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WORKPL ACE T R E N D S COMMITTED TO DEVELOPING THE NEXT GENERATION OF STEM PROFESSIONALS Michael Norris, COO Sodexo North America and Market President Increased public awareness combined with massive spending across the private and public sectors have brought STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) education to the forefront of the nation’s collective consciousness. Most everyone agrees that improving the quality and number of STEM graduates entering the workforce is a national priority. The important variable in this equation is private sector employers who drive economic growth through innovation and employ the majority of Americans. Sustained engagement and strategic investments in STEM education by employers will be key to solving the STEM shortfall. Recognizing this important national challenge, Sodexo has partnered with STEMconnector, a national group working to connect and convene organizations that share a passion and commitment to developing the next generation of STEM professionals and current workforce. STEMconnector keeps the nation informed through STEMdaily, a free e-newsletter that reaches nearly 15,000 thought leaders in STEM education and workforce development. STEMconnector convenes a diverse range of stakeholders through physical and virtual meetings, to share best practices and facilitate unique partnerships. STEMconnector also recognizes executive leadership through its 100 STEM Leaders series and encourages the mentorship of women and girls through Million Women Mentors. Sodexo currently serves as a Vice-Chair of the Million Women Mentors initiative, and Co-Chair of STEMconnector’s Innovation Task Force, investing time, resources, and leadership to develop innovative partnerships and programs that address the STEM challenge. Sodexo’s interest in producing qualified STEM talent continues to evolve, and follow in the footsteps of Microsoft and Lockheed Martin. However, it is imperative that every Sodexo associate possesses at least a fundamental comprehension of STEM skills in order to be productive and grow professionally. Sodexo maintains a commitment to improving STEM education and looks forward to building collaborative partnerships in the future. n
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| FORWARD George Chavel, President and Chief Executive Officer, Sodexo One of the essential qualities in any strong leader is the ability to continually look forward and ask the question: What’s next? The truth of the matter is that building a successful business is so much more than business strategy and operational savvy; it’s also about cultivating an environment where employees can thrive. An employee’s level of fulfillment or satisfaction has continuously proven to be a key indicator of their performance, engagement and commitment. Employees are looking beyond money and title to something less tangible but far more powerful: Quality of Life. In the 2015 Workplace Trends Report you will read how organizations that place the Quality of Life of their employees at the center of their thinking and pursue strategies to support and encourage it, create a more engaged, committed and productive workforce. In Creating Points of Connection, this report explores how workplace design can foster a sense of community, belonging and personal empowerment, by encouraging more meaningful employee connections throughout the workday. Mindfulness at Work examines organizations that bring mindfulness programs into the workplace to encourage greater balance, clarity and productivity for employees. When the conditions and circumstances associated with Quality of Life are compromised, the performance of the organization suffers. This report explores current issues such as Redefining the Family-Friendly Workplace and issues of the future like Rateocracy, which highlights how organizations prepare for an era of extreme transparency. Improving Quality of Life has always been central to Sodexo’s mission and values and it is one of the reasons we believe it is imperative to study and report on how the workplace can enhance quality of life. This year’s report is the culmination of research that informs leaders about today’s changing workplace and the workforce of the future. Sodexo has identified 6 dimensions essential to Quality of Life, that we believe directly map to the trends included in this year’s report. The Table of Contents has a key that indicates a symbol for each of the 6 Quality of Life dimensions and those symbols are highlighted at the beginning of each related trend. As leaders evaluate the potential application of emerging trends, the concept of Quality of Life is becoming a core factor in positively impacting outcomes — not just of the individual, but of each worker’s contribution to the overall organization. n
As a result of extensive research and analysis, combined with nearly 50 years of experience, Sodexo has identified 6 dimensions essential to Quality of Life. Social Interaction – Factors that strengthen bonds among individuals and facilitate access to activities or events.
Personal Growth – Everything that allows an individual to learn and make progress.
Ease and Efficiency – Ability to devote your full attention to the task at hand and carry it out with ease, efficiency and minimal interruption.
Recognition – Factors that contribute to an individual feeling truly valued and appreciated.
Physical Environment – Factors that contribute to a person’s comfort and sense of well-being.
Health and Well-Being – Promoting a healthy lifestyle through a well-balanced diet and physical activity. © Sodexo 2015
THE CHANGING NATURE OF THE WORKPLACE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR QUALITY OF LIFE
Thomas Jelley, M.Sc., LL.B, Director, Sodexo Institute for Quality of Life Working methods, places and spaces are increasingly the subject of close scrutiny and, in large part due to technological advances, they are changing from both employees’ and employers’ perspectives, as both strive for progress and performance. By way of illustration, consider the following developments in relationships between work, the workplace and workspaces, and between employee and employer:
DISAPPEARING BOUNDARIES We take our work home but we also bring a part of our private lives to work. We are faced with a complex model: increasing dependency on technology that encourages us to stay connected all the time, but also greater freedom to be more flexible. As individuals, we struggle to manage this complex model which we’ve not yet learned to master collectively, at the organization level. One explanation for this may be that we remain troubled by tensions between assessment, based on work output quality, and assessment based on permanent availability as the hallmark of trust. A steady state characterized by permanent change and the need to be always available puts pressure on the identities of individuals, as they strive to harmonize their work life with their personal life. In essence, work was previously dictated by place: we were either at work or not at work. It has recently become more a matter of time rather than place but even notions of a workday and a workweek are fast disappearing, as many people can and do work anyplace and at any time. Should we resist the temptation to continue separating work and life and instead accept that it’s all simply a part of life?
BEYOND WORK CONTENT Just as the focus for retail is increasingly targeting “experience” in the face of stiff online competition, so the workplace appears to be following a similar path. Indeed, employers are feeling the need to reinvest in the workplace and differentiate it from their competitors’ workplace, from employees’ homes, and from cafés, airport lounges and even working in hotel lobbies. Employees are increasingly mobile, flexible and autonomous; as such, they can work from more places than ever before.
COMBINING PLACES AND SPACES Rather than an absolute necessity, is the physical workplace becoming a rallying point for the culture of the organization, © Sodexo 2015
a place that employees really only go to for face-to-face dialogue and exchange with colleagues? If the center of activity is the key link, how is this achieved and maintained? By paying greater attention to employees’ well-being? By creating an environment that makes employees feel almost as if they are at home even though they are at work? The fusion of “spaces” as home-like environments that are actually workplaces within café environments appear to be a feature of the workplace of the future. Organizations are actively designing collaborative spaces like these to inspire their employees and foster a culture or hub of cooperation and innovation. They seek to break up the monotony of the workday with high-quality interaction. A comprehensive range of services also offers individuals improved quality of life by helping them to harmonize their work and personal interests. The resulting convenience may be seen as a response to the pressures of work-life harmonization but this prompts a number of questions centered on relationships. The progressive “workplace” looks like an enhanced community that benefits from access to both work and liferelated services and spaces that were previously available to individuals only outside the workplace, if at all. These amenities include fitness, nutrition, concierge services, social and leisure facilities, and green spaces. At best, the workplace is set to become a vibrant precinct, a hub for employees, an environment characterized by services and amenities designed to improve their Quality of Life at work and beyond. With this development, the intersections between home, work and the local community change. If improved Quality of Life is to support the progress of individuals and the performance of organizations, changing relationships nevertheless raise questions of personal autonomy and choice. For example, is there a risk that employees feel they have neither work nor personal life choices other than the options provided by their employer? On whose terms is work-life harmonization possible and how can we ensure a Quality of Life path that is smooth? The answers to questions like these will no doubt require multi-disciplinary approaches beyond the traditional remit of facilities management or human resources, as well as the ability to demonstrate measurable value for individuals and organizations. n
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TABLE OF CONTENTS T
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NAL GROW T
DFU AT W L NE SS O RK
T HE IN G DLY N I F E N RED LY-FRIE E C I A M L FA KP R O W
G A N LO B BR D R AL R T H A N ID G EC O E W RO D G IN G GN A R U G EN C I T D S IO H E U LO R AT LT U N: C A I O RE L IZ N S AT IO N
PH VI YS RO I C A NM L EN T
N AI BR : UR E LE IN G O AG HO K OR L W H I N S F T UA T T S E C EP ILL N SK C O W NE
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RATEOCRACY: WORKING AND MANAGING IN AN ERA OF EXTREME TRANSPARENCY
HE WE L ALT L- B H EI & N
EC IN I AL E T SE TO D U C R E N C T I FM M AT DS ON W O RR IN G : OR O KF W ’ OR S CE
CASE STUDY IN TRENDS: CREATING POINTS OF CONNECTION
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Each of the trends align to Sodexo’s Six Dimensions of Quality of Life. Look for the highlighted icon in the section header.
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TRENDS AT A GLANCE
FUTURE WORK SKILLS FOR 2020 This piece analyzes key drivers that will reshape the landscape of work and identifies key work skills needed in the next 10 years. Global connectivity, smart machines, and new media are just some of the drivers reshaping how we think about work, what constitutes work, and the skills we will need to be productive contributors in the future. To be successful in the next decade, individuals will need to demonstrate foresight in navigating a rapidly shifting landscape of organizational forms and skill requirements. They will increasingly be called upon to continually reassess the skills they need, and quickly put together the right resources to develop and update these skills. Workers in the future will need to be adaptable lifelong learners. Businesses must also be alert to the changing environment and adapt their workforce planning and development strategies, to ensure alignment with future skill requirements. Strategic human resources professionals might reconsider traditional methods for identifying critical skills, as well as selecting and developing talent. Considering the disruptions likely to reshape the future will enhance businesses’ ability to ensure organizational talent has and continuously renews the skills necessary for the sustainability of business goals. A workforce strategy for sustaining business goals should be one of the most critical outcomes of human resources professionals and should involve collaborating with universities to address lifelong learning and skill requirements.
AEROTROPOLIS: AIRPORTS AS THE NEW CITY CENTER Airports have become not just 21st century business magnets, but also regional economic accelerators, catalyzing and driving business development outward for many miles. As aviation-oriented businesses increasingly locate at major airports and along transportation corridors radiating from them, an aerotropolis emerges, stretching up to 25km (nearly 20 miles) from some major airports. Analogous in shape to the traditional metropolis made up of a central city core and its rings of commuter-heavy suburbs, the aerotropolis consists of an airport-centered commercial core (airport city) and outlying corridors and clusters of aviation-linked businesses and associated residential
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development. Some of the largest aerotropolis clusters have become globally significant airport edge-cities whose business tentacles routinely touch all major continents. The aerotropolis, in fact, is the concrete urban manifestation of the global meeting the local, with the airport serving as its physical interface. Corporate headquarters functions were once the domain of downtown office buildings. No longer. Airports increasingly serve as virtual headquarters for geographically dispersed corporate staff, executives, and board members who fly in for sales meetings, client contacts, and high-level decisionmaking. The full-range of office services and business support staff of a traditional corporate complex are available, including meeting rooms, computers and advanced telecom, secretarial and tech assistance. Propitious opportunities await corporations and metropolitan regions that can marshal the vision, planning skills, and coordinated actions to capitalize on this new transit-oriented development era.
“RATEOCRACY”: WORKING AND MANAGING IN AN ERA OF EXTREME TRANSPARENCY Today, consumers rate sellers on eBay, restaurants on Yelp, and local companies on Angie’s List, providing detailed product reviews online. Job hunters and employees can read and rate employers on Glassdoor.com. College students rate their professors on ratemyprofessors.com. Neighbors and friends can view each other’s reputations (and their own) at honestly.com. And Facebook’s more than 1.3 billion users can endorse a product or organization by “liking” it. Soon, we will also rate corporations on their behavior and have real-time mobile access to the aggregated, stakeholdergenerated reputation scores of nearly every corporation on the planet. We will use this information to reward and punish companies by buying their products or spurning them. We will have entered into a completely new era of corporate reputation, one in which reputation is radically transparent and extremely valuable. This new era is called Rateocracy because it will combine real-time ratings within a transparent and democratic structure. In fact, we can anticipate that virtually every person, place and thing will have a numeric social rating. Corporations, managers and employees will learn to live with “coveillance” — a world in which nearly everyone observes and rates the behavior of everyone else. How
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organizations, both large and small, operate within such an environment is worthy of deep consideration. Existing organizational models may be challenged.
GLOBAL REWARDS AND RECOGNITION: BRIDGING CULTURE AND GENERATIONS THROUGH LOCALIZATION Overall, 87% or more of the global workforce has engagement levels that leave room for improvement. One of the most effective ways to increase engagement is through recognition and rewards programs; in fact, most regions of the world rank recognition as one of the most important drivers of employee engagement. In addition to promoting higher engagement levels, such programs have the added benefit of yielding 21% higher retention rates, 27% higher profits, and 50% higher sales to those organizations that implement them. In order to be optimally effective, recognition and reward programs must be formalized and designed to consistently and fairly reinforce desired behaviors company-wide. When implemented on a global scale, these programs must also meet the diverse needs and preferences of a multinational, multigenerational employee base, which takes careful assessment. Recognizing and rewarding people in the way they wish is a fundamental prerequisite to increasing employee engagement, which can be particularly challenging for multinational organizations. To successfully implement a global recognition and rewards program, organizations must be mindful of the ways in which their workforce may differ culturally, generationally, and individually. For their efforts, multinational organizations will not only reap the extraordinary financial benefits of an engaged workforce, but also show their employees that their company cares about them and their preferences.
REDEFINING THE FAMILY-FRIENDLY WORKPLACE Over the past several decades, the composition of the workforce has changed dramatically. The traditional conceptualization of the male breadwinner and the female caretaker is largely a thing of the past. Now, couples are increasingly dual-career, and single parents with
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children continue to seek outside employment at high rates. Consequently, both mothers and fathers likely have substantial responsibilities at both work and home. In response, organizations are implementing “family-friendly” provisions to help their more diverse workforce better manage their work and family responsibilities and reduce work-family conflict. While these family-friendly provisions are ostensibly designed to reduce conflict between work and family demands, the evidence to support this contention is equivocal at best. Instead, the evidence suggests that familyfriendly provisions are more likely to improve organizationfocused outcomes, such as recruitment and job attitudes. The reduction of work-family conflict, which occurs when demands of one domain interfere with successful performance in the other, has been shown to reduce job strain, absenteeism, adverse physical and psychological symptoms, such as sleep disturbances and depression, and increase family satisfaction. As such, organizations that implement family-friendly provisions that effectively reduce work-family conflict will reap benefits in the form of improved worker productivity and health. This piece addresses the current state of the science on formal and informal familyfriendly provisions, including their utility and effectiveness, and includes recommendations to better align family-friendly benefits with employee work and non-work needs.
MINDFULNESS AT WORK Several decades of scientific research have confirmed that highly stressed employees are subject to considerably greater health risks, productivity losses, and medical costs than those with normal stress levels. These issues are particularly pronounced for those with metabolic syndrome. Given the burgeoning research supporting the benefits of “mindfulness-based” programs targeting the roots of chronic conditions that undermine health and productivity, eMindful participated in two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating “appliedmindfulness” content, and a scalable delivery platform that allows employees around the world to participate in real-time “Webinar-style” programs. eMindful’s programs offer innovative ways to manage stress and shift unhealthy lifestyle behavior patterns that contribute to obesity and the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. Both programs were found to be highly effective: the first in reducing stress and the second in reversing metabolic syndrome. Both programs also improve satisfaction and health for employees, while simultaneously © Sodexo 2015
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improving productivity and the bottom line for employers. The positive results seen in these studies offer evidence that mind-body approaches to health improvement are an effective and targeted solution for employers who want to lower the costs associated with stress and help their employees achieve better overall health.
WHOLE BRAIN THINKING: SKILLSETS FOR OUR NEW CONCEPTUAL AGE IQ (intelligence quotient) is considered to be the measure of an individual’s cognitive ability to solve problems, understand concepts, and process information. EQ, or “emotional quotient,” is far less studied or assessed and refers to an awareness of one’s own and other people’s emotions, the ability to discriminate between different emotions and to use emotions to direct thinking and behavior. While the value of the guiding genius and visionary leader in today’s hyper-competitive, meta-entrepreneurial, “innovate or die” business environment is still widely recognized, IQ and EQ are not, in and of themselves, innovation drivers and have never been guarantors of success. IQ has been used for many years to predict a person’s success, educational achievement, special needs, job performance and income. EQ can forecast a person’s success or challenges in interacting with the world (work, home, virtual). SQ (“synchronized quotient”) adds experiential/design thinking to the analytical and social thinking inherent in IQ and EQ. In many ways, SQ is an amalgam of both IQ and EQ, with the addition of specific abilities and strengths that are the foundation of design thinking. In short, SQ may be at the core of creativity and the basis upon which most, if not all, sustainable innovation occurs.
CASE STUDY IN TRENDS CREATING POINTS OF CONNECTION IN THE WORKPLACE: KEYS TO ENGAGING AND MOTIVATING THE WORKFORCE Employers and employees today face a tidal wave of challenges. Organizations are facing ever-increasing competition related to their markets, products, and services. At the same time, employees are facing a deluge of demands © Sodexo 2015
on their time. One of the ways that organizations are succeeding in the midst of all these challenges is to create holistic and positive experiences for their employees. Mars Drinks, a segment of Mars, Incorporated, is 100% committed to supporting businesses that want to provide great working environments for their people. To showcase their dedication to making life at work better, Mars Drinks started at home with their own employees redesigning their global headquarters to bring to life their vision “we create great tasting moments at work” to life. After three years of planning, research, experimentation and implementation, the results of this campus redesign showcase Mars Drinks’ commitment to enabling points of connection. From egalitarian seating and hybrid workspaces to natural light and a walking trail, the entire campus was designed to facilitate engagement, collaboration, productivity and wellbeing. In addition, the open design, the zones for connections, the variety of work settings, and the areas for privacy and reflection all reinforce the Mars Drinks culture.
SPECIAL SECTION IN TRENDS EDUCATING TOMORROW’S FM WORKFORCE The IFMA Foundation is a non-profit organization with a mission to make facility management the career of choice for young people. For a long time, the IFMA Foundation has been focused on expanding the FM accredited degree programs around the world. But the Foundation has identified a serious problem that now must be addressed that leads us to focus on how to encourage younger students in making FM a career of choice, to fill the student seats in the growing number of accredited degree programs worldwide. By exposing more pre-college students to the FM profession, we can start to close the growing workforce gap in FM. The profession has an exciting story to tell students and their parents – an exciting career in a field with jobs that can’t be sent overseas and nearly a 100% job placement for people graduating with an FM degree (starting salaries are $55,000 to $85,000 USD depending on level of degree). This story simply needs to be told more often. The Foundation then created a new initiative in the beginning of 2014 to combat the problem of not enough FM degree programs, students entering these programs, or graduates available to fill the FM vacancies coming available. n
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| FUTURE WORK SKILLS 2020 ©2011 Institute for the Future (IFTF) for the University of Phoenix Research Institute.
Authors: Anna Davies, Devin Fidler, Marina Gorbis. Used with permission. INTRODUCTION In the 1990s, IBM’s Deep Blue beat grandmaster Gary Kasparov in chess; today IBM’s Watson supercomputer is beating contestants on Jeopardy. A decade ago, workers worried about jobs being outsourced overseas; today, companies such as ODesk and LiveOps can assemble teams “in the cloud” to do sales, customer support, and many other tasks. Five years ago, it would have taken years for NASA to tag millions of photographs taken by its telescope, but now with the power of its collaborative platforms, this task can be accomplished in a few months, with the help of thousands of human volunteers. Global connectivity, smart machines, and new media are just some of the drivers reshaping how we think about work, what constitutes work, and the skills we will need to be productive contributors in the future. This piece analyzes key drivers that will reshape the landscape of work and identifies key work skills needed in the next 10 years. It does not consider what the jobs of the future will be. Many studies have tried to predict specific job categories and labor requirements; however, such predictions are difficult. Rather than focusing on future jobs, this piece looks at future work skills—proficiencies and abilities required across different jobs and work settings.
METHODOLOGY Over its history, the Institute for the Future (IFTF) has been a leader in advancing foresight methodologies, from the Delphi technique, a method of aggregating expert opinions to develop plausible foresight, to integrating ethnographic methods into the discipline of forecasting, and recently to using gaming platforms to crowdsource foresights. We have used these methodologies with an illustrious roster of organizations — from Fortune 500 companies to governments and foundations — to address issues as diverse as future science and technology, the future of organizations, and the future of education. IFTF uses foresight as a starting point for a process we call Foresight to Insight to Action, a process that enables people to take future visions and convert them into meaningful insights and actions they can take to be successful in the future.
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In writing this piece, we drew on IFTF’s foundational forecasts in areas as diverse as education, technology, demographics, work and health, as well as our annual Ten-Year Forecast. The Ten-Year Forecast is developed using IFTF’s signals methodology — an extension of decades of practice aggregating data, expert opinion, and trends research to understand patterns of change. A signal is typically a small or local innovation or disruption that has the potential to grow in scale and geographic distribution. A signal can be a new product, a new practice, a new market strategy, a new policy, or new technology. In short, it is something that catches our attention at one scale and in one locale and points to larger implications for other locales or even globally. Signals are useful for people who are trying to anticipate a highly uncertain future, since they tend to capture emergent phenomenon sooner than traditional social science methods. We enriched and vetted this research at an expert workshop held at our headquarters in Palo Alto, where we brought together experts in a diverse range of disciplines and professional backgrounds, engaging them in brainstorming exercises to identify key drivers of change and how these will shape work skill requirements. Finally, we analyzed and filtered all of this data in order to identify the six key drivers and ten skills areas that will be most relevant to the workforce of the future.
