Page 1

ARCHITECTURE IN THE SHADOWS On the Dark Side of Design

Peter Wong School of Architecture UNC Charlotte


Peter Wong

ARCHITECTURE IN THE SHADOWS On the Dark Side of Design


Š 2012 Peter Wong. All rights reserved. Publisher – LuLu. This book is set in Gill Sans Light. The work in this publication is made possible with support from the School of Architecture, College of Arts + Architecture at University of North Carolina at Charlotte. http://coaa.uncc.edu/academics/school-of-architecture Inquires about this publication may be directed to Peter Wong, Associate Professor at plwong@uncc.edu.

Cover Image: Study Models (Shea Haney). Cover Image Inset: HDR Analysis (Gota Miyazaki). Previous Page Image: by Michael Lavoie. Image this Page: Shadow Space Maquette (Kevin Ramirez).


A Retreat into Darkness 3 In architecture, the focus on natural light has serviced both the spiritual and artistic value of modern building, and in many cases, is paramount to the idioms and philosophies of noteworthy design approaches. More recently, an interest in sun-lit architecture promises benefits on the sustainable side of design, similar to the tenets of the environmentalists in the 1970s. The luminous building is therefore an important symbol and source for many movements in modern architectural discourse, and this fascination will most likely continue. As Le Corbusier reminds us, architecture is “the masterly, correct and magnificent play of masses brought together in light,� confirming our reverence for all-things transparent, light, and exposed. But what can be said of the complementary effects of light, the black recesses of architecture that turn away from the brightness and shine of our visual world? In other words, what lies waiting for us in the shadows, of an architecture that favors shade, darkness, and the hidden. The research theme for the four design investigations which follow were investigated under the rubric of shadows and darkness. In doing so, we sought to equally explore the poetic as well as techno/environmental potential of making shadows in architecture. Peter Wong July 2012

Contents project

investigation

page

1.0

SILHOUETTES

2.0

SHADOW SPACE

15

3.0

FACADE RETROFIT

23

4.0

TALL BUILDING

57

5


Assignment 1.0

Silhouettes of Death

Above: Skyline of Charlotte, still from the film The Third Man, manual on identifying war aircraft, and Apple iPod advertisement. All display intense detail but with only line, shape contour, and imagination. Below: E. Boulee’s proposal for a cemetery gate.


SILHOUETTES

1

Vignette for a Cemetery Wall The silhouette draws its power from the background on which it is situated – often a white surface or bright horizon acting as a luminous screen to render all things black. This “backlit” condition functions to focus our eyes on the chiaroscuro between light and shadow, black and white, form and figure. In the 18th century silhouette portraits captured the character of human subjects in such detail that likenesses were undeniable. Today such minute details in modern military aircraft identification separate friend from enemy, life from death. The first assignment of the studio was to design in silhouette – an eastern boundary of a cemetery as seen gazing westward under a setting sun.

5


Assignment 1.0

Silhouettes of Death


Shea Haney 7

FOREVER IN THE DARK

Profiles of Death The silhouette edge of a walled urban cemetery becomes a mere profile, or series of lines. What are the effects if we begin design as a flattened shape, a line separating black from white, a boundary blurring any distinction between section and elevation? Creation: Through careful attention the detail afforded by profiles. Much can be understood from a simple black and white image. Using image transfers and hand-cut rubber stamps to produce noir effects, the media enlivens the potential of the silhouette and its tactile legibility. Imagery: A narrative can be read across the three plates. It begins with a celebrated cemetery entrance, where visitors pass through the limits of a gated threshold and move up a hill densely populated with mausoleums and cypress trees. The sequence concludes at the right on a hill terminating the narrative.


Assignment 1.0

Silhouettes of Death


Kevin Ramirez 9

GRAVEYARD SILHOUETTE

Layers of Blackness The graveyard silhouette collapses and layers disconnected elements bringing them together into a single image.This proposal is composed of two separate layers. The first consists of the graveyard and the church, iconic images that signify burial and death. The second layer is the wall that signifies the boundary of the site. This layer mediates between the graveyard and the site, filtering and framing view from and to the graveyard. The overlapping of these layers creates moments of tension within the final silhouette that focuses the viewer’s attention on symbolic aspects of its contours – for example, the lifeless trees, the forlorn ruins of the wall, or the church steeple reaching above the limit of the wall.


SITE ORIENTATION

15:00 16:00 17:00 S

N

FACADE GEOMETRY

FACADE CONSTRUCTION

The right side of the facade utilizes a 1’x2’ checkerboard grid. By translating and reflecting the individual bays slightly, in a similar manner of that of a shoji screen, the facade is able to create various aperture conditions. The increase in aperture size as it gets closer to ground creates a floating condition, making the facade appear weightless, emphasizing the concept of disembodied consciousness.

The facade is constructed in precast concrete or ceramic tiles joined at the edges, similar to the detail of Kuma Kengo’s “Lotus House.” In addition, a second layer will serve as lateral support and aperture sizing. It will be constructed in copper, coated with soy sauce to quicken the oxidation process, adding a green hue with a rustic finish.

N

A B

A

A. Precast Tile W

E

B. Copper Tile C

S

Assignment 1.0

Silhouettes of Death

C. Reinforced Concrete Foundation


Gota Miyazaki 11 11

CROSSING OVER

Double Nature The idea of this project is to separate the facade into two parts created by the 50 degree cut in the cemetery wall. This opening corresponds with the sun’s position on December 21st (the winter solstice).This separation represents the Sanzu River, which the deceased (metaphorically representing the sun) is believed to have taken a 7 day journey to cross the river. The date of the lowest solar angle signifies the end of life. The three circular apertures represent the coins placed in the deceased’s casket, which is believed to aid in the crossing over. The dual nature of the facade articulates two themes: 1) the ideal earthbound moment, and 2) the idea of disembodied consciousness. The first is represented by a low opaque facade, emphasizing its horizontality and relationship with the ground. The other is represented through perforated openings, emphasizing its verticality or defiance of gravity. The writings of Colin Rowe and Robert Slutzky contribute to the literal and phenomenal nature of the facade. This is achieved materially by the use of glass in conjunction with overlapping, shifting, and reflecting elements.


