The City is a Thinking Machine Volume III: The Geddes Institute

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The City is a Thinking Machine Volume III: The Geddes Institute


The City is a Thinking Machine Patrick Geddes and Cities in Evolution Lorens Holm Deepak Gopinath Matthew Jarron Edited by Lorens Holm and Cameron McEwan Volume III of IV.


Volume III: The Geddes Institute Contents 2

Eight Exhibitors

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Exhibition Plan

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Projects


Eight Exhibitors Continuity and Invention Charles Rattray Graeme Hutton The Artefact and the Analogue Cameron McEwan Perth City Study Fergus Purdie Architect, RSA The Collective Memory of Banja Luka Jelena Stankovic Score for a Prepared Voice John Dummett A Septic Turn Paul Guzzardo City-Regional Planning in Scotland TAYplan and Town & Regional Planning, University of Dundee A LIFE IN BALANCE! + EVOLVE YOUR PLACE FOLK! Tracy Mackenna & Edwin Janssen 2


Eight affiliates of the Geddes Institute for Urban Research at the University of Dundee contributed projects to the exhibition. The projects were installed on the gallery walls, with the Geddes archive material in the vitrines in the centre of the space. Moving counter-clockwise beginning in the southwest corner. Paul Guzzardo’s video installation records a civil suit that unpacks the relation between power, intellectual property, and digital practice in the city of St. Louis. Cameron McEwan’s montage drawings look at the city and society as analogues. John Dummett’s montage of text and images looks at the figure of the public in political discourse. Jelena Stankovics plan studies of Banja Luka map the personal and collective memories embedded in the city fabric. The art practice of Tracy MacKenna and Edwin Janssen produced lapel buttons to orient public activists within the city. Deborah Peel with the TayPlan Strategic Planning Authority and the Dundee City Council Planning Department documented the history of Tay Valley regional planning from Geddes’ time to the present waterfront plan. Fergus Purdie Architects produced a citizens’ civic survey of Perth, comprising 9 A0 screen prints. Graeme Hutton and Charles Rattray produced plan studies for the commercial and residential development of the Dundee waterfront. Using different means and media, these projects treat the city as a social form and use it to think through questions of inhabitation and social life. Reproduced in front of each contribution is the A3 exhibition panel that introduced each project.

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Exhibition Plan 4


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Projects

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Plan detail of the city of Rothenburg, courtesy of the University of Strathclyde, photo by Lorens Holm

Continuity and Invention Charles Rattray and Graeme Hutton These panels summarise a three-year study of Dundee’s Central Waterfront, an area that has undergone dramatic change: reclaimed dockland that had an infrastructure of carriageways, roundabouts and overhead walkways, has been re-ordered by the City on a grid of development blocks that frame Kengo Kuma Architects’ new V&A Dundee. The project worked within the City Council’s block plan while introducing new features including an additional street, within the blocks, which relates to the grain of the existing city. It examines how Dundee’s existing urban fabric can be interpreted and extended to create places, streets and buildings which, while modern, show continuity with the past. The project develops a dynamic between important buildings and the ordinary matrix of the city which informs the proposed urban scale and hierarchy of streets. This research produced a master plan for the Central Waterfront that maximises its continuity with the city centre. It reminds us that architecture and architectural judgment are capable of the sort of critical look at the texture and planning of a city that Geddes regarded as necessary for informed place-making. It confirms the importance that Geddes placed upon the Civic Survey in the planning process.

This research was conducted by the Architecture + The City Design Research Masters Unit at the University of Dundee led by Charles Rattray and Graeme Hutton. Rattray, FRSA, is an architect. He was in practice for twenty years, is a former Editor of Architectural Research Quarterly and teaches at Dundee. Hutton, RIBA FRIAS, is an architect and Professor of Architecture at Dundee who practices with LJR+H and has taught with Rattray for twenty years.

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View of four main panels at exhibition opening (above) and figure-ground diagrams of alternative urban designs for the Waterfront (right). Following pages: Detail images of panels.

Architecture + The City Unit 2012 - 2013 - ‘The Wall’ Strategy

Architecture + The City Unit 2012 - 2013 - ‘Blocks’ Strategy

Architecture + The City Unit 2013 - 2014

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Architecture + The City Unit 2014 - 2015


Union Street The language of the generic street which forms the connective tissue to Dundee is defined by an informal street scape through the use of rough cast stone, large uneven mortar joints and the varied expression of window openings and articulation.

Existing City Union Street

CUT PROCESS

1- ONE SOLID BLOCK

2- CUT TO CREATE NORTH/SOUTH ROUTE & FORM TWO BLOCKS

3- CUT TO CREATE A 14M DEEP BLOCK & 18M COURTYARD WITHIN

4- CUT TO AVOID THE TRAIN LINE THAT RUNS BELOW

5- CUT TO CREATE A ROUTE BETWEEN THE TRAIN STATION & GARDEN SQUARE

6- CUT TO PROVIDE VEHICULAR ACCESS

CUT PROCESSCUT PROCESS

SECTION|

Sectional perspective through the urban block 1- ONE SOLID BLOCK 1- ONE SOLID BLOCK

2- CUT TO CREATE 2- NORTH/SOUTH CUT TO CREATE NORTH/SOUTH ROUTE & FORM TWO ROUTE BLOCKS & FORM TWO BLOCKS

3- CUT TO CREATE 3- ACUT 14MTO DEEP CREATE BLOCK A 14M DEEP BLOCK & 18M COURTYARD & 18M WITHIN COURTYARD WITHIN

4- CUT TO AVOID 4THECUT TRAIN TO LINE AVOID THAT THE TRAIN LINE THAT RUNS BELOW RUNS BELOW

5- CUT TO CREATE 5- ACUT ROUTE TO CREATE BETWEEN A ROUTE BETWEEN THE TRAIN STATION THE & GARDEN TRAIN STATION & GARDEN SQUARE SQUARE

6- CUT TO PROVIDE 6- VEHICULAR CUT TO PROVIDE VEHICULAR ACCESS ACCESS

CUT PROCESS CUT PROCESS

Perspective drawing - facade to public square

GREATER HEIGHT TOWARDS THETHE WATER GREATER HEIGHT TOWARDS WATER Plots towards the river are of value. These will be to have Plots towards the river aregreater of greater value. These willallowed be allowed to have extraextra storeys within reason. storeys within reason.

PERMANENCE PERMANENCE Permanence can can be achieved through monolithic andand physical materials Permanence be achieved through monolithic physical materials combined withwith an adaptable approach to function. combined an adaptable approach to function.

APPROPRIATE URBAN SCALE APPROPRIATE URBAN SCALE TheThe urban block should havehave an appropriate urban scale as inaskeeping urban block should an appropriate urban scale in keeping withwith the majority of buildings thatthat make up the of the Windows the majority of buildings make up fabric the fabric of city. the city. Windows

LIMITED NUMBER OF ELEMENTS ANDAND MATERIALS LIMITED NUMBER OF ELEMENTS MATERIALS TheThe grammar will be if there is a is limited number of compositional grammar willuniform be uniform if there a limited number of compositional elements. TheThe elements can can be used in repetition as an can can elements. elements be used in repetition as element an element perform more thanthan oneone function. ThisThis is further reinforced when the the perform more function. is further reinforced when palette of materials is limited. palette of materials is limited.

andand doors should havehave an urban scale andand proportion commensurate doors should an urban scale proportion commensurate withwith oor oor heights. heights.

1- ONE SOLID BLOCK 1- ONE SOLID BLOCK

2- CUT TO CREATE 2- CUT NORTH/SOUTH TO CREATE NORTH/SOUTH ROUTE & FORM ROUTE TWO BLOCKS & FORM TWO BLOCKS

3- CUT TO CREATE 3- CUT A 14M TODEEP CREATE BLOCK A 14M DEEP BLOCK & 18M COURTYARD & 18M WITHIN COURTYARD WITHIN

4- CUT TO AVOID 4- THE CUTTRAIN TO AVOID LINE THE THATTRAIN LINE THAT RUNS BELOW RUNS BELOW

CUT PROCESS CUT PROCESS

2- CUT 2TO CUT CREATE TO CREATE NORTH/SOUTH NORTH/SOUTH ROUTE &ROUTE FORM &TWO FORM BLOCKS TWO BLOCKS

1- ONE 1SOLID ONEBLOCK SOLID BLOCK

GREATER HEIGHT TOWARDS THE WATER Plots towards the river are of greater value. These will be allowed to have GREATER HEIGHT TOWARDS THE WATER extra storeys within reason.

PERMANENCE Permanence can be achieved through monolithic and physical materials PERMANENCE combined with an adaptable approach to function.

SUPPRESSION OF THE INDIVIDUAL SUPPRESSION OF THE INDIVIDUAL

Plots towards the riverTOWARDS are of greaterTHE value. These will be allowed to have GREATER HEIGHT WATER extratowards storeys within reason. Plots the river areURBAN of greater value. These will be allowed to have APPROPRIATE SCALE urban block should have an appropriate urban scale as in keeping extra storeysThe within reason.