Global connectivity, smart machines, and new media are just some of the drivers reshaping how we think about work, what constitutes work, and the skills we will need to be productive contributors in the future. SIX DRIVERS OF CHANGE We begin every foresight exercise with thinking about drivers — big disruptive shifts that are likely to reshape the future landscape. Although each driver in itself is important when thinking about the future, it is a confluence of several drivers © Sodexo 2015
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working together that produces true disruptions. We chose the six drivers that emerged from our research as the most important and relevant to future work skills.
EXTREME LONGEVITY: Increasing global lifespans change the nature of careers and learning It is estimated that by 2025, the number of Americans over 60 will increase by 70%. Over the next decade we will see the challenge of an aging population come to the fore. New perceptions of what it means to age, as well as the emerging possibilities for realistic, healthy life-extension, will begin to take hold. Individuals will need to rearrange their approach to their careers, family life, and education to accommodate this demographic shift. Increasingly, people will work long past 65 in order to have adequate resources for retirement. Multiple careers will be commonplace and lifelong learning to prepare for occupational change will see major growth. To take advantage of this well-experienced and still vital workforce, organizations will have to rethink the traditional career paths, creating more diversity and flexibility. Aging individuals will increasingly demand opportunities, products, and medical services to accommodate more healthy and active senior years. As we move toward a world of healthier lifestyles and holistic approaches to what we eat, how we work, and where we live, much of daily life — and the global economy as a whole — will be viewed through the lens of health.
RISE OF SMART MACHINES AND SYSTEMS
RISE OF SMART MACHINES AND SYSTEMS: Workplace automation nudges human workers out of rote, repetitive tasks We are on the cusp of a major transformation in our relationships with our tools. Over the next decade, new © Sodexo 2015
smart machines will enter offices, factories, and homes in numbers we have never seen before. They will become integral to production, teaching, combat, medicine, security, and virtually every domain of our lives. As these machines replace humans in some tasks, and augment them in others, their largest impact may be less obvious: their very presence among us will force us to confront important questions. What are humans uniquely good at? What is our comparative advantage? And what is our place alongside these machines? We will have to rethink the content of our work and our work processes in response. In some areas, a new generation of automated systems will replace humans, freeing us up to do the things we are good at and actually enjoy. In other domains, the machines will become our collaborators, augmenting our own skills and abilities. Smart machines will also establish new expectations and standards of performance. Of course, some routine jobs will be taken over by machines — this has already happened and will continue. But the real power in robotics technologies lies in their ability to augment and extend our own capabilities. We will be entering into a new kind of partnership with machines that will build on our mutual strengths, resulting in a new level of human-machine collaboration and codependence.
COMPUTATIONAL WORLD: Massive increases in sensors and processing power make the world a programmable system The diffusion of sensors, communications, and processing power into everyday objects and environments will unleash an unprecedented torrent of data and the opportunity to see patterns and design systems on a scale never before possible. Every object, every interaction, everything we come into contact with will be converted into data. Once we decode the world around us and start seeing it through the lens of data, we will increasingly focus on manipulating the data to achieve desired outcomes. Thus we will usher in an era of “everything is programmable” — an era of thinking about the world in computational, programmable, designable terms. The collection of enormous quantities of data will enable modeling of social systems at extreme scales, both micro and macro, helping uncover new patterns and relationships that were previously invisible. Agencies will increasingly model
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macro-level phenomena, such as global pandemics to stop their spread across the globe. At a micro level, individuals will be able to simulate things, such as their route to the office to avoid traffic congestion based on real-time traffic data. Microand macro-scale models will mesh to create models that are unprecedented in their complexity and completeness. As a result, whether it is running a business or managing individual health, our work and personal lives will increasingly demand abilities to interact with data, see patterns in data, make data-based decisions, and use data to design for desired outcomes.
different tomorrow. Not only are we going to have multiple interpretations of recorded events, but with ubiquitous capture and surveillance, events will be seen from multiple angles and perspectives, each possibly telling a different story of individual events.
SUPERSTRUCTED ORGANIZATIONS: Social technologies drive new forms of production and value creation
NEW MEDIA ECOLOGY
NEW MEDIA ECOLOGY: New communication tools require new media literacies beyond text New multimedia technologies are bringing about a transformation in the way we communicate. As technologies for video production, digital animation, augmented reality, gaming, and media editing become ever more sophisticated and widespread, a new ecosystem will take shape around these areas. We are literally developing a new vernacular, a new language, for communication. Already, the text-based Internet is transforming to privilege video, animation, and other more visual communication media. At the same time, virtual networks are being integrated more and more seamlessly into our environment and lives, channeling new media into our daily experience. The millions of users generating and viewing this multimedia content from their laptops and mobile devices are exerting enormous influence on culture. New media is placing new demands on attention and cognition. It is enabling new platforms for creating online identity, while at the same time requiring people to engage in activities such as online personal reputation and identity management. It is enabling new ways for groups to come together and collaborate, bringing in new levels of transparency to our work and personal lives. At the same time, our sensibility toward reality and truth is likely to be radically altered by the new media ecology. We must learn to approach content with more skepticism and the realization that what you see today may be
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New technologies and social media platforms are driving an unprecedented reorganization of how we produce and create value. Amplified by a new level of collective intelligence and tapping resources embedded in social connections with multitudes of others, we can now achieve the kind of scale and reach previously attainable by only very large organizations. In other words, we can do things outside of traditional organizational boundaries. To “superstruct” means to create structures that go beyond the basic forms and processes with which we are familiar. It means to collaborate and play at extreme scales, from the micro to the massive. Learning to use new social tools to work, to invent, and to govern at these scales is what the next few decades are all about. Our tools and technologies shape the kinds of social, economic, and political organizations we inhabit. Many organizations we are familiar with today, including educational and corporate ones, are products of centuries-old scientific knowledge and
A new generation of organizational concepts and work skills is coming not from traditional management/ organizational theories but from fields such as game design, neuroscience, and happiness psychology. These fields will drive the creation of new training paradigms and tools. © Sodexo 2015
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technologies. Today, we see this organizational landscape being disrupted. In the health arena, organizations such as CureTogether and PatientsLikeMe are allowing people to aggregate their personal health information to allow for clinical trials and emergence of expertise outside of traditional labs and doctors’ offices. Science games, from Foldit to Galaxy Zoo, are engaging thousands of people to solve problems no single organization had the resources to do before. Open education platforms are increasingly making content available to anyone who wants to learn. A new generation of organizational concepts and work skills is coming not from traditional management/organizational theories but from fields such as game design, neuroscience, and happiness psychology. These fields will drive the creation of new training paradigms and tools.
Presence in areas where new competitors are popping up is critical to survival, but it is not enough. The key is not just to employ people in these locales but also to effectively integrate these local employees and local business processes into the infrastructure of global organizations in order to remain competitive.
FUTURE WORK SKILLS 2020 What do these six disruptive forces mean for the workers of the next decade? We have identified 10 skills that we believe will be critical for success in the workforce. While all six drivers are important in shaping the landscape in which each skill emerges, the color-coding and placement here indicate which drivers have particular relevance to the development of each of the skills.
10 SKILLS FOR THE FUTURE WORKFORCE
GLOBALLY-CONNECTED WORLD: Increased global interconnectivity puts diversity and adaptability at the center of organizational operations At its most basic level, globalization is the long-term trend toward greater exchanges and integration across geographic borders. In our highly globally-connected and interdependent world, the United States and Europe no longer hold a monopoly on job creation, innovation, and political power. Organizations from resource- and infrastructure-constrained markets in developing countries, like India and China, are innovating at a faster pace than those from developed countries in some areas, such as mobile technologies. In fact, a lack of legacy infrastructure is combining with rapidly growing markets to fuel higher rates of growth in developing countries. For decades, most multinational companies have used their overseas subsidiaries as sales and technical support channels for the headquarters. In the last 10 years, overseas companies, particularly IT ones, outsourced everything from customer services to software development. The model, however, has stayed the same: innovation and design have been the prerogative of R&D labs in developed countries. As markets in China, India, and other developing countries grow, it is increasingly difficult for the headquarters to develop products that can suit the needs of a whole different category of consumers.
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01 | SENSE-MAKING Definition: ability to determine the deeper meaning or significance of what is being expressed. As smart machines take over rote, routine manufacturing and services jobs, there will be an increasing demand for the kinds of skills machines are lacking. These are higher-level thinking skills that cannot be codified. We call these sense-making skills, skills that help us create unique insights critical to decision making. When IBM’s supercomputer, Deep Blue, defeated chess grandmaster Gary Kasparov, many took this as a sign of its superior thinking skills. But Deep Blue had won with brute number-crunching force (its ability to evaluate millions of possible moves per second), not by applying the kind of human intelligence that helps us to live our lives. A computer may be able to beat a human in a game of chess or Jeopardy by sheer force of its computational abilities, but if you ask it whether it wants to play pool, it won’t be able to tell whether you are talking about swimming, financial portfolios, or billiards. As computing pioneer Jaron Lanier points out, despite important advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) research it is still the case that, “if we ask what thinking is, so that we can then ask how to foster it, we encounter an astonishing and terrifying answer: we don’t know.”1 As we renegotiate the human/machine division of labor in the next decade, critical thinking or sense-making will emerge as a skill that increasingly needs to be capitalized upon by workers.
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SHAPING THE FU T URE WORKFORCE 01 SENSE-MAKING Ability to determine the deeper meaning or significance of what is being expressed.
02 SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE Ability to connect to others in a deep and direct way, to sense and stimulate reactions and desired interactions.
NOVEL & ADAPTIVE THINKING
06 NEW-MEDIA LITERACY EXTREME LONGEVITY
RISE OF SMART MACHINES AND SYSTEMS
Proficiency at thinking and coming up with solutions and responses beyond that which is rote or rule-based.
04 CROSS-CULTURAL COMPETENCY
Ability to critically assess and develop content that uses new media forms, and to leverage these media for persuasive communication.
07 TRANSDISCIPLINARITY Literacy in and ability to understand concepts across multiple disciplines.
08 DESIGN MINDSET Ability to represent and develop tasks and work processes for desired outcomes.
NEW MEDIA ECOLOGY
Ability to operate in different cultural settings.
09 COGNITIVE LOAD MANAGEMENT Ability to discriminate and filter information for importance, and to understand how to maximize cognitive functioning using a variety of tools and techniques.
05 COMPUTATIONAL THINKING
Ability to translate vast amounts of data into abstract concepts and to understand data-based reasoning.
Ability to work productively, drive engagement, and demonstrate presence as a member of a virtual team.
FUTURE WORK SKILLS
02 | SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE Definition: ability to connect to others in a deep and direct way, to sense and stimulate reactions and desired interactions. While we are seeing early prototypes of “social” and “emotional” robots in various research labs today, the range of social skills and emotions that they can display is very limited. Feeling is just as complicated as sense-making, if not more so, and just as the machines we are building are not sense-making machines, the emotional and social robots we are building are not feeling machines. Socially intelligent employees are able to quickly assess the emotions of those around them and adapt their words, tone and gestures accordingly. This has always been a key skill for workers who need to collaborate and build relationships of trust, but it is even more important as we are called on to collaborate with larger groups of people in different settings. Our emotionality and social IQ developed over millennia of living in groups will continue to be one of the vital assets giving human workers a comparative advantage over machines.
03 | NOVEL & ADAPTIVE THINKING Definition: proficiency at thinking and coming up with solutions and responses beyond that which is rote or rule-based. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Professor David Autor has tracked the polarization of jobs in the United States over the last three decades. He finds that job opportunities are declining in middle-skill white-collar and blue-collar jobs, largely due to a combination of the automation of routine work, and global offshoring.2 Conversely, job opportunities are increasingly concentrated in both high-skill, high-wage professional, technical and management occupations and in low-skill, low-wage occupations such as food service and personal care. Jobs at the high-skill end involve abstract tasks, and at the low-skill end manual tasks are used. What both of these categories of tasks have in common is that they require what Autor terms “situational adaptability” — the ability to respond to unique unexpected circumstances of the moment. Tasks as different as writing a convincing legal argument, or creating a new dish out of set ingredients both require novel thinking and adaptability. These skills will be at a premium in the next decade, particularly as automation and offshoring continue.
04 | CROSS-CULTURAL COMPETENCY Definition: ability to operate in different cultural settings. In a truly globally-connected world, a worker’s skill set could see them posted in any number of locations — they need © Sodexo 2015
to be able to operate in whatever environment they find themselves. This demands specific content, such as linguistic skills, but also adaptability to changing circumstances and an ability to sense and respond to new contexts. Cross-cultural competency will become an important skill for all workers, not just those who have to operate in diverse geographical environments. Organizations increasingly see diversity as a driver of innovation. Research now tells us that what makes a group truly intelligent and innovative is the combination of different ages, skills, disciplines, and working and thinking styles that members bring to the table. Scott E. Page, professor and director of the Center of the Study of Complex Systems at the University of Michigan, has demonstrated that groups displaying a range of perspectives and skill levels outperform like-minded experts. He concludes that “progress depends as much on our collective differences as it does on our individual IQ scores.”3 Diversity will therefore become a core competency for organizations over the next decade. Successful employees within these diverse teams need to be able to identify and communicate points of connection (shared goals, priorities, values) that transcend their differences and enable them to build relationships and to work together effectively.
05 | COMPUTATIONAL THINKING Definition: ability to translate vast amounts of data into abstract concepts and to understand data-based reasoning. As the amount of data that we have at our disposal increases exponentially, many more roles will require computational thinking skills in order to make sense of this information. Novice-friendly programming languages and technologies that teach the fundamentals of programming virtual and physical worlds will enable us to manipulate our environments and enhance our interactions. The use of simulations will become a core expertise as they begin to feature regularly in discourse and decision-making. HR departments that currently value applicants who are familiar with basic applications, such as the Microsoft Office suite, will shift their expectations, seeking out resumes that include statistical analysis and quantitative reasoning skills.
“Situational Adaptability” — the ability to respond to unique unexpected circumstances of the moment ~david autor Published by Innovations 2 Solutions | 13
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In addition to developing computational thinking skills, workers will need to be aware of its limitations. This requires an understanding that models are only as good as the data feeding them — even the best models are approximations of reality and not reality itself. And second, workers must remain able to act in the absence of data and not become paralyzed when lacking an algorithm for every system to guide decision making.
06 | NEW-MEDIA LITERACY Definition: ability to critically assess and develop content that uses new media forms, and to leverage these media for persuasive communication. The explosion in user-generated media, including the videos, blogs, and podcasts that now dominate our social lives, will be fully felt in workplaces in the next decade. Communication tools that break away from the static slide approach of programs such as PowerPoint will become commonplace, and with them expectations of worker ability to produce content using these new forms will rise dramatically. The next generation of workers will need to become fluent in forms such as video, able to critically “read” and assess them in the same way that they currently assess a paper or presentation. They will also need to be comfortable creating and presenting their own visual information. Knowledge of fonts and layouts was once restricted to a small set of print designers and typesetters, until word processing programs brought this within the reach of everyday office workers. Similarly, user-friendly production editing tools will make video language — concepts such as frame, depth of field, etc. — part of the common vernacular.
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As immersive and visually stimulating presentation of information becomes the norm, workers will need more sophisticated skills to use these tools to engage and persuade their audiences.
07 | TRANSDISCIPLINARITY Definition: literacy in and ability to understand concepts across multiple disciplines. Many of today’s global problems are just too complex to be solved by one specialized discipline (think global warming or overpopulation). These multifaceted problems require transdisciplinary solutions. While throughout the 20th century, ever-greater specialization was encouraged, the next century will see transdisciplinary approaches take center stage. We are already seeing this in the emergence of new areas of study, such as nanotechnology, which blends molecular biology, biochemistry, protein chemistry, and other specialties. This shift has major implications for the skill set that knowledge workers will need to bring to organizations. According to Howard Rheingold, a prominent forecaster and author, “transdisciplinarity goes beyond bringing together researchers from different disciplines to work in multidisciplinary teams. It means educating researchers who can speak languages of multiple disciplines—biologists who have understanding of mathematics, mathematicians who understand biology.”4 The ideal worker of the next decade is “T-shaped” — they bring deep understanding of at least one field, but have the capacity to converse in the language of a broader range of disciplines.
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FUTURE WORK SKILLS
This requires a sense of curiosity and a willingness to go on learning far beyond the years of formal education. As extended lifespans promote multiple careers and exposure to more industries and disciplines, it will be particularly important for workers to develop this T-shaped quality.
08 | DESIGN MINDSET Definition: ability to represent and develop tasks and work processes for desired outcomes. The sensors, communication tools and processing power of the computational world will bring with them new opportunities to take a design approach to our work. We will be able to plan our environments so that they are conducive to the outcomes that we are most interested in. Discoveries from neuroscience are highlighting how profoundly our physical environments shape cognition. As Fred Gage, a neurobiologist who studies and designs environments for neurogenesis (the creation of new neurons), argues, “change the environment, change the brain, change the behavior.”5 One recent study found that ceiling height has a consistent impact on the nature of participants’ thinking.6 Participants in the study were asked to rate their current body state or feeling. Those who were in the room with higher ceilings responded more favorably to words associated with freedom, such as “unrestricted” or “open.” Those in the lower-ceiling room tended to describe themselves with words associated with confinement. This impact on mood was directly transferred to mental processes; those in the high-ceiling group were more effective at relational thinking, creating connections and the free recall of facts. Workers of the future will need to become adept at recognizing the kind of thinking that different tasks require, and making adjustments to their work environments that enhance their ability to accomplish these tasks.
09 | COGNITIVE LOAD MANAGEMENT Definition: ability to discriminate and filter information for importance, and to understand how to maximize cognitive functioning using a variety of tools and techniques. A world rich in information streams in multiple formats and from multiple devices brings the issue of cognitive overload to the fore. Organizations and workers will only be able to turn the massive influx of data into an advantage if they can learn to effectively filter and focus on what is important.
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The next generation of workers will have to develop their own techniques for tackling the problem of cognitive overload. For example, the practice of social filtering — ranking, tagging, or adding other metadata to content helps higher-quality or more relevant information to rise above the “noise.” Workers will also need to become adept at utilizing new tools to help them deal with the information onslaught. Researchers at Tufts University have wired stockbrokers, who are constantly monitoring streams of financial data and need to recognize major changes without being overwhelmed by detail. The stockbrokers were asked to watch a stream of financial data and write an involved e-mail message to a colleague. As they got more involved in composing the e-mail, the fNIRS (functional near-infrared spectroscopy, which measures blood oxygen levels in the brain) system detected this, and simplified the presentation of data accordingly.7
10 | VIRTUAL COLLABORATION Definition: ability to work productively, drive engagement, and demonstrate presence as a member of a virtual team. Connective technologies make it easier than ever to work, share ideas and be productive despite physical separation. But the virtual work environment also demands a new set of competencies. As a leader of a virtual team, individuals need to develop strategies for engaging and motivating a dispersed group. We are learning that techniques borrowed from gaming are extremely effective in engaging large virtual communities. Ensuring that collaborative platforms include typical gaming features, such as immediate feedback, clear objectives and a staged series of challenges, can significantly drive participation and motivation. Members of virtual teams also need to become adept at finding environments that promote productivity and wellbeing. A community that offers “ambient sociability” can help overcome isolation that comes from lack of access to a central, social workplace. This could be a physical co-working space, but it could also be virtual. Researchers at Stanford’s Virtual Human Interaction Lab exploring the real-world social benefits of inhabiting virtual worlds, such as Second Life, report that the collective experience of a virtual environment, especially one with 3D avatars, provides significant socialemotional benefits. Players experience the others as copresent and available, but they are able to concentrate on their own in-world work.
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Businesses must also be alert to the changing environment and adapt their workforce planning and development strategies to ensure alignment with future skill requirements.
Online streams created by micro blogging and social networking sites can serve as virtual water coolers, providing a sense of camaraderie and enabling employees to demonstrate presence. For example, Yammer is a Twitter-like micro blogging service, focused on business—only individuals with the same corporate domain in their e-mail address can access the company network.
IMPLICATIONS The results of this research have implications for individuals, educational institutions, business, and government. To be successful in the next decade, individuals will need to demonstrate foresight in navigating a rapidly shifting landscape of organizational forms and skill requirements. They will increasingly be called upon to continually reassess the skills they need, and quickly put together the right resources to develop and update these skills. Workers in the future will need to be adaptable lifelong learners. Educational institutions at the primary, secondary, and post-secondary levels, are largely the products of technology infrastructure and social circumstances of the past. The landscape has changed and educational institutions should consider how to adapt quickly in response. Some directions of change might include: §§ Placing additional emphasis on developing skills such as critical thinking, insight, and analysis capabilities §§ Integrating new-media literacy into education programs §§ Including experiential learning that gives prominence to soft skills—such as the ability to collaborate, work in groups, read social cues, and respond adaptively §§ Broadening the learning constituency beyond teens and young adults through to adulthood §§ Integrating interdisciplinary training that allows students to develop skills and knowledge in a range of subjects
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Businesses must also be alert to the changing environment and adapt their workforce planning and development strategies to ensure alignment with future skill requirements. Strategic human resources professionals might reconsider traditional methods for identifying critical skills, as well as selecting and developing talent. Considering the disruptions likely to reshape the future will enhance businesses’ ability to ensure organizational talent has and continuously renews the skills necessary for the sustainability of business goals. A workforce strategy for sustaining business goals should be one of the most critical outcomes of human resources professionals and should involve collaborating with universities to address lifelong learning and skill requirements. Governmental policymakers will need to respond to the changing landscape by taking a leadership role and making education a national priority. If education is not prioritized, we risk compromising our ability to prepare our people for a healthy and sustainable future. For Americans to be prepared and for our businesses to be competitive, policymakers should consider the full range of skills citizens will require, as well as the importance of lifelong learning and constant skill renewal. n
KEY INSIGHTS & IMPLICATIONS §§ This research has implications for individuals, educational institutions, business, and government. §§ Individuals will increasingly be called upon to continually reassess the skills they need, and quickly put together the right resources to develop and update these skills. §§ Educational institutions will place additional emphasis on developing new skills, whether by incorporating them into academic programs or including experiential learning in the curriculum. §§ Businesses must adapt their workforce planning and development strategies to ensure alignment with future skill requirements. The new workforce strategy for sustaining business goals should involve collaborating with universities to address lifelong learning and skill requirements. §§ Governmental policymakers will need to respond to the changing landscape by taking a leadership role and making education a national priority.