Assignment 1.0

Silhouettes of Death Diagram 1

Diagram 2

Plan

Plan

Elevation

Elevation


Roderick Xiong 13

DECEPTIVE SILHOUETTE

Conditions of Clarity and Ambiguity In investigating the two-dimensional flatness of the cemetery silhouette one perceives clarity and ambiguity as a paradox. The silhouette offers clear readings of nature vs. building, humans vs. inanimate objects, sacred symbols vs. neutral shapes. The intention of this project is not about establishing a clear reading of decorative cemetery objects, rather the project seeks the vagueness embodied in the condition of all silhouettes. The proposal employs simple geometries to reveal the hidden perception that silhouettes can be illusions that bring doubt to initial appearances. The two corresponding sets of diagrams to the left illustrate the difference between the idea of 1) what we believe to know based on what we see (the outline of a two-dimensional shape), and 2) what must be discovered based on what is not seen (the correspondence of the silhouette with its two-dimensional plan information).


Assignment 2.0

Shadow Space

Above and Right: Luigi Morretti’s model constructions and analysis as a means of “objectifying” architectural space. A similar method was used to understand the “space of shadows” in this series of assignments.


SHADOW SPACE

2

At the Limits of Shade What is the space of a shadow? How might we account for its presence as a significant part of architecture? To what degree is a building responsible for the shadow space it casts? Furthermore, how might the notion of shadow space contribute to the understanding and significance of the way we design objects? The objective of this assignment was to arrive at a formal understanding of shadows by generating a spatial volume derived from a source object. So doing allowed us to recognize the importance of the collateral nature of shade and shadow, and to what extent their influence might be beneficial. Method: 1. Determine object, light source, and angle of light. 2. Project, produce, and document shadow. 3. Map 2-d shadow, interpolate to 3-d via digital means. 4. Generate a physical model of the shadow space. 5. Document all.

15


FORM GENERATING PROCESS

STEP 1

E x t r u d e d S h a d o w S p a c e S u r f a c e s A l o n g XYZ A x e s

STEP 2

Assignment 2.0

Shadow Space

STEP 3

STEP 4


Roderick Xiong 17

FORMING A SHADOW LINE A Problem of Process This project began with a set of unusual design criteria. Rather than beginning with a set of design constraints the project demanded the intellectual task of constructing a specific process. The sequence began with a chosen object (a tape dispenser) used to cast a shadow line. The final objective was to create a shadow condition as oppose to the design of an object. Shown is a set of diagrams that illustrates a four-step process showing the design methods used to create the shadow space of the object. The shadow space was transformed into a volume by extruding it along XYZ axes. The three extrusions were merged together at their center points. A subtraction was made at the intersection between the three volumes. Then, in the final step, the resulting form was extracted from the central point of the subtracted surface intersections.

Below Left: A common tape dispenser was used to cast a shadow under low angled light. Below: Phototectonic light studies.


North Elevation

Perspective

Perspective

Plan

West Elevation

South Elevation

East Elevation

North Elevation

Assignment 3.0

Dressing the Facade

Perspective

Perspective

Plan

West Elevation

South Elevation

East Elevation


Shea Haney 19

LANDSCAPED SHADOW SPACE Objectified Topography The initial appeal of the resulting object in this exercise was found in the voids captured in the shadow space. The second observation noted was that the object itself also contained shadows, in turn raising the questions as to where shadow space starts and the object ends, or are both one and the same? The juxtaposition of small, articulate shadows falling on the object against the massive object-like shadow of the overall shadow space became of interest. Initial studies drawn from regulating lines led to a new object whose form is reminiscent of topography or a landscape. The new shadow space rose and fell with respect to an imaginary ground plane.This plane was envisioned as the datum on which the object and shadow were originally found. The voids became prominent as spaces below the datum, while the raised sections rose like mountains above this plane. The datum functioned like a fulcrum for balancing these tectonic objects.

Left: Initial object was irrelevant in the discovery of the shadow space. Object cast a unique shadow that remotely resembled the original object. Voids in the shadow created the interest.


The motive of the assignment was to investigate the invisible shadow-volume of an object at a particular time of day, then transform the shadow into a visible mass in space. As in Gestalt theory, the project emphasizes the negative space between the visible – which in this case is the object and its cast shadow – to understand its impact under the dimension of light and shadow. As a result, anything that is revealed in light becomes invisible so that only the shadow volume remains. Furthermore, to investigate how the shadowvolume changes under different light sources, a reflective surface was discovered at the rear of the original object that served to highlight parts of the shadow-volume. False color imaging (high dynamic range analysis) was used to locate this area of influence within the shadow-volume. Finally the two volumes of shadow and highlight were superimposed to understand the relationship.

“SUPERIMPOSITION”

“SHADOW AND HIGHLIGHTS”

Shadow and Highlight Sumperimposition

Incident Ray and Indirect Illumination study

SUPERIMPOSING PLANS

STRATIFYING HIGHLIGHT VOLUME

Highlights

Perspective

Top

Left

Front

Assignment 2.0

Shadow Space

Right

Back

MASS MODEL 1

MASS MODEL 2

GROUND FLOOR

FIRST FLOOR

TECTONIC 1

TECTONIC 2

SECOND FLOOR

THRID FLOOR


Gota Miyazaki

SPACE WITHIN A SHADOW

21 21

“SHADOW AS COMPLETING VOLUME”

“SHADOW OF THE OBJECT”

