Page 1

University of Vermont Extension Certification for Sustainable Transportation eRating 1.0 Program Manual June, 2012

CONTACT: David Kestenbaum, Director, Certification for Sustainable Transportation University of Vermont Extension, 106 High Point Center, Suite 300 Office Telephone: (802) 656-9141 Mobile Telephone: (802) 782-4753 Office Fax: (802) 656-8874 E-mail: David.Kestenbaum@uvm.edu

1


Table of Contents Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 4 Background and Rationale .................................................................................................... 4 History and Background ........................................................................................................ 5 Transition from GCC to CST ................................................................................................... 7 Why the University of Vermont? ......................................................................................... 7 Organizational Structure ....................................................................................................... 8 eRating Certification Process ............................................................................................... 8

Step 1: Registering with the CST program ................................................................................. 9 Step 2: Completing and submitting the application ............................................................... 9 Step 3: Reviewing and scoring the application ........................................................................ 9 Step 4: Approving or denying the application.......................................................................... 9 Step 5: Processing final paperwork and receiving certification..................................... 10 Step 6: Continuing Responsibilities .......................................................................................... 10

Recertification ........................................................................................................................ 10 Decertification ........................................................................................................................ 10 eRating Certification Standards ....................................................................................... 11 Certification Standards Development Process ..................................................................... 11 Certification Standards Overview ............................................................................................. 11 eRating Certification Criteria ...................................................................................................... 12 Greenhouse gas emissions expressed as Carbon Dioxide Equivalent Emissions per passenger mile (CO2 EQ ppm) ............................................................................................................... 12 Criteria Pollutant Emissions ................................................................................................................... 15 Alternative fuels .......................................................................................................................................... 16 Voluntary Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reduction Credits (GHG Offsets) ..................................... 17 Training Programs and Idle policy ...................................................................................................... 20 Other Pro-Environmental Behaviors and Practices...................................................................... 20

Rights and Responsibilities ................................................................................................ 21 Future Work ............................................................................................................................ 23 Works Consulted .................................................................................................................... 23

2


Table of Contents: Tables and Figures Figure 1: ISEAL Process .......................................................................................................... 6 Table 1: CST points earned for CO2 equivalent emissions per passenger mile levels .......................................................................................................................................... 13 Table 2: CST eRating points for use of emission-reducing technologies ......... 15 Table 3: CST points earned for using alternative fuel(s) ......................................... 17 Table 4: CST points earned for purchasing carbon offsets ..................................... 19 Table 5: CST points earned for training and policy ................................................... 20 Table 6: Other pro-environmental practices, policies, and procedures ............ 21

3


Introduction The mission of The University of Vermont Extension (UVM) Certification for Sustainable Transportation (CST) is to build awareness of, and promote the use of, transportation options that: 

Reduce greenhouse gas and other harmful emissions,

Increase energy efficiency, and

Utilize alternative fuels and new technologies.

The CST houses the eRating certification program, a voluntary certification, education, and labeling program for the passenger transportation sector. The eRating certification program provides recognition to a wide array of passenger transportation vehicles, including, but certainly not limited to, bicycles, buses, planes, and trains that demonstrate compliance with the program’s certification criteria. The CST and the eRating certification program seeks to help owners, operators, and manufacturers reduce costs, strengthen energy and environmental performance, and demonstrate a commitment to sustainability to the public. The CST eRating certification program will provide owners, operators, and, in certain circumstances, manufacturers of certified vehicles and/or fleets with an eRating label(s), access to educational programs, turnkey (ready to use) marketing materials, and the opportunity to participate in, and form synergies with, other wider marketing initiatives led by CST. Both the turnkey marketing tools, as well as the wider marketing initiatives, aim to increase consumer and supplier awareness of the label. They also aim to increase awareness of low-impact transportation options that operators with certified vehicles provide. Owners and operators with certified vehicles can use these marketing tools to promote the use of their products and services. The CST eRating certification program also provides educational services for transportation providers. Initially, these educational services will have a strong focus on helping companies save fuel and money. The CST eRating certification program’s rigorous standards, quality educational services, and branded marketing materials make it the premier program of its kind. This Program Manual contains important information on the CST eRating certification program, including the program’s history, mission, the rationale for the program, a description of the program, and the eRating scoring standards.