Permanence can be achieved through monolithic and physical materials PERMANENCE combined withcan an adaptable approach to function. Permanence achieved monolithic and physical materials LIMITEDbeNUMBER OFthrough ELEMENTS AND MATERIALS combined with an adaptable to function. The grammar will beapproach uniform if there is a limited number of compositional

Rather than a series of separate facades it is itmore important to have a a SUPPRESSION OF THE INDIVIDUAL Rather than a series of separate facades is more important to have collective approach. single collective approach. Rather than single a series of separate façades it is more important to have a single collective approach.

and doors should have an urban scale and proportion commensurate APPROPRIATE URBAN SCALE with the majority of buildings that make up the fabric of the city. Windows with oor heights. The have an scale appropriate urban scale as in keeping andurban doorsblock shouldshould have an urban and proportion commensurate with majority withtheoor heights.of buildings that make up the fabric of the city. Windows and doors should have an urban scale and proportion commensurate with door heights.

perform more than one function. This is further reinforced when the LIMITED NUMBER OF ELEMENTS AND MATERIALS elements. The elements can be used in repetition as an element can palette of materials isiflimited. The grammar uniform there is further a limited numberwhen of compositional perform more will thanbe one function. This is reinforced the elements. The elements can be used in repetition as an element can palette of materials is limited. perform more than one function. This is further reinforced when the palette of materials is limited.

Material can differentiate between the front and back. The front façade FRONTS AND BACKS material should be of cost,cost, more monolithic andand monumental. material should behigher of higher more monolithic monumental. Material can differentiate between the front and back. The front façade material should be of higher cost, more monolithic and monumental.

APPROPRIATE URBAN SCALE with the majority of buildings that make up the fabric of the city. Windows The urban block should have an appropriate urban scale as in keeping

LIMITED NUMBER OF ELEMENTS AND MATERIALS elements. The elements can be used in repetition as an element can The grammar will be uniform if there is a limited number of compositional

Whitehall Street Hierarchies between streets are expressed through the size and proportion of the individual buildings and also in the dialogue between the surface of the facade and the street. Stylistic elements and ornamentation denotes a grander character, expressing a cultural meaning and more regimented and regular rhythm to that of the more informal and ad-hocFRONT street. SUPPRESSION OF THE INDIVIDUAL TO PUBLIC ROOM

Rather than a series of separate facades it is more important to have a SUPPRESSION OF THE INDIVIDUAL single collective approach. Rather than a series of separate facades it is more important to have a single collective approach. FRONTS AND BACKS Material can differentiate between the front and back. The front façade FRONTS AND BACKS material should be of higher cost, more monolithic and monumental. Material can differentiate between the front and back. The front façade material should be of higher cost, more monolithic and monumental.

FRONTS ANDAND BACKS FRONTS BACKS Material can differentiate between the front and back. The front façade

FRONT TO PUBLIC ROOM FRONT TO PUBLIC ROOM

1- One solid block

façade shallshall respond to the TheThe public room is deened by aby a FRONT TOThe PUBLIC ROOM The façade respond to context. the context. public room is deened architectural gesture which is public tois be towards the by public greater architectural gesture which to made be made towards the The façadegreater shall respond to the context. The room is defined apublic space. Thisgesture is the façade within the hierarchy. space. This is primary thewhich primary within the hierarchy. greater architectural is façade to be made towards the public space. This is the primary façade within the hierarchy.

2- Cut to create north / south route and create two blocks

3- Cut to create a 14m deep block and 18m deep courtyard within

4- Cut to avoid the train line than runs below

5- Cut to create a route between the train station & garden square

6- Cut to provide vehicular Access

7- APPLYING A HIERARCHY TO THE CUT FACADES CREATES THREE CUT CONDITIONS; PRIMARY CUT

(MAIN STREET), SECONDARYto CUTthe (SECONDARY STREET) AND TERTIARY CUT (BACKS). 7- Applying a hierarchy cut façades creates three cutEACH conditions; CATEGORY OF CUT RECEIVES A DIFFERENT MATERIAL TREATMENT. primary cut (main street), secondary cut (secondary street) and tertiary cut (backs). Each category of cut receives a different material treatment.

DEFINE THETHE PUBLIC ROOM DEFINE PUBLIC ROOM When a conscious effort is made to relate building facades to the public When a conscious effort is made to relate building facades to the public

DEFINE THE PUBLIC ROOM of that space as an outdoor room is further space, the the perception space, perception of that space as an outdoor room is further When a conscious effort is made to relate building façades to the public intensieed. intensieed. space, the perception of that space as an outdoor room is further intensified.

3- CUT 3TO CUT CREATE TO CREATE A 14M DEEP A 14M BLOCK DEEP BLOCK & 18M COURTYARD & 18M COURTYARD WITHIN WITHIN

4- CUT 4TO CUT AVOID TOTHE AVOID TRAIN THELINE TRAIN THAT LINE THAT RUNS BELOW RUNS BELOW

5- CUT TO CREATE 5- CUT A ROUTE TO CREATE BETWEEN A ROUTE BETWEEN THE TRAIN STATION THE & TRAIN GARDEN STATION & GARDEN SQUARE SQUARE

Existing City Whitehall Street

6- CUT TO PROVIDE 6- CUT VEHICULAR TO PROVIDE VEHICULAR ACCESS ACCESS

7- APPLYING A HIERARCHY 7- APPLYING TO THE A HIERARCHY CUT FACADES TO THE CREATES CUT FACADES THREE CUT CREATES CONDITIONS; THREE CUT PRIMARY CONDITIONS; CUT PRIMARY CUT (MAIN STREET), SECONDARY (MAIN STREET), CUT SECONDARY (SECONDARYCUT STREET) (SECONDARY AND TERTIARY STREET) CUT AND (BACKS). TERTIARY EACH CUT (BACKS). EACH CATEGORY OF CUT CATEGORY RECEIVESOF A DIFFERENT CUT RECEIVES MATERIAL A DIFFERENT TREATMENT. MATERIAL TREATMENT.

The façade shall respond to the context. The public room is deened by a FRONT TO PUBLIC ROOM greater architectural gesture which is to be made towards the public The façade shall respond to the context. The public room is deened by a space. This is the primary façade within the hierarchy. greater architectural gesture which is to be made towards the public space. This is the primary façade within the hierarchy. DEFINE THE PUBLIC ROOM When a conscious effort is made to relate building facades to the public DEFINE THE PUBLIC ROOM space, the perception of that space as an outdoor room is further When a conscious effort is made to relate building facades to the public intensieed. space, the perception of that space as an outdoor room is further intensieed.

5- CUT 5TO CUT CREATE TO CREATE A ROUTEA BETWEEN ROUTE BETWEEN THE TRAIN THESTATION TRAIN STATION & GARDEN & GARDEN SQUARESQUARE

6- CUT 6TO CUT PROVIDE TO PROVIDE VEHICULAR VEHICULAR ACCESSACCESS

7- APPLYING A 7HIERARCHY APPLYINGTO A HIERARCHY THE CUT FACADES TO THECREATES CUT FACADES THREECREATES CUT CONDITIONS; THREE CUT PRIMARY CONDITIONS; CUT PRIMARY CUT (MAIN STREET), SECONDARY (MAIN STREET), CUT SECONDARY (SECONDARY CUT STREET) (SECONDARY AND TERTIARY STREET)CUT AND(BACKS). TERTIARY EACH CUT (BACKS). EACH CATEGORY OF CUT CATEGORY RECEIVES OF ACUT DIFFERENT RECEIVES MATERIAL A DIFFERENT TREATMENT. MATERIAL TREATMENT.

NEW LIVE/WORK STREET ELEVATION|

Elevation facing V&A

Elevation along north / south route

7- APPLYING 7- APPLYING A HIERARCHY A HIERARCHY TO THE TO CUTTHE FACADES CUT FACADES CREATES CREATES THREE CUT THREE CONDITIONS; CUT CONDITIONS; PRIMARY PRIMARY CUT CUT (MAIN STREET), (MAIN STREET), SECONDARY SECONDARY CUT (SECONDARY CUT (SECONDARY STREET)STREET) AND TERTIARY AND TERTIARY CUT (BACKS). CUT (BACKS). EACH EACH CATEGORY CATEGORY OF CUT OF RECEIVES CUT RECEIVES A DIFFERENT A DIFFERENT MATERIAL MATERIAL TREATMENT. TREATMENT.

The city as a unity of gradually evolved individual parts expressed in parti wall and plot sub-divisions Dundee historic city 1:5000

Proposed View of 1:200 model A tight vertical grain creates an oblique material solidity along the offramp where a hierarchy of layered structural expression lends an individuality to certain

Key Plan - Project within Masterplan 2014-2015

Entrance Elevation 1:100

Key Plan - Project within Masterplan 2014-2015

Ciarán Bennett - Architectural Composition in the Context of the City buildings and architectural elements.

Views of 1:50 model

Typical single unit elevation along north / south route 1:100

Cara Brunton - Architectural Ornament in the Contemporary City

The city as a unity of gradually evolved individual parts expressed in parti wall and plot sub-divisions

Mirroring the structure of the existing city to suggest a new urban texture for Dundee Waterfront

Dundee historic city 1:5000

1:5000

Proposed Extension to the City

Mirroring the structure of the existing city to suggest a new urban texture for Dundee Waterfront

Mirrored city is rationalised to accomodate for proposed infrastructure at the waterfront Mirrored city is rationalised to accommodate for proposed infrastructure at the waterfront 1:5000

1:5000Mirroring the structure of the existing city to suggest a new urban texture for Dundee Waterfront

Transposing the historic plot size to structure the urban block 1: 1250

Plan drawings - continuity of urban texture

View of 1:200 model - street elevations Proposed A layered and horizontal material expression ensures a unity where buildings appear individually as a sequence yet they belong together.

