, influence tactics, and leadership styles. [online] Available at: <http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cgi/viewcontent. cgi?article=1521&context=cmc_theses> [Accessed: 17 October 2016].


Musaeva, Z., n.d. Objectification of women’s bodies in the media. [online] Available at: <https://www.academia.edu/29163468/ Objectification_of_women_s_bodies_in_the_media> [Accessed 17 October 2016].

Shields, V., 1997. Selling the sex that sells: mapping the evolution of gender advertising research across three decades. Annals of the International Communication Association, [e-journal] 20(1), pp.71 109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23808985.1997.11678939.

Nelson, P., 2001. Why so few male nudes? [online] Available at: <http://photo.net/bboard/q-and-a-fetch-msg?topic_id=23&msg_ id=001P84> [Accessed 29 October 2016].

SHOWstudio, n.d. Subjective: Lily Cole by Jurgen Teller. [video online] Available at: <http://showstudio.com/project/subjective/ lily_cole_by_juergen_teller> [Accessed 28 December 2016].

Oyster Colored Velvet., n.d. The feminization of the penis. [online] Available at: <http://oystercoloredvelvet.com/?lifestyle=thefeminization-of-the-penis> [Accessed 3 October 2016].

Stankiewiez, J. M., and Roselli, F., 2008. Women as sex objects and victims in print advertisements. Sex Roles, [e-journal] 58, pp.579 589. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-007-9359-1.

PHYS ORG, 2016. How have gender stereotypes changed in the last 30 years? [online] Available at: <http://phys.org/news/2016-03-genderstereotypes-years.html> [Accessed 22 December 2016].

Teller, J., 2003. Märchenstuberl. Germany.

Peters, L., 2016. Fashion photography and the feminist aesthetics of disgust. [online] Available at: <https://www.psychologytoday.com/ blog/fashion-identity-and-the-body/201609/fashion-photographyand-the-feminist-aesthetics-disgust> [Accessed 21 October 2016].

Teller, J., 2006. Do you know what I mean. New York: Thames & Hudson Ltd. Thompson, M., 2000. Gender in magazine advertising: skin sells best. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, [e-journal] 18(3), pp.178 - 181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0887302X0001800306.

Petrov, J., 2016. Collared: Celluloid, masculinity and class. Critical Studies in Men’s Fashion, [e-journal] 3(2), pp.63 - 78. https://doi. org/10.1386/csmf.3.2.63_1.

Tierney, A., 2016. Inside the magical world of lolitas. [online] Available at: <http://www.vice.com/read/inside-the-magical-worldof-lolitas> [Accessed 15 October 2016].

Reichert, T., and Carpenter, C., 2004. An update on sex in magazine advertising: 1983 to 2003. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, [e-journal] 81, pp.823 - 837. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/ 107769900408100407.

Todd, M., 2015. You can’t censor this. [online] Available at: <http:// www.dazeddigital.com/photography/article/25941/1/these-instaartists-are-changing-body-image-arvida-bystrom-molly-soda> [Accessed 12 December 2016].

Sherman, L., 2015. Why is fashion, of all places, still a man’s world? [online] Available at: <http://www.manrepeller.com/2015/03/ female-ceos-in-fashion.html> [Accessed 24 December 2016].

Troncy, E., 2011. Juergen Teller: touch me. France: Les Presses Du Reel.

Shi, D., 2016. A photographer depicts men at their most vulnerable. [online] Available at: <http://thecreatorsproject.vice.com/en_au/ blog/nude-male-photography-most-vulnerable-moments> [Accessed 12 December 2016].

Vita, A., n.d. Fashion and psychology. [online] Available at: <http:// www.vogue.it/en/news/encyclo/fashion/m/fashion-andpsychology> [Accessed 4 October 2016]. Wade, L., 2011. The nudity effect on men versus women. [online] Available at: <http://jezebel.com/5761392/the-nudity-effect-onmen-versus-women> [Accessed 24 December 2016].


Walter, N., 2010. Living dolls: the return of sexism. London : Virago Weiermair, P., 1995. The male nude - a male view: an anthology. Edition Stemmle. Willson, J., 2015. Being gorgeous: feminism, sexuality and the pleasures of the visual. London: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd. Wolska, M., 2011. Mass media. Case study: analysis of the gender stereotyping phenomenon in tv commercials. [online] Available at: <http://krytyka.org/gender-stereotypes-in-mass-media-casestudy-analysis-of-the-gender-stereotyping-phenomenon-in-tvcommercials/> [Accessed 18 October 2016]. Wray, T., 2016. Doin’ work: flash interviews with contemporary photographers: Vivienne Maricevic. [online] Available at: <http:// www.huffingtonpost.com/tara-wray/doin-work-flashinterview_12_b_12232070.html> [Accessed 15 October 2016]. Wolf, S., 2003. Conversations on art at the Whitney House museum of American art with Larry Clark, Ryan McGinley, and Sylvia Wolf. [online] Available at: <http://ryanmcginley.com/larry-clark/> [Accessed 11 November 2016].

Profile for SOPHIEHAIGH

Project research  

Project research  

Advertisement