LINKING TO SODEXO’S QUALITY OF LIFE DIMENSIONS §§ Personal Growth: Employees will be required to develop a new set of work skills in order to advance and be successful in the workplace of tomorrow.
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AEROTROPOLIS: AIRPORTS AS THE NEW CITY CENTER
This piece is adapted from Airport Cities: The Evolution, an article originally published in Airport World Magazine.
Dr. John Kasarda, MBA, PhD, President and CEO of Aerotropolis Business Concepts LLC THE RISE OF THE AEROTROPOLIS Airports have become not just 21st century business magnets, but also regional economic accelerators, catalyzing and driving business development outward for many miles. As aviation-oriented businesses increasingly locate at major airports and along transportation corridors radiating from them, an aerotropolis emerges, stretching up to 25km (nearly 20 miles) from some major airports.
The aerotropolis, in fact, is the concrete urban manifestation of the global meeting the local, with the airport serving as its physical interface. Among the most prominent are Amsterdam Schiphol, Chicago O’Hare, DFW, Dubai, Hong Kong, Incheon, Memphis, Paris CDG, Singapore and Washington Dulles International airports (See Figure 3). Each has attracted a remarkable number of businesses to their properties and broader airport areas, generating huge economic returns to their regions and nations.
Analogous in shape to the traditional metropolis made up of a central city core and its rings of commuter-heavy suburbs, the aerotropolis consists of an airport-centered commercial core (airport city) and outlying corridors and clusters of aviationlinked businesses and associated residential development.
For example, more than 1,000 firms have located in the Amsterdam Aerotropolis (including the world headquarters of ABN Amro and ING banks located just six minutes from Schiphol’s terminal) in part because of the superb connectivity this airport provides their executives.
Some of these largest aerotropolis clusters such as Amsterdam Zuidas, Las Colinas, Texas, and South Korea’s Songdo International Business District — near Incheon International Airport — have become globally significant airport edge-cities whose business tentacles routinely touch all major continents.
Likewise, four Fortune 500 world headquarters are located in Las Colinas, Texas, only a 10-minute drive from DFW, while Chicago’s O’Hare airport area has more office and convention space than most major cities. The Washington Dulles International airport region is the second largest retail market in the U.S. (just behind New York City’s Manhattan Island) and has become a high-tech business and consulting hub as well.
Figure 1. Aerotropolises as Economic Accelerators
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Figure 2. Evolution of City Airports to Airport Cities
TRANSFORMING CIT Y AIRPORTS
Hong Kong, Incheon, Memphis, and Paris CDG boast leading cargo and logistics complexes, with the former two airports sustaining, respectively, Hong Kong Disneyland and New Songdo IDB, an airport-edge city the size of downtown Boston. Dubai and Singapore have emerged as full-fledged aerotropolises with their large leisure, tourism, commercial and finance sectors dependent on aviation. Both may legitimately be described as global aviation hubs with city-states attached.
AIRPORT CITY EVOLUTION Airport cities have developed along different paths. A portion of them were planned from the start. Most, however, evolved in a largely organic manner responding to (1) airport land availability, (2) improved surface transportation access, (3) growing air traveler consumer demands, (4) airport revenue needs, (5) new business practices, and (6) site-specific commercial real estate opportunities. Regardless of process, airports continue to transform from primarily air transport infrastructure to multimodal, multifunctional enterprises generating considerable commercial development within and well beyond their boundaries. Today, virtually all of the commercial functions of a modern metropolitan center are found on or near most major air gateways, fundamentally changing them from “city airports” to “airport cities.” The passenger-terminal has led this transition. Airside (past security), gallerias and retail streetscapes have been incorporated into concourses, as have multiple leisure and consumer services. Upscale boutiques offering high-end fashion clothing and accessories, along with gourmet and themed restaurants, have been complemented by health, fitness and entertainment facilities including spas, clinics, multiplex cinemas and, in some cases, museums, art galleries, concerts and gaming venues.
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TO AIRPORT CITIES
AIRPORTS AS CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS Corporate headquarters functions were once the domain of downtown office buildings. No longer. Go to Terminal D at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) or to the concourse of Detroit Metro’s magnificent McNamara Terminal and you will see business people with bulging briefcases walking from their arrival gates into DFW’s Grand Hyatt and Metro’s swanky Westin Hotel. They are pouring into these concourse-connected business class hotels not to sleep, but to meet. DFW’s Grand Hyatt and Detroit Metro’s Westin increasingly serve as virtual headquarters for geographically dispersed corporate staff, executives, and board members who fly in for sales meetings, client contacts, and high-level decision-making. The full-range of office services and business support staff of a traditional corporate complex are available, including meeting rooms, computers and advanced telecom, secretarial and tech assistance. Some airport hotels, such as the Sheraton at Amsterdam Schiphol, Hilton at Frankfurt and Sofitel at Heathrow’s Terminal 5 now even rank among the most popular places to hold business meetings in Holland, Germany and the UK respectively. And airports in Asia are taking “doing business” in them to a new level. For example, in 2010, Hong Kong International Airport opened the world’s largest terminal commercial lounge. Its 15,000 square foot facility is a full-service business center
[Travelers] are pouring into these concourse-connected business class hotels not to sleep, but to meet. © Sodexo 2015
that supports up to 300 users with wireless office workstations, projectors, meeting rooms, advanced videoconference stations, and tech assistance. Large-screen TVs and an all-day buffet provide the entertainment during any downtime.
it into a magnet for offices of travel-intensive firms. One prominent multi-national accounting, auditing, and consulting firm, KPMG, has made The Squaire its European corporate headquarters, occupying 400,000 square feet.
In tune with today’s corporate needs for quick access to their widely dispersed clients and enterprise partners, The Squaire (designated “New Work City”) opened at Frankfurt Airport in 2011. This two million square foot, mainly office and hotel complex, is over 2,000 ft long (650 meters) and nine stories high. Its primary value proposition is speedy connectivity, not only local and national, but also global. The Squaire is just eight minutes via covered walkway to the airport’s international check-in counters.
A number of major airports now actually exceed many downtown metropolitan central business districts in office space and employment. Rossypole, occupying 160 acres (65 hectares) in the middle of the Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport has over 2.5 million square feet (230,000 sqm) of offices. There are around 700 firms based on the 3,200-hectare (7,900 acre) airport property, employing a total of 87,000 people. Proceeding outward, there is an additional 770,000 sqm of offices in the immediate vicinity of the airport, along with many hotels and logistics facilities. Approximately 250,000 jobs in the Paris region are directly or indirectly related to CDG.
In addition to an adjacent high-speed motorway, rapid ground connectivity to much of the region and beyond is provided by the inter-city rail station underneath the complex. Served by some 230 long-distance trains daily, The Squaire is without doubt the best-connected office building in Europe. Excellent surface connectivity, together with Frankfurt Airport’s extensive international flight network, has fashioned
Airport city and aerotropolis development is gaining substantial traction, multiplying rapidly on a global scale. Using qualitative and quantitative techniques, I’ve identified over 80 airport cities and broader aerotropolises (airportcentered urban economic regions) around the world that are either already operational or in early stages of development.
Figure 3. Examples of Aerotropolises Around the World DALLAS FORT WORTH
CHARLES DE GAULLE
AFRICA & MIDDLE EAST
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Their distribution is widespread with 38 identified in North America, 20 in Europe, 17 in Asia-Pacific, seven in Africa and the Middle East and one each in Central and South America. Various criteria were used to designate operational or developing airport cities and aerotropolises. Some of the criteria are clearly subjective, so this list is by no means definitive. Without doubt, new sites will be added, while some shown here may fall by the wayside.
AEROTROPOLIS EMPLOYMENT SCALE AND INDUSTRY MIX The employment scale and industry mix of the aerotropolis is much greater than many realize. Research by Dr. Stephen Appold and myself on employment around the 25 busiest passenger airports in the U.S., found that 3.1 million jobs as of 2009 were located within a 2.5-mile radius of these airports (2.8% of total U.S. employment); over 7.5 million jobs within a five-mile distance (6.8% of all U.S. employees) and 19 million jobs (17.2% of the U.S. total) within 10 miles (See Figure 4). Assessment of wages and salaries in these airport radii showed that the respective percentages from payrolls were 3.4%, 8.2% and 21.9%. This indicates that many jobs near major airports are relatively well paid. When we studied individual airports, we found that those located a greater distance from the metropolitan city center generated significant employment clusters of their own. Fostered by these clusters, Chicago O’Hare has 450,000 jobs within a radius of five miles; DFW 395,000 jobs, and Washington Dulles International almost 240,000 jobs.
Fully 9.3% of all U.S. employment in transport and warehousing is located within 2.5 miles of the 25 airports we analyzed. The disproportionately high concentration of these jobs continued outward at least as far as a 10-mile radius of the airport fence. Even traditional downtown employment sectors such as finance, insurance, and administration are moving to airport areas. Our research comparing airport area employment with metropolitan central business district area employment showed that zones within five miles of the airport register 55% of the finance and insurance jobs that are located within five miles of the city center and 78% of the administrative and support jobs. Hotels, of course, are mushrooming around airports. There are 49 hotels within 2.5 miles of Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta, with the heaviest concentration just one to 1.5 miles away. This compares to 51 hotels located within 2.5 miles of Atlanta’s city center. And, the largest concentration of hotel rooms on the entire U.S. West Coast is adjacent to Los Angeles International Airport’s fence. Areas surrounding airports are also attracting businesses in a full range of professional, medical (lifesciences) and information and communication functions. Sports, recreation and entertainment complexes as well as showrooms, exhibition and convention centers are also gravitating toward them. The aerotropolis is thus much more of a dynamic, forwardlooking concept than a static, cross-sectional model where
Figure 4. The Aerotropolis’ Effect on U.S. Employment
2.8% WITHIN 2.5 MILES 6.8% WITHIN 5 MILES 17.2% WITHIN 10 MILES
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DALLAS FORT WORTH
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2.8% WITHIN 2.5 MILES 6.8% WITHIN 5 MILES 17.2% WITHIN 10 MILES
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AEROTROPOLISES AS ECONOMIC ACCELERATORS
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much existing development reflects historic airport-area growth over many prior decades, some in the distant past. Future development of the aerotropolis will be driven by further global integration and the need for speedy connectivity. Both will be enabled and catalyzed by the continuing expansion of aviation routes operating as a Physical Internet moving people and products quickly worldwide, analogous to the way the digital Internet moves data and information. With airports serving as key nodes (or routers) of this Physical Internet, aviation, globalization, and urban development converge, creating the 21st century aerotropolis.
CONCLUDING COMMENT We have entered a new transit-oriented development era where cities are being built around airports instead of the reverse. In the process, the urban center is being relocated in the form of globally significant airport cities and aerotropolises. Propitious opportunities await metropolitan regions (including their traditional central cities) that can marshal the vision, planning skills, and coordinated actions to capitalize on them. n
KEY INSIGHTS & IMPLICATIONS §§ Airport city and aerotropolis development is multiplying rapidly on a global scale. §§ Corporate headquarters functions are now found in airports, with business travelers meeting in concourse-connected business class hotels. §§ In addition to creating employment clusters for transport and warehousing jobs, traditional downtown employment sectors are also moving to airport areas. §§ Future development of the aerotropolis will be driven by further global integration and the need for speedy connectivity. §§ Success awaits those that can marshal the vision, planning skills, and coordinated actions to capitalize on the new opportunities created by aerotropolis development.
LINKING TO SODEXO’S QUALITY OF LIFE DIMENSIONS §§ Physical Environment: Airports designed with comfort in mind contribute to a better travel experience for employees — one that enhances rather than detracting from their quality of life. §§ Ease & Efficiency: The ability to work efficiently while traveling allows employees to complete their work with greater efficiency and less lost time.
Charles De Gaulle Airport
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RATEOCRACY: WORKING AND MANAGING IN AN ERA OF EXTREME TRANSPARENCY
This article is expanded and updated from ‘Real-time ratings will raise stakeholders’ expectations of businesses,’ published in THE FUTURIST Magazine, Vol. 46, No 3. Used with permission.
Robert Moran, Partner, Brunswick Group Today, consumers rate sellers on eBay, restaurants on Yelp, and local companies on Angie’s List, providing detailed product reviews online. Job hunters and employees can read and rate employers on Glassdoor.com. College students rate their professors on ratemyprofessors.com. Neighbors and friends can view each other’s reputations (and their own) at honestly.com. And Facebook’s more than 1.3 billion users can endorse a product or organization by “liking” it. Soon, we will also rate corporations on their behavior and have real-time mobile access to the aggregated, stakeholdergenerated reputation scores of nearly every corporation on the planet. We will use this information to reward and punish companies by buying their products or spurning them. We will have entered into a completely new era of corporate reputation, one in which reputation is radically transparent and extremely valuable. I call this new era Rateocracy because it will combine real-time ratings within a transparent and democratic structure. In fact, we can anticipate that virtually every person, place and thing will have a numeric social rating. Corporations, managers and employees will learn to live with “coveillance” — a world in which nearly everyone observes and rates the behavior of everyone else. How organizations large and small operate within such an environment is worthy of deep consideration. Existing organizational models may be challenged. All the necessary technologies and building blocks are in position to create a real-time, reputational rating system for corporations. Current rating systems will be knit together, and “ratestreams” will become as significant as “clickstreams” are today.
Rateocracy will be numeric and transparent, providing real-time data that push corporations to “live their purpose.” © Sodexo 2015
Corporations will closely track the rise and fall of their reputational “credit rating.” They will begin to draw the link between their numerical reputational rating and growth, profitability, and employee retention. Corporate reputation, something that has been traditionally tracked on an annual basis, will have entered an entirely new era — the Rateocratic era. Rateocracy will be numeric and transparent, providing realtime data that push corporations to “live their purpose.” It will also increase public expectations, creating a virtuous “race to the top,” forcing businesses to compete in areas they may have never competed in before. Figure 1. Three Paths to the Era of Rateocracy
Growth of a robust, niche-by-niche ratings culture
Creation of an open, universal rating platform
Emergence of a “middleware” system
How it develops is another story, however, and there are at least three paths to the era of Rateocracy. The first is the growth of a robust, niche-by-niche ratings culture — a simple extrapolation from where we are today. The second is the emergence of a “middleware” system that ties these disparate rating systems into one workable, searchable whole. The third is the creation of an open, universal rating platform for all people, places and things, something like those envisioned in the novels Down and Out in the Magic Kingdom by Cory Doctorow and Super Sad True Love Story by
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Gary Shteyngart. Doctorow explores a future world in which reputation is currency, and Shteyngart explores a dystopian near-future in which everyone has real-time image ratings. Along these lines, the startup lab Milk Inc. created a universal rating app named Oink in 2011 (though this first attempt lasted only five months). Regardless of how Rateocracy develops, it will need to navigate the twin challenges of rater appeal and data quality. These challenges are really two sides of the same coin. Greater simplicity and appeal to raters increase the number of raters and make the data more projectable. What is gained in the simplicity of the rating scheme, however, is lost in data granularity.
CORPORATIONS IN THE RATEOCRACY AGE While there will be many unforeseen impacts from this new age of corporate reputation, there are at least nine implications that will flow from Rateocracy. These are:
1. The New Balance of Power Customers, suppliers, and employees will gain power in this new era of Rateocracy. And, relative to these groups, the corporation will lose power as it controls relatively less of its own reputation.
2. Role of Corporate Leader The CEO of the future will need to work harder to align the corporation, its employees, and stakeholders around a shared vision. It will be increasingly difficult to sweep customer service and employee morale problems under the rug. CEOs of the Rateocratic era will have nowhere to hide, so they will have to be strong communicators and even better listeners. They will have to be as transparent as the new era.
3. 24/7 Reputation Management While corporate reputation grows in strategic importance for firms, the tactical, day-to-day management of reputation will become critical. Corporations will build reputational dashboards that aggregate multiple rating sites and information flows, including customer relationship management (CRM) data. The key will be managing reputation in real time by improving the quality of interactions with the firm and intervening before unhappy stakeholders voice their concerns on rating sites. This will undoubtedly boost the size of the current reputation management industry.
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The key will be managing reputation... [which] will undoubtedly boost the size of the current reputation management industry. 4. Feedback Loop Much has been made of Peter Senge’s ideas around a “learning organization” and Henry Mintzberg’s “strategy as learning.” Life in this new age of corporate reputation will present the corporation with the tightest possible feedback loop across its entire stakeholder footprint. Some corporations will find unique ways to harness this information for competitive advantage, using their rapid learning as a core competency.
5. Employees as Leading Indicators With employees already participating in rating their employers on sites like Glassdoor.com, we can assume that these internal rating systems will only intensify and that other stakeholders will look to these internal ratings as a leading indicator of business health. Employee assessments will function as the canary in the coal mine. In fact, this is already beginning to happen. As just one example, Oracle CEO Larry Ellison had a 75% job approval from the 3,353 Oracle employees who rated his performance on Glassdoor.
6. Statistical Projectability How close will these aggregate ratings of a corporation’s reputation track with statistically representative survey data? Given limited participation in most rating sites at the moment, we can only assume that this data is not yet robust enough to match rigorously collected survey data. As participation in these sites increases, the data should begin to converge. Even then, however, survey-based stakeholder data will still be needed to track a corporation’s reputation among critical, but small, stakeholder communities and as an independent check.
7. Great Expectations Stakeholder expectations of corporate behavior will likely play a large role in the scores corporations receive. But expectations will vary by industry, region, and situation. For example, consumers have very different expectations of quick service versus formal dining restaurants, and those expectations will be factored into their ratings. Moreover, we already know
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Believe a company’s claims about themselves.
Say positive reviews make them trust a business more.
Trust online reviews as much as personal recommendations.
Trust their peers’ reviews of companies.
“A one-star increase in Yelp ratings leads to a 5–9% increase in revenue.”
R AT E O C R A C Y TURNING BIG CORPORATIONS INTO SMALL TOWN BUSINESSES References: Carlson, C. (2014). The Glassdoor Effect - Do You Know What Your Employees Say About You? Retrieved from http://blog.pipelinedeals.com/pipelinefrontpage/glassdoor-effect Howard, J. (2014). 3 Online Reputation Management Statistics You Need To Know. Retrieved from http://www.jackmyrep.com/3-online-reputation-management-statistics-you-need-to-know/
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that people in different cultures have very different standards for rating products and services. We can anticipate that aggregated, open-source corporate reputation data will reflect these cultural differences. Finally, we can expect that the macroeconomic situation as well as the track record of the company will impact its ratings.
8. Information Trends As these reputational information sets evolve and converge, corporations will need to better understand seasonal trends (e.g., retailers getting a reputational bump from consumers during back-to-school shopping, but taking a reputational hit during the Christmas rush), reputational cycles, and event-driven data spikes. For example, in the future, corporations will ask why a one-week rise in employee ratings occurred. The data will show a spike, but the cause or causes will need to be determined. Was it positive earnings news announced by the CEO, the new announcement on operations safety, the preceding threeday weekend, or a combination of all of these?
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9. Rateocracy Meets Augmented Reality At some point late in this decade, corporate reputation ratings systems and augmented reality layers will begin to merge. Layar, the Amsterdam-based creator of the world’s first mobile augmented reality browser, is already turning mobile phones into devices that enrich the visual environment of the user. When augmented reality and Rateocracy merge, corporate reputation data will be superimposed onto a company’s geographically based assets. Consumers will be able to purchase and download many different augmented reality layers that enrich the visual overlay on their smartphones. These layers will “paint” companies’ buildings based on aggregated reputation scores. For example, imagine an augmented-reality layer available on a smartphone or AR glasses like Google Glass that aggregates all Yelp restaurant rating data at the corporate and individual store level. This augmented-reality layer will flash red for a restaurant with poor reviews and an abundance of health department citations, but will flash green for a restaurant with stellar reviews. This will play out across all storefront businesses.
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Is Rateocray a game changer? There aren’t many secrets in small-town life. IS RATEOCRACY A GAME CHANGER? Some will contend that Rateocracy is an entirely new ballgame for corporations. But, in many ways, it is a very old ballgame and one that predated the large industrial societies of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. As anyone who has grown up in a small, rural town can tell you, a local business’s reputation is very well known. There aren’t many secrets in small-town life. It was only since the advent of large cities, national markets, and labor force mobility that a level of anonymity arose. Rateocracy can be viewed as a tectonic power shift toward technology-empowered stakeholders, but it can just as easily be viewed as the construction of a digital village in which a business’s reputation returns to the immediacy of small-town life. But will employees, managers and leaders feel smothered by watchful eyes in this new, digital village? Most of these contemporary concerns have revolved around the growth and impact of top-down social and workplace surveillance. Rateocracy, however, scrambles the calculus and evens the equation, introducing “coveillance” — where everyone observes and rates everyone else. On the bright side, this even playing field may chasten tyrannical bosses and quickly motivate underperforming employees.
ORGANIZATIONAL CONFORMITY Could Rateocracy severely constrain an organization’s most visionary change agents and intrapreneurs? Jack Welch, former chairman and CEO of General Electric, famously asserted that his best managers had 3 Es — energy, execution and edge. Will Rateocracy tolerate the hardcharging employees with drive and an edge? Will it discourage the most innovative employees, the ones with subversive and disruptive new ideas? Rateocracy may make us all better behaved, but will it promote too much conformity at a time when pioneer thinking is most needed?