Shadow volume study

Shadow shape, and orientation study

STRATIFYING SHADOW VOLUME

SHADOWS OF 11:00AM - 3:00 PM

SHAPE AND CONTOUR

AXIS

REGIONS

SUPERIMPOSING PLANS

A B C D E F

L I

J

G H

ORTHOGRAPHICS

DESIGN/SKETCHES

Left

Front

Right

Back

K

M

N


Assignment 3.0

Dressing the Facade


FACADE RETROFIT

3

CRRA Headquarters The studio was asked to redesign the exterior skin of the Charlotte Regional Realtors速 Association headquarters, a 1960s five-story building just outside the center city core. This involved upgrades to the exterior envelope of the post-WWII modernist structure by Harold Cooler. The style of the existing building was originally rendered with slim vertical windows in conjunction with the use of Miesian-style brick veneer panels. The building was a solid lesson in the rules established by the International Style. Similar to many buildings of the mid-century era, the superstructure was robust and sturdy, composed of precast concrete columns with double-tee concrete slab construction. By current day standards, the building lacked adequate daylight to the interior and was not well insulated. Cooler, was a prominent Piedmont architect and a graduate of Clemson University in the 1950s. Questions regarding modifications to the building and its historical significance became a secondary concern for the project.

23


A

B

Assignment 3.0

Dressing the Facade

C

D

Right (C and D): Showing the existing structural bay rhythm in conjunction with the fabric elements along the faรงade that allow shading.

A. Entry Floor Plan

B. Typical Floor Plan

C. North Elevation

D. West Elevation


Dong Hoon Lee 25

FOLDABLE SHADING TECTONICS

Design Concept The site is located in downtown Charlotte, North Carolina.The purpose of project is to retrofit new facades to the existing five-story Charlotte Regional Realtor Association headquarters. Fabric as a shading material was a requirement of the problem. A series of folded triangular shading devices was created to provide a pattern within the existing concrete structural bays of the original building. From within, views out to the city are permitted though breaks in the new skin. An opaque treatment of the walls at the east and west faรงades allows a contrasting reading as well as provides protection from low sun angles. The simple repeating fabric motif adds lightness to the building faรงade. The entrance of building is created by customizing the fabric to form a south side canopy that emphasizes the formal entry route.

Above: South facade showing the pattern of fabric shading elements.


Assignment 3.0

Dressing the Facade

Above: Detail section and elevation showing the connection of the fabric layer and its orientation to the curtain wall system. Folded fabrics are attached to metal beams that are in turn anchored to columns. The columns extend to the path where they create an entry threshold with fabric canopies.


Dong Hoon Lee 27

Left: Model series demonstrating the envelope patterns along the four sides of the building.

Shadow Forms The folded fabric create various shadow patterns along the north and south faรงades of the building. Each element is sloped towards a fold-line where it protects the interior from the sun throughout the day. A series of folding geometries act as a screen on the south faรงade, while the north faรงade has fewer elements in order to maximize ambient light. The shape of panels create complex shadows but at the same time minimize glare while producing an aesthetic pattern of light and shade.


Left: Floor Plans.

Assignment 3.0

Dressing the Facade

Above Right: Elevations. Above Center: Shading Skin. Right: Corner View.


Kevin Ramirez 29

SHADOW SKIN

Second Skin Using fabrics alone to clad a building is impossible.Therefore, this project called for both a fabric shading layer as well as a thermal isolating layer (glass storefront) that separates the interior from the exterior climate conditions. The interior skin of the building is made from modular aluminum frames attached to existing concrete columns and beams. These frames support large windows (floor to ceiling). The second skin is composed of fabric louvers and an aluminum frame system. The exterior skin of the building is primary used to shade the building during the summer months. However, it also engages the site, articulates the entrance, and affords views in and out of the building. Openings within the secondary skin allow summer sun into the building and permit framed views of the city while reducing solar heat gain.

Corner View.


Assignment 3.0

Dressing the Facade


Kevin Ramirez 31

Entry and Skin The location of the entry of the building remains the same, however, an accessible ramp and secondary stairway has been added. The ramp wraps the building from the west to the south, while the stairway connects the main floor with the ground plane. The ramp is designed to interact with the new fabric skin. An opening in this secondary skin allows the occupants to enter into an area between the building and skin as they move up the ramp. One experiences the play of light and shadow as one ascends this incline to the entrance of the building. The fabric skin shades the building from the sun during the summer time and allows the control of low angled light in the winter months.

Left: Ecotect analyses were used to determine the optimal design details – e.g., angle of the louvers, size of the louvers, spacing of the louvers, orientation of the louvers.


Site:

PRODUCED BY A

1201 Greenwood Cliff Lane Charlotte, NC

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

Below: Shadows on new open floor plan

1

Level 4 1/8" = 1'-0"

ENT PRODUCT

Assignment 3.0

Dressing the Facade

Left: Exterior facade shift exposing the interior, or soul of the building. Below: Filtered light of the interior.


Roy French 33

BILLOW CANVAS

A Conversion with Soul Re-skinning of Harold Cooler’s 1960s building allows for the renewal of a simple, modernist rectangular box. The existing is conservative and simplistic by current day design standards. Five slabs supported by a rational precast concrete frame, clad with brick panels allowing for minimal interior daylight. Is the building a testament of mid-century modern design practice or the result of inexpensive commercial architecture? Ignoring all human spatial sensibility represses the soul. A 21st century interpretation of this building offers a different perspective in order to offer a more transparent enclosure. By peeling back the old skin daylight enters the interior as well as helps to make a more recognizable entrance. The original building hides its soul.The new design presented here wears it on its sleeve. A semi-transparent billowed canvas screen limits direct sunlight while allowing screened views from the interior.

Above: Tilted shading structure juxtaposed against the revealing of the existing 1960s enclosure.


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

Assignment 3.0

Dressing the Facade

{3D}


Roy French 35

Left: Night view of the newly transformed entrance facade. The beauty of the interior behind the new screen becomes evident when the sun goes down.

Left: Wrapped in a transparent skin that opens to the world after 50 years. No more secrets as represented by the new technology of the spider joint.