Background and Rationale Increasing the use of alternative-fuel technologies and multi-modal transportation systems is a national priority for the United States. More than 25 percent of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the United States can be attributed to transportation 4


activities, with 73 percent of these emissions coming from passenger transportation (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2010). There is a need to improve sustainability in the passenger transportation sector in order to address concerns over global climate change, the depletion of limited petroleum resources, negative impacts to regional and local air quality, increased traffic accidents, and traffic congestion (Black and Sato, 2007). The Union of Concerned Scientists believes the United States should aim to reduce emissions at least 80 percent below 2000 levels by 2050 (Luers et al., 2007). Technical solutions, such as increasing fuel efficiency in vehicles, provide one approach to making transportation more sustainable. However, technical improvements alone will not adequately address issues of climate change, and they do little to address other sustainability issues, such as traffic safety and congestion. What is needed is behavior change in combination with technical improvements (Potter, 2007). The CST eRating certification program can help make the public more aware of environmentally sensitive transportation options to support this effort. “Green” certification provides one way to facilitate behavior change in both consumers and suppliers of services. Traditionally, factors such as quality, customer service, price, convenience, and personal security have had the greatest influences on consumers’ transportation choices (Lumsdon, 2006; Mastrangelo et al., 2010). As “greening” trends have manifested into new sets of consumer values, environmental concerns play a more important role in consumers’ decisions. Industries such as food production, home-building, and home appliances have responded to “greening” trends, and have created well-established certification programs. Examples include the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Organic Program; the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) green building rating system; and the Energy Star program, a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy. Historically, no nationally/internationally recognized eco-labeling program exists for the passenger transportation sector. The CST eRating certification program is now working to fill this gap.

History and Background The CST is a direct outgrowth of the UVM pilot Green Coach Certification (GCC) research initiative, which officially commenced in August 2007. The GCC program was designed as a four-year study of sustainable transportation and eco-labeling with a focus on motorcoach travel. The GCC research initiative’s primary goal was to ‘identify standards that promote a high level of environmental sustainability in motorcoach travel, and to establish a permanent certification program for the passenger transportation sector’. The GCC research initiative focused on the interplay of business and environmental concerns shared by motorcoach operators, tour operators, and riders. It also addressed the development, testing and evaluation of a temporary pilot certification program for the motorcoach industry, which concluded in December 2010. The central idea behind the GCC research was to determine whether or not a certification program could: 5


Raise awareness of motorcoaches as an environmentally friendly mode of transportation;

Help reduce the consumption of petroleum fuels and minimize greenhouse gas emissions;

Help the motorcoach industry and individual operators learn more about the use of alternative fuels and green technologies;

Help motorcoach operators capitalize on increasing demand for environmentally friendly products; and

Help create marketing incentives for motorcoach companies willing to use alternative fuels, demonstrate high fuel economy, and adopt green technologies.

A planning framework for developing certification programs and standards guided much of the work during the GCC initiative. This framework, which was formulated by the International Social and Environmental Accreditation and Labeling (ISEAL) Alliance, is shown in Figure 1. This same process guided the development of draft standards for the CST eRating certification program.

Figure 1: ISEAL Process

6


Transition from GCC to CST The CST eRating certification program has built upon the work initiated during the GCC research initiative. To make the transition from GCC to the CST eRating, we revisited Step B-2 of the ISEAL process (shown in Figure 1) and worked extensively with academics, non-profit environmental and health organizations, associations representing a range of passenger transportation groups/sectors, and government agencies to refine the standards for entry into the program as specified in Steps B-3 and E-1 of the ISEAL process. This process has allowed for the development of a new set of standards, which are applicable to nearly every passenger transportation mode. We present these standards later in this document. We have additionally built educational services for transportation providers into the eRating program. These educational programs aim to help owners and operators of vehicles increase environmental efficiencies and reduce costs The first two educational programs offered by the CST will be 30-60 minute online trainings for drivers and will focus on eco-driving and being idle-free. Studies on eco-driving courses have found that drivers can reduce their fuel consumption by 15 – 25% in the first year of using eco-driving strategies (U.S. EPA, 2010). A similar study found that eco-driver education can create reductions in fuel consumption of 5 -15% in cars, buses, and trucks (Crist, 2008). Our trainings focused on idle-free driving and eco-driving are aimed at helping companies save fuel, save money, and reduce their environmental footprints. These courses will go live during the summer and fall of 2012; more information can be found on the CST website www.eRating.org. Another additional feature of the CST eRating program is a robust public relations and marketing campaign that will commence in July 2012 and be ongoing throughout the program’s operations. The goals of this public relations and marketing effort are to raise consumer awareness of the program and help owners and operators of certified vehicles promote their services. For example, the program website will include a tool to help consumers locate operators with certified vehicles. In addition to the website, we will partner with various stakeholder groups across the country on a coordinated campaign to raise the visibility of the CST program and its operators.