CONCLUSION Ultimately, Rateocracy will take the trend toward transparency one quantum leap forward. And corporate transparency is a HOT topic today. © Sodexo 2015
The Harvard Business Review has recently published articles on transparency as diversely titled as “The Big Idea: Leadership in the Age of Transparency,” “Why Radical Transparency Is Good Business” and “The Transparency Trap.” Rateocracy will radically test these assumptions and leaders must prepare now by creating organizations that do what they say they will do and act quickly on customer feedback. They must also dramatically sharpen their communication skills for a world in which they are always on the firing line. n
KEY INSIGHTS & IMPLICATIONS §§ In the new era of Rateocracy, consumers will rate corporations on their behavior and have real-time mobile access to their aggregated, stakeholdergenerated reputation scores. §§ The implications of Rateocracy include: »» Customers, suppliers, and employees who are more powerful than corporations. »» CEOs who must work harder to align the corporation, its employees, and stakeholders around a shared vision. »» Increased reputation management, including reputational dashboards. »» The tightest possible feedback loops across corporations’ entire stakeholder footprints. »» Employees as leading indicators of businesses’ health. »» Statistical projectability of the aggregate ratings of a corporation’s reputation. »» Stakeholder expectations of corporate behavior playing a large role in the scores corporations receive. »» Tracking of new information trends, for instance, seasonal trends, reputational cycles, and event-driven data spikes. »» The merging of corporate reputation ratings systems and augmented reality layers.
LINKING TO SODEXO’S QUALITY OF LIFE DIMENSIONS §§ Health & Well-Being: Rateocracy is an example of a macro-level or organizational approach to understanding Quality of Life. Health & Well-Being is the most relevant dimension, as the reputation or “health” of a business is likely to be correlated with the overall health status of a community and vice versa.
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GLOBAL REWARDS AND RECOGNITION: BRIDGING CULTURE AND GENERATIONS THROUGH LOCALIZATION
Michele W. Gazica, JD, MA, PhD Candidate at the University of South Florida Researchers and industry organizations agree — employee work engagement is essential to organizational success. In fact, studies have shown that employees who are engaged at work are better, more efficient performers who are loyal to their companies, have higher levels of work motivation, innovation, and customer service, and lower levels of intent to turnover.1 These outcomes of engagement translate into better financial performance for organizations. In fact, Aon Hewitt (2013) reports that “each incremental percentage of employees who become engaged [predicts] an incremental 0.6% growth in sales.” As a practical illustration of the power of this relationship, for a $5 billion company with a gross margin of 55% and 15% operating margin, if this ‘engagement to sales growth’ relationship holds true, a 1% increase in employee engagement would be worth $20 million in incremental operating income.2
WORK ENGAGEMENT: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE According to a 2011–2012 study conducted by Gallup across 142 countries, only 13% of employees are engaged at work. Outnumbering engaged employees at a rate of nearly 2 to 1 are the actively disengaged — those who are emotionally disconnected from, and possibly hostile toward, their current employers.3 (See Figure 1) The engagement continuum on which any given employee falls profoundly affects organizational outcomes. Gallup, for example, reports that those on the high end of the engagement continuum (top 25%) demonstrate substantial differences from those at the lower end on nine key performance indicators.4 (See Figure 2)
Overall, 87% or more of the global workforce has engagement levels that leave room for improvement. One of the most effective ways to increase engagement is through recognition and rewards programs; in fact, most regions of the world rank recognition as one of the most important drivers of employee engagement.5 In addition to promoting higher engagement levels, such programs have the added benefit of yielding 21% higher retention rates, 27% higher profits, and 50% higher sales to those organizations that implement them.6 In order to be optimally effective, recognition and reward programs must be formalized and designed to consistently and fairly reinforce desired behaviors company-wide.7 When implemented on a global scale, these programs must also meet the diverse needs and preferences of a multinational, multigenerational employee base, which takes careful assessment.
THINK GLOBALLY, ACT LOCALLY: TOTAL REWARDS SOLUTIONS People across the globe differ along cultural and generational dimensions. Thus, when implementing global recognition and rewards programs, organizations that are multigenerational and multinational in nature must be mindful of how different groups of people prefer to be recognized. In fact, approximately 30% of people employed by U.S.-based multinational companies work outside of the U.S., most of whom are native to the country in which they work.8 Consequently, a “one size fits all” approach to a global recognition and rewards program is likely inappropriate to capture the needs, preferences, and expectations of such a diverse workforce.
Figure 1. Overall Engagement Among the Employed Population in 142 Countries Worldwide (Source: Gallup’s 2013 State of the Global Workforce Report)
ONY 13% ARE ENGAGED
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60% NOT ENGAGED
100% ENGAGED © Sodexo 2015
GLOBAL REWARDS AND RECOGNITION
Figure 2. Engagement’s Effect on Key Performance Indicators (Source: Gallup’s 2013 State of the Global Workforce Report)
Median differences between top and bottom quartile teams
HIGH-TURNOVER ORGS. TURNOVER
SAFETY INCIDENTS PATIENT SAFETY INCIDENTS
To increase the chances that a company’s global recognition and rewards program will enhance its motivational value to the local workforce, the following suggestions should be kept in mind:
1) Implement Uniform, Company-Wide Recognition and Reward Strategies Corporate recognition and rewards programs should be consistent across the entire company. Furthermore, policies should discourage distributing recognition, incentives, and other rewards without pairing them with clear, consistent sets of behavioral contingencies; otherwise, a well-intentioned program may inadvertently reduce the potential to achieve desired outcomes and result in decreased employee engagement. Instead, recognition and rewards should be tailored to drive desired behavior and contingent upon the successful execution of specific behaviors. However, the ways in which people are rewarded and recognized for their successful execution of those behaviors should be customized to capture local and individual preferences.
2) Know Your Employees Cultural considerations. There is a strong relationship between engagement and recognition across cultures.9 To leverage the strength of that relationship, organizations must be mindful of the cultural norms, traditions, and © Sodexo 2015
superstitions in which they are geographically situated. For example, rewards that are common in North America, such as watches and clocks, are taboo in other regions, such as Asia.10 Even good-intentioned, but ill-informed, recognition programs can have long-lasting negative repercussions in terms of employee engagement and morale. For example, a U.S. company located in Hong Kong wished to reward its Singapore employees with a red envelope containing money — an Asian tradition to mark a happy occasion. Unfortunately, the company chose to stuff the envelopes with an amount that was equivalent to four Singapore dollars, a number that connotes death in many Asian cultures. Thereafter, employee morale, motivation, and engagement were permanently damaged.11 As the foregoing example illustrates, understanding the culture in which a recognition and rewards program will be implemented cannot be overemphasized. However, two warnings must be heeded. First, avoid making assumptions regarding the homogeneity of any given region, no matter
Approximately 30% of people employed by U.S.-based multinational companies work outside of the U.S. Published by Innovations 2 Solutions | 29
business accessories, and high-quality pens, while the older, less affluent workers prefer more practical products, such as appliances and filtration systems.13 (See Figure 3)
Figure 3. Differences in Recognition and Reward Preferences
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Generational considerations. Group differences can give us broad stroke insights into each generation’s workplace preferences and expectations. For example, baby boomers tend to prefer rewards in the form of appreciation, promotion, and recognition delivered with a personal touch, while the Millennials tend to prefer tangible rewards delivered through a variety of technological channels. Below is a summary of how each of four generations prefers to be rewarded and recognized in the workplace.14 (See Table 1) Most of the work on the foregoing generational differences was conducted within Western-dominated cultures; however, generational differences have been observed in other regions as well. For example, in China, older workers are more traditional than the younger generation, preferring team-based rewards, while the younger generation, inspired by Western cultures, is motivated by more individualized rewards.15
how small. For example, Europe is relatively small as compared to other regions, but is an amalgamation of nations with varying cultural norms and preferences. Employees in France tend to prefer higher-end, luxury items, while those in Germany tend to prefer goods in the media and household categories.12 Second, avoid assumptions based on stereotypes. Bear in mind that there is more variation within cultures than across. For example, in China, reward preferences depend on where one is situated economically, generationally, and geographically. The younger, more affluent Chinese workers prefer gourmet foods, leather
3) Know Your Surroundings Each country has its own set of laws and regulations that may affect employee compensation. For example, a country might have legislation that prohibits or devalues certain employee incentives. As a practical matter, multinational organizations should be aware of these local challenges to ensure that all of their employees, wherever situated, reap the benefits of their global recognition and rewards program. Working with a multinational/global provider with operations around the globe — versus a reward “aggregator/reseller” — can help companies avoid these pitfalls.
Table 1. Generational Preferences World War II (Before 1946)
Recognition and rewards preferences
Communication preferences for recognition delivery
Tangible symbols of loyalty, commitment and service, including plaques and certificates. Flexible work hours, temporary work, hourly shifts if close to retirement. Memos, letters, personal notes, individual interactions.
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Baby Boomers (1946–1964) Personal appreciation, promotion, recognition. Help with retirement planning, sabbaticals, training on technology.
Phone calls, personal interactions, faceto-face, structured networking.
Generation X (1965–1980) Free time, opportunities for development, upgraded resources, certifications to add to resume. Skill development, flex-work schedules, fun activities. E-mail, voicemail, casual, direct and immediate.
Millennials (1980–2000) Awards, certificates, tangible evidence of credibility. Immediate concrete and tangible awards, similar to those desired by Gen X.
Instant/text messages, e-mail, collaborative/ team interactions.
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GLOBAL REWARDS AND RECOGNITION
ASSESSMENT OF BEST PRACTICES FOR EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF GLOBAL EMPLOYEE RECOGNITION AND REWARDS PROGRAMS The checklist below can help managers assess their use of the key strategies known to drive the performance and sustainability of global recognition and rewards programs. The more practices selected, the more likely it is your organization will be effective in implementing its global recognition and rewards programs. üü Our program has clear goals and objectives, and is consistent across the company. üü Our programs consider the laws and regulations of each country in which they are offered. üü We have partnered with an organization that understands the local customs in each country. üü We tailor the way in which we recognize and reward our employees based on individual, cultural, and generational preferences. üü We employ a variety of recognition and rewards, both monetary and non-monetary, to engage our workforce. üü We train our employees to be effective cross-cultural communicators. üü We leverage technology to meet our program goals and objectives.
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4) Achieve the Right Balance It is important to achieve the right balance between monetary and non-monetary rewards, which varies by culture and generation. A range of rewards — monetary rewards, experiences, and non-monetary recognition tools — is ideal to satisfy today’s diverse workforce. An effective global recognition and rewards program also should have a catalog of product choices that vary from country to country, reflecting respective cultural norms and generational preferences. Non-monetary recognition and rewards, such as thankyou cards, are low to no-cost and are an effective way to motivate employees on a daily basis. It is important to note, however, that these items should be tracked in the same
“Research has shown that bestin-class organizations, or those with the highest levels of customer retention and top-line growth, use non-cash rewards and recognition at a greater rate than average or laggard organizations.” ~Melissa Van Dyke, President, The Incentive Research Foundation Published by Innovations 2 Solutions | 31
S I X S T R AT E G I E S F O R A N EFFEC TIVE GLOBAL RECOGNITION AND RE WARDS PROGR AM
IMPLEMENT THE RIGHT TECHNOLOGY
IMPLEMENT UNIFORM, COMPANY-WIDE RECOGNITION & REWARD STRATEGIES
RECOGNITION AND REWARD PROGRAMS YIELD:
05 COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY & CROSS-CULTURALLY
KNOW YOUR EMPLOYEES
02 HIGHER RETENTION
HIGHER CUSTOMER LOYALTY
03 KNOW YOUR SURROUNDINGS
ACHIEVE THE RIGHT BALANCE
GLOBAL REWARDS AND RECOGNITION
“If organizations worldwide could find a way to double the number of engaged employees, it would dramatically improve their balance sheets and change the world’s entire economic trajectory.”16 way as more costly rewards in order to understand the VOI (Value on Investment) and ROI (Return on Investment) of their usage. In addition, in spite of their low cost, care should be taken to ensure that these items reflect company values and incorporate branding that ties to the larger recognition and rewards program. Such customization reinforces an organization’s culture of recognition and conveys to employees that care has been taken with all aspects of the program.
5) Communicate Effectively & Cross-Culturally Informed cross-cultural communication, both verbal and nonverbal, ensures that employees, wherever situated, will interpret messages of recognition as they were intended. Differences in and misunderstandings of customs, behaviors, and values can result in problems between persons of different cultures and adversely affect employee engagement – and ultimately, a company’s bottom line. Such cultural differences and misunderstandings can be managed through effective cross-cultural communication. Globalized, multilingual technology can also facilitate appropriate communication by translating recognition and rewards programs, so they maintain their effectiveness company-wide.
6) Implement the Right Technology Technology should be used to implement the company’s global recognition and rewards program consistently and fairly across all sites, regardless of location. For example, implementing an online recognition and rewards platform has the capability to ensure consistent and fair company-wide administration, promote a global culture of recognition and rewards, and allow for easy tailoring of the program to local specifications, such as the identification of locally available, culturally appropriate rewards and cost of living and language differentials. Technology can even adjust the purchasing power of a reward based on real-time currency rate fluctuations and update amounts online, which allows programs to be fair, consistent, and cost-effective for companies.
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CONCLUSION Recognizing and rewarding people in the way they wish is a fundamental prerequisite to increasing employee engagement, which can be particularly challenging for multinational organizations. To successfully implement a global recognition and rewards program, organizations must be mindful of the ways in which their workforce may differ culturally, generationally, and individually. For their efforts, multinational organizations will not only reap the extraordinary financial benefits of an engaged workforce, but also show their employees that their company cares about them and their preferences. n
KEY INSIGHTS & IMPLICATIONS §§ Reward and recognition programs increase engagement and have been shown to yield 21% higher retention rates, 27% higher profits, and 50% higher sales. §§ To ensure the success of a global recognition and rewards program, the following suggestions should be kept in mind: 1. Implement uniform, company-wide recognition and reward strategies. 2. Know your employees – be aware of cultural and generational considerations. 3. Know your surroundings – understand the laws and regulations in each country. 4. Achieve the right balance between monetary and non-monetary awards. 5. Communicate effectively and cross-culturally to convey messages of recognition. 6. Implement the right technology to ensure consistent company-wide administration and allow for easy tailoring of the program to local specifications.
LINKING TO SODEXO’S QUALITY OF LIFE DIMENSIONS §§ Recognition: Rewards and recognition programs that are effective must be tailored to the unique demographic and psychographic characteristics of an employee population — especially when the population is geographically dispersed.
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REDEFINING THE FAMILYFRIENDLY WORKPLACE
Michele W. Gazica, JD, MA, PhD Candidate at the University of South Florida Over the past several decades, the composition of the workforce has changed dramatically. The traditional conceptualization of the male breadwinner and the female caretaker is largely a thing of the past. Now, couples are increasingly dual-career, and single parents with children continue to seek outside employment at high rates.1 Consequently, both mothers and fathers likely have substantial responsibilities at both work and home. In response, organizations are implementing “familyfriendly” provisions to help their more diverse workforce better manage their work and family responsibilities and reduce work-family conflict.2 While these family-friendly provisions are ostensibly designed to reduce conflict between work and family demands, the evidence to support this contention is equivocal at best. Instead, the evidence suggests that family-friendly provisions are more likely to improve organization-focused outcomes, such as recruitment and job attitudes. The reduction of work-family conflict, which occurs when demands of one domain interfere with successful performance in the other, has been shown to reduce job strain, absenteeism, adverse physical and psychological symptoms, such as sleep disturbances and depression, and increase family satisfaction.2 As such, organizations that implement family-friendly provisions that effectively reduce work-family conflict will reap benefits in the form of improved worker productivity and health. This piece will first briefly address the current state of the science on formal and informal family-friendly provisions, including their utility and effectiveness, and then conclude with recommendations to better align family-friendly benefits with employee work and non-work needs. (See Figure 1)
Work-family conflict occurs when demands of one domain interfere with successful performance in the other Flexible work arrangements. Flexible work arrangements are defined as “alternative work options that allow work to be accomplished outside of the traditional temporal and/or spatial boundaries of a standard workday.”4 There is a number of such organization-sanctioned provisions, including flextime, flexplace, part-time work, job sharing, compressed work weeks, telecommuting, and parental leave (See Sidebar on page 35 for definitions). Flexible work arrangements have been associated with increased revenues, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and schedule satisfaction5,6 and decreased absenteeism.5 Evidence that FWAs decrease work-family conflict, however, has been mixed.7 Allen et al. (2013) found
Figure 1. Family-Friendly Provisions
FLEXIBLE WORK ARRANGEMENTS
There are two categories of formal family-friendly provisions: dependent care and flexible work arrangements. Dependent care. Organizations can help their employees provide care to their dependents during work hours by creating pre-tax spending accounts and by providing on-site care services or information on available and reputable dependent care facilities offsite. There is a dearth of empirical research on the effects of dependent care on work-family conflict. Nevertheless, one meta-analysis suggests that dependent care availability and satisfaction had a negative effect, albeit a small one, on work-family conflict.3
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FAMILYSUPPORTIVE SUPERVISOR BEHAVIORS
INFORMAL PROVISIONS © Sodexo 2015
that flexible work arrangements’ effects on work-family conflict were generally small, with effect sizes depending on the target flexible work arrangement and the direction of the conflict (i.e., work-to-family or family-to-work). For example, overall flexibility significantly reduced work interfering with family, but did not have a significant effect on family interfering with work. Finally, Byron (2005) found that some employee populations may benefit more from flexible work arrangements than others, such as those with greater parental responsibilities.8 Perhaps this outcome is a result of inconsistent implementation of flexible work arrangements by supervisors. Implementation should not discriminate based upon demographics, but rather facilitate reconciliation of work with non-work demands, which are not limited to dependent care responsibilities.9
HELPFUL DEFINITIONS (source: NSE 2012 Report)
Flex Time and Place: Includes various forms of flexibility that affect when and/or where employees do their job, such as flex time, telecommuting and compressed workweeks. Choices in Managing Time: Reflects the degree to which employees can exercise some choice about when they work—from scheduling hours and overtime to deciding when to take breaks—and about how their time at work is spent. Reduced Time: Includes options such as access to parttime or part-year schedules. Caregiving Leaves: Whether the organization offers leaves for birth, adoption or caregiving to ill family members and whether any of this leave is paid. Time Off: Includes policies and practices that apply when employees take time away from work, including scheduled absences (such as vacations and time for training) as well as formal policies for taking sick days and planned sabbaticals. It also includes informal access to time off for unanticipated or unplanned events. Flex Career: Refers to flexibility over the course of an employee’s career or working life, including provisions that enable employees to enter, exit and re-enter the workforce and to increase and decrease their workload or pace. Culture of Flexibility: Reflects whether supervisors are knowledgeable about flexible practices and promote and communicate them effectively.
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INFORMAL PROVISIONS The mere availability of formal family-friendly provisions alone cannot change underlying organizational norms and values that may subvert employee efforts to make use of those benefits. In other words, formal familyfriendly provisions may not achieve their intended effects if employees perceive that their work environment is intolerant of their efforts to better balance their work and family demands. Indeed, Thompson et al. (1999) found that those who perceive less family support from their work environment are less likely to use family-friendly benefits.15 To facilitate these efforts, an organization’s norms and values must reflect the appropriate interaction between work and family life through family-supportive supervisor behaviors and a positive work-family culture.10 Family-supportive supervisor behaviors. Informal family-friendly benefits can supplement, reinforce, or even serve in the place of formal benefits. One such informal benefit is family-supportive supervisors, without which use of such formal family-family provisions may be elusive or unsuccessful.9 A family-supportive supervisor offers emotional and instrumental support to employees, role models family-friendly behaviors, and has the ability to strategically schedule to accommodate an employee’s workfamily needs.13 Each dimension has been empirically linked to less work interfering with family. Family supportive supervision has been associated with less work-family conflict, positive job attitudes, less intent to leave the organization, and better physical and mental well-being.10,11,12 In light of the less than promising results regarding the effectiveness of flexible work arrangements in reducing work-family conflict, some researchers suggest that organizational practices that focus on organization support may be more successful in reducing work-family conflict. For example, Kossek et al. (2011) found that perceived work-family supervisor and organizational support played a central role in the reduction of work-family conflict, demonstrating effect sizes twice the size of those found for flexible work arrangements.14 Fortunately, supervisors can be trained to exhibit behaviors that are family-supportive. Hammer et al. (2011) implemented a NIOSH-funded family supportive supervisor training intervention.13 This field experiment included 12 grocery stores, 6 of which received the training intervention. Survey data from 274 employees and 76 supervisors were collected pre- and post-training. Hammer et al. (2011) found that employees who had family-supportive supervisors self-reported lower levels of work-family conflict and intent to turnover, higher levels of job satisfaction and physical
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well-being, and improved safety. The authors concluded that supervisors are of critical importance to the development of a family-friendly work environment, which is especially important when formal family-friendly benefits are difficult or too costly to implement. It is important to note that family-supportive supervisor behaviors appear to be especially helpful to those with higher levels of family interfering with work.14 In fact, there is some evidence of a possible family-friendly backlash. For example, Kossek et al. (2011) found that those with low family-to-work conflict may have resented that company resources and attention were being allocated to work-family support that they were not likely to need. Work-family culture. Organizational cultures guide employees toward appropriate and valued work-related behaviors. A work-family culture informs employees of the extent to which the organization values workfamily integration and is specifically defined as “shared assumptions, beliefs, and values regarding the extent to which an organization supports and values the integration of employees’ work and family lives.”14 Work-family culture consists of three fundamental dimensions: 1) time demands or expectations about how an employee should prioritize work and family demands; 2) career consequences for making use of available family-friendly benefits and devoting time to family responsibilities; and 3) managerial sensitivity to and support for employees’ family needs.15 (See Figure 2). When an organization’s work-family culture is poor, employees that take advantage of formal family-friendly provisions may face negative judgments from those that they work with and suffer career penalties. Such negative repercussions for making use of family-friendly provisions would certainly subvert the intended purposes for implementing formal benefits. On the other hand, supportive work-family cultures generate norms that respect employees’ personal time, encourage use of family-friendly provisions, and ensure that supervisors are sensitive to family needs.15 Evidence suggests that when an organization’s work-family culture is not supportive, use of formal family-friendly provisions does not have as strong of an impact on an employee’s work-family conflict and other health and workrelated outcomes as when the culture is supportive.10,15 On the other hand, employees who report a positive workfamily culture also report less work-family conflict and intent to leave the organization and higher levels of job, family, and life satisfaction than those with a less positive work-family culture.