Union Street The language of the generic street which forms the connective tissue to Dundee is defined by an informal street scape through the use of rough cast stone, large uneven mortar joints and the varied expression of window openings and articulation.

Existing City Union Street

Layering and Hierarchy of Facade Axonometric Drawings

Existing Whitehall Existing Street Whitehall Street large plot withlarge two shops plot with at two ground shops floor atand ground flatsfloor above and flats above

Proposed continuity Proposed andcontinuity inventionand invention of a WhitehallofStreet a Whitehall building Street as part building of a new as part street of a new street

View of courtyard within the urban block

Axonometric drawing of urban block showing hierarchy of façades

Continuity of Castle Street 1:500

Existing and proposed plot types

Continuity of Urban Texture institution Hardwood models of embedded

Whitehall Street Hierarchies between streets are expressed through the size and proportion of the individual buildings and also in the dialogue between the surface of the facade and the street. Stylistic elements and ornamentation denotes a grander character, expressing a cultural meaning and more regimented and regular rhythm to that of the more informal and ad-hoc street.

Mirrored city is rationalised to accomodate for proposed infrastructure at the waterfront

Transposing the historic plot size to structure the urban block

1:5000

1: 1250

Existing City Whitehall Street

Existing Whitehall Street Large plot with two shops at ground floor and flats above

Proposed continuity and invention Whitehall Street building as part of a new street

Existing Union Street Small plot with long shops and flats above

Proposed ground floor retail and upper floor flats or offices Continuity and invention of a Union Street building as part of a new street

Model study 1 - school with multiple external courts

Model study 2 - courtyard school embedded in urban block

Model study 3 - courtyard school with single court and hierarchy of elevations

Model study 4 - courtyard school with hierarchy of elevations embedded in urban block

Continuity of Castle Street 1:500 Existing Existing Whitehall Whitehall Street Street large large plotplot withwith twotwo shops shops at ground at ground floor floor andand flatsflats above above

Proposed Proposed continuity continuity andand invention invention of aofWhitehall a Whitehall Street Street building building as part as part of aofnew a new street street

Continuity of Urban Texture

Proposed A tight vertical grain creates an oblique material solidity along the offramp where a hierarchy of layered structural expression lends an individuality to certain buildings and architectural elements.

Existing Union Existing Street Union Street small plot withsmall longplot shops withand long flats shops above and flats above

Proposed ground Proposed floor retail ground and floor upper retail floor and flats upper or offices floor flats or offices continuity andcontinuity inventionand of ainvention Union Street of a building Union Street as part building of a new as part of a new

ContinuityContinuity & Invention & Invention Plot TypesPlot in Dundee Types in Dundee

Proposed Extension to the City

Proposed A layered and horizontal material expression ensures a unity where buildings appear individually as a sequence yet they belong together.

Section through urban block with courtyard elevation

Axonometric drawings - layering and hierarchy of proposed façades Layering and Hierarchy of Facade Axonometric Drawings

Existing Existing Union Union Street Street small small plotplot withwith long long shops shops andand flatsflats above above

Key Plan - Project within Masterplan 2013-2014

Continuity Continuity & Invention & Invention Plot Plot Types Types in in Dundee Dundee

Proposed Proposed ground ground floor floor retail retail andand upper upper floor floor flatsflats or offices or offices continuity continuity andand invention invention of aofUnion a Union Street Street building building as part as part of aofnew a new

View of colonnaded street frontage to hotel plot

Emily Cavanagh - Continuity and Invention

Section 1:50

Elevation 1:50

Part section and elevation of hotel plot 1:100 The expression of the concrete frame structure by means of cladding the true structure in concrete panels references the rational expression of structural elements in Laugier’s ‘primitive hut’ unencumbered by elaboration and the connection between beauty and truth as mentioned by Schinkel in relation to the building’s character which is inextricably linked to its construction. The analagous expression of structure through cladding references Semper’s ‘bekleidungstheorie’ which defines a construction defined by layered tectonic expression.

Key Plan - Project within Masterplan 2013-2014

View of approach to courtyard

Montage of elevation in Castle St, Dundee

Colin Baillie - The Embedded Institution: Continuity & Hierarchy in the Urban Block Corner Hotel

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Part section and street elevation facing the public square 1:100

1:200

1:50


Perspective drawing - facade to public square

GREATER HEIGHT TOWARDS THE WATER Plots towards the river are of greater value. These will be allowed to have GREATER HEIGHT TOWARDS THE WATER extra storeys within reason.

PERMANENCE Permanence can be achieved through monolithic and physical materials PERMANENCE combined with an adaptable approach to function.

Plots towards the riverTOWARDS are of greaterTHE value. These will be allowed to have GREATER HEIGHT WATER extratowards storeys within reason. Plots the river areURBAN of greater value. These will be allowed to have APPROPRIATE SCALE urban block should have an appropriate urban scale as in keeping extra storeysThe within reason.

Permanence can be achieved through monolithic and physical materials PERMANENCE combined withcan an adaptable approach to function. Permanence achieved monolithic and physical materials LIMITEDbeNUMBER OFthrough ELEMENTS AND MATERIALS combined with an adaptable to function. The grammar will beapproach uniform if there is a limited number of compositional

and doors should have an urban scale and proportion commensurate with door heights.

perform more than one function. This is further reinforced when the palette of materials is limited.

APPROPRIATE URBAN SCALE with the majority of buildings that make up the fabric of the city. Windows The urban block should have an appropriate urban scale as in keeping and doors should have an urban scale and proportion commensurate APPROPRIATE URBAN SCALE with the majority of buildings that make up the fabric of the city. Windows with oor heights. The have an scale appropriate urban scale as in keeping andurban doorsblock shouldshould have an urban and proportion commensurate with majority withtheoor heights.of buildings that make up the fabric of the city. Windows

SUPPRESSION OF THE INDIVIDUAL Rather than a series of separate facades it is more important to have a SUPPRESSION OF THE INDIVIDUAL single collective approach. Rather than a series of separate facades it is more important to have a single collective approach. FRONTS AND BACKS Material can differentiate between the front and back. The front façade FRONTS AND BACKS material should be of higher cost, more monolithic and monumental. Material can differentiate between the front and back. The front façade material should be of higher cost, more monolithic and monumental.

LIMITED NUMBER OF ELEMENTS AND MATERIALS elements. The elements can be used in repetition as an element can The grammar will be uniform if there is a limited number of compositional perform more than one function. This is further reinforced when the LIMITED NUMBER OF ELEMENTS AND MATERIALS elements. The elements can be used in repetition as an element can palette of materials isiflimited. The grammar uniform there is further a limited numberwhen of compositional perform more will thanbe one function. This is reinforced the elements. The elements can be used in repetition as an element can palette of materials is limited.

GREATER HEIGHT TOWARDS THETHE WATER GREATER HEIGHT TOWARDS WATER Plots towards the river are of value. These will be to have Plots towards the river aregreater of greater value. These willallowed be allowed to have extraextra storeys within reason. storeys within reason.

PERMANENCE PERMANENCE Permanence can can be achieved through monolithic andand physical materials Permanence be achieved through monolithic physical materials combined withwith an adaptable approach to function. combined an adaptable approach to function.

APPROPRIATE URBAN SCALE APPROPRIATE URBAN SCALE urban block should havehave an appropriate urban scale as inaskeeping TheThe urban block should an appropriate urban scale in keeping withwith the majority of buildings thatthat make up the of the Windows the majority of buildings make up fabric the fabric of city. the city. Windows andand doors should havehave an urban scale andand proportion commensurate doors should an urban scale proportion commensurate withwith oor oor heights. heights.

LIMITED NUMBER OF ELEMENTS ANDAND MATERIALS LIMITED NUMBER OF ELEMENTS MATERIALS TheThe grammar will be if there is a is limited number of compositional grammar willuniform be uniform if there a limited number of compositional elements. TheThe elements can can be used in repetition as an can can elements. elements be used in repetition as element an element perform more thanthan oneone function. ThisThis is further reinforced when the the perform more function. is further reinforced when palette of materials is limited. palette of materials is limited.

SUPPRESSION OF THE INDIVIDUAL SUPPRESSION OF THE INDIVIDUAL

façade shallshall respond to the TheThe public room is deened by aby a FRONT TOThe PUBLIC ROOM The façade respond to context. the context. public room is deened architectural gesture which is public tois be towards the by public greater architectural gesture which to made be made towards the The façadegreater shall respond to the context. The room is defined apublic space. Thisgesture is the façade within the hierarchy. space. This is primary thewhich primary within the hierarchy. greater architectural is façade to be made towards the public space. This is the primary façade within the hierarchy.

Material can differentiate between the front and back. The front façade material should be of higher cost, more monolithic and monumental.

DEFINE THE PUBLIC ROOM of that space as an outdoor room is further space, the the perception space, perception of that space as an outdoor room is further When a conscious effort is made to relate building façades to the public intensieed. intensieed. space, the perception of that space as an outdoor room is further intensified.