Why the University of Vermont? The transition between GCC and the CST eRating certification program required a great deal of careful consideration, which led us to determine that the ideal home for the program was the University of Vermont (UVM) Extension. We identified options for moving the CST eRating certification program to another organization (governmental, non-for-profit, or even for-profit) and explored the possibilities of creating an independent organization (for-profit or not-for-profit). After much deliberation, both internally at UVM and externally during discussions with GCC collaborators, we decided that it would in fact be ideal to house the program at the University. The mission of University of Vermont Extension is to “improve the quality of life of Vermonters by providing research-based educational programs and 7


practical information concerning Vermont communities, families and homes, farms, businesses, and the natural environment.” The CST eRating certification program helps to directly fulfill that mission through contributing to public education, economic development, and research in Vermont and beyond. UVM can also provide academic and financial oversight, and can assure the program is researchbased and linked to quality work. Additionally, Extension’s previous experience working with national and international collaborators lends itself to the program’s expansion.

Organizational Structure Similar to other UVM Extension programs, the CST eRating certification program is under the operational control of UVM Extension. Staff reports directly to the Dean and Director of UVM Extension. As a program of the University, the CST eRating certification program is subject to all policies and internal control practices thereto, and the Dean of UVM Extension ensures compliance therewith. With permission from the President of UVM, it is the intention of UVM Extension and CST to form an advisory council for the program at a future date. It is anticipated that this council will be composed of individuals who represent not-forprofit scientific and environmental organizations, the University of Vermont and the academic community, policymakers, and industry representatives. The council will be governed by executed bylaws, which will detail both the operation and responsibilities of the group. CST staff has informally begun to develop an operating framework for this council. Responsibilities of the council may include: 

Advising the organization by establishing broad policies and objectives

Ensuring the availability of adequate financial resources

Developing committees

Developing strategic initiatives of the CST, as identified by the Dean and Director of Extension

eRating Certification Process The following steps outline the process for applying to receive an eRating certification for a vehicle(s): 

Step 1: Applicant registers with the CST program

Step 2: Applicant completes and submits application and supporting documents

8


Step 3: Application is reviewed and scored by CST staff

Step 4: Applicant is informed whether they have met the standards to receive certification

Step 5: Final paperwork is processed and the applicant receives certification

Step 6: Continuing responsibilities

Step 1: Registering with the CST program A potential applicant must first engage with the CST eRating certification program to learn more about the eRating certification and the application process. This will normally be done through the CST eRating certification program website at www.eRating.org. The applicant will complete a registration form (available online), which enters the applicant into the CST eRating certification program system. The applicant will then meet in person or over the phone with a member of our team. This meeting provides a personalized introduction to the CST eRating certification program and also can help the applicant decide whether the program is a good fit for the vehicles they own, operate, and/or manufacture.

Step 2: Completing and submitting the application After registering, an applicant must complete an application (normally online through www.eRating.org), provide supporting materials, and submit a deposit for the estimated cost of certification (Step 2 deposit). We will help guide applicants through the process of preparing these documents. Applicants can submit application materials to us in electronic or hard copy format. In certain cases, we may require hard copies of forms/backup documentation to accompany electronic submissions.

Step 3: Reviewing and scoring the application CST staff will review the application and all supporting materials. This process will take approximately four to six weeks to complete and will include a full audit of the submitted materials and application. During this time, we may contact the applicant for clarification, or to ask for additional materials. At the end of the review process, using a standardized process, we will calculate a score to determine whether the applicant's vehicle(s) meets the requirements for certification and if so, at which level of certification (see page 11 of this document for the certification levels).