Above.:The 1995 wrapping of the Reichstag by Christo and Jean Claude was the main precedent for this faรงade project. The wrapping expressed the verticality of the folds and pleats. The reading however changed as the realization of the material became better understood. The true meaning of the detail enabled a greater exploration of what a faรงade and its multiple layers could achieve. Furthermore, the fabric could do offer the occupants of the interior a shadowy quality to yield a sense of identity.

Below: Studies of the scale and form of the fabric and how they might fit as units to the building. The shape of the fabric and its expressive quality as structurally representative of the existing frame beyond corresponded with actual points of support. This relationship created the appropriate tension between the old building and its new skin.

Assignment 3.0

Dressing the Facade


Mitchell Bye 37

HIDDEN FACADE

Dancing Screen In this proposal the line of the entry ramp is hidden by manipulating a screen of fabric over the entire existing building volume. The building is denied any monolithic reading by the use of this sail-like, diaphanous skin. The resulting shadow line is divided and repeated so that the relation to human scale is appropriate for this largely residential neighborhood district. Patterning and division of the fabric panels allows for the penetration of light into the building. The fabric’s puzzle-like form freely moves across the volume, virtually lightening the existing structure.


Assignment 3.0

Dressing the Facade


Mitchell Bye

Far Left: An analysis of the different shadows cast onto the floor of each level. Lower levels are afforded more light than the upper sections. Left: Structural drawing, the fabric structure is seen to be tied to the wall and the ground. From this section the continuation of the fabric over the top of the building may be seen.

39

Left: Perspective view of the entry demonstrating the distance of the shading structure from the building. Shadow forms and solar protection are enhanced by this separation. The occupants are allowed a greater sense of the path of the sun through the day in all seasons. Below Left and Below: Powder printed 3-d models demonstrate the play of light and layering of the fabric system. They reveal the various voids where light might penetrate the building.


Facade study model.

Assignment 3.0

Dressing the Facade

Testing shadow patterns of the fabric panels.


Brittany Green 41

RELIEF IN THE SHADOWS

Overlapping Parametric Folds This project utilizes canvas scrims and steel to enclose and shade an existing office building. The design shades the existing structure but also provides a certain amount of views and connections to the city of Charlotte. Canvas was studied as a material before a scheme was devised for the facade. Origami strategies of folding were studied due to the similar properties found between paper and canvas.The resulting facade system acts as a relief in which the canvas panels are placed within a space frame system. They are layered to create a shadow space of changing opacities and transparencies.

Above: Partial configuration of the developed facade system.


Assignment 3.0

Dressing the Facade


B

C

D

43

D

C

B

Brittany Green

A

Analysis

A

MARCH 21 7AM

JUNE 21 7AM

MARCH 21 9AM

JUNE 21 9AM

MARCH 21 12PM

JUNE 21 12PM

MARCH 21 2PM

JUNE 21 2PM

MARCH 21 4PM

JUNE 21 5PM

DECEMBER 21 7AM

DECEMBER 21 9AM

DECEMBER 21 12PM

A parametric design was developed in the program Grasshopper to tune each facade to its shading needs in relation to annual sun patterns. It was tested through a series of shadow and solar radiation studies. Overall, the skin system significantly helps shade the building. It also allows interesting moments to occur within the office space while allowing for views of Charlotte’s skyline.

DECEMBER 21 2PM

DECEMBER 21 4PM

MARCH 21 5PM

DECEMBER 21 5PM

Left: Ecotect shadow analysis for northern facade. MARCH 21 7PM

Brittany Green

TOTAL RADIATION

TOTAL DIRECT RADITATION

TOTAL DIFFUSE RADITATION

DECEMBER 21 7PM

Facade Design/Study

Below Left: Ecotect solar analysis for all elevations.


UP

Left: Ground floor and typical floor plans depict the simple structure of the CRRA building. Below: Detailed photographs of the building facade model. UP

N

Third Floor Plan 1

8 " = 1’ - 0 ”

0’

(Typical) 3’

9’

SECTION A

12’

N

N

Main Floor Plan 1

8 " = 1’ - 0 ”

0’

(First Floor) 3’

9’

12’

1

First Floor Plan

16" = 1’ - 0 ”

0’

5’

10’

15’

Section A 1

2

"

= 1’ - 0 ”

0’

4’

8’

16’

DN

Interior Section Elevation 1

2

"

= 1’ - 0 ”

0’

4’

8’

16’

Exterior Section Elevation 1

2"

1

8 " = 1’ - 0 ”

= 1’ - 0 ”

0’

4’

8’

16’

DN

N

Third Floor Plan SECTION A

0’

(Typical) 3’

9’

12’

N

Main Floor Plan 1

8 " = 1’ - 0 ”

0’

(First Floor) 3’

9’

12’

N

Third Floor Plan 1

16" = 1’ - 0 ”

0’

5’

(Typical) 10’

15’

Section A 1

Assignment 3.0

Dressing the Facade

2

"

= 1’ - 0 ”

0’

4’

8’

16’

Interior Section Elevation 1

2

"

= 1’ - 0 ”

0’

4’

8’

16’

Exterior Section Elevation 1

2

"

= 1’ - 0 ”

0’

4’

8’

16’

Left: Ecotect analysis investigating the performance of the sun-shading enclosure as well as shadow studies for the building.


Shea Haney 45

SHADOW BOX

Coffered Sun-Shade After investigating several facade ideas through analysis of their shadow casting ability, a coffered or “dog-eared” design was chosen. Made from a canvas sun-shade material stretched tightly over a lightweight aluminum skeletal structure, the entire coffered surface protruded six to nine feet from the building’s envelope. As this screen wraps the building, the projection of each shading device changes across the length of the facade. The potential of this parametrically responsive design is determined via an Ecotect simulation that calculates the amount of shade required to minimize solar heat gain.

Above: Full building model with facade enclosure and sun-screen device.