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Overall then, organizations need to consider both formal and informal family-friendly provisions. Informal means of work-family support explain a greater share of the variance in work-family conflict than do formal benefits.16,17
FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES Making Use of Available Family-Friendly Benefits The foregoing discussion reveals a trend: written familyfriendly provisions are not enough to affect change in workrelated outcomes or levels of work-family conflict. In fact, evidence suggests that only a small fraction of employees make use of available family-friendly provisions.15 Use is heavily influenced by the environment in which employees work.9 If employees perceive that their use of available familyfriendly provisions will result in negative repercussions, then
Figure 2. Three Dimensions of Work-Family Culture
Time demands or expectations about how an employee should priortize work and family demands
Managerial sensitivity to and support for employees’ family needs
Career consequences for making use of available family-friendly benefits and devoting time to family responsibilities
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they are not likely to do so. As a result, adoption of familyfriendly benefits will fail to generate the outcomes for which they were designed to achieve. To concurrently promote a positive work-family culture and use of available family-friendly benefits, Ryan and Kossek (2008) recommend the following: 1. Train supervisors to explicitly support policy use and implement use criteria consistently across individuals and groups of employees. Access to and use of familyfriendly provisions should not be contingent upon meeting a certain demographic, employment status, or geographical location. 2. Write policies that are universally available across levels, jobs, and locations. If any given policy is inappropriate for a particular job category, design a similarly effective alternative. For example, flexplace may be appropriate for employees within corporate offices but inappropriate for frontline employees. However, job sharing or cross-training might be effective avenues by which frontline employees can better manage their work and non-work demands. 3. Decrease the degree to which employees must negotiate with their supervisors before making use of an available policy. Delineating written criteria for policy use is one way to do so. 4. Clearly communicate policy availability and use criteria across levels, jobs, and locations. Use of available provisions might also depend on the specific needs of an organization’s employees. For example, employees often report that the family-friendly benefits made available by their employers are disconnected from their actual needs.18 In other words, a one-size-fits-all boiler plate family-friendly program may fail to meet the specific needs of any given employee base and, therefore, fail to achieve desired results, such as increases in productivity, recruitment, or work-family balance. To increase the utility of a family-friendly program, organizations should tailor their family-friendly initiatives as follows: §§ Assess current employee work-family needs and their family-friendly benefit preferences. §§ Evaluate the costs and benefits of implementing the identified benefits. Be careful to consider how costs might be mitigated by improvements in work-family balance, productivity, recruitment, absenteeism, and employee health as a direct result of a family-friendly program. §§ Evaluate the suitability of each identified benefit to target jobs.
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§§ Assess the organization’s work-family culture to determine readiness for program implementation. §§ Based on the foregoing analysis, identify the benefits to be adopted then implemented. §§ Implement change-driven research (optional but recommended). This step requires an intervention study whereby initiatives are implemented and effects are measured pre- and post- intervention to determine whether the desired outcomes of the program are being achieved.
Avoiding the Family-Friendly Backlash As discussed, Kossek et al. (2011) unexpectedly found that some employees resented allocation of company resources to accommodate family-specific needs that they did not have. To avoid a family-friendly backlash, Ryan and Kossek (2008) suggest creating an inclusive workplace in which all employee needs are recognized, valued, and supported, regardless of their marital, parental, or employment status.9 Emphasizing worklife rather than work-family balance is one way to do so. There are countless non-work responsibilities that are not necessarily connected to being married or having children, some of which include meeting personal appointments, running errands, and exercising. Individuals vary in their needs, preferences, and values with regard to managing work and non-work roles and recognizing this variability will affect employee perceptions. Crafting policies that allow employees the opportunity to address life demands without conflict with work would increase inclusion perceptions and decrease the chances of unintended consequences, such as a family-friendly backlash.
Making the Human Case for Family-Friendly Workplaces The business case for implementing a family-friendly program is well documented. Kelly et al. (2008) reported that family-friendly provisions are often implemented to increase the available applicant pool from which organizations can select top employees, to increase revenue through increased productivity and employee effort and reduced costs in the form of reduced turnover and absenteeism.19 The business case for the implementation of work-family initiatives often overshadows the human-case. Case in point, a 2014 national study on employers indicated that 35% implemented worklife initiatives to retain employees in general, while only 19% did so to help employees manage work and family life and 11% did so because it was the right thing to do.20 (See Figure 3) These results are rather surprising, given that familyfriendly initiatives are presumptively implemented to help employees achieve a better balance between work and family
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demands. It is unlikely that economic gains will occur if employees do not believe that the work environment or their supervisors are open to their use of the benefits. Work-family initiatives are more likely to be effective when employees believe that the organization is truly supportive of their needs to balance work and family obligations.
Figure 3. Why Employers Implement Work-Life Initiatives
To retain employees Help employees manage work and family life
CONCLUSION Family-friendly workplaces help their employees balance their work and family lives. Organizations have a number of family-friendly policies at their disposal. Provision availability and ease of use concurrently bolster employee perceptions that their organizations and supervisors value life outside of work and strengthen the organization’s work-family culture. Family-friendly workplaces tend to have employees who report higher levels of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and productivity, better health, and lower levels of absenteeism and intent to leave. The extent to which family-friendly provisions are effective at reducing work-family conflict, however, depends largely on the specific work-family policy and the direction of the conflict (i.e., workto-family or family-to-work). In fact, many employees report a disconnect between the policies available to them and their specific work-family needs. To be effective at reducing workfamily conflict going forward, organizations should:
Right thing to do
KEY INSIGHTS & IMPLICATIONS §§ Organizations are increasingly implementing “family-friendly” provisions to help their employees better manage their work and family responsibilities. §§ Employees in family-friendly workplaces report higher levels of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, productivity, better health, and lower levels of absenteeism and intent to leave. §§ Formal family-friendly provisions include: »» Dependent care – on-site or off-site care services
Focus on informal work-life support mechanisms to boost their work-family culture and increase ease of use of available policies.
»» Flexible work arrangements – flextime, flexplace, part-time work, job sharing, compressed work weeks, telecommuting, and parental leave §§ Informal family-friendly provisions include:
Create an all-inclusive workplace that recognizes and values the variability in employee needs, preferences and values with regard to managing work and non-work roles.
»» Family-supportive supervisor behaviors – emotional and instrumental support, role modeling family-friendly behaviors, and accommodating an employee’s work-family needs »» Work-family culture – shared assumptions, beliefs, and values regarding the extent to which an organization supports and values the integration of employees’ work and family lives
Tailor available non-work-friendly policies to meet the specific needs of employees. n
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LINKING TO SODEXO’S QUALITY OF LIFE DIMENSIONS §§ Ease & Efficiency: Workplaces that embrace family-friendly provisions make it easier for employees to balance their work and family responsibilities, which reduces work-family conflict.
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MINDFULNESS AT WORK
MINDFULNESS AT WORK:
ADDRESSING MEDICAL COSTS, ABSENTEEISM, AND WORKPLACE PRODUCTIVITY
Kelley McCabe Ruff, MBA; CEO & Founder, eMindful Inc. Dr. Ruth Wolever, PhD; Chief Scientific Advisor, eMindful Inc., Director of Research, Duke Integrative Medicine, and Associate Professor, Dept. of Psychiatry & Behavioral Science, Duke University School of Medicine OVERVIEW Several decades of scientific research have confirmed that highly stressed employees are subject to considerably greater health risks,1,2 productivity losses3 and medical costs3,4 than those with normal stress levels. The latter can be seen in a peer-reviewed analysis of 12 months of claims data from a large sample of employees from a major insurance company. Compared to employees whose self-reported stress levels fell in the lowest quintile, covered medical claims of the most highly stressed employees (top quintile) was almost $2,000 greater.4 Not only is elevated stress a common and expensive part of corporate life, but it contributes to chronic disease through biological and behavioral pathways. In other words, stress affects human biology in ways that negatively impact the immune and metabolic systems. In addition, under high levels of stress, people tend to behave in less healthy ways. Worse still, these behavior patterns are the reason for the dramatic increase in chronic disease.
THE CHALLENGE Chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and musculoskeletal pain are on the rise in the U.S. across all demographic groups. Of note:
Highly stressed employees are subject to considerably greater health risks, productivity losses and medical costs than those with normal stress levels. Employers everywhere are looking for new solutions to the challenge of keeping their employees healthy, present on the job, and productive. So are health insurers, benefit brokers, and third-party administrators, all of whom recognize that surviving and thriving in their markets will require innovative, valueadded solutions to the growing cost and productivity crises.
MINDFULNESS: ONE SOLUTION But all crises have solutions. And mindfulness promises one such solution. Researchers Marlatt and Kristeller define mindfulness as “simply bringing one’s complete attention to their present experience on a moment-to-moment basis.”7 More than 2,000 research studies on mindfulness have been conducted in the last three decades demonstrating:
REDUCED STRESS LEVELS10
§§ The total annual cost in the U.S. of cardiovascular disease and stroke is estimated to be more than $312 billion;5 §§ The total cost in the U.S. in 2012 associated with diagnosed diabetes was $245 billion. The average annual cost of care for a patient with diabetes is $13,700 — of which $7,900 is attributed specifically to the treatment of diabetes itself;6 and §§ A major risk factor for all of these conditions is overweight and obesity (body mass index greater than 30 kg/m2). The prevalence of overweight and obese adults (over the age of 20) in the U.S. is 68.2%, and of obesity alone is nearly 35%.5
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IMPROVED IMMUNOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING 8,9
ENHANCED BRAIN FUNCTION12
IMPROVED GLYCEMIC CONTROL IN DIABETES14
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Figure 1. Mindfulness: One Solution IMPROVED PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS
MINDFULNESS COST SELF-HEALING RESPONSES
These and other benefits shown in the research literature have many corporations scrambling to offer high-quality programs incorporating mindfulness instruction and practice. Increasingly, mindfulness instruction and practice is also being offered in secondary schools, colleges, and business schools including New York University Stern School of Business and Harvard Business School. The reason for employers’ interest in mindfulness practices is clear: in addition to myriad health and well-being benefits, there is also a direct impact on healthcare costs4 and productivity. Increased employee productivity, and lower costs, enhances competitive advantage. Aetna Inc. has been a leader in demonstrating the value of health-related mindfulness programs. In 2009, Aetna began this journey strategically by first assessing the effectiveness of two mindfulness-based programs of interest through scientifically rigorous randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Two different trials, described in more detail below, evaluated distinct programs: a mindfulness-based stress reduction program called Mindfulness at Work® and a program for reversing metabolic syndrome called Metabolic Health in Small Bytes. Confident from the results of the trials, Aetna then offered these programs to their own 48,000 employees. They subsequently offered the programs to their middle market and national clients.
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Other large companies are similarly finding benefits with mindfulness-based programs. Florida Power and Light offers two different mindfulness programs. Kaiser Permanente also offers mindfulness programs. The State of Arizona, including administrators, child protective services, and the department of transportation, has been offering mindfulness-based programs to its 65,000 employees for several years. The data is rapidly accumulating, and the methodology of the studies is strong.
AETNA PARTNERS WITH eMINDFUL eMindful Inc. delivers live, online mindfulness-based programs that target the roots of chronic conditions that undermine health and productivity. The programs are delivered through a virtual classroom and are evidence-based. Aetna selected eMindful as one of its partners for providing two different mindfulness-based programs and rigorously evaluating them through two randomized controlled trials (RCT): one conducted in 2010 and the other conducted from 2011-2013. The purpose of the 2010 RCT was to evaluate the viability and effectiveness of two workplace stress reduction programs designed to be evidence-based, scalable, reproducible, and highly accessible to employees across the globe: a mindfulness-based stress management intervention and a therapeutic yoga-based stress reduction program.10 © Sodexo 2015
MINDFULNESS AT WORK
STRESS REDUCTION: MINDFULNESS AT WORK® PROGRAM The Mindfulness at Work® (MAW) Program was developed by Elisha Goldstein, PhD, a renowned expert in mindfulness and its application for stress in the workplace, and Michael Baime, MD, Director of the Penn Program for Mindfulness. The 12-week program meets once per week for 55 minutes. There is also an optional 2-hour retreat available to all participants midway through the program. The study was the result of collaboration between a number of partners, and was published in the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology.10 Ruth Wolever, PhD, Director of Research at Duke Integrative Medicine and Principle Investigator of © Sodexo 2015
Compared to the control group, both the mindfulness and yoga interventions showed significant improvements on perceived stress, sleep quality, current pain, and the heart rhythm coherence ratio of heart rate variability10 — a biological measure of how well the autonomic nervous system processes stress. The Mindfulness at Work program reduced participants’ self-reported stress levels by 36 percent. Sleep disturbances fell by 29 percent and reported pain levels declined by 34 percent. Heart rhythm coherence also improved significantly, showing that not only were participants’ perceptions of stress, sleep, and pain improved, but their biology confirmed these shifts. Results for the mindfulness intervention are shown in Figure 2 below. Figure 2. Improvements Resulting From Mindfulness at Work Intervention
HEART RHYTHM COHERENCE
Both studies utilized rigorous scientific designs and collected data using validated instruments and carefully constructed protocols to evaluate the impact of the programs. The programs themselves offer innovative ways to manage stress and shift unhealthy lifestyle behavior patterns that contribute to obesity and the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome.
eMindful’s scalable delivery platform, allowing employees across the world to participate in real-time “webinar-style” programs, as well as eMindful’s ability to deliver appliedmindfulness programs in a timeframe (generally 55 minutes) that is conducive to the workplace, were important to both studies. Participants in eMindful’s programs are presented with both didactic and experiential learning opportunities and are provided practice assignments each week. The virtual classroom setting allows for real-time, bidirectional communication between instructor and students, with provisions for complete student anonymity.
the study, designed the RCT that included 239 employees who were randomly assigned to one of four groups: a control group, a therapeutic yoga program, a Mindfulness at Work program delivered “in person” in a conventional on-site classroom, and a Mindfulness at Work program delivered in eMindful’s live, “webinar-style” virtual classroom.
The 2011-2013 RCT addressed the feasibility of implementing a mindfulness-based behavior change intervention delivered in the virtual classroom as a worksite intervention for employees with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of disorders that includes central obesity (elevated waist circumference), hypertension, elevated glucose levels reflecting insulin resistance, low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and high triglycerides.16 There are several similar (but not identical) definitions currently in use, but all agree that metabolic syndrome is a constellation of abnormalities associated with increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.16,17 These diseases are associated with significant costs to society, both in terms of human suffering (excess morbidity and mortality) and financial burden (medical and employer costs).16,17
Moreover, the findings for participants taking the course in eMindful’s online classroom were equivalent to the findings of those taking the program through conventional on-site classes. Furthermore, those taking the online program had a superior retention rate in the study; 96 percent of the eMindful participants completed the study, compared to 73 percent of those who took the program through the traditional on-site classroom.10
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ONGOING RESULTS FOR MINDFULNESS AT WORK®:
Figure 3. Minfulness Solutions Result in Increased Productivity
Perceived Stress Scale18
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index19
eMindful continues to collect pre- and post-data on program participants. The findings on thousands of participants reflect the results of the RCT — and the improvement in stress has remained a consistent 36–37%. In addition to reporting on their perceptions of stress and sleep difficulties, participants also report on the degree to which they encounter a number of obstacles to productivity at work. This last construct is measured using a validated instrument called the Work Limitations Questionnaire that allows participants to estimate the amount of time they are not productive at work on a weekly basis. The Mindfulness at Work program consistently results in about an hour per week improvement in productivity — which equates to approximately 6 additional workdays per year.
Work Limitations Questionnaire20
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6 ONE HOUR/WEEK
ADDITIONAL WORK DAYS PER YEAR
mindfulness-based approach that also includes nutrition and exercise content to reduce weight and/or reverse risk factors defining metabolic syndrome. The Metabolic Health in Small Bytes Program is a 10-week, 20-session class that provides a variety of techniques and strategies to become mindful of eating and physical activity habits. It also provides participants with numerous avenues and skills for changing engrained patterns of behavior and perceptual habits. To evaluate the effectiveness of the program, 569 employees from the healthcare benefits company were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a control group, a comparative online program where participants worked through a self-paced intervention, and the Metabolic Health in Small Bytes program. Eighteen months after enrollment, 433 participants remained in the trial, allowing for ongoing analysis from claims data. While the final analyses are not yet completed, a subset of the analysis can be shared on the Metabolic Health in Small Bytes program alone.
THE RESULTS 5.3
22.1% Better Sleep
Preliminary data analysis conducted by the healthcare company’s internal analytics group on a subset of the sample demonstrated a 53% reversal of metabolic syndrome. Additional results from this study will be made available as analysis is completed.
46.9% Higher Productivity
METABOLIC HEALTH IN SMALL BYTES The Metabolic Health in Small Bytes course was developed by Ruth Wolever, PhD who led a team of clinicians from Duke Diet and Fitness Center and Duke Integrative Medicine to augment and adapt lessons from her NIH-funded research on mindful eating, utilizing decades of successful clinical treatment. The program incorporates a cognitive-behavioral
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ONGOING RESULTS Just as with its other programs, eMindful continues to collect pre- and post-course data to track the effectiveness of its programs. In addition to reporting on their stress, sleep difficulties, and work productivity, participants also report on their exercise patterns, and metabolic indicators. Some companies even provide mechanisms for employees to obtain biometric data if desired. The Small Bytes program continues to result in significant rates of reversal of metabolic syndrome and employees report high levels of satisfaction with the program.
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MINDFULNESS AT WORK
Number of Participants with Metabolic Syndrome
Healthier Weight Number who completed at least 20 minutes of each type of physical activity per week
Aerobics: 111 Strength: 65 Stretching: 88
Aerobics: 138 Strength: 90 Stretching: 117
Aerobics: 27 Strength: 25 Stretching: 29
Aerobics: 24% Strength: 38% Stretching: 33% Better Physical Fitness
Perceived Stress Scale18
19.4% Less Stress
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index19
10.2% Better Sleep
Work Limitations Questionnaire20
30.5% Higher Productivity
FINAL NOTE “The positive results seen in these studies offer evidence that mind-body approaches to health improvement are an effective and targeted solution for employers who want to lower the costs associated with stress and help their employees achieve better overall health. Furthermore, the studies showed that online classes and in-person delivery showed equivalent results, and both had high engagement rates among participants. This finding is particularly important as it will enable the program to be offered to customers with employees in multiple locations and among different organizational levels.” Kyra Bobinet, MD, MPH President, Senior Care Solutions, Aetna Medical Director of Health & Wellness Innovation, Aetna n
KEY INSIGHTS & IMPLICATIONS §§ Highly stressed employees are subject to considerably greater health risks, productivity losses and medical costs than those with normal stress levels. Mindfulness promises one solution. §§ Aetna and eMindful recently implemented and assessed two different mindfulness-based programs: Mindfulness at Work® and Metabolic Health in Small Bytes. §§ The results of both studies indicate that mindfulness programs can decrease stress and pain, and improve sleep, productivity, and physical fitness. §§ Mind-body approaches to health improvement are an effective and targeted solution for employers who want to lower the costs associated with stress and help their employees achieve better overall health.
LINKING TO SODEXO’S QUALITY OF LIFE DIMENSIONS §§ Health & Well-Being: Mindfulness can improve mental as well as physical well-being, ultimately leading to better overall health status. §§ Personal Growth: Mindfulness training can help individuals improve their self-awareness and personal insight, which in turn allows them to achieve growth in any area they wish to improve.