FRONTS ANDAND BACKS FRONTS BACKS Material can can differentiate between the the frontfront andand back. TheThe frontfront façade Material differentiate between back. façade FRONTS AND BACKS material should be of cost,cost, more monolithic andand monumental. material should behigher of higher more monolithic monumental.

FRONT TO PUBLIC ROOM The façade shall respond to the context. The public room is deened by a FRONT TO PUBLIC ROOM greater architectural gesture which is to be made towards the public The façade shall respond to the context. The public room is deened by a space. This is the primary façade within the hierarchy. greater architectural gesture which is to be made towards the public space. This is the primary façade within the hierarchy. DEFINE THE PUBLIC ROOM When a conscious effort is made to relate building facades to the public DEFINE THE PUBLIC ROOM space, the perception of that space as an outdoor room is further When a conscious effort is made to relate building facades to the public intensieed. space, the perception of that space as an outdoor room is further intensieed.

Elevation facing V&A

Key Plan - Project within Masterplan 2014-2015

View of 1:200 model

Ciarán Bennett - Architectural Composition in the Context of the City

FRONT TO PUBLIC ROOM FRONT TO PUBLIC ROOM

Rather than a series of separate facades it is itmore important to have a a SUPPRESSION OF THE INDIVIDUAL Rather than a series of separate facades is more important to have collective approach. single collective approach. Rather than single a series of separate façades it is more important to have a single collective approach.

Entrance Elevation 1:100

DEFINE THETHE PUBLIC ROOM DEFINE PUBLIC ROOM When a conscious effort is made to relate building facades to the public When a conscious effort is made to relate building facades to the public


Valley Section diagram showing the political consequences of leadership based in different positions of the valley: the Hunter-Warrior and the Peasant-Shepherd, courtesy of the University of Strathclyde

The Artefact and the Analogue Cameron McEwan ‘The collective and the private, society and the individual, balance and confront one another in the city.’ Aldo Rossi, The Architecture of the City (1966) Aldo Rossi argued that the city was a formal and political confrontation that crystallised urban dynamics – land ownership, expropriation, relations of production – in architectural form. Rossi’s theory of the city can be divided between what he called the ‘city as an artefact’ and the ‘analogical city’. The former was put forward in The Architecture of the City (1966). The latter was never fully theorised and instead put across through essays, notebook reflections and drawings. The montage panels interrogate Rossi’s theory of the city and are simultaneously analytical and projective. They analyse Rossi’s ‘city as an artefact’ and ‘analogical city’ by means of images from Rossi’s books, re-drawing his drawings and extrapolating the categories used by him. The drawings reformulate Rossi’s theory, finding new relations between categories and images, projecting an alternative reading. The panels are ‘thinking machines’, by which the author thinks through Rossi’s theory of the city with a view to speculating about its productive potential for today.

Cameron McEwan studied architecture at Dundee School of Architecture followed by a PhD on Aldo Rossi and the Analogical City. Cameron lectures in architecture and urbanism in Edinburgh and Dundee. At Dundee he co-teaches a Masters Unit conducting research on cities. Cameron is an Associate of the AE Foundation.

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View of panels at exhibition opening (above). Following pages: Detail images of panels.

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“...‘logical’ thinking is thinking in words, which like discourse is directed outwards. ‘Analogical’ or fantasy thinking is emotionally toned, pictorial and wordless, not discourse but an inner-directed rumination on materials belonging to the past. Logical thinking is ‘verbal thinking.’ Analogical thinking is archaic, unconscious, not put into words and hardly formulable in words.”

Historical Presence

Specific Example

Theoretical Category

Formal Representation

The Analogical City as a Project: In Dialogue with Rossi

Memory

Theory of Types

Remembering : Forgetting

Analogical Thinking

Analogical Form Pathological : Propelling

Path

of

the

Ana logu

e

Model of Mis-remembering

Inventory

Universal

Particular Simultaneous Order

THE ANALOGICAL CITY: PIRANESI’S FORMAL FURORE AND ROSSI’S SOCIAL INDIVIDUAL The formal and spatial furore of Piranesi’s Campo Marzio is an important point of reference in Rossi’s analogical city. Rossi includes fragments of works by Piranesi in his collage project “The Analogical City: Panel.” Both projects share a similar visual aesthetic – a collage of architectural figures and fragments arranged tightly together within the stability of

a square frame, counterposed by the instability of the collage composition inside the frame. Yet both compositions are not disordered. In Rossi’s there is a clear vertical axis, a carefully judged relationship between large and small figures, edge and a central focus, similar to the relation of major and minor forms in Piranesi’s Campo Marzio.

Diagram dating from the Transfer Sep 2010 and one just after. Source : Target becomes Analogical Thinking : Analogical Form. Note that three component’s are positioned within the diagram.

THE ANALOGICAL CITY: CANALETTO’S STRATEGY OF REFUSAL AND THE CITY OF ARCHITECTURE’S AUTONOMY

Rossi inserts a shadowy figure into his collage. Simultaneously a solitary subject and social individual the presence of the figure can be read as the conflict and harmony of Diagram dating from the January and April 2011. The components within the diagram are toned and the centre is densified. The individual life and collective society balancing components (two amorphous one orthogonal) become squares and dashed lines indicate movement the oblique. The Analogical City is momentarily removed. and confronting one another in the incity.

One point of reference for Rossi’s analogical city was a painting by Canaletto looking toward a version of Palladio’s unbuilt Rialto Bridge project, either side of which are Palladio’s Vicenza Basilica and Palazzo Chierecati. There is a formal and political claim to Canaletto’s painting. On one hand Canaletto’s

Critical

Unconscious : Conscious

Analogical Thinking

Analogical Operation

Irrational : Rational Analogical Programme

painting has a formal-compositional claim which is to paint a place of purely architectural references. Through the estrangement of projects from different situations – from the real sites in Vicenza and the unbuilt bridge design of Palladio – the painting expresses the autonomy of architecture.

Analogical Form

ions

Associative Method

Opposit

simultaneous order

painting has a political claim which is to refuse the prevailing city. The painting depicts neither Venice, because the buildings are from Vicenza; nor does it depict Vicenza, because the scene is recognisably the Rialto in Venice. Canaletto’s painting negates both Vicenza and Venice to put forward a possible alternative third way. On the other hand Canaletto’s

Creative

Simultaneous Order

Eliot’s “Simultaneous Order” is introduced and the diagram is superimposed over Rossi’s Analogical City.

A photomontage of the existing city (dating from MArch) and a photograph of a scalemodel. The vertical dashed lines are removed and the oppositions Unconscious : Conscious, Irrational : Rational, are introduced. Freud’s diagram from Forgetting Signorelli is montaged over the Analogical City.

2010

2011

The Analogical City still exists. As do the oppositions Unconscious : Conscious, Irrational : Rational. The photomontages are altered to correspond with recent work. Memory and Type are introduced and the oppostions of Remembering : Forgetting and Disorder : Order.

Typological Questions

Greek City

Roman Settlement

A THINKING MACHINE: THE CITY AS AN ARTEFACT AND THE ANALOGICAL CITY Chapter 6. The Analogical Framework Cameron McEwan 27 November 2011

City / Architecture

Collective Parts

Individual Points Preliminary Dialectic

Dwelling Area (Urban Formation) Individual Houses

Dwelling Area

Primary Element (Single Point) Theory of Permanences

Monuments

Street Plan

Propelling Permanence / Pathological Permanence

Collective

Individual

Collective Memory / Locus

Singular place Sign / Event Permanence

Typology

Locus

Dwelling Area (Private Sphere)

House Housing

THE CITY AS AN ARTEFACT: ANALYTICAL DE-MONTAGE OF THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE CITY Images and keywords are extracted from Rossi’s book The Architecture of the City Material construction (1966) and recomposed in order to examine of important relationships. The Architecture the City is divided collective socialoflife into four chapters beginning with a discussion on problems of classification and typology. The second describes the elements that

structure the city and Rossi outlines categories such as permanence, primary element, and Artefact monument. In the third, the conceptCity of locus is

makes for a complex and dense argument. The Architecture of the City is a collage of concepts, descriptive categories and images of

Typical and singular The Architectureintroduced of the An Architectonic / andCity / The the role of urban history. the city –Imagination built and imagined. urban forms

Labour of human creation Public events Private tragedy Political / Economic Forces Culture

final chapter is on the dynamicsArchitecture of political Urban Artefacts

Cameron McEwan June 2012

economy in the city. Themes in each chapter are correlated with aspects from other chapters and it

Primary Elements (Public Sphere)

Collective Memory Generative-functional system

Monument (Sociorepresentative) Fixed Activities Plan Locus

Spatial structure

Political

Architecture

Social

Geography

Economic

THE ANALOGICAL CITY: DE-MONTAGE OF TYPICAL GEOMETRIC AND ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS

THE CITY AS AN ARTEFACT: THE CITY IS ARCHITECTURE’S OTHER In The Architecture of the City Rossi puts across a dual spatial-formal and social-political reading of architecture and the city. On one hand Rossi reads the city as a city of parts based on a spatial-formal dialectic between residential quarters and the singular monument and typical institutions; differentiating between dominant surface

area of the city versus singular points of concentration. On the other hand Rossi argued that the form of the city – the architecture of the city – reveals civilisations deepest social, cultural and political relationships. He said: “... architecture implies the city” and that “the city is a great comprehensive representation

Rossi once said that the lucidity of drawing is the lucidity of thought. Hence, thought is given exterior character by means of the drawing. In 1979 Rossi exhibited 30 drawings at IUAS in New York collectively titled “Analogical City.” The panel above includes a selection of the authors studies of Rossi’s drawings. It de-montages them to inquire into the formal

of the human condition.” So architecture is intrinsically collective – architecture conjoins city. Both architecture and the city come to embody the human condition as a confrontation of social relations and relations of production, class struggle, expropriation and speculation – the crystallisation of urban dynamics.