Assignment 3.0

Dressing the Facade

1. Parapet 2. Thermal Insulation 3. Steel Wide Flange (W6) 4. Canvas Sun Shade 5. 1�x1� Aluminum Shade Structure 6. Suspended Ceiling 7. Interior Glass 8. Exterior Glass 9. Concrete Spandrel 10. Concrete Double T 11. Exterior Concrete Cladding Panel 12. ADA Ramp 13. Corrugated Metal Maintenance Walkway 14. Ramp Handrails


Shea Haney 47

Left” Study models exploring form, shape, and shadow helped to determine a form that would perform effectively as a shading unit. Below: Corner detail of building enclosure system.

Thick Facade Integral to the design of the five-story building’s enclosure was the need to maintain a view out of the building for its occupants. Creating a device that took its measurements from human proportions helped to ensure that users on the interior would be able to view the city that lies just beyond the walls. An additional reason for the thick facade was the required space for the service and maintenance of the enclosure. Though inexpensive, canvas is a material that requires maintenance, requiring replacement every eight to ten years depending on wear.

Corner Detail 1

2

"

= 1’ - 0 ”

0’

4’

8’

16’


Below: Physical model illustrating how the facade might appear at night.

Assignment 3.0

Dressing the Facade

Right: Models illustrating how the front and back condition of the fabric changes the facade’s appearance throughout the day.


Gota Miyazaki

March 21 9:00

Radiation , kWh/m2 0 79 159

49

238

MEMORY RETROFIT 317 397 476

March 21 12:00

South Facade - March 21 12:00

Memory Fabric This renovation proposal investigates the possibility of fabric as a replacement skin. Memory-shape fabric that retains its form after deformation was proposed in order to allow the facade to be flexible. This flexibility allowed consistent facade aesthetics, exterior shading, and accessible views. Fabric ribbons with a dimension of 2’x2’x30’ are twisted at various rotating angles and points along these lengths to creating a vertical or horizontal, louver-like plane that is in either shade or light. By multiplying this effect into 28 bands, the flat fabric skin appears to have a threedimensional quality along the length of the facade.

East Facade

Front elevation.


Assignment 3.0

Dressing the Facade


- Without Fabric Shading Device -

Radiation kW/m2

Radiation kW/m2

0

0

25

25

50

Mean Radiation = 1.96 kW/m2

50

Mean Radiation = 52.39 kW/m2 Reduction = 96.26% Ω

Solar Radiation Analysis Solar energy gain is measured during the cooling season, March 21st to September 21st, to test how efficient the fabric shading device performs. The base case interior solar radiation is rated at 52.39 kW/m2 during this time period. However there is a reduction in solar radiation by 96.26% with the implementation of the fabric shading device. This is due to the horizontal louvers being spaced vertically at 2’ increments, which is the cutoff angle to fully shade on March 21st.

Southwest Facade

Radiation kW/m2 0

238

476

Mean Radiation = 8.54 kW/m2

Mean Radiation = 140.58 kW/m2 Reduction = 93.93% Ω

Northeast Facade

Radiation kW/m2 0

238

476

Mean Radiation = 12.36 kW/m2

Mean Radiation = 263.43 kW/m2 Reduction = 95.31% Ω

Northwest Facade

Radiation kW/m2 0

238

476

Mean Radiation = 10.26 kW/m2

Mean Radiation = 300.92 kW/m2 Reduction = 96.59% Ω

Southeast Facade

Radiation kW/m2 0

238

476

Mean Radiation = 16.57 kW/m2

Mean Radiation = 396.8 kW/m2 Reduction = 95.82% Ω

Gota Miyazaki

Interior Solar Radiation

- With Fabric Shading Device -

51


C O N ST R U CT A B I L ITY

Classification of support structure assembly.

The fabric facade is made of a modular panel system. All panels are sized to a dimension of 10’ x 15’. As shown below, each panel is constructed using a set of five - one inch square aluminum tubes. A simple 2’ by 2.-1/2’ grid system is used to regulate the configuration of each aluminum member. Each set of aluminum tubes is combined to work as a single unit and to shape the fabric material that overlays this frame. The resulting facade retrofit may be erected by placing this single panel unit in assemblage with other configurated panels to produce the overall form of the building.

Selected Configurations of 5 Aluminum Tubes

5’ x 10’ Aluminum Unit Frame Set

Fabric Overlay

Assignment 3.0

Dressing the Facade

Above: Night perspective view of the building from S. Kings Drive looking toward the direction of the Charlotte city skyline.


Roderick Xiong 53

FABRIC FACADE RECLAD

Reestablishing the Perimeter After analyzing the original building it was determined there was a lack of a strong response to the surrounding context as well as the need for a better interior environment for the occupant. Though the minimal mid-century aesthetic was important the building suffered from narrow vertical windows and dark artificially lit interiors. The strategy was to challenge this previous architectural language and to design a facade with more contemporary objectives that focused on both aesthetics as well as performative features. The resulting design incorporates a multifunctional facade whose form is defined by five criteria: 1) enhance the spatial experience for occupants (vibrant use of colored fabric), 2) provide good natural lighting, 3) allow for adequate shading, 3) make a strong interior and exterior connection, and express an architectural aesthetic that strongly responds to both the natural landscape and urban context.

rigid

curvilinear

polygonal

horizontals for views

verticals for daylighting


Sectional perspective from building interior.

Sectional perspective from building exterior.

Assignment 3.0

Detailed wall section.

Dressing the Facade

I

II

1 Double arm L-shaped angles and channel beam base connection. II Interceding case connector with top and bottom tension rod pin attachments. III Extended Y-bar arm and fabric panel frame connection.

III


Roderick Xiong 55

Above: Axonometric view showing how the vertical translucent black fabric along the south facade admits daylight into the interior spaces of the building.

Shading Analysis

Winter Solstice @ 1030 hrs

The fabric facade is composed of three color attributes. Each color has its own function and responds according to the daily orientation of the sun. The opaque orange fabric is oriented to the south, blocking out all unwanted direct sun and minimizing solar heat gain. Also on the south facade are six, five foot wide vertical black stripes that extend the entire height of the building. These stripes are translucent fabric and are used to admit sunlight into the building. Though the black is used intentionally as a tint it minimizes glare and allows for controlled daylighting to fill the office spaces. Since the north facade of the building sees very little direct sunlight it is composed of an orange translucent fabric. This allows for both office space privacy and a greater amount of daylight to enter into the building.