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WHOLE BRAIN THINKING: SKILL SETS FOR OUR NEW CONCEPTUAL AGE
Thomas Stat, Innovation Strategist, Founder, Partner at Eleven Consulting Group Why are start-up companies able to do what many more established companies struggle to achieve? Why do some people seem more creative than others? What do play, failure and refrigerator doors devoid of middle school art have in common? The answers to these questions rest in a deeper understanding of a few core human competencies that we seldom teach, rarely exercise and are only beginning to fully understand. In the new connected world, we are drowning in seas of unactionable data and grasping for meaning. Big data holds the promise to provide new levels of understanding and generate fresh insights into past and current behaviors. But, in our search for new inspiration, how can the sheer volume of data provide insights into the future and stimulate the imagination that powers what’s truly next? The answer lies in how we process the world and what we do with that data. But it is also about a few fundamental and very human skills that are emerging as the new currency for revolutionary innovation and transformational growth. The exponential growth of the past few decades has had its own inflection points — “step changes” or revolutions that shatter the prevailing paradigms and profoundly alter the game. Ultimately, incremental and evolutionary growth has given way to massive disruption created by new-to-the-world offerings and the transfiguration of entirely new markets. But why and how have these game changers happened? Contrary to popular belief, the kind of revolutionary changes that are the foundation of revolutions — that take us from new to next — are rarely the brainchild of the lone genius, seldom the result of a divine epiphany and hardly the consequence of being hit by lightning. Great intention and gifted leadership notwithstanding, innovation is almost always about collective imagination, creative “failures” and “accidents,” and a remarkable shift in perspective. With the benefit of hindsight, disruptive innovation is almost always inspired by a deep, empathic understanding of the human condition, derived from a new perspective of what has always existed and powered by a counterintuitive combination of dissimilar elements. The fuel of innovation seems to be made up of three devoutly human proficiencies: empathy, pattern recognition and synthesis. These three competencies are emerging as not only “curriculum worthy” in a rapidly evolving education system but also highly coveted and sought after by the most
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The fuel of innovation seems to be made up of three devoutly human proficiencies: empathy, pattern recognition and synthesis. aspirational of companies. They have become a new currency in the increasingly competitive workforce and workplace. With new business imperatives focused on sustainable success metrics, the value of mining big data, the promise of open innovation and the power of social media are literally transforming the nature and style of work. As work environments evolve to support new levels of collaboration, organizations and corporate cultures are undergoing their own revolutions. And fundamental to these revolutions are the underlying skills, capabilities and experiences that employers expect their employees to bring to the workplace. There are endless criticisms and commentaries on the inadequacies of today’s education system and how unprepared many young people are to join the workforce to make a meaningful and immediate contribution. With historically dated curricula, antiquated teaching methods and a clear decline in social skills, it is no surprise that many employers find it difficult to find the talent and mindsets they seek in new employees. The current focus on STEM education becomes even more of a relevant and valuable solution when infused with invaluable soft skills. Primitive creativity is rarely tolerated much past the 5th grade when refrigerator doors are often stripped of grade school deliverables that somehow shift from “cute” to “bad art.” And as less tangible and more virtual connections seem to dominate the free time of most students, the lessons of artful play, playful art, real teamwork and the benefits of live collaboration have become things of the past. Many extracurricular activities that traditionally highlighted teamwork, have also been severely limited or eliminated as students spend more and more time being tutored to gain some advantage in standardized tests. Granted, many of the more traditional curriculum elements and pedagogies are built around problem analysis and problem solving, but these rarely © Sodexo 2015
EQ + IQ = SQ
TIONAL QUOT O IE EM
T N ) (EQ
SYNCHRONIZED QUOTIENT (SQ) GE
E Q U O TIE
CREATIVITY WORK EFFECTIVENESS
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are anchored in real world phenomenon. And while the more soft skills and capabilities are ever more attractive to most potential employers, organizations increasingly report that even the best and brightest candidates seem to be missing basic communication, social and creative skills. Curricula, educational assessment, hiring criteria and workplace evaluation seem completely out of synch and at a tipping point. Sir Ken Robinson, author of “Out of Our Minds: Learning to Be Creative,” and an international thought leader on education, advocates for far greater sensitivities to learning methods and for far more integration of soft skills into all curricula. As civilization made its inevitable progression from the agricultural age to the industrial age to the information age, the roles of the skilled worker evolved from that of a farmer to a factory worker to a knowledge worker (See Figure 1). At the same time, as Pine and Gilmore so wonderfully captured in their manifesto, “The Experience Economy,” we expanded from a focus on produce to one of production and ultimately to productivity. Now, as we evolve from the information age and the service-based economy on which it is based, to the conceptual age, where “design thinking” is the new capability and the design of experiences are the new imperatives and outcomes, an entirely new set of competencies and aptitudes are required. It is important to note that our economies have expanded, rarely abandoning the prior focus. With new emphasis on the information, services and concept economies, the agricultural and manufacturing economies will remain ever more vital. Figure 1. Progression of the Skilled Worker
Synchronized Quotient may be somewhat malleable and may increase over time with training and with the benefit of life experience. ability to discriminate between different emotions and to use emotions to direct thinking and behavior. While the value of the guiding genius and visionary leader in today’s hyper-competitive, meta-entrepreneurial, “innovate or die” business environment is still widely recognized, IQ and EQ are not, in and of themselves, innovation drivers and have never been guarantors of success. The “genius” of Steve Jobs was less in his vision and persistence and more in his “SQ” or “synchronized quotient” — his cross hemisphere, lateral and more holistic design thinking. The Macintosh, Apple OS, iOS, iPod, iTunes and iPhone were not merely lucky anomalies. Each and every one of these game-changing, industry-disrupting innovations was the result of seeing uniquely through the lens of consumers, understanding their unmet and unexpressed needs, finding inspiration in the emergent behaviors of extreme users (hackers and digital music pirates in the case of iTunes/ iPod), and combining existing technologies in novel ways (the original iPod contained no new technology). IQ has been used for many years to predict a person’s success, educational achievement, special needs, job performance and income. EQ can forecast a person’s success or challenges in interacting with the world (work, home, virtual). SQ (“synchronized quotient”) adds experiential/design thinking to the analytical and social thinking inherent in IQ and EQ. In many ways, SQ is an amalgam of both IQ and EQ with the addition of specific abilities and strengths that are the foundation of design thinking. In short, SQ may be at the core of creativity and the basis upon which most, if not all, sustainable innovation occurs.
WHAT ARE IQ, EQ AND SQ? IQ (intelligence quotient) is considered to be the measure of an individual’s cognitive ability to solve problems, understand concepts, and process information. EQ, or “emotional quotient,” is far less studied or assessed and refers to an awareness of one’s own and other people’s emotions, the
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SQ includes three primary drivers that power work effectiveness, creativity and innovativeness. What are the three primary drivers? Empathy – to be empathic, to walk in another person’s shoes or see through another person’s eyes, to be the empath — to compassionately and unconditionally understand, identify with, take on, channel and/or assume another person’s point of view, experience and reality in context. Pattern Recognition – to see patterns, to assemble a new vision, to disambiguate the meaning, to intentionally © Sodexo 2015
WHOLE BRAIN THINKING
Figure 2. Elements of a Synchronized Quotient
ONAL QUO OTI TI E EM
NT CE Q U OTIE
blur one’s vision to see what others cannot see, to be the cryptography genius in the Oscar award-winning movie “A Beautiful Mind” — the ability to make connections between like and disparate things, similar and non-conforming and even conflicting data, attitudes, behaviors and facts. To see the needle in the haystack AND the patterns across many haystacks. To see something familiar in an entirely new way. To distinguish signal from background noise, to go beyond statistical analysis and algorithms designed to identify the norm or show the trend, to see the extraordinary rather than merely identify the trend, to see a bigger picture, gain a broader perspective and make new, intuitive and often counter-intuitive associations and connections. Synthesis – to be the resourceful chef, the brewer, the fabricator capable of creating value out of an assembly of found objects. To be the person who can turn lead into gold. To be the alchemist who has the magic ability to create entirely new compounds out of known and even unknown elements. To imagine something entirely new based on new associations and connections. To make entirely new things, concepts and experiences out of diverse and previously disassociated components. To create coherence out of incoherence, to create elegant systems out of what may seem to be chaos. Much like IQ and EQ, there are underlying environmental and hereditary factors that may largely determine a person’s SQ level. But research has also shown that training and exercising one’s working memory may increase IQ and EQ scores. The same may be true for SQ. SQ may be somewhat malleable and may increase over time with training and with the benefit of life experience. There is not yet an assessment that’s focused on testing SQ. If an assessment did exist, it could be used to formulate new curricula and test the effectiveness of teaching or exercising one’s SQ. Of course, there will always be questions about whether SQ is innate or learned, but it seems clear that exercising one’s SQ can © Sodexo 2015
SYNCHRONIZED QUOTIENT (SQ)
help hone and refine the capability. Effective SQ evaluation methods could be used as recruitment criteria, to assemble effective teams and to guide strategic thinking. Ultimately, as human-centered design becomes more integrated into our work methods and workplaces, SQ could be explicitly leveraged to create what’s “next.”
WHY IS SQ SO IMPORTANT IN THE NEW CONCEPTUAL AGE? The famous science fiction author Isaac Asimov once said, “The most exciting phrase to hear in science, the one that almost always heralds new discoveries, is not “Eureka, I found it!” but “Hmm, that’s interesting.” The power of empathic observation and ethnographic understanding are central to the principles of human-centered design. In our new conceptual age and in almost every industry and field where the quality of experience is a fundamental objective, the skills inherent in SQ have become fundamental to meaningful and sustainable innovation.
HOW DO THESE UNDERLYING QUALITIES AND CAPACITIES CONTRIBUTE TO CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION? The famous physicist James Maxwell once said, “Thoroughly conscious ignorance is the prelude to every real advance in science.” The comedian George Carlin once quipped that humor was an advanced state of imagination that had its roots in what he called “vuja de.” Unlike déjà vu, which is the strong sense that an event or experience currently being experienced has been experienced in the past, “vuja de” is when something or somewhere that should be familiar is suddenly seen in a very different light or understood in a very different way. This ability to “blur” the known, in deference to
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exposing the unknown, is also critical to pattern recognition and the disambiguation so important to creative and innovative thinking.
WHY ARE EMPATHY, PATTERN RECOGNITION AND SYNTHESIS SO IMPORTANT, IF NOT FUNDAMENTAL TO DESIGN THINKING IN THE NEW CONCEPTUAL AGE? Thomas Edison was well aware of the power of alchemy and making something out of nothing when he said, “To invent, you need a good imagination and a pile of junk.” Indeed, the ability to synthesize something very new out of a collection of known parts and unrelated pieces is also at the core of design thinking and innovation. Leveraging and integrating them into the workplace requires awareness and acceptance. Established companies will forever attempt to improve, optimize or value engineer what they already have in incremental ways. Entrepreneurs will endlessly seek to solve known problems and commercialize their solutions. Evolutionary and disruptive innovation requires the different set of skills embodied in SQ. If the significant innovations of the past few decades share any common factors it is that they rarely if ever were solely about solving a problem. People were quite satisfied with a 50-cent cup of coffee before Starbucks delivered the “third place,” a welcomed alternative to home and office. Significant innovations were also rarely the result of asking consumers what they wanted. No one was desperate for a new search engine before Google reimagined search and leveraged an established business model in new ways. Significant innovations seldom required entirely new-to-the-world technologies, materials or business models. Amazon and eBay simply capitalized on the Internet in remarkably new ways, leveraging the power of human and social interaction. Facebook leveraged the compelling nature of social interaction and some may say the habit-forming nature of narcissism in a new and virally addictive way. And designing and delivering a compelling user experience is common to all disruptive innovations. There were a number of MP3 players on the market before Apple’s iPod and iTunes changed the way people acquired and interacted with music. Beyond all these common qualities, while many of the innovations by these companies were credited to the visionary leaders and founders, they were ALL conceived, designed and built by diverse teams of design thinkers, empaths, pattern recognizers and synthesizers.
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So while internal and external stimuli will always guide innovation, simply having more data does not always mean generating better insights. The promise of “big data” is that the sheer volume of data can have its own value. But the real value of data, large and small, lies in the meaning that can be extracted from that data. And, at least for the foreseeable future, while elegant algorithms will automate a certain amount of logic and reason and find signals in the noise, devoutly human skills will be essential. To turn big data into big meaning and to gain the insights that fuel the future and inspire what’s next, the humanness of empathy, pattern recognition and synthesis will be critical. Every company desires to get to next just slightly ahead of its regularly scheduled time. The path to next requires that companies exercise everyone’s ability to immerse themselves in another world and walk in someone else’s shoes. Along with the rigor and conventionality of today’s corporate cultures, make sure that people are un-focusing and changing their perspective on a more regular basis. Rather than seek more resources, leverage the power of what you already have and empower your empaths, pattern recognizers and synthesizers to turn insights into inspiration and inspiration into gold. n
KEY INSIGHTS & IMPLICATIONS §§ SQ (Synchronized Quotient) is an amalgam of both IQ (Intelligence Quotient) and EQ (Emotional Quotient) with the addition of three specific abilities and strengths that are the foundation of design thinking: empathy, pattern recognition, and synthesis. §§ In our new conceptual age, the skills inherent in SQ have become fundamental to meaningful and sustainable innovation, work effectiveness, and creativity. §§ In spite of the promise of “big data” to generate value, to turn this data into meaning and to gain the insights that fuel the future and inspire what’s next, the humanness of empathy, pattern recognition and synthesis will be critical. §§ Organizations should leverage the power of what they already have and empower their empaths, pattern recognizers and synthesizers to turn insights into innovation.
LINKING TO SODEXO’S QUALITY OF LIFE DIMENSIONS §§ Personal Growth: Employees who wish to be more innovative and effective at work will develop skills associated with SQ, and organizations will increasingly seek out workers with these types of capabilities.
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CASE STUDY: POINTS OF CONNECTION
CASE STUDY IN TRENDS CREATING POINTS OF CONNECTION IN THE WORKPLACE:
KEYS TO ENGAGING & MOTIVATING THE WORKFORCE
Valerie Walls, PHR, Director of People & Organization, Mars Drinks North America INTRODUCTION: Tracy Brower, PhD, MM, MCR, Herman Miller Employers and employees today face a tidal wave of challenges. Organizations confront ever-increasing competition related to markets, products, services, and talent. At the same time, employees are deluged by significant demands on their time. One of the ways that organizations are succeeding in the midst of all these challenges is to create holistic and positive experiences for their employees. Mars Drinks, a 100 percent workplace-dedicated segment of Mars, Incorporated, and makers of ALTERRA® Coffee Roasters coffee and FLAVIA® brewers, has always had a strong people-oriented culture, and they wanted their work environment to be part of the holistic employee experience. They partnered with Herman Miller to create a Living Office. Specifically, a Living Office starts with a focus on fundamental human needs — those needs that are necessary for all of us. From there, it addresses the purpose, character, and work activities that are unique to that business. Based on these, the work environment is created using settings as the key elements of overall landscapes that evolve continuously in response to change. The Mars Drinks Living Office is a workplace that fosters greater connection, creativity, productivity, and ultimately greater prosperity for both employees and the organization in total.
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Mars Drinks is 100% committed to supporting businesses that want to provide great working environments for their people. To showcase their dedication to making life at work better, Mars Drinks started at home with their own employees redesigning their Global headquarters, based in West Chester, Pennsylvania, to bring their vision “we create great tasting moments at work” to life. After three years of planning, research, experimentation and implementation, the results of their global headquarters redesign project showcases Mars Drinks’ commitment to enabling points of connection. From a completely open floorplan and hybrid workspaces to natural light and a walking trail, the entire campus was designed to facilitate engagement, collaboration, productivity and well-being. In addition, the open design, the zones for connections, the variety of work settings, and the areas for privacy and reflection all reinforce the Mars Drinks culture. That culture is based on Mars’ Five Principles of Quality, Responsibility, Mutuality, Efficiency, and Freedom and the principles are evident in these elements of the work environment.
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CULTURE COUNTS At Mars Drinks, we believe people are the most important asset to any business. And, since most employees spend more waking hours at work than at home (Bureau of Labor Statistics, June 2014), we’ve made it our business to deliver more to our customers than just a great cup of coffee or tea. Instead, we facilitate moments of connection throughout the workday that give meaning and purpose beyond everyday tasks. Our workplace-designed brewers and drinks bring people together to collaborate, share and debate, and to reflect and recharge. It’s these moments, both shared and individual, that create a sense of community, belonging and personal empowerment. We approached the re-design of our global headquarters in West Chester, Pennsylvania to epitomize our vision, “we create great tasting moments at work,” and to truly create a culture of connectivity. It was about bringing every one of our 170 associates together in one space. Every associate in every business function — from manufacturing to sales and marketing to research and development and everything inbetween — is part of one Mars Drinks team.
GUIDING PRINCIPLES Like all Mars, Incorporated segments, Mars Drinks’ culture is built upon the “The Five Principles” of Quality, Responsibility, Mutuality, Efficiency and Freedom. In support of these principles, Mars Drinks already had an open-office design to promote accessibility and approachability among all associates.
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However, we wanted to take it a step further and have our workplace truly embody our vision and serve as a living case study for our associates, distributors and customers to experience how Mars Drinks solutions promote a positive working environment and bring people together. To that end, it was key to design with the following in mind:
Warm, inviting, positive and inspiring, reflective of our dedication to serving the workplace and our commitment to coffee culture
Natural and sustainable
Encouraging movement and promoting associate connectivity and access to leadership
Egalitarian, with a balance of multi-purpose collaborative and private spaces
Welcoming for all levels of associates and guests with spaces to support training and entertaining events
Supporting associate empowerment, sense of belonging and elevated experience beyond work tasks
Expanding our manufacturing and production facility to support on-site coffee roasting and additional product lines for a vertically integrated operation
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CASE STUDY: POINTS OF CONNECTION
BRINGING THE VISION TO LIFE We worked collaboratively to design our new headquarters, creating an internal project team to work closely with architectural firm, Kahler Slater, and inventive design and technology experts, Herman Miller. In addition to employee surveys, we reviewed inner office walking patterns, work behaviors and preferences and performed an analysis of associate touch points — all of which helped us to create our ultimate office layout, pathways, and drinks station placement. Knowing that associates have varying preferences when it comes to workspaces, as well as differing needs throughout the workday, we were very intentional in assuring that the new space would accommodate these nuances while promoting productivity. It was a three-year process from initial planning through to the official grand opening of the new campus in October 2014.
WORKPLACE MOMENTS, DELIVERED From the moment you enter Mars Drinks’ new global headquarters, our commitment to workplace culture is clear. The building itself was designed for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold Certification and features floor-to-ceiling windows featuring VIEW glass, which tints electronically, saving energy while allowing natural light to shine in and preventing unwanted heat and glare, as well as the use of noble materials throughout, like wood and steel that symbolize authenticity and timelessness. We took a hybrid approach to the actual workspace. There are no offices or cubes; instead, there are open, non-hierarchical linear seating formations. However, there are private “dens” to accommodate varying work needs, such as quite space or conference calls and meeting rooms, all featuring glass doors to promote trust and openness. As a business dedicated to making life at work better for our customers, we were very intentional about designing our workplace to contribute to the well-being of our people. We designed an outdoor walking trail that our associates use for casual meetings or wellness breaks. We upgraded our fitness center with new equipment and large windows. And we made our on-site cafeteria more welcoming and comfortable with booth-style seating. In designing our workplace, it was important that we showcase how our portfolio of drinks, FLAVIA brewers and KLIX vending machines, promote collaboration and connectivity. Therefore, we considered the locations for our drinks stations and built out the space around them to facilitate various types of meetings and conversations.
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As a result, you’ll find lounge-style seating with couches, coffee tables and easels to inspire free-flowing ideas. You’ll find kitchen tables with high stools to encourage more intimate conversations. And, you’ll find round tables in nooks throughout the office for smaller group meetings. With a variety of work settings all under one roof, we believe we are creating room for innovation that will grow our business and allow us to create the products that inspire our workplace customers to do the same. In the end, we delivered more than just a new, beautifullydesigned campus and office. We created an environment that truly embodies our workplace-centric business focus and that will enable us to increase our connectivity and partnership with our customers, distributors, suppliers and, most importantly, our people. The Mars Drinks global headquarters serves as a role model office layout for fostering engagement, collaboration, productivity and well-being.
CONCLUSION Tracy Brower, PhD, MM, MCR, Herman Miller In addition to creating a Living Office, Mars Drinks also offers a best-in-class example of organizational culture and leadership. Based on extensive research featured in Bring Work to Life by Bringing Life to Work: A Guide for Leaders and Organizations (Brower, 2014), Mars tops the list of companies that offer robust policies and practices and foster an organizational culture that creates fulfillment and abundance for employees and customers. From employee development and community service to recognition programs and mentorship approaches, Mars Drinks successfully engages employees. The Living Office is part of this comprehensive approach to an engaging and authentic culture. Mars Drinks proves that by starting with people and by serving employees, both the people and the organization win. Their practices, their culture, and now their work environment contribute to this success. What are the results of this winning culture? Mars has made Fortune’s Great Places to Work list three years in a row, making it part of an elite group of companies whose results speak for themselves. n
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KEY INSIGHTS & IMPLICATIONS §§ A Living Office is a workplace that fosters greater connection, creativity, productivity, and ultimately greater prosperity for both employees and the organization. §§ For Mars Drinks, it was key to design with the following in mind: feel, materials, flow, workspaces, hospitality, well-being, and growth. §§ The process involved reviewing inner office walking patterns, work behaviors and preferences and performing an analysis of associate touch points. §§ The result is a LEED-certified building with a hybrid approach to the workspace that promotes collaboration and connectivity, as well as employee health and well-being.
LINKING TO SODEXO’S QUALITY OF LIFE DIMENSIONS By definition, Mars Drinks’ workplace transformation required a multi-faceted approach touching on multiple aspects of employees’ Quality of Life. Therefore, this trend has 4 salient Quality of Life dimensions: §§ Physical Environment: From natural light to the inclusion of noble materials like wood and steel, the transformed Mars workplace is designed to feel warm, inviting, and inspiring. §§ Social Connections: Designed with collaboration in mind, the new workplace offers a range of spaces and seating arrangements to facilitate various types of meetings and conversations. §§ Ease & Efficiency: To accommodate varying work needs, the new office provides a balance of multipurpose collaborative and private spaces. §§ Health & Well-Being: The new workplace includes a walking trail, an upgraded fitness center, and a more welcoming cafeteria space.