Step 4: Approving or denying the application After an application has been scored, we will inform the applicant whether his or her vehicle(s) has met the criteria to receive certification, and, if so, at what level each vehicle(s) qualified. We will provide applicants with an explanation of the certification determination. Applicants who have not met the requirements for certification will be eligible to reapply. If an applicant is not approved and does not choose to reapply, that applicant will then receive a full refund of their Step 2 deposit. Additionally, if at any point in the process, an operator's vehicle(s) is deemed eligible for certification and that operator does not choose to proceed they 9


will be eligible for a 50% refund of their Step 2 deposit. Applicants may appeal an eRating score by requesting a review of the materials. CST staff will handle appeals during the initial years of operation. Provided CST forms an advisory council, CST and UVM Extension may delegate this responsibility to the council or an appropriate subset thereof.

Step 5: Processing final paperwork and receiving certification The CST eRating certification program will provide certified applicants with a Participation Agreement, which will detail the rights and responsibilities of each party involved. The applicant and a representative of the University of Vermont, in accordance with the institutional policy on Contract Approval and Signatory Authority, must sign the Participation Agreement. It will be binding on both parties. This Agreement will be placed on file with the CST program. The Step 2 deposit provided by the operator will be processed, any credit balance will be refunded, and any outstanding fees will be collected. We will provide operators of certified vehicles with access to resources to promote their vehicle(s). These resources will include electronic copies of the certification label or logo, subject to established use guidelines and restrictions, additional educational materials, and turnkey marketing and public awareness tools.

Step 6: Continuing Responsibilities Operators of vehicles must make themselves available to UVM and CST staff for appropriate operational and/or document review and audit during the term of the agreement. This will allow for monitoring and decertification when necessary. When requested, operators must verify previously provided information and statements. They must make themselves available within four weeks of a request for a telephone meeting and/or an onsite visit. During onsite visits, we may request to see facilities, observe systems and operations in place, shadow an employee, and/or request to see documents and other materials.

Recertification Recertification will be required on an annual basis. After a certification expires, operators must reapply and supply updated information. In most instances, recertification will involve fewer steps than initial certification, but in all cases will include submission of appropriate certification fees and acknowledgement of the Participant Agreement. We will guide the applicant through the recertification process.

Decertification The University may terminate an operator’s participation in the program if the operator fails to meet the criteria for participation, or if it is discovered that information provided to the University was inaccurate. If, during an audit, we discover that an operator is no longer meeting criteria for participation, we may grant that program participant a four-week window to correct problems with their 10


operation and demonstrate to us that they are once again in compliance with the eRating certification standards. If this occurs, the decertification process will be halted.

eRating Certification Standards The following sections describe in detail the CST eRating program standards.

Certification Standards Development Process We referenced two major works in developing the CST eRating certification program: the Federal Trade Commission’s Part 26- Guide for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims, and the International Social and Environmental Accreditation and Labeling (ISEAL) Alliance planning framework (see Figure 1.) In May 2012, we finalized Step B-3, and transitioned to step E-1 to launch the CST eRating certification program.

Certification Standards Overview The CST eRating certification program aims to provide recognition through certification to transportation systems, fleets, operators and individual vehicles that help the passenger transportation sector: 

Reduce greenhouse gas and other harmful emissions,

Increase energy efficiency, and

Utilize alternative fuels and new technologies.

The CST eRating certification program will offer four levels of certification on a per vehicle basis to qualifying operators: e1, e2, e3 and e4 certification; e1 certification represents entry-level certification and e4 certification indicates the highest level of certification available. The application process determines at which level of certification an operator qualifies. Points are earned based on the following: 

Vehicle technology

Operation of the vehicle(s) at certain efficiency levels

Use of particular operating procedures within a company

Use of specific policies and educational programs within a company

The higher the score, the higher the level of certification an applicant will receive toward certification for a vehicle(s). Although certain exceptions may sometimes apply, current certification levels are generally based on the following scores (see the following section for specific information about how many points operators can earn under each certification criteria): 11


e1

=

Scores of 100 to 149

e2

=

Scores of 150 to 199

e3

=

Scores of 200 to 249

e4

=

Scores of 249 or greater

eRating Certification Criteria The ways operators can earn points toward eRating certification of a vehicle(s) are (these criteria are discussed in depth in the sections that follow): 