Fall and Spring Equinox @ 1030 hrs

Summer Solstice @ 1030 hrs


Above: Site plan and land use zones.

Assignment 4.0

In the Shadow of a Tall Building

Far Right: One Bank of America Center by Perkins + Will, 2010. The program and configuration of the building was used as a precedent for this project.


TALL BUILDING

4

Balancing Light and Shade Central to the theme of the studio was the design of a 30+ story building in center city Charlotte. Basic considerations for the structure and overall mass of the building were addressed, with the majority of the effort focusing on the design of a custom skin system. The building would not only create a significant urban shadow on neighboring sites but also would require shading strategies on all sides of the building due to its oblique angle to the solar path. Attention to the secondary structure, glazing assemblies, and proper insulation requirements were also critical. The primary objective was to create a sustainable skin that provided shading as a strategy to reduce heat gain and visual glare. At the same time the project was interested in as much interior natural light as possible so as to reduce energy demands (primarily electrical lighting and air-conditioning loads). Solar orientation of the project was similar to that encountered in project 3.0, therefore the technical analysis and ultimate shading treatment for the exterior had been previously explored and tested. The assignment was less of an exercise in iconic tall building making and more concerned with: 1) mapping the building’s shadow space and its potential as a positive urban influence, 2) the construction and sustainable detailing of its skin, and 3) its contribution as an additional mark on the city’s skyline.

57


Above: Perspective exterior sketch. Left: Site plan.

Assignment 4.0

In the Shadow of a Tall Building

Right: Perspective exterior model. Site image source: Google Maps


Alexander Suryandono 59

THE TOW33R

Redefining the Skyline Tow33r is a 33-story mixed-use building in uptown Charlotte. The town itself has the nickname of the “hornet’s nest,” and the design pattern of the facade is inspired by this reference. The exterior skin pattern is divided into three different scales. The large city-size pattern is used for 19th-33rd floors. The medium, building scale pattern is positioned on the 7th-18th floors, and the small human scale weave is placed at the 3rd-6th floors. The street level floors use big scale to emphasize the building when people arrive in front of the building.


Entrance model.

Angle of View Tow33r is divided into three different woven skins based on a person’s field of vision. From the property line of the site, a 40 degree upward angle is taken to differentiate the first six floors from floors 7-18. A second angle, 65 degrees from the horizontal defines the line between the 18th floor and the second segment (19th-33rd floors). 65 degrees is the maximum vertical angle that people can see without moving their heads. 40 degrees is a comfortable upward glance for most people without moving their heads. Finally, 2 degrees defines well the field of vision while walking at street level. The entrance design is obtained by repeating the big scale pattern and transform it into a three-dimensional volume.

Assignment 4.0

In the Shadow of a Tall Building

Right: Perspective model shows the building interior layout, structural and facade system.


Alexander Suryandono 61

Below: Northeast elevation (front facade). Bottom: Southeast elevation (light rail facade).


Exploded structure system and shadow space: 19th - 33rd floor (top left) 7th - 18th floor (middle left) 3rd - 6th floor (bottom left)

Performative Facade The Tow33r has two different facade systems. A woven honeycomb system transforms the facade’s outer layer. Beneath each of the three weaves is a second facade composed of a double glazing system.The double glass is angled from according to scale of the screen pattern. The big pattern has 54 angled glass, the medium pattern has 76 angled glass, and the small scale pattern has vertical glass. A garden occupies the space between the angled glass and woven facade screen. By tilting or angling the glazing a reduction in solar heat gain can be achieved – a reduction of 33% to 66% compared to vertical glazing. The simulation for this energy reducing strategy was performed using Autodesk Ecotect for greatest cooling demand period, from March 21 to September 21st from 10:00 15:00.

Assignment 4.0

In the Shadow of a Tall Building

Together these facade treatments (screen and glazing) provide a shadow space that reduces solar heat gain in the afternoon as well as visual glare. The daylight study indicates how this system reduces glare at the floor perimeter (red color) and creates a more visually comfortable (blue color) condition.

Left: Study for tilted glazing system and its performance (top and middle). Daylight study comparison, with double facade (bottom left) and without pattern facade (bottom).


Below:; Section of typical 19th - 33rd floors.

Alexander Suryandono

Left: Perspective of exterior skin.

63


of light Below: Site is located uptown Charlotte on the corner of 8th Street and the light rail.

site plan

site plan

Assignment 4.0

In the Shadow of a Tall Building

spatial diagrams Right: Models of the initial and final version of the tower. Elevation indicating how the facade creates light, openings, and public spaces.

ground floor plan 1/32�=1’


Ryan Blackwell 65

SPIRAL TOWER Project Overview This “shadow tower” is created as a response to the normal tower designs found in center city Charlotte. Initially the strategy was to express the structure as a helical exterior (skin) and interior (core) system. The idea created an equilibrium between interior and exterior spiraling systems. A series of models demonstrated the complexity of the original intent. The idea was modified to allow the spiraling spaces to be more planimetric and less literal. The plan therefore encapsulates the intent of the building in this second and final version. The “pinwheel” layout provides a distribution of high-rise space unlike others of the type, with the opportunity to provide shadow and light depending on the time of day.


Spaces of Shadow and Light Below: The plan follows a spiraling organization. One-story office spaces occur in the gridded portion of the plan while two and three-story public meeting spaces occur in the extended arms of the plan.

Spaces that extend beyond the rectangular shape of the plan create the “pinwheel” organization. These extensions allow public space with open and uninterrupted views of the city. As the floor plans layer and rotate, the extensions afford new views. These spaces are light-filled in contrast with the otherwise shaded interior. The exterior cladding system has punched openings that create the illusion of the building spiraling towards the top. The openings height and size is a representation of the floor space behind – from the smaller one-story windows to the larger three-story openings. Light from these small and large openings penetrates the building and speckles the floor with “spots of light.”