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SPECIAL SECTION: FUTURE FM WORKFORCE
SPECIAL SECTION IN TRENDS EDUCATING TOMORROW’S FM WORKFORCE
Nancy Johnson Sanquist, IFMA Fellow, AIA Associate, Senior Real Estate and Workplace Analyst, Manhattan Software, a Trimble Company Diane Coles Levine, Chair of the IFMA Foundation, Principal at Workplace Management Solutions Wendy Foster was just hired to be a Workplace Strategist by a leading technology company in Silicon Valley. She was chosen due to an amazing set of skills she began to acquire when she was 12 years old and joined an after school STEM program that her parents had found. As she progressed through high school, the same program gave her a love of science and engineering, as well as the ability to visualize information as she also pursued digital design. Cisco had a lab at her school and she learned firsthand how the convergence of the cloud, mobility, big data/analytics, social media and the Internet of Things was changing the world as we once knew it. This led Wendy on the pathway to a program that Cornell NYC Tech had with courses both in Ithaca and New York City, which gave her an integrated disciplinary background in the built environment. She also took courses in environmental psychology and anthropology and learned about the exciting fields of facility management and real estate. Upon graduation with an MBA, with an emphasis on managing the workplace, she was chosen for the Workplace Strategy position because of her unique background in many disciplines that are all now important for the field in 2020. In her thesis for Cornell Tech, Wendy designed a new business model for Real Estate and Facility Management. She looked at the world from a consumer point of view and came up with the idea of needing a 360 view of the Facility Management customer, the residents of the workplace. She had to understand from a behavioral point of view, how her customers needed to work, what tools they would be working with, how they are rewarded and incentivized, and how engaged they needed to be to maintain the “drive” noted author and speaker Daniel Pink talked about. Wendy needed to have a visual display that she could pull up on her interactive wall or in the field on her iPad, with information telling her how the workplace was performing. This included data from all of the sensors the building was using to automatically operate itself, and anticipating and correcting problems that were costly, unhealthy or unsafe for the occupants. With that in mind, she took a technology platform approach to the fact that the most important thing about planning, designing, building/remodeling, managing
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and optimizing the workplace is the data. With this data she could ensure that she could quantify the performance of the connected physical and digital workplace. She could then be able to execute workplace strategy and management for maximum operational effectiveness. In order to provide the right services at the right cost at the right location for the right people, she had to have access to all the information on the workplace. That means data on the people in the workplace, the digital processes that are required throughout the building life-cycle, the knowledge of all aspects of the physical workplaces and all of the thousands of connected things and assets that are needed for monitoring, controlling, optimizing and autonomously operating the workplace. She is working with MIT to build a new environment for data viewing that is fully immersive, as seen in Figure 1. Figure 1. BigBarChart, MIT Media Lab DDT
Wendy collaborated with her counterparts in HR, Finance, Environment/Safety and IT, as well as the business units and executive management, to bring this data into her open technology platform, which could then allow her to mine this information for analytics for evidence-based decision making. Using gamification tools to totally redesign business processes, she connected data on the workplace, workforce, as well as finance, real estate, environmental and IT. This created an overarching work intelligence system connecting
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people, places, processes and technology. Her ability to visualize this intelligence and correlate data in new ways ensured that she could be the strategist who could design and manage the kind of workplace that was competitive in the market to aid in attracting and retaining the best talent. Welcome to Workplace Strategy 2018! This future scenario is how the IFMA Foundation is thinking about the new role of Facility Manager in times ahead. The IFMA Foundation is a non-profit organization with a mission to make facility management the career of choice for young people. The IFMA Foundation is responsible for accreditation of Facility Management (FM) degree programs worldwide. There are 31 accredited 2-year, 4-year and graduate degrees available from 28 different colleges, universities and community colleges. More than 2,000 students are enrolled in these programs but this number falls short of the number of graduates needed by the profession in the years to come. The Foundation also raises money for scholarships for young people enrolled in these degree-granting institutions. Over $1.2 million USD have been raised since the program’s inception in the early 1990s. Scholarship winners are invited to IFMA’s annual World Workplace conference where they engage and network with professionals and mentors and attend conference sessions on workplace topics. For a long time, the IFMA Foundation has been focused on expanding the FM accredited degree programs around the world. The students graduating though these programs have the unusual privilege of enjoying a nearly 100% job placement rate, excellent salaries and multiple job offers. But we have identified a serious problem that now must be addressed that leads us to focus on how to encourage younger students in making FM a career of choice to fill the student seats in the growing number of accredited degree programs worldwide. Workplace management is a key role FMs play in an industry that manages over 37 billion square feet of property and annually purchase more than USD $100 billion in products and services.
THE FM WORKFORCE PROBLEM This problem the IFMA Foundation has uncovered is explained in the following bullets: §§ The IFMA membership includes only 8% of professionals under 35. §§ It is predicted that over 50% of facility management professionals will retire in the next 10 years.1 §§ Corporations cannot fill vacancies in FM with enough qualified staff.
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§§ The average age of FM professionals today is 49, far more skewed than the general working population average of 43.2 §§ The average age of an IFMA member is 48. §§ The “maintenance crisis” has been identified by Joel Leonard, President of SkillTV. SkillTV is an Internetbased TV show that highlights the depletion of skilled workers in maintenance management workforce caused by baby boomer retirement and few young professionals entering the field.3 By exposing more pre-college students to the FM profession, we can start to close the growing workforce gap in FM. The profession has an exciting story to tell students and their parents — an exciting career in a field with jobs that can’t be sent overseas and nearly a 100% job placement for people graduating with an FM degree (starting salaries are $55,000 to $85,000 USD depending on level of degree). This story simply needs to be told more often. The Foundation then created a new initiative in the beginning of 2014 to combat the problem of not enough FM degree programs, students entering these programs, or graduates available to fill the FM vacancies coming available.
THE GLOBAL WORKFORCE INITIATIVE (GWI) The Foundation’s efforts to bring FM to younger students is called the Global Workforce Initiative (GWI), which includes connecting all the key stakeholders involved in the FM Career Pathway. The first GWI pilot program is taking place in San Bernardino County California, which is both the geographically largest and most economically challenged county in the United States. Working with the San Bernardino County’s Alliance for Education and IFMA’s Inland Empire Chapter, students in elementary, high school and community colleges are being introduced to the FM profession. The Alliance for Education is San Bernardino County’s premier partnership between businesses and education communities, fostering STEM learning both in and out of the classroom. From kindergarten through college, students and their families, educators and businesses make an equal investment and commitment to achieve the goal of producing an educated and skilled workforce that ensures the economic well-being for the county. The county is connecting industry and educators and funding in emerging tech areas, including recently adding a Cisco Networking Academy. Besides FM educational offerings, this initiative will include students participating in real world FM experiences that will ultimately pique their interest in the profession. The IFMA team
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SPECIAL SECTION: FUTURE FM WORKFORCE
will work with high schools and community colleges that have Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) programs. These schools will then be primed to feed the wide-ranging, diverse career pathways in our field and the FM accredited degree programs. Because FM has so many career pathways, with high numbers of jobs coming available in every business sector (jobs that cannot be offshored), it is time to be proactive, tell this great career story and develop our future FMs. Through this Global Workforce Initiative, the Foundation acts as a connector between business, government, secondary schools, community and other colleges, universities, economic development, and more than 130 global IFMA chapters. The GWI connects students with the business community, local IFMA chapters and IFMA Industry Councils to provide content-rich internship programs. Internship programs are the best way to attract, retain and source top talent for full-time positions. Studies show that the retention rate at companies is higher for employees who had interned for their employer. According to Mary Jane Olhasso, County of San Bernardino, Assistant Executive Officer, “Significant change is needed to create large-scale, lasting solutions and change. No one organization can accomplish this alone. To create lasting solutions and prepare the workforce of tomorrow, government, business, and communities must coordinate their efforts and work together around a defined goal. Education is a critical component for individuals looking
for STEM jobs and opportunities. Long gone are the days of manually switching on lights, turning on sprinklers, and setting the temperature of a building room-by-room. As part of the solution, the IFMA Foundation is taking a collective impact approach by working with community partners and educators to prepare educated professionals with the educational opportunities to learn skills needed to enter the FM workforce.”
ENGAGING STUDENTS – THE MARS CITY PROJECT: GAMIFICATION OF OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE The IFMA Foundation is part of a team with NASA, National Institute for Building Science (NIBS) and the Total Learning Research Institute (TLRI) to bring an innovative, virtual FM program to secondary and two-year degree curriculums where students can manage a facility on the Planet Mars. It is called the Mars City Project, which brings simulation and gamification to schools to make students aware and excited about the field of FM. Students will work in teams, assume actual FM positions, and manage the daily operations and projects in the Mars City space facility, which is visualized in a Building Information Model (BIM) (See Figure 2). This makes learning fun and more relevant to real-world FM experiences that pique students’ interest in the profession.
Figure 2. BIM of Virtual Mars Base. Image Source: TLRI/NIBS STEM BIM Team
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The IFMA Foundation is also supporting pilot programs in workforce development:
INVESTING IN OUR FUTURE
CONNECTING WITH COMMUNITY
Silicon Valley: Network for Teaching Entrepreneurship (NFTE)
Stanford Connecticut: JM Wright, Technical High School
Toronto: Local IFMA Chapter connecting with guidance counselors
The Silicon Valley Chapter of IFMA is working with the Network for Teaching Entrepreneurship (NFTE), an organization that transforms children’s lives to make them college and career ready. The 500,000 students around the world enrolled in NFTE’s programs are taught to become entrepreneurs by creating business plans, developing Websites, and making presentations to executives on their plans and innovative ideas. IFMA Silicon Valley chapter leaders’ judge NFTE competitions and the winners can realize up to $25,000 in college funding. Working with NFTE teachers, IFMA chapter leaders present the essentials of workplace management and FM to students in high school classrooms. Perhaps one of these young entrepreneurs will develop the next big idea in workplace data analytics and smart buildings.
The first STEM high school with a facility management program, J.M. Wright Technical High School opened up in September 2014 in Stanford, Connecticut. One of the program founders, IFMA Member Jay Drew, Facility Manager for the Connecticut State Assembly, is working with the FM Accredited Degree Programs at Pratt Institute in New York and Florida A&M University to feed the pipeline from high school to higher FM programs.
The IFMA Toronto Chapter along with Conestoga College, an FM Accredited Degree program, both managed booths at the recent 2014 Ontario School Counsellors Association (OSCA) conference. Guidance counselors were informed about the field of FM by the IFMA Toronto Chapter, Conestoga, their Architecture: Project and Facility Management Program and their IFMA Student Chapter. This event marks the first successful community outreach program and alliance with OSCA to promote FM workforce development.
KEY INSIGHTS & IMPLICATIONS §§ The IFMA Foundation created the Global Workforce Initiative (GWI) to combat the problem of not enough FM degree programs, students entering these programs, or graduates available to fill the FM vacancies coming available. §§ The GWI connects all the key stakeholders involved in the FM Career Pathway, provides FM educational offerings, and facilitates student participation in real world FM experiences that will ultimately pique their interest in the profession. §§ In sum, the IFMA Foundation is taking a collective impact approach by working with community partners and educators to prepare educated professionals with the educational opportunities to learn skills needed to enter the FM workforce.
LINKING TO SODEXO’S QUALITY OF LIFE DIMENSIONS §§ Personal Growth: The IFMA Foundation’s initiatives provide learning and training opportunities for students who wish to pursue a career in FM. §§ Social Connections: The IFMA Foundation’s initiatives help students connect with each other and network with other key stakeholders involved in closing the FM workforce gap.
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| CONCLUSION Lisa Larsen Hill, Senior Vice President, Marketing and Creative Services, Sodexo, Innovations 2 Solutions This year’s Workplace Trends Report illustrates that home life and work life continue to merge, and highlights key trends that provide insight to help the employers of today and the future attract and retain the best talent. While the “ideal” workplace varies across individuals and organizations, one thing is certain — the landscape of the workplace continues to evolve. Future Work Skills will require both businesses and employees to adapt quickly and commit to lifelong learning. Rateocracy gives employees the power to share their ideas and opinions with the consumers who impact their employer’s bottom line; the immerging Aerotropolis workplaces are dissolving geographic lines; and Mindfullness at Work continues to keep the focus on Quality of Life for employees and their families. Programs that focus on Global Rewards and Recognition will give employers what is needed to increase engagement across their multinational and multigenerational organizations. Amidst the ever-evolving workplace, we hope this report provides a thought, provoking glimpse into the future of work. To be successful, organizations need to be agile enough to quickly respond to new trends and strategies. The most effective organizations are having meaningful conversations about the future, regularly engaging with external experts to help them have those conversations, and building strategic planning processes that keep them focused on tomorrow — producing the best possible outcomes for all stakeholders involved. Sodexo’s Innovations 2 Solutions (I2S) team specializes in advancing and innovating around quality of life solutions. Through its research and reporting, I2S understands that to truly be engaged and productive, people need to feel that their employer provides an environment that allows them to bring their best to work every day, while also giving them the opportunity to help shape the future of their workplace and maintain a sense of self. In doing so, employees contribute to the overall performance of the organizations they serve. Sodexo’s I2S team will continue to research and report around workplace trends, as these valuable conversations provide insight and understanding, as we assess our clients’ business needs, synthesize and design holistic experiences, and innovate with purpose — ultimately leading to transformation. Keep up-to-date on marketrelevant research, data and insight into workplace industry trends — our Innovation & Insights mobile app is a single source for emerging thought leadership for Corporate Real Estate, Facility Management, Human Resources and Supply Management professionals. Download it for your iPad at http://bit.ly/Sodexoinsight.
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RESEARCH METHODS Rachel S. Permuth PhD, MSPH, National Director of Research, Sodexo, Innovations 2 Solutions Rebecca L. Scott, MPH, Senior Communications Specialist & Research Analyst, Sodexo, Innovations 2 Solutions Sodexo’s experts in quality of life and human capital solutions used mixed research methods to uncover the trends that are affecting today’s workplace and its consumers. This approach included traditional quantitative measures, observations and interviews from multiple client sites, as well as a robust bibliographic review of academic and trade journals within Human Resources, Organizational Psychology, Information Technology, Facilities, Real Estate and Hospitality. In addition, Sodexo collected interviews and reports from academic institutions and trade organizations alike, including the Institute for the Future (IFTF), Sodexo’s Institute for Quality of Life, the International Facilities Management Association (IFMA), the World Future Society (WFS) and others. We also conducted an analysis of select social media sources to gather less-structured data to substantiate our initial findings and conclusions. In this year’s report you’ll find a diverse array of workplace and employee quality of life factors represented. Each of the trends, by definition, has the ability to improve the quality of life of people and their communities. As one would expect, however, organizational commitment to its people — both on a professional and personal level — remains a central theme among all of our trends. With more employees viewing their work and life as one, it can only benefit an organization to stay apprised of workplace trends that will engage and retain the workforce of 2015 and beyond.
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| MEET THE AUTHORS THE CHANGING NATURE OF THE WORKPLACE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR QUALITY OF LIFE Thomas Jelley, M.Sc., LL.B, Director, Sodexo Institute for Quality of Life Thomas Jelley joined Sodexo in 2008 with responsibility for corporate citizenship across the Sodexo UK & Ireland business. In this role he was one of the co-authors of the Better Tomorrow Plan, the company’s global sustainability strategy to 2020. Since October 2013, Thomas has been the director of the Sodexo Institute for Quality of Life, which aims to help Sodexo gather and develop insight on how improving Quality of Life leads to the progress of individuals and contributes to the performance of organizations. The Institute is an internal “think tank” — a platform for external stakeholder engagement on Quality of Life, and it serves as a central resource for Sodexo colleagues worldwide. Thomas has dual British and French nationality and works in London and Paris. He holds both English and French law degrees, was previously a lawyer in the City of London and holds an M.Sc. in Sustainable Development. Thomas is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts and an Associate of the UK Institute for Environmental Management and Assessment.
FUTURE WORK SKILLS 2020 The Institute for the Future The Institute for the Future (IFTF) is an independent, non-profit strategic research group with more than 40 years of forecasting experience. The core of its work is identifying emerging trends and discontinuities that will transform global society and the global marketplace. The IFTF provides their members with insights into business strategy, design process, innovation, and social dilemmas. Their research spans a broad territory of deeply transformative trends, from health and health care to technology, the workplace, and human identity. The Institute for the Future is located in Palo Alto, California.
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The University of Phoenix Research Institute The University of Phoenix Research Institute conducts scholarly research on working learners, higher education and industry, to improve educational outcomes and promote a more prepared workforce. The University of Phoenix Research Institute sponsored this piece of research to increase understanding of the skills workers will need over the next decade in a technologically advanced and changing world.
AEROTROPOLIS Dr. John D. Kasarda, MBA, PhD, President and CEO of Aerotropolis Business Concepts LLC John D. Kasarda is director of the Center for Air Commerce at the University of North Carolina’s Kenan-Flagler Business School. Dr. Kasarda is also president and CEO of Aerotropolis Business Concepts LLC. He has published more than 100 articles and 10 books on airport cities, aviation infrastructure, urban economic development, and competitiveness. He chairs the annual Airport Cities World Conference and Exhibition and has been an advisor to airports and governments around the globe. Dr. Kasarda received his BS and MBA (with Distinction) from Cornell University and his PhD from the University of North Carolina. He has been the recipient of many grants and awards from such organizations as the International Civil Aviation Organization, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, World Bank, National Science Foundation, National Academy of Sciences, the United Nations Development Program, and the U.S. Agency for International Development. He is considered the leading developer of the Aerotropolis concept defining the roles of aviation and airports in shaping 21st century business location, urban competitiveness, and economic growth.
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MEET THE AUTHORS
MINDFULNESS AT WORK
Robert Moran, Partner, Brunswick Group
Kelley McCabe Ruff, MBA, CEO & Founder, eMindful, Inc.
Robert Moran is a data-driven strategist and author with 20 years of experience as an executive in public opinion and market research. As an internationally recognized speaker on industry futures, public opinion and market research, he has addressed diverse audiences, including marketing professionals, advertisers, elected officials, parliamentarians, futurists and officers at the National War College. He has appeared on major news outlets, including BBC and CNN. Moran has been published in the Journal of Advertising Research, ResearchWorld, Pollster.com, PRWeek, MENSA Bulletin, Quirk’s Marketing Research Review and The Futurist magazine. And he frequently writes on public opinion for Huffington Post’s Pollster.com. As a futurist, Moran is the author of a top 10 forecast for The Futurist magazine.
GLOBAL REWARDS AND RECOGNITION & REDEFINING THE FAMILY-FRIENDLY WORKPLACE Michele W. Gazica, JD, MA, PhD Candidate at the University of South Florida Michele W. Gazica is a current PhD candidate in the Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology program at the University of South Florida (USF). She researches and publishes in the specialized area of occupational health psychology, with a particular focus on occupational callings and the work-family interface. Upon receipt of her PhD, Michele intends to continue her academic career, as well as consult with organizations to improve their employees’ health, safety, and well-being. Prior to joining USF, Michele practiced law for seven years in the areas of environmental, alcohol & beverage, and commercial real estate law. Michele received her JD from the University of Florida in 2004 and her MA in I/O psychology from USF in 2014. © Sodexo 2015
Kelley is the founder and CEO of eMindful, Inc., an online company offering live, virtual courses in applied mindfulness health and wellness courses. These programs are created specifically to provide scientifically demonstrated solutions to major healthcare costs. Ms. McCabe Ruff collaborated with Dr. Ruth Wolever, and Aetna Inc., to research the effectiveness of two new products addressing stress and metabolic syndrome: Mindfulness at Work® and Metabolic Health in Small Bytes™. Additionally, Ms. McCabe Ruff is an author on two peerreviewed articles: “The eTherapy for Cancer AppLying Mindfulness Trial (eCALM)” published in Psychosomatic Medicine and “Effective and Viable Mind-Body Stress Reduction in the Workplace: A Randomized Controlled Trial” published in Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. She began practicing mindfulness in 1997 and has worked with mindful eating since 2002. Ms. McCabe Ruff began her career on Wall Street where she worked for 20 years as a senior executive in technology for such companies as Salomon Brothers, Lehman Brothers, and Citigroup. She holds an MBA from New York University’s Stern School of Business.
Dr. Ruth Q. Wolever, PhD, Chief Scientific Advisor, eMindful Inc., Director of Research, Duke Integrative Medicine, and Associate Professor, Dept. of Psychiatry & Behavioral Science, Duke University School of Medicine Dr. Ruth Q. Wolever, PhD, is a clinical health psychologist with 20 years of experience designing, implementing, and evaluating behavior change programs for medical patients and those at risk for chronic disease. Dr. Wolever is the Founding Research Director for Duke Integrative Medicine and the Chief Scientific Advisor for eMindful Inc. At Duke University School of Medicine, she has co-developed, led and studied 19 distinct programs targeting stress and behavior change, using cutting-edge conceptual models
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and techniques. She is a national leader in the study of mindfulness-based approaches to self-regulation and lifestyle change (particularly stress and eating behaviors, binge eating, weight loss and weight loss maintenance), as well as innovative treatments for medication adherence, insomnia, tinnitus, and other stress-related disorders. Her clinical research has been funded by the National Institutes of Health (NCCAM, Office of Women’s Health, NHLBI, and NIDCD), Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, industry, and philanthropy. Dr. Wolever also co-authored The Mindful Diet, to be released in April by Simon & Schuster. Dr. Wolever has served as an expert in emotional health and behavior change for Everyday Health (2006-2011), for GSK (2009-2010, 2012), Nurtur, a fully owned subsidiary of Centene (since 2010), Samueli (since 2012) and recently for clinics on better integrating behavioral health into primary care models.
WHOLE BRAIN THINKING Thomas Stat, Innovation Strategist, Founder, Partner at Eleven Consulting Group Thomas Stat is a design thinker and strategist focused on innovation, business and design. He is an active consultant in the design and innovation space. Tom was an associate partner at IDEO, one of the world’s premier innovation consultancies. Tom focuses at the intersection of culture, organization and commerce, helping companies move beyond incremental to more disruptive and transformational futures through human-centered/design thinking. His clients include global companies in virtually every industry. Tom is an active entrepreneur and co-founded two companies: Rivet News Radio, an Internet-based news radio app and HERE Life, an off-campus student housing and predictive analytics company. Tom is an active lecturer at Northwestern University and The University of Chicago and routinely speaks at industry and company conferences. He chaired the 2012 Edison Awards, is on the board of Chicago Ideas Week and curated and hosted the 2012 Edison Talks. Tom attends the TED Conference and spoke on the TED main stage in 2012. He serves as a senior design advisor to the Museum of Science and Industry. Tom studied Aerospace Engineering at Purdue University, Social Psychology at Boston University, Architecture and Fine Arts at Rhode Island School of Design, and Marketing Management at Stanford University.