14

vocabulary of the analogical city. We see the following: truncated cones, hollow cubes, tapered or stepped pyramids, over-scaled columns, industrial silos and chimneys, stairs and porticoes, urban scaled domestic objects such as chairs, coffee pots, cups, newspapers, match boxes and cigarette packets as well as bodies, skeletons and shadowy figures.

Through repetition, combination and recombination of typical geometric and architectural elements, their estrangement from one project to another, the altering of scale, and the distortion of form, Rossi attempts to reconcile the desire for singular authorship with the commonality of the city and the collective knowledge of architecture as a discipline.


Historical Presence

Specific Example

Theoretical Category

Formal Representation

The Analogical City as a Project: In Dialogue with Rossi

Memory

Theory of Types

Remembering : Forgetting

Analogical Thinking

Analogical Form Pathological : Propelling

Pat h

of

th

eA

nal

og

ue

Model of Mis-remembering

Inventory

Universal

Particular Simultaneous Order


Photograph by Fergus Purdie of a bas-relief study of Geddes valley section at the Scots College Montpellier, France

Perth City Study Fergus Purdie Architect, RSA ‘Town-planning is not mere place-planning, nor even workplanning. If it is to be successful it must be folk-planning.’ Patrick Geddes In 2008 the practice was commissioned by Perth and Kinross Council to participate in a cultural planning study of Perth city centre. Fundamental to our thinking were the ideas and values of Patrick Geddes within the context of current urban design practice. Our chosen methodology required a more generalist approach through observing, recording and reflective practice. To support this line of enquiry we situated a temporary studio space in a local land mark building - the Fair Maid’s House and operated an open door policy allowing public interest and curiosity to prevail. Thereby an open dialogue with our practice and city study was established. This spirit of co-operation culminated in the decision to present our findings in an exhibition at the Fair Maid’s House using screen prints supported by models and slide show. The outcome, a more engaging, informative and educational approach that would have no doubt received Geddes’s approval. The Perth City Study panels exhibited here are facsimiles of original AO screen prints, held in the Royal Scottish Academy of Art & Architecture (Diploma Collection) © Royal Scottish Academy of Art & Architecture. Before establishing an independent practice Fergus Purdie completed a broad range of educational and professional experiences that has informed his practice and teaching including graduate studies at the University of Dundee, postgraduate research and internship at the architecture studio of Herman Hertzberger, Amsterdam. Practice work focuses on houses, arts projects, housing and community focused initiatives to urban studies. It has been acknowledged in publications, exhibitions and awards. Teaching interests include studio tutor and invited lecturer. www.fwp-architect.com

16


View of exhibition panels (above). Following pages: Detail images of panels.

17


18



The notation of life diagram reproduced from Patrick Geddes, Cities in Evolution (London: Williams and Norgate Ltd., 1947)

The Collective Memory of Banja Luka Jelena Stankovic Banja Luka reflects on its past so that it can plan for its future. This project records the Banja Luka that only exists in plans, photographs, municipal records, the memories of its inhabitants. It is a part of a research project on collective memory and the city, which indexed the plans of Banja Luka in archives around the world, and developed a discourse on cities and memory, drawing on architectural, sociological, and psychological literature. In the Notation of Life diagram, Geddes argued that the development of the consciousness of a society mirrors the development of its built environment. The inner terms Town, School, University, City comprises the stages by which town evolves into city; the outer terms Acts, Facts, Dreams, Deeds comprise the corresponding cycle by which consciousness evolves from a consuming preoccupation with subsistence labour to reflection, to future planning, to its institution in the city, which for Geddes was the most advanced artifact of civilization. This plan of Banja Luka, which deals with reflection and planning, resides in the two bottom quadrants of Geddes diagram.

Jelena Stankovic studied architecture at the University of Banja Luka and is currently a doctoral student in Architecture at the University of Dundee, where she is completing her PhD thesis on the role of the city in the memory of its inhabitants.

20


View of panels at exhibition (above). Following pages: Detail images of panels.

21


2. GRAMMAR SCHOOL

OBJECT

2.1 1904

2.2

OBJECT

SUBJECT The Residents

1. The Residential and Commercial Building - Titanic

‘It is said that all Students who once attended the Grammar School at the moment of its destruction stopped their lectures wherever they were. They said goodbye to their School and saw it off to eternity. Many citizens cried and watched its demolition in silence. Memories are painfull and pressing dilemma even today. Why is it so?‘

‘The disastrous earthquake on October 27th 1969 terminally wounded the Grammar School building and its inventory, archive, library and a big number of classrooms. Experts’ estimation was that the building had been damaged beyond repair and that it had to be pulled down, and the final verdict, despite the tears of the town’s inhabitants, was realized on January 31st 1970‘. 2.2 1920-1930

1.1

The Students

The Grammar School opened its doors to the Students in 1898. Floor plan was in the form of a Latin letter I. In 1903 the west wing was added to the School by giving it the shape of a Latin letter F. In 1931 the building got its final shape - a Latin letter E after its eastern wing had been erected.

2.1

1. RESIDENTIAL AND COMERCIAL BUILDING

SUBJECT

2. The Grammar School - Realka

Historical documents show that the year of its building is 1953/54, while 1970 signifies the year when the building was completely destroyed - flattened after its construction system was seriously damaged during the devastating earthquake in Banja Luka in 1969. Due to recessed balconies, the Residents called it the Titanic, not knowing that it will have the same destiny as the ship carrying the same name. Sixteen years of the existence of the Titanic in one country with two names is a testimony of the pace of changes that occurred in this territory.

1.1 1953-1969

Milenko Stanković, ‘Blue Green Design‘ in Reassembling the City, 2014.

1.2

The location of the Residential and Commercial House underwent radical changes to the extent that if you did not know that it was there, you would not recognize it from the present-day picture of this place. It exists only in the memories of the citizens of Banja Luka.

The Kaiser was the leader of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. King Alexander I Karađorđević was the King of Yugoslavia 1921-1934 [prior to 1929 the Kingdom was known as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes] and King Peter I Karađorđević was the first King of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes [1918–1921]. Ante Pavelić [1889-1959] was a leader of the Independent State of Croatia and Ante Starčević ‘s works [1823-1896] are considered to have laid the foundations for Croatian nationalism. Josip Broz Tito was the President for life of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia [1953-1980]. King Peter I Karađorđević was the first King of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes [1918–1921].

A. Kaiser Strasse [1878-1918] Kralja Aleksandra Bulevar [Bvd] and Kralja Petra Bulevar [Bvd] [1918-1941]

1.2 1964

Zoran Pejašinović, Banja Luka Grammar School, 2010.

It was the pride of the city on the river Vrbas.

Vuk Karadžić [1787-1864] was a Serbian philologist, the reformer of the Serbian language, the collector of folk literature and the author of the first dictionary of Serbian language.

AB. Vuk Karadžić Street [1918-1941]

2.3

Safvet-bega Bašagić Street [1941-1945]

Safvet-bega Bašagić [1870-1934], also known as Mirza Safvet, was a key figure in the cultural history of Bosnia and Bosniak Muslim literature.

Ivo Lola Ribar Street [1945 - 1970]; [1970 - present] The destruction of the Grammar School caused the displacement of the street but the name was not changed.

Ivo Lola Ribar [1916-1943] was a prominent national hero of Yugoslavia and one of the closest associates of Josip Broz Tito.

2.3 1930/31

Poglavnika Ante Pavelić Street and Ante Starčević Street [1941-45]

1.3

Maršal Tito Bulevar [Bvd] [1945-1992] 1.3

1969

Kralja Petra I Karađorđevića Street [1992-present]

It is the backbone of Banja Luka which changed the name in accordance with the political and social regimes that were present in this territory. It carried the names of various leaders. During 1918-1941 and1941-1945 it was divided into two smaller streets. The current street name is the same one it had in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

1.4

It was a witness to student pranks, first love, happy moments and disappointments. Today it exists only in the memory of the students and citizens of Banja Luka.

2.4

1.4 1953-1970

2.4 1930-1969

A. STREET

YESTERDAY

TODAY A1

AB.

STREET

YESTERDAY

TODAY

a St [19

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AB1. 2015

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A1. 2015

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AB3 AB2. 1913

AB3. 2015

A2. 1964

OBJECT

3 CITY PARK

SUBJECT

8. City Park Svetislava Tise Milosavljeviće [1930-1945] Petra Kočića [1945-present]

3.1

Snježana and Dragan Vicić, Greetings from Banja Luka, 1897-1941, 2006.