N

ground floor plan 1/32”=1’

Assignment 4.0

In the Shadow of a Tall Building

Above: Digital model shows how the building functions as a rotating form responding to sunlight and orientation.


Ryan Blackwell 67

Below: Models showing two different spatial qualities. Two-story and three-story spaces that allow for public gatherings as well as office meetings.


groundfloor floorplan plan ground 1/32”=1’ 1/32”=1’

Left: Diagram of spaces and how the spaces change during the rotation of the building. The building gets broken down into 3 different sections: the bottom is 6 floors, the middle is 12 floors, and the top is 18 floors.

spatial diagrams spatial diagrams

site plan

an

N

ground floor plan 1/32”=1’

spatial diagrams

n

ground floor plan ground floor plan 1/32”=1’ 1/32”=1’ ground floor floor plan plan 1/32”=1’ ground 1/32”=1’ 1/32”=1’

siteplan plan site

Tower Configuration The tower is broken into three part. The first six floors represents the street level and features small scale elements. The second, or middle scale, relates to the common spaces of other high-rise type buildings. The third scale of space occurs at the top and represents the largest areas of the building., As the building spirals upward the order of space becomes more casual and open to exaggerate the vertical feeling of the building.

Assignment 4.0

In the Shadow of a Tall Building 7thststelevation elevation 7th

december december

college st elevation

college stst elevation college elevation college st elevation college st st elevation elevation college

march

march march march

8th st elevation

collegeststelevation elevation college

june june june

june june

march march

lightrail railelevation elevation light

september september

light rail elevation

8th stst elevation 8th elevation 8th st elevation 8th st st elevation elevation 8th

june

8thststelevation elevation 8th

light rail elevation light rail elevation light rail elevation light rail rail elevation elevation light

Left: Ecotect shadow analysis of office spaces and how light penetrates the facade. The analysis shows the change of shadows during particular times of the day and year.

september

september september september


Ryan Blackwell

corner detail plan 1/2”=1’

69

a

c [details]

roof section detail 1/2”=1’ appendage overhang section detail 1/2”=1’

b

Left: Section details.

level 1-6 floor plans 1/32”=1’

level 7-18 floor plans 1/32”=1’

Below: Building section shows spatial relations. level 19-36 floor plans 1/32”=1’

corner detail plan 1/2”=1’

curtain wall connection section detail 1/2”=1’

ground ground connection connection section section detail detail appendage 1/2”=1’ 1/2”=1’detail section 1/2”=1’

section a 1/32”=1’

section b 1/32”=1’


Below: The site is located on the northeast section of center city Charlotte, NC.

N

on

y Tr

St

E

9t

h

St

UNCC CCB

Levine Museum of the New South

N

N

Co

lle

ge

Dixie’s Tavern

St

Children’s Theatre of Charlotte

E

E

5t

h

E

E

7t

h

h

St

N

6t

h

St

St

t

ll S

we

ld

Ca

St

St

Time Warner Cable Arena

Assignment 4.0

8t

d

ar

ev

Br

SCALE 1:80

In the Shadow of a Tall Building

Right: Study models investigating formal qualities and structural options for the high-rise building.


Shea Haney 71

CROSS-SECTION OF A SHADOW Fins, Crates, and Coffers The idea for the tower was inspired by the facade retrofit project (Assignment 3.0).The focus became the shading-device and enclosure of the building after a preliminary exploration of the formal qualities of tall buildings as well as the structural configurations possible for this building type. Taking the previous investigation of a coffered system led to the further articulation of this concept, a study of its kinetic potential as a smart skin, and the requirements for a vertical fin system. Site considerations were taken into account since the building would be the tallest in this part of the center city core. The shadow space cast by the building would encompass the small church located in the same block and other potential structures off site. Cognizant of this, a slender vertical form was explored after the first round of study models.


Right: Coffered sun-shading design show straight on to illustrate the silhouette. Also shown from the side elevation to portray the undulating facade form.

Silhouette Shade Study The mode of inquiry for the design and analysis of the sun shading device was performed through silhouette and night lighting studies. Three models, each representing a different idea about the shading devices’ materials, construction, and performance provided varied effects. The coffered system yielded a skeletal like silhouette. Created from white acrylic, it did not produce the most persuasive silhouette, however, it gave a sense of the qualities that would be present in a more convincing silhouette. All three schemes borrowed design clues from Assignment 1.0. Each incorporated small scale details to help tell the story of the life of the building.

Assignment 4.0

In the Shadow of a Tall Building

Right: Close up detail of the coffered system, highlighting the silhouette effect via night illumination.


Shea Haney 73

Below: Additional facade shade device studies. Looking at the silhouette qualities provided by night time lighting effects.


Left: Ground floor plan and also typical plan. Left Below: Diagram highlighting an analysis of the shading device. Density of the screen is a condition of the activity that occurs behind.

Undulating Coffers The ideas behind the shading device were appropriate during the design phase of the project but underwent additional refinements. Detailed analysis and parametric modeling provoked the idea that the screen could undulate and change dimensions across the face of the building’s facades based on the level and type of activity taking place on the interior. It provided a way to led scale to individual floors. This undulation was a function that could be based on shade and shadow as well as lend aesthetic character to the surface of the building. An additional idea was to incorporate the shading device directly into the structure of the high-rise. Floor slabs were investigated as contributing to the horizontal sections of the coffers. These ideas pose new unanswered questions related to secondary and tertiary elements as well as the glazing system. The potential for this system proved to be adequate in the Ecotect analysis that determined positive performance on all faces of the building.