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CREATING POINTS OF CONNECTION Valerie Walls, PHR, Director of People & Organization, Mars Drinks North America Valerie Walls, PHR is the North America People & Organization Director for Mars Drinks, a Mars, Incorporated Company. Located at the global headquarters in West Chester, PA, her role is to create a People First culture within the brand’s unique business-tobusiness environment. As the North America P&O Director, Valerie plays a critical role to deliver the People Strategy for the business, focusing on engagement, succession, and the leadership capabilities for the business. As part of the North America Management Team, Valerie ensures Mars Drinks is building the right capabilities for accelerated growth, talent development, associate engagement and deploying the Mars signature processes. In 2011, Valerie graduated from West Chester University with a Master’s in Human Resources. That same year she obtained her Professional HR certification (PHR) from the HR Certification Institute. She earned a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology from Lehigh University.
About Mars Drinks: Mars Drinks’ vision is: we create great tasting moments at work. Mars Drinks supports businesses that want to provide great working environments for their people by focusing 100% of its energy and resources on the workplace, with the belief that people are the most important asset to any business. Mars Drinks is an integral part of the Mars, Incorporated family, which includes some of the world’s most loved brands such as M&M’s®, Snickers®, Uncle Ben’s®, Juicy Fruit®, and Skittles®. As part of Mars, Incorporated, Mars Drinks focuses on serving the highest quality drinks to people at work around the globe. With a passion for quality drinks, and a mission to provide those drinks simply and conveniently to people at work, Mars Drinks provides more than a billion drinks to more than 100,000 workplaces across Europe, North America, China and Japan each year.
© Sodexo 2015
MEET THE AUTHORS
EDUCATING THE FUTURE FM WORKFORCE Nancy Johnson Sanquist, IFMA Fellow, AIA Associate, Senior Real Estate and Workplace Analyst, Manhattan Software, a Trimble Company Nancy Johnson Sanquist is an IFMA Fellow and AIA Associate and Senior Real Estate and Workplace Analyst for Manhattan Software, a Trimble Company. She is an internationally recognized technology specialist with 25 years of diverse experience in real estate and facility management and she is also a Trustee on the IFMA Foundation Board. She has conducted numerous technology presentations for both IFMA and CoreNet Global in North America, Europe, Australia, India and Asia. Additionally, she has contributed substantially to the research and development of real estate technology through her many articles and books, the latest being Work on the Move, an award-winning publication on strategy edited and written with Diane Coles Levine for the IFMA Foundation in 2011. She has her BA from UCLA, MA from Bryn Mawr College and MS from the Graduate School of Architecture and Urban Planning at Columbia University. Additionally, Nancy has taught at a variety of higher education institutions over the years.
Diane Coles Levine, Chair of the IFMA Foundation, Principal at Workplace Management Solutions Diane Coles Levine is the Chair of the IFMA Foundation and Principal at Workplace Management Solutions. With over 20 years of experience in corporate real estate and facilities management, she spearheaded an innovative workplace strategy called the AWESOME project and won the 2009 IFMA George Graves Facility Management Achievement Award, the 2009 CoreNet Southern California Remmy for “Workplace Innovation” and was named a Southern California Real Estate Journal “Woman of Influence.” Diane is a guest lecturer at MIT Professional Education and Vienna University of Technology and a speaker at international conferences. She is the co-editor and co-author, along with Nancy Johnson-Sanquist, of the award-winning book Work on the Move: Driving Strategy and Change in Workplaces, a co-author of Cut it Out: Save for Today, Build for Tomorrow and a contributing author to facility management © Sodexo 2015
journals. Diane is a member of CoreNet and holds their Master’s in Corporate Real Estate (MCR) designation, and a Bachelor of Science in Business and Management.
ADDITIONAL EDITORIAL CONTRIBUTORS George Chavel, President and Chief Executive Officer, Sodexo George Chavel is President and CEO of Sodexo, Inc., a position he assumed on September 1, 2007. In this role, he oversees the company’s six business lines, over $8.4 billion in annual revenues, more than 9,000 clients and 132,000 employees in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. These account for nearly 45 percent of the global revenue for parent company, Sodexo Alliance. Mr. Chavel also serves on the Sodexo Alliance Executive Committee as a group COO and is a member of the worldwide Operating Committee. Since July, 2003, Mr. Chavel served as Health Care Market President and Chief Operating Officer for Sodexo, Inc. Under Mr. Chavel’s leadership, the Health Care market (Hospitals, Senior Services and Clinical Technologies Management) grew by almost 30 percent to $2.55 billion in annual revenues. Laundry Services, which was added to the Health Care market in 2005, experienced similar growth to $130 million. Mr. Chavel served as Vice President for the Hospitals/Acute Care division from 1998 to 2003.
Michael Norris, COO Sodexo North America and Market President Michael Norris was appointed Chief Operating Officer and Market President of Sodexo North America, currently an $8.4 billion solutions provider, in June 2005. He has direct reporting responsibility to President and CEO, George Chavel. Mr. Norris has an extensive background in driving sales growth and increasing market share, and currently oversees Sodexo’s B&I portfolio, which has annual revenues of more than $1.4 billion and serves more than 1,800 client locations nationwide. Mr. Norris has also served as President of Sodexo’s International Large Accounts market, representing 32
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of the largest global accounts and is the market champion for Sodexo’s Global Business & Industry Group. Shortly after joining Sodexo, he became the lead advisor and negotiator for the development of SodexoMAGIC, LLC, a joint venture partnership with Earvin “Magic” Johnson, Jr. In 8 years, he has successfully grown the venture to $200M in sales and serves on the SodexoMAGIC board of directors.
Lisa Larsen Hill, Senior Vice President, Marketing and Creative Services, Sodexo, Innovations 2 Solutions Lisa is responsible for the Innovations 2 Solutions (I2S) team, which is comprised of subject matter experts in research, culinary, sustainability, wellness, technology and workplace experience, including integrated services. Additionally, she manages Sodexo’s highly successful proposal and design center, which supports sales initiatives globally across all division segments. Lisa sits on both the Global and North American Marketing Teams, compiling best shared practices and offering development and oversight. Lisa’s team has been instrumental in the development of the organization’s Retail Excellence platform, which enables consistency, guaranteed innovation and new offerings every season. Lisa graduated cum laude from San Francisco State University, with a Bachelor’s Degree in Communications/Educational Broadcasting. She also has studied at the University of London and the University of Amsterdam.
Rachel S. Permuth, PhD, MSPH, National Director of Research, Sodexo, Innovations 2 Solutions Rachel leads consumer insight studies on organizational issues, challenges and opportunities facing our clients. Prior to her current role with Sodexo, Dr. Permuth has supported the development of programs and solutions for Fortune 500 companies, leading U.S. Hospitals and
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higher education institutions. She also served as the Director of the Center of Employee Health and Well-being at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and was Deputy Director of the Office of Strategic and Innovative Programs at NIH as well. Her PhD is in Public and Community Health from the University of Maryland. She also has a background in mathematics and psychology.
Rebecca L. Scott, MPH, Senior Communications Specialist & Research Analyst, Sodexo, Innovations 2 Solutions Working with the I2S team, Rebecca leads a variety of research activities and thought-leadership initiatives, including the annual Workplace Trends Report. Prior to joining Sodexo, Rebecca worked as a health & wellness director for several corporate organizations and academic institutions. With a strong interest in health and well-being and a Master’s Degree in Public Health, Rebecca approaches her work with a focus on promoting and creating a better quality of life for the individuals Sodexo serves. n
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Jo Jackson – Editor Nicole Nicolas – Creative Editor Karen Curry – Copy Editor Design Team Deidra Agbro – Graphic Designer Tracy Amtmann – Graphic Designer Christie Drake – Graphic Designer Erin Perkins – Graphic Designer Payal Shah – Graphic Designer Editorial Board Stacy Bowman-Hade, Director of Stakeholder Engagement Stacy Bowles, Business Development Analyst Stephen Cox, Vice President of Public Relations robin goldberg, Director of Creative Services Kevin Rettle, Senior Director of Marketing, Insight, and Innovation Jennie Vinson, Director of Marketing, On-site Service Solutions, Facilities Management Public Relations Kate Wester, Director of Thought Leadership Engagement 301-987-4885 • Kate.Wester@sodexo.com
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FUTURE WORK SKILLS FOR 2020 1. Lanier, J. (2010, September 16). Does the Digital Classroom Enfeeble the Mind? New York Times. Retrieved from: http:// www.nytimes.com/2010/09/19/magazine/19fob-essay-t.html?pagewanted=2. 2. Autor, D. (2010, April). The Polarization of Job Opportunities in the US Labor Market. Center for American Progress and The Hamilton Project. 3. Page, S. E. (2008). The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools and Societies. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 4. Quoted in: Institute for the Future. (2005). Science & Technology Perspectives: 2005-2055. Retrieved from http://www. iftf.org/uploads/media/TH_SR-967_S%26T_Perspectives.pdf 5. Quoted in: Eberhard, J. P., & Patoine, B. (2004). Architecture With the Brain in Mind. The Dana Foundation weblog. Retrieved from: http://www.dana.org/news/cerebrum/detail.aspx?id=1254. 6. Meyers-Levy, J., & Zhu, R. (2007). The influence of ceiling height: The effect of priming on the type of processing people use. Journal of Consumer Research, 34. 7. Girouard, A., Treacy-Solovey, E., et al. (2010). From Brain Signals to Adaptive Interfaces: using fNIRS in HCI. Brain Computer Interfacts: Human-Computer Interaction Series, 3, 221-237.
GLOBAL REWARDS AND RECOGNITION: BRIDGING CULTURE AND GENERATIONS THROUGH LOCALIZATION 1. Gallup. (2013). State of the global workforce: Employee engagement insights for business leaders worldwide. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/strategicconsulting/164735/state-global-workplace.aspx 2. Aon Hewitt. (2013). 2013 trends in global employee engagement. Retrieved from http://www.aon.com/attachments/ human-capital-consulting/2013_Trends_in_Global_Employee_Engagement_Highlights.pdf 3. See reference 1. 4. See reference 1. 5. See reference 2. 6. Sodexo. (2014). Effective recognition and reward program framework modeling. Retrieved from http://www. sodexomotivation.com/download/2014%20Manager%20Spot%20Framework.pdf 7. Ibid. 8. Global Incentive Council. (2013). Recognition & incentives in the global marketplace: Selecting the right provider. Retrieved from http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.incentivemarketing.org/resource/resmgr/imported/ SelectingRightProvider_Feb2013_wMbrList_WEB.pdf 9. Pyrillis, R. (2011). Avoid culture shock when rewarding international employees. Workforce Management Online. Retrieved from http://www.workforce.com/articles/avoid-culture-shock-when-rewarding-international-employees 10. Ibid. 11. Ibid. 12. Global Incentive Council and IMA Europe. (n.d.). Recognition and incentives in Europe. Retrieved from http://c. ymcdn.com/sites/www.incentivemarketing.org/resource/collection/CB3D7A1D-74F3-4465-82C6-6BA01F584DD9/ RecognitionIncentives_Europe.pdf 13. Global Incentive Council (n.d.). Reward, recognition programs bring opportunities, challenges to companies operating in China. Retrieved from http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.incentivemarketing.org/resource/resmgr/imported/China_ members_final10_14.pdf
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14. Sodexo Motivations Solutions. (2014). Timeless Performance: Recognition Programs for a Multi-Generational Workforce. Retrieved from http://sodexomotivation.com/resources/white_papers/timeless_performance_recognition_programs_ for_a_multi-generational_workforce/ 15. See reference 13. 16. See reference 1.
REDEFINING THE FAMILY-FRIENDLY WORKPLACE 1. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). (2014, April 25). Employment characteristics of families, 2013. USDL-14-0658. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/famee.nr0.htm 2. Allen, T. D. (2012). The work-family interface. In S. W. J. Kozlowski (Ed). Oxford Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. (pp. 1163-1198). New York: Oxford University Press. 3. Mesmer-Magnus, J. R., & Viswesvaran, C. (2006). How family-friendly work environments affect work/family conflict: A meta-analytic examination. Journal of Labor Research, 27, 555-574. 4. Rau, B. L. (2003). Flexible work arrangements. Sloan Online Work and Family Encyclopedia. http://wfnetwork.bc.edu/ encyclopedia_entry.php?id=240&area=All 5. Baltes, B. B., Briggs, T. E., Huff, J. W., Wright, J. A., & Neuman G. A. (1999). Flexible and compressed workweek schedules: A meta-analysis of their effects on work-related criteria. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(4), 496-513. 6. Grover, S. L., & Crooker, K. (1995). Who appreciates family-responsive human resource policies: The impact of familyfriendly policies on the organizational attachment of parents and non-parents. Personnel Psychology, 48, 271-288. 7. Allen, T. D., Johnson, R. C., Kiburz, K. M., & Shockley, K. M. (2013). Work-family conflict and flexible work arrangements: Deconstructing flexibility. Personnel Psychology, 66, 345-376. 8. Byron, K. (2005). A meta-analytic review of work-family conflict and its antecedents. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62, 169–198. 9. Ryan, A. M., & Kossek, E. E. (2008). Work-life policy implementation, breaking down or creating barriers to inclusiveness. Human Resource Management, 47(2), 295-310. 10. Allen, T. D. (2001). Family-supportive work environments: The role of organizational perceptions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58, 414-435. 11. Gerstner, C. R., & Day, D. V. (1997). Meta-analytic review of leader-member exchange theory: Correlates and construct issues. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 824-844. 12. Tepper, B. J. (2007). Abusive supervision in work organizations: Review, synthesis, and research agenda. Journal of Management, 33, 261-289. 13. Hammer, L. B., Kossek, E. E., Anger, W. K., Bodner, T., & Zimmerman, K. L. (2011). Clarifying work-family intervention processes: The roles of work-family conflict and family-supportive supervisor behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(1), 134-150. 14. Kossek, E. E., Pichler, S., Bodner, T., & Hammer, L. B. (2011). Workplace social support and work-family conflict: A metaanalysis clarifying the influence of general and work-family specific supervisor and organizational support. Personnel Psychology, 64, 289-313. 15. Thompson, C. A., Beauvais, L. L., & Lyness, K. S. (1999). When work-family benefits are not enough: The influence of work-family culture and benefit utilization, organizational attachment, and work-family conflict. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54, 392-415. 16. Anderson, S. E., Coffey B. S., & Byerly, R. T. (2002). Formal organizational initiatives and informal workplace practices: Links to work-family conflict and job-related outcomes. Journal of Management, 28, 787-810.
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17. Behson, S. J. (2005). The relative contribution of formal and informal organizational work-family support. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66, 487-500. 18. Yerkes, M., Standing, K., Wattis, L., & Wain, S. (2010). The disconnection between policy practices and women’s lived experiences: Combining work and life in the UK and the Netherlands. Community, Work & Family, 13(4), 411-427. 19. Kelly, E. L., et al. (2008). Getting there from here: Research on the effects of work-family initiatives on work-family conflict and business outcomes. The Academy of Management Annals, 2(1), 305-349. 20. Matos, K., & Galinsky, E. (2014). 2014 National Study of Employers. Families and Work Institute.
MINDFULNESS AT WORK 1. “There is medical evidence that stress can adversely affect an individual’s immune system, thereby increasing the risk of disease. Numerous studies have linked stress to back pain, colorectal cancer, infectious disease, heart problems, headaches and diabetes. Job stress may also heighten risky behaviors such as smoking, drug and alcohol abuse, discourage healthy behaviors such as physical activity, proper diet and increase consumption of fatty and sweet foods.” Nauert, R. (2011, August). Reduction in Workplace Stress Could Curb Health Care Costs. PsychCentral. Reviewed by John M. Grohol, Psy.D. 2. “In work published in the journal BMC Public Health, Concordia University researchers report that the number of visits to health care professionals is up to 26 percent for workers in high stress jobs. Improving stressful working conditions and educating workers on stress-coping mechanisms could help to reduce health care costs.” Nauert, R. (2011, August). Reduction in Workplace Stress Could Curb Health Care Costs. PsychCentral. Reviewed by John M. Grohol, Psy.D. 3. “Managing workplace stress can also foster other economic advantages, such as increased productivity among workers, reduced absenteeism and diminished employee turnover.” Nauert, R. (2011, August). Reduction in Workplace Stress Could Curb Health Care Costs. PsychCentral. Reviewed by John M. Grohol, Psy.D. 4. Baime, M. J., Wolever, R. Q., Pace, W., Morris, W. M., & Bobinet, K. J. (2011, April). Perceived stress scale correlates with health care costs. Poster session presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, Washington, D.C. 5. Go, A., Mozaffarian, D., Roger, V., et al. (2013, December). American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics−-2014 Update: A Report from the American Heart Association. Retrieved from https://circ.ahajournals.org/ content/early/2013/12/18/01.cir.0000441139.02102.80 6. Yang, W., Dall, T., Halder, P., Gallo, P., Kowal, S., & Hogan, P. (2013, March). American Diabetes Association. Economic costs of diabetes in the U.S. in 2012. Diabetes Care 2013, 36, 1033–1046. 7. Marlatt, G. A., & Kristeller, J. L. (1999). Mindfulness and Meditation. In W.R. Miller (Ed.), Integrating spirituality into treatment (67-84). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. 8. Davidson, R. J., Kabat-Zinn, J., Schumacher, J., Rosenkranz, M., Muller, D., Santorelli, S. F., Urbanowski, F., Harrington, A., Bonus, K., & Sheridan, J. F. (2002). Alterations in Brain and Immune Function Produced by Mindfulness Meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine: Journal of Bio-behavioral Medicine. 9. Carlson, L. E., Speca, M., Patel, K. D., & Goodey, E. (2003). Mindfulness-based stress reduction in relation to quality of life, mood, symptoms of stress, and immune parameters in breast and prostate cancer outpatients. Psychosomatic Medicine, July-August, 65(4), 571-81. 10. Wolever, R. Q., Bobinet, K. J., McCabe, K. A., Mackenzie, E. R., Fekete, E., Kusnick, C. A., & Baime, M. J. (2012, April). Effective and viable mind-body stress reduction in the workplace: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17(2), 246-258. 11. Cullen, L. T. (2006, January). How to Get Smarter, One Breath at a Time: Scientists find that meditation not only reduces stress but also reshapes the brain. Time Magazine. Retrieved from https://psyphz.psych.wisc.edu/web/News/Time_ Jan06.html
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12. Hölzel, B. K., Carmody, J., Vangel, M., Congleton, C., Yerramsetti, S. M., Gard T., & Lazar, S. W. (2011). Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Research, 191(1), 36-43. 13. Brand, S., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., Naranjo, J. R., & Schmidt, S. (2012). Influence of mindfulness practice on cortisol and sleep in long-term and short-term meditators. Neuropsychobiology, 65(3), 109-18. 14. Rosenzweig, S., Reibel, D. K., Greeson, J. M., Edman, J. S., Jasser, S. A., McMearty, K. D., & Goldstein, B. J. (2007). Mindfulness-based stress reduction is associated with improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study. Alternative Therapeutic Health Medicine, 13(5), 36-8. 15. Langer, E. J., & Moldoveanu, M. (2000). The construct of mindfulness. Journal of Social Issues, 56(1), 1-9. 16. Grundy, S. M., Cleeman, J. I., Daniels, S. R., Donato, K. A., Eckel, R. H., Franklin, B. A., et al. (2005). Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation 2005, 112, 2735-2752. 17. Goldstein, L. B., Adams, R., Alberts, M. J., Appel, L. J., Brass, L. M., Bushnell, C. D. et al. (2006). Primary Prevention of Ischemic Stroke: A Guideline From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council: Cosponsored by the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease Interdisciplinary Working Group; Cardiovascular Nursing Council; Clinical Cardiology Council; Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism Council; and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group: The American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this guideline. Circulation 2006, 113(24), e873-e923. 18. Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385-396. 19. Buysse, D. J., Reynolds III, C. F., Monk, T. H., Berman, S. R., & Kupfer, D. J. (1989). The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research, 28(2), 193-213. 20. Lerner, D., Amick, B. C. III, Rogers, W. H., Malspeis, S., Bungay, K., & Cynn, D. (2001). The Work Limitations Questionnaire. Medical Care, 39(1), 72-85.
EDUCATING THE FUTURE FM WORKFORCE 1. Willie, T. (2014, May/June). CFM as an Inevitable Trend. Facilities Management Journal, 47-50. Retrieved from http:// bluepillar.com/BluePillar/media/PDFs/FMJ_May-Jun_2014_BluePillarWeb.pdf 2. JLL. (2014). Millennial Interest in Facilities Management: Winning the loyalty of young professionals who want meaningful careers. Retrieved from http://www.us.jll.com/united-states/en-us/Documents/winning-the-loyalty-ofmillennials-in-FM-July-2014.PDF 3. An interview by Ashley Halligan, Property Management Analyst, Software Advice, in The Maintenance Crisis and Innovations that are Changing It. April 12, 2012.
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approach To real eSTaTe: A Summary of Meeting Proceedings at CoreNet Global’s 2012 Orlando Global Summit & Subsequent Action Steps
Authors Debra Dailey, MA, VP Workplace Experience Strategy, Sodexo Jennifer Sponsler, MPH, Senior Manager of the Institute on Health, Productivity, and Human Capital, National Business Group on Health (NBGH) Rachel S. Permuth, PhD, Sr. Director of Workplace Research, Sodexo The information and concepts contained in this document are the proprietary property of Sodexo. As such, they cannot be reproduced or utilized without permission. ©2013
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