3.2

3.2 1932

OBJECT

In 1932, the park got a new tenant - a tribute to Petar Kočić. This monument was located on the same axis as the fountain and the Music Pavilion. During the Second World War, the Music Pavilion and the monument were brought down. However, it was found that the monument was only slighltly damaged so in the middle of 1945 it was returned to the City Park. ‘After WWII, the park was renovated, the fence removed and a round fountain built, which was one of the most frequent motifs for decades. In 2006, City Park got the new, modern attire with water areas and the Music Pavilion‘.

‘The first and most significat Ban of Vrbaska Banovina was Svetislav Tisa Milosavljević [Niš,1882-Belgrade, 1960]. In four and a half years of his government [9 th Ocotber 1929 18th April 1934] the whole Banovina experienced the economic, educational, cultural, communication and overall growth. The Town itself enriched with many valuable structures [Banovina Government, Ban’s Court, House of King Peter I the Liberator, Sokolski Dom, the Hotel Palas, The Town Park with the Monument in tribute to Petar Kočić, Hygienic Institute] and the institutions [Theater, Museums, many schools, Merchant and Industry Chamber, Central Banovina Association for Tourism] first asphalted streets,etc. In this way Ban Milosavljević gave the town new physiognomy and soul, which gained him a flattering name Banja Luka’s Pericles‘. Zoran Pejašinović, Banja Luka, Bouvelards of past and present , 2010.

8.1

8.1 1904

8.2

Kralja Aleksandra Bulevar [Bvd] and Kralja Petra Bulevar [Bvd] [1918-1941]

3.3 1932

3.4 Poglavnika Ante Pavelić Street and Ante Starčević Street [1941-45] Maršal Tito Bulevar [Bvd] [1945-1992] Kralja Petra I Karađorđevića Street [1992-present] 3.4 1932

The Travellers The Artists and Visitors

The users of the building are always in expectation and uncertainty. While waiting for the trains, buses or exhibitions, they imagine and think of events and impression which they will experience. Their senses are always active. This gives the building a specific character as numerous experiences of travellers and visitors are built in its walls.

It is the same building but its functions were different. All functions had the character of expectation and hope. Train or bus departures and arrivals, and exhibitions made the building crowded and alive.

‘Along with the construction of the 2.8 km railway section from the Railway Station - Predgrađe [located at the outskirt of Banja Luka] to the centre, in 1891 the building of the Main Railway Station was erected ‘. Snježana and Dragan Vicić, Greetings from Banja Luka, 1897-1941, 2006.

8.2 1902 The Tavellers could travel to Wetern Europe.

L. The Railway [1891-1968] ‘Railway Station seved the needs of passengers for 77 years. The last train departed from the station on January 31st, 1968‘.

Petar Kočić [1877-1916] was a poet, writer and politician. He was born in the village Stričići in Zmijanje, on the Mountain Manjača near Banja Luka.

Snježana and Dragan Vicić, Greetings from Banja Luka, 1897-1941, 2006.

8.3

Zoran Pejašinović, Banja Luka, Bouvelards of past and present , 2010.

A. Kaiser Strasse [1878-1918] 3.3

SUBJECT

The Travellers

8. Main Railway Station [1891-1968] Bus Station [1968-1981] Art Gallery [1981-present]

Petar Kočić

‘It was arranged between 1930 and 1932... [It] is formed symmetrically, like French parks. Other than the fountain as the central point of park, a Music Pavilion was also built. In the building of the Music Pavilion, if the weather was nice, the orchestra of the 33rd infantry regiment played a promenade concert on Sunday mornings‘.

3.1 1932

A2. 2015

8. RAILWAY STATION

Svetislav Tisa Milosavljević

The Kaiser was the leader of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. King Alexander I Karađorđević was the King of Yugoslavia 1921-1934 [prior to 1929 the Kingdom was known as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes] and King Peter I Karađorđević was the first King of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes [1918–1921]. Ante Pavelić [1889-1959] was a leader of the Independent State of Croatia and Ante Starčević ‘s works [1823-1896] are considered to have laid the foundations for Croatian nationalism. Josip Broz Tito was the President for life of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia [1953-1980]. King Peter I Karađorđević was the first King of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes [1918–1921].

The Railway was moved from the city centre to the outskirt of the city and remains there today. 8.3 1901 Vilke Vinterhaltera Street [1968-1992]

Vilko Vinterhalter was a famous historian, member of the first editorial board of Tanjug and later director of the Sarajevo Oslobođenje Newspaper.

Vidovdanska [1992-present]

Vidovdan is a Serbian national and religious holiday, a slava [feast day] celebrated on June 28 [Gregorian Calendar], or June 15 according to the Julian calendar, in use by the Serbian Orthodox Church.

8.4

8.4 1932

A STREET

YESTERDAY

TODAY L. STREET 3

YESTERDAY

TODAY

A1

L 8 L1

A

A1 1968

L1. 1901

A1 2015

L1. 2015

L2

3

L 8

A3

A

A2

A2 after 1941

A3 2015

L2. 1930

22

L2. 2015


The Collective Memory of Banja Luka

Legend: Buildings were demolished due to different reasons such as war, earthquake and etc. Ive

Lole

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ra

St

[19

31

3

Street Names that were changed * Each political and social regime was in the habit of renaming the street in order to suit its own agenda.

70-pr

esen

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Tributary Crkvena was buried underneath the new road in 1962. Railway was moved from the city centre in 1968. * It remains on the outskirt of Banja Luka.

Map of Banja Luka 1881/84

d/4 A

30

Map of Banja Luka 1948

105

Map of Banja Luka 1978

56

This plan records the buildings and street that exist only in historical plans, photographs, texts, municipal records, and in this way constitutes the collective memory of Banja Luka.

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29

8

1. Residential and Commercial Building - Titanic [1953- 1970] 2. Grammar School - Realka [1898-1970] 3. City Park - Svetislav Tisa Milosavljevi ć [1930/31- 1941/45] 4. Toma Radulović's House / Kastl's Corner / Albania Building [before 1878-1957] 5. Balkan Cafe [1899/1902-1930] 6. Pharmacy of Family Bramer [ after 1881 and before 1898/99-1930] 7. Toma Radulović's House; Serbian Primary School; Serbian Orthodox Seminary Building - Bogoslovija [before 1878-1930] 8. Main Railway Station - Stanica Grad [1891-1968] 9. Moske Poljkan's Building [around 1889-destroyed in1954] 10. Abraham Salomon Poljokan / Brace Poljokan's Building [around 1889-1954] 11. Guiseppe Vitta Salom's Building; Isidor Salom Sarafi ć's Building [1889-1954] 12. Bosna Hotel [1875/95- 1970] 13. Serbian Orthodox Church - Crkva Svete Trojice [1925/29-1941] 14. Šarike Poljokan's Building [at the beginning of XIX century - after 1969] 15. The Building of Jewish Temple - Zgrada Jevrejskog Templa; Home of Sephardic Ritual Zgrada Sefardskog obreda,1936/37-partly destroyed 1941; Newspaper and Publishing Company - Glas [1946 in the part of building that remained - completely destroyed 1969] 16. The Building of Croatian Cultural Society - Nada; Yugoslav National Army Building [1945-1973]; [1923-partly destroyed after 1969] 17. Kurtović / Vlašić's Building; State Insurance Agency - from 1945 [at the end of XIX century - after 1969] 18. Old Catholic Perish Church [1859-1891] 19. Mutić's house / Pffaff [1913-after 1969] 20. Villa Božić [from 1945 - School for Midwives; Medical School; Red Cross; Institute for Social Work] [1913 - partly damaged 1969 and completely destroyed 2002] 21. Vlašić / Jović's Building / Elite Cafe [at the beginning of XX century - after 1969] 22. Hotel Austria [1896/98-after 1969] 23. Nada [Miljević] /Todor Lazarević's Building [at the beginning of XX century- 1980] 24. Sport Court - Sofka [1956/57-2002] 25. Old Orthodox Perish Church - Sošestvija Sv Duha [1879-1927] 26. Girl's High School,1898/99 -1924; State Girl's High School, 1924-28;Teacher's School - Preparandija, 1924-26; Boarding Teacher's School, 1925-34; Banovina's National Museum, 1931-34; Grammar School for Boys, 1946-48; Vocational School from 1948; [1898/99-partly destroyed 1970] 27. District Office for Workers Insurance; Communal Agency for Social Insurance District's Hospital Fund [1924 [enlarged - 1936,1960 and 1982] - partly destroyed after 1969] 28. Old Cathedral - Sv Bonaventura [1883-after 1969] 29. Private School for Nuns - Presvjete Dragocjene Krvi Isusove; Economy - Commercial High School,1960-1981; [1903-after 1969]

Banja Luka [1944]

d/4 A

Banja Luka [1881/84]

Banja Luka [1978]