Assignment 4.0

In the Shadow of a Tall Building

Right: Exploded drawings of the enclosure system and sun shading device illustrating the connection details. . Far Right Above: Partial facade study model depicting vertical and horizontal treatment of the coffers and the changing scale of the sun-shade. Far Right Below: Representational building section highlights the service core on the perimeter of the building and locates additional public spaces. Left: Ecotect analysis of the effectiveness of the sun-shading device at mitigating the solar heat gain. Overall, the device performed well.


75

Shea Haney


Assignment 4.0

In the Shadow of a Tall Building


Gota Miyazaki

VEIL SCREEN

77 77

Tower Parti The shadow tower consist of giving the architecture greater connection to the developing rail line by creating a plaza space, which is cloaked by a stainless steel screen mesh, connecting the light rail, plaza, and tower together. The veil goes through different phases and wraps according to the different condition of the building creating a continuous base, middle, and top. Because of the building being set back, the built form is narrow with its width at 80’. Within the utilization of the narrow footprint, the building is organized into three zones workplace, circulation, and conference room, which surround the central core in the middle. The workplace is positioned on the Southeast facade to take advantage of the southern sun exposure. The circulation zone was positioned in the northwest to allow consistent lighting of the northern sky. Finally the office spaces were positioned at the southwest to allow the most privilege views of center city Charlotte.


Above: Parti of the volume and skin.

5

4

3

2

Assignment 4.0

In the Shadow of a Tall Building

Above Left: Rail line and plaza space under the screen mesh.


Gota Miyazaki

Right: Top floor with light capturing mesh.

79

5

4

1

3

2 1


Below: Southeast shading device.

Southeast Facade To shield it from the low morning sun, a combination of horizontal louvers, vertical fins, and screen mesh were utilized to optimizing daylighting, shading, and views to the workers. The “useful daylighting illumination” of a 25’x25’ sample of the space improved 41%.

Northwest Facade To shield the façade from the low evening sun that penetrate the building during the summer, a combination of translucent vertical fins and screen mesh were used to diffuse the light evenly into the space. The “useful daylighting illumination” improved 42%.

Below: Northwest shading device.

Assignment 4.0

In the Shadow of a Tall Building


Gota Miyazaki

Before: shading device (Southeast at Mar 21 9am)

After: shading device (Southeast at Mar 21 9am)

81

Useful Daylighting Illumination: 25.73% 25’x25’ sample 0

Useful Daylighting Illumination: 67.19% 25’x25’ sample 0

50

50 N

N 100

100 Before: shading device (Northwest at June 21 5pm)

After: shading device (Northwest at June 21 5pm)

Useful Daylighting Illumination: 41.83% 25’x25’ sample

Useful Daylighting Illumination: 84.28% 25’x25’ sample 0

0

50

50 N

N 100

100 Before: shading device (Southeast at Mar 21 9am)

After: shading device (Southeast at Mar 21 9am)


Below: Orthographic drawings of the project.

Assignment 4.0

In the Shadow of a Tall Building

Comparative view of Charlotte skyline with proposed tower.


Roderick Xiong 83

FRACTURE | SPACE | SILHOUETTE 3-Fold Tower The approach to this project took into account environmental, social, and urban factors as a holistic design problem. These comprehensive conditions were also tied back into the semester’s investigations into shadows and shadow form. The first exploration focused on how to manipulate the facade to improve the building’s shading and cooling performance. The second questioned the nature of social interaction in tall buildings and how to increase public presence given the vertical separation of space. The third issue looked into how buildings and city might be understood by their identifying profiles, urban skylines, and landscape silhouettes.


Assignment 4.0

In the Shadow of a Tall Building

Compartmentalized Condition

Above: Sequential relationship of fracture space between floor levels.

Decompartmentalized Condition


Roderick Xiong 85

Above: Interior perspective illustrating the condition of what the spatial character of the fracture spaces might be. Left: BUILDING LAYERS: 1) Interior Floor Plates 2) Double Glazing Glass Curtain Wall 3) Recycled Corrugated & Perforated Steel Panel Skin 4) Artificial Spatial Conditioned Fractured Frame 5) Skypath 6) Skygarden 7) Sky Atrium Court Below: Early design sketches investigating the implementation of areas for skycourts and skygardens along every 4th level of the tall building.


Above: Facade shading studies, analysis, and shadow casting of the tiled surfaces of the tower inspired by biomimetic forms.

Assignment 4.0

In the Shadow of a Tall Building

Biomimetic Skin At the outset of the project, an attempt was made to use biomimcry as an approach for designing the shadow tower. The cooling and shading strategies found within the evolutionary forms of cacti were used as a source for exterior surfaces. This biomimetic process was used to replicate the cooling strategies found in nature, with hopes that it might transfer functionally and aesthetically to the artifice of building.

Left: Ecotect solar analysis illustrating how the tiled condition of the tower’s vertical landscape can cool itself in the same way that cacti provide self-shading in sunny climates.


Roderick Xiong 87 Below: Steel support system for metal panel offsets. Materials: coated steel misc. members, stainless steel perforated standing seam panel.


Acknowledgments Work from the preceding pages was performed in the Spring of 2012 as part of a design/research studio in the School of Architecture, College of Arts + Architecture at University of North Carolina Charlotte. I would like to express my sincere thanks to the following students and professionals for their dedication and hard work in bringing to light the topic of shadows. Peter Wong Associate Professor

Graduate Students James Blackwell Mitchell Bye Brittany Green Shea Haney Leslie King Alexander Suryandono

Undergraduate Students Roy French Dong Lee Gota Miyazaki Kevin Ramirez Roderick Xiong

Software + Fabrication Support Ben Futrell Ryan Buyssens

Architectural Fabric Consultant Josh Albertson, Austin Canvas

Guest Critics + Reviewers David Gieser, Perkins + Will David Harrison, Perkins +Will Jana Hartenstine, WTSL Rachel Myers, Perkins + Will Peter Tart, Peter Tart Architects Greg Zirkle, Perkins + Will


Architecture in the Shadows  

A study of darkness from the Spring 2012 Advanced Design Studios at the School of Architecture at UNCCharlotte. (print version available at:...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you