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Demolished Buildings

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30. Railway Station - Kraljev Drum [1891-1968] 31. Old Railway Station - Predgrađe [1872/72-2002] 32. Railway Administration Building [1891- destroyed during WWII] 33. District Court - Okružni Sud [1896/1907 [enlarged 1932 and 1938] - after 1969] 34. Brothers Vekić's / Mosije Poljokan's Building [1897-1969] 35. Military Post Office; Building of Serbian Orthodox Church Community; [1898-1969] 36. Hospital, 36a State Hospital from 1891; 36b Ambulance from 1935; 36c Surgery Pavilion from 1936; 36d Pavilion of Infectious Disease from 1938; [1891/92-1970] 37. Mosque - Arnaudija [1594/95 -1993] 38. Gušić/Mujezinović's Building - Hastahana [during the Ottoman Empire-1976] 39. Medical High School [1948-1969] 40. Credit Bank - Branch Office Banja Luka [1910-1970] 41. Landesbank - Branch Office Banja Luka [1910-1970] 42. Džinić Palace [1946-1970] 43. Ljubo Vujić's Building [1913-1969] 44. Vuk Grahovac's Building [1913-1969] 45. Hauzaga Husedžinović / Naum Dimitrić's building; Serbian Credit Office [1913 [partly destroyed 1944] - completely destroyed after 1969] 46. Isak Salmon Levi Poljokan's Building [restored 1936] - [before 1880-1970] 47. Department Store - Nama [after 1945-after1969] 48. Town Marketplace - Tržnica [1938/40 [enlarged after 1969]-after 1992] 49. Baum Palace / [Rafaela] Leon Levi Dudo Poljokan's Building [at the end of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy-1944] 50. Marketplace - Bezistan [1873 [covered 1907]-1944] 51. Muslim Reading Room - Kiraethana [1890/94-1941/45] 52. Mosque - Ferhadija [1579/80-1993] 53. Džinić's House; Girls' Vocational School; Hospital for Skin and Venereal Diseases; [1918-1969] 54. Student Dormitory - Prosvjetin [at the end of XIX century-1944] 55. Student Dormitory - Veslin Masleša [1952-1970] 56. Prison - Crna Ku ća [1887/89-after 1969] 57. Tsar's School - Carska Škola, 1885-1936; Communal School - Narodna Škola, 1936-45; Departments of Zmaj Jovan Jovanović School from 1945; [1885-1970] 58. County Office,1907-1941/45; Zmaj Jovan Jovanović School ; [1907-1970] 59. Tax Administration [at the beginning of XX century-1970] 60. Municipality Building; City Government , 1941-1945; Municipal Secretariat for Internal Affairs, 1945-1961; Student Dormitory from 1961; [1931[enlarged 1938;1940]-1970] 61. Ferhad-paša Pedestrian Bridge [1579/87-1878] 62. State Vocational School for Boys; Technical High School from 1939; [1928/30[enlarged 1933,1935] - after 1969]

Current Street Names

Former Street Names

A Petar I Kara đorđevića St [1992-present]

Maršala Tita Bulevar [Bvd] [1945-1992]; Ante Paveli ća St and Ante Starčevića St [1941-1945]; Kralja Aleksandra Bulevar [Blvd] and Kralja Petra Bulevar [Blvd] [1918-1941]; Kaiser Strasse [1878-1918]

B Mladen Stojanović St [1945-present] C Gospodska St [1945-present] D Bana Milosavljevića St [1992-present] E Gajeva St [1918-present] F I.F. Juki ća St [1957-present] G Radulovića Bimbe St [1992-present] H Vase Pelagića St [1945-present] I Nikole Pašića St [1992-present] J Kninska St [1992-present] K Petra Kočiča St [1945-present] L Vidovdanska St [1992-present] M Nikola Tesla St [ 1945-present] N Aleja Jovana Dučića [Aly] [1992-present] O Zmaj Jovina St [1945-present] P Đure Jakšića St [1945-present] Q Kralja Nikole St [1992-present] R Vojvode Mom čila St [1992-present] S Skendera Kulenovića St [1992-present] T does not exist AB Ive Lole Ribara St [1945-present] BC Milana Rakića St [1992-present] CD Jevrejska St [1992-present] DE Kralja Alfonsa XIII [1992-present] EF Srpska St [1992-present] FG Dr T. Lazerevića St [1992-present] GH Vojvode Radomira Putnika St [1992-present] HI Aleja Svetog Save [Aly] [1992-present] IJ Vuka Karadžića St [1992-present] JK Grčka St [1992-present] KL Branka Radi čevića St [1945-present] LM Ive Andrića St [1992-present] MN Maksima Gorkog St [1002-present] NO Save Mrkalja St [1992-present] OP Milana Tepića [1992-present] PQ Braće Pantića St [1992-present] QR Zdrave Kodre St [1945-present] RS Marije Bursa ć St [1945-present] ST does not exists TU Bulevar Cara Dušana [Bvd] [1962-present] UV does not exist VW Trznička St [1992-present] WX Zdravka Čelara [1945-present] XY Braće Mažara i Majke Marije [1992-present] YZ Patrijarha M. Sokolovi ća [1918-present] ZY Meša Selimović [1992-present] YX Simeuna Đake [1992-present] XW 22 April St [1945-present] WV Solunska St [1992-present] VU Isaije Mitrovića [1992-present] UT Patre [1992-present] TS Cara Lazara St [1992-present]

Kralja Zvonimira St [1941-1945]; Kralja Petra Put [Rd] [1918-1941]; Veselina Masleše St [1945-1992]; Mile Budaka St [1941-1945]; Kralja Alfonsa St [1918-1941]; Sime Šolaje St [1945-1992]; Adolfa Hitlera St [1941-1945]; Bana Milosavljevića St [1918-1941] Braće Lastrić St [1945-57]; Jukićeva St [1918-1945]; Engel Gasse [1878-1918] Džinić St [1918-1992] Dr Filipa Čondrića St [1941-1945]; Vase Pelagi ća St [1918-1941]; Gisela Gasse [1878-1918] Rade Ličine St [1945-1992]; Kralja Petra Svačića St [1941-1945]; Vojvode Putnika St [1918-1941]; Valerie Gasse [1878-1918] Ruzveltova/Braće Lastrića St [1945-1992]; Smail-Age Čengića St [1941-1945]; Kneza Arsena St [1918-1941] Augusta Harambašića St [1941-1945]; Kočiće va St [1918-1941]; Rudolf Strasse [1878-1918] Vilke Vinterhaltera Street[1968-1992] Vjekoslava Klaića St [1941-1945]; Nikole Tesle St [1918-1941] Aleja Braće Pavelić [Aly] [1945-1992]; Aleja Kralja Kešimira [Aly] [1941-1945]; Aleja Vojvode Stepe [Aly] [1918-1941] Hasana Bošnjaka St [1941-1945]; Zmaj Jovina St [1918-1941] Muderiza St [1941-1945]; Đure Jakšića [1918-1941] Osmana Đikića St [1945-1992]; Atifa ef. Bahtijarevića St [1941-1945]; Osmana Đikića St [1918-1941] Ive Mažara St [1945-1992]; Smail-Age Čengića St [1941-1945]; Kneza Arsena St [1918-1941] Kozarska St [1945-1992]; Sofi Mehmed-paša St [1941-1945]; Krađorđev Put [Rd] [1918-1941] Meštrovićeva St [1918-1941] Safvet-bega Bašagića St [1941-1945]; Vuka Karadžića St [1918-1941] Masarikova/ Želje Barića St [1945-1992]; Bana Berislavića St [1941-1945]; Poenkareova St [1918-1941]; Verbas Gasse [1878-1918] Đure Pucara/ Sarajevska/ Moše Pijade St [1945-1992]; Stožernika Dr Viktora Gutića St [1941-1945]; Princa Pavla St [1918-1941]; Albrechts Gasse [1878-1918] Frankopanska/ Borisa Kidriča St [1945-1992]; Frankopanska St [1918-1945]; Georgs Gasse [1878-1918] Fra Grge Martića St [1918-1992]; Salvator Gasse [1878-1918] Mirka Višnjića St [1945-1992]; Kralja Tvrtka St [1941-1945]; Kod Hipotekarne Banke [1918-1941] Rudi Čajevca St [1945-1992]; Dr Tadije Smičiklasa St [1941-1945]; Petra Petkovića St [1918-1941] Aleja JNA [Aly] [1945-1992]; Aleja Kralja Tomislava [Aly] [1941-1945]; Aleja Vojvde Živojina Mišića [Aly] [1918-1941] Bulevar Lenjina [Bvd] [1945-1992] Strosmajerova St [1918-1992] Dr Krunoslava Dragonića St [1941-1945]; Petra Pecije Petrovića St [1918-1941] Branka Radičevića St [1918-1992]; Dr Krunoslava Dragonića St [1941-1945]; Petra Pecije Petrovića St [1918-1941] Branka Radičevića St [1918-1992]; Dr Krunoslava Dragonića St [1941-1945]; Petra Pecije Petrovića St [1918-1941] Beneševa St [1945-1992]; Dr Milana Šurflaja St [1941-1945]; Iržikovskog St [1918-1941] Vladimira Nazora St [1945-1992]; Kvaternikova St [1941-1945]; Nikole Pašića St [1918-1941]; Bahnhof Strasse [1878-1918] Avgusta Šenoe Street/Šenoina St [1945-1992]; Pavla Ritera Vitezovića St [1941-1945]; Braće Pantića St [1918-1941]; Dr Osmana Kulenovića S t [1941-1945]; Brijanova St [1918-1941 Dr Josipa Sunarića St [1941-1945]; Cara Nikolaja II St [1918-1941] Hajduk Veljka St [1945-1969]; Ekrema Šahinovića St [1941-1945]; Hajduk Veljka St [1918-1941] Trznička St [1941-1945]; Adema Filovića St [1941-1945]; Milića St [1918-1941] Josipa Šoše Mažara St [1945-1992]; Džemaludina Čauševića S t [1941-1945]; Kraljice Marije St [1918-1941]; Elisabeth Gasse [1878-1918] Ferhat-paša St [1918-1992] Rankovića/ Zagrebačka St [1945-1992]; Hamzalije Ajanovića St [1941-1945]; Njegoševa St [1918-1941] Avde Karabegovića St [1945-1992]; Edhema Mulabića St [1941-1945]; Avde Karabegovića St [1918-1941] Biskupa fra Joze Garića St[1945-1941]; Vasilija Grđića St [1918-1941]; Enver a Hodže/Fadila Maglajlića St [1945-1992]; Ćazima Muse Ćatića St [1941-1945]; Braće Maglajlić St [1945-1992]; Hasana Kjafije Prušučka St [1941-1944]; Klemansoova St [1918-1941] Dr Vase Butozana St [1945-1992]; Kasima Hadžića St [1945-1992]; Pečevijina St [1941-1945]; Mehmed-paša Sokolović [1918-1941]

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Drawing by John Dummett

score for a prepared voice John Dummett A contemporary city is never fully present, it is always either ahead of itself or looking back upon its origins. To experience a city in this conflicted temporality is to undertake an act of paraphrasis, an act of restating scored by possible futures and probable pasts in which the present is always elusive. But it is only in this ephemeral present moment that perception and the city meet, and the city becomes other than a speculative and abstract proposition. Appropriating Patrick Geddes’ Civics as Applied Sociology as a starting point, score for a prepared voice will observe and register the complex temporalities at play in a contemporary city. Conducted over 2 months along a pedestrian route in Dundee, score for a prepared voice will use different practices of writing, photography and drawing to enter the ephemeral present of a city. Rolling documentation of score for a prepared voice will be published at https://twitter. com/dummyPublic

John Dummett is an artist working at the margins of sculpture, text and architecture. Utilising practices and discourses imbued with aesthetic, critical and spatial registers, Dummett draws upon a wide range of material including Political texts from the 17th and 18th centuries, Modernist architecture from the late 20th century and current Public Art, to critically engage with contemporary representations of ‘the public’. Dummett is undertaking an AHRC funded Fine Art PhD at the University of Dundee and is a Henry Moore Institute Research Fellow.

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View of exhibition display (above). Following pages: Detail extracts from exhibition material.

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‘Medusa’ detail of Geddes lecture notes courtesy of University of Strathclyde, photo by Lorens Holm

A Septic Turn Paul Guzzardo A Septic Turn offers a contemporary update on Geddes’ citizen survey and Civic Exhibition. The installation details an ongoing lawsuit between the plaintiff Paul Guzzardo and two defendants: Grand Center - a private corporation with statutory development powers in St. Louis, and Washington University - a bio-science research institution. Unlike Charles Dickens’s Bleak House the transactional is secondary here. This is about the role of digital media in collective consciousness and how media shapes the relation of people to places. It’s also about Marshall McLuhan’s role in the intellectual formation of St. Louis, and how Geddes’ synoptic vision got muscled out by a sycophantic one. Project journals and looping multimedia tell the story. The journals contains press, legal pleadings and testimony. Guzzardo’s documentaries and video depositions comprise the multimedia. The documentaries are buildbetterbarrel, the cartographer’s dilemma, and posses | protocol | perp walks. The deposition witnesses are: Emily Pulitzer, collector and founder of the Pulitzer Foundation of the Arts; Heather Woofter, teacher and chair of graduate studies at the Washington University School of Architecture; and Paul Guzzardo, lawyer and media activist/artist.

Paul Guzzardo is a Fellow at the Geddes Institute for Urban Research. Further biography can be found in the project journals and multimedia.

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View of panels and films at exhibition opening (above). Following pages: Detail images of main panels.

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6

a descent into It is high time to be staging the civic drama, renewing its long-forgotten ideals. For as we escape from the myths of a homeless individualism we see that the city in one age with acropolis and forum, in another with town house and cathedral has ever been the theatre and stage indispensable for expressing, with any real fullness and adequacy, each individual life. patrick geddes: cities in evolution In the course of elaborating his fundamental graph, Geddes had in fact exposed the archetypal drama of life: and what was even more important had restored the missing factors of time and change. In the scenario for this drama the actors, the plot and the scenery, the dialogue, the performance, the setting actively bring into existence an interwoven sequence of events whose meaning and purpose no single part, however clearly presented, can possibly convey. lewis mumford: on his mentor patrick geddes Amphitheaters, open-air stages, and performance spaces in theaters and public halls are standard features in Geddes’s city design reports. He suggests an amphitheater as early as 1904 in his report for Dunfermline and proposes one again in his last city design report from 1925 for Tel Aviv. volker m. welter: biopolis The space of appearance comes into being wherever men are together in the manner of speech and action. hannah arendt: the human condition Patrick Geddes was a message Huxley and Darwin sent to the future. He died in 1932; the same year Aldous Huxley published “Brave New World” - another dispatch. Geddes left us a tool chest packed with maps. They’re maps to build platforms that glimpse, peer ahead, assess what is coming, and maybe humanize this new place. holm-guzzardo: the cartographer’s dilemma

Patrick Geddes was a man in searc archetypal drama(s) of life. Like Cha brute Hobbesian stage. Both men w

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o flat

a city is more than a place in space, it is a drama in time. patrick geddes

The film strip is from a fragment of a lost silent film. It is thought to be based on Bleak House, and believed the first time a Dickens tale was adapted to film. The strip is survey kit, part of a Geddesian tool chest. It’s used to map a descent into flat. It shows up in the Guzzardo book Hackerspace for Myth Making - The Manual, Chapter 6.

ch of an arena that exposed the arles Dickens he was a player on a wanted to change the set.

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Outlook Tower diagram reproduced from Patrick Geddes, Cities in Evolution (London: Ernest Benn, 1915)

City-Regional Planning in Scotland TAYplan and Town & Regional Planning, University of Dundee Geddes’ seminal ideas relating to the city-region have been highly influential in Scottish planning. This legacy is embodied, for example, in the name of the University of Dundee’s planning school – Town & Regional Planning. Land use planning – or spatial planning – in Scotland has led the way in terms of strategic planning. National Planning Guidelines were a Scottish innovation in 1974. Interestingly, these were a response to North Sea Oil and Gas and the need for strategic coastal planning. Scotland has also introduced a National Planning Framework. This project highlights two milestones in strategic or city-regional planning which reflect Geddes’ approach of ‘survey, analysis, plan’. The Tay Valley Regional Advisory Plan (1950) presents a comprehensive physical, social and economic survey for the management of change. In contrast to this relatively formal approach, we present the current work of TAYplan which uses innovative ways to engage people in strategic plan-making processes.

This presentation is a collaboration between Pam Ewen and the TAYplan team, and staff in Town & Regional Planning at the University of Dundee. One of four strategic development planning authorities in Scotland, TAYplan covers the city-regions of Dundee and Perth and is a statutory partnership of Dundee City, Angus, Perth & Kinross and Fife Councils. TAYplan provides direction for the next 20 years about where and how new development and infrastructure should occur.

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View of panels and film (above). Following pages: Detail images of main panels.

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36


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A LIFE IN BALANCE! + EVOLVE YOUR PLACE FOLK! Tracy Mackenna & Edwin Janssen Geddes’ ideas regarding environmental wellbeing are reflected in our collaborative art practice that revolves around the question ‘how to live a good life?’. We are interested in activating the city as a stage for presentation and exchange. Looking beyond the confines of the white cube gallery environment, we offer our joint practice as a site for social interaction and animated discussion. In response to Cities in Evolution, we have made two portable artworks that are not bound by walls, floors and ceilings but that fluidly move from place to place on the lapel or in the pockets of the receiver who transforms into the messenger. The slogans A LIFE IN BALANCE! and EVOLVE YOUR PLACE FOLK! will be gifted to the exhibition visitors in the form of badges created to trigger a response. These badges are additions to our John & Yoko Drawings series.

Tracy Mackenna & Edwin Janssen share a collaborative art practice that is a discursive site for production, collaboration, social engagement and reflection. Exhibition projects, environments, publications and writing integrate art making, presentation, exchange and education. They focus on ‘how to live a good life’, art and wellbeing and the relationship between material culture and memory. They teach at Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art & Design, University of Dundee. www.mackenna-and-janssen.net

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View of plinth with take-away badges at exhibition (above). Following page: Badge as modeled.

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Colophon

Editors: Lorens Holm and Cameron McEwan Design: Cameron McEwan This publication has been supported by a Research Incentive Grant from The Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland. Š 2016 University of Dundee. Š The contributors for their texts and images. Printed by University of Dundee. Cover Image: Detail of Essentials of Life-Theory. Strathclyde, T-GED 22/2/12. ISBN 978-0-9562949-4-4 for all four volumes.


Exhibitors Charles Rattray and Graeme Hutton Cameron McEwan Fergus Purdie Architect, RSA Jelena Stankovic John Dummett Paul Guzzardo TAYplan and Town & Regional Planning, University of Dundee Tracy Mackenna & Edwin Janssen

ISBN 978-0-9562949-4-4 for all four volumes.