Greenhouse gas emissions per passenger mile: Demonstrating a carbon footprint of less than .274 kilograms (kg) of CO2 per passenger mile

Emissions: Using certain low-emissions vehicles or technologies

Alternative fuels: Using alternative fuels, including but not limited to hydrogen, compressed natural gas, methane, electricity, and biodiesel blends of B5 or greater

Purchase of carbon offsets: Offsetting a certain portion of emissions through an endorsed carbon-offset provider

Training programs and idle policy: Participating in CST eco-driving and idle-free trainings and adopting idle-free policies

Waste management : Recycling waste and reducing energy used at transportation office

Greenhouse gas emissions expressed as Carbon Dioxide Equivalent Emissions per passenger mile (CO2 EQ ppm) It was important for us to determine indicators of sustainability for the passenger transportation sector that could be applied universally across all passenger modes. One indicator we propose, and use in the eRating certification, is the intensity of greenhouse gas emissions per passenger mile traveled, expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per passenger mile (CO2EQ ppm). This criteria is the most heavily weighted in the eRating index. The average CO2EQ ppm from the U.S. passenger transportation sector between 2000 and 2009 was .274 kilograms (kg) of CO2per passenger mile. Under the CST eRating certification program, operators will be eligible to start earning points if they operate at a level that is at least 50 percent more efficient than that average. The table that follows outlines the scoring system for these criteria.

12


Table 1: CST points earned for CO2 equivalent emissions per passenger mile levels Efficiency over STC average

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Per Passenger Mile Expressed as CO2 equivalent

Points

50%

0.1370

50

52%

0.1315

55

54%

0.1260

60

56%

0.1206

65

58%

0.1151

70

60%

0.1096

75

62%

0.1041

80

64%

0.0986

85

66%

0.0932

90

68%

0.0877

95

70%

0.0822

100

72%

0.0767

105

74%

0.0712

110

76%

0.0658

115

78%

0.0603

120

80%

0.0548

125

82%

0.0496

130

84%

0.0446

135

85%

0.0399

140

87%

0.0355

145

89%

0.0312

150

90%

0.0272

155

13


Efficiency over STC average

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Per Passenger Mile Expressed as CO2 equivalent

Points

91%

0.0234

160

93%

0.0198

165

94%

0.0163

170

95%

0.0130

175

96%

0.0099

180

97%

0.0069

185

98%

0.0041

190

99%

0.0015

195

100%

0.0000

200

We will provide certification applicants with a calculator tool and will be available to help them determine their average CO2 EQ ppm. This number is generally calculated by evaluating the following information: 

Total miles traveled

Total fuel consumed

Fuel type (e.g., diesel, electric, compressed natural gas)

Vehicle type

Average passenger load

During this process we may ask applicants to provide supplemental materials to the online application regarding the calculation of average CO2 EQ ppm. In our research, we have discovered that many transportation providers do not calculate their average passenger load. We will instruct applicants who have not previously documented their average passenger loads on how to calculate this figure. Ideally, applicants will sample 100% of their ridership (i.e. they will collect information on 100% of the trips they make with their vehicles.) We recognized that this may not always be possible, and, as such, we aim to meet a minimum confidence of 95% and precision level of ±10%. We will provide step-by-step guidance on how to make this calculation to applicants. 14


Criteria Pollutant Emissions Particulate matter and other vehicle emissions such as hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides have been proven to have negative effects on health and the environment. The CST program recognizes that individuals, operators, fleet managers and transportation agencies can help reduce the environmental impacts of transportation service by making use of often expensive technologies that reduce harmful emissions. Under the CST eRating certification program, an applicant will be eligible to earn points toward the certification of a vehicle through the use of these technologies. The technologies and corresponding number of points are listed in the following table:

Table 2: CST eRating Points for use of emission-reducing technologies Technology

Points

If the vehicle is heavy-duty Diesel Engine meeting 2007 certification

15

Diesel Engine retrofitted to meet 2007 CARB Level 3 standards

15

Diesel engine meeting EPA 2010 certification

30

If the vehicle is non-heavy duty EPA Air Pollution (AP) score is checked for the vehicle AP Score = 7.0

5

AP Score = 8.0

15

AP Score = 9.0

25

AP Score = 10.0

40

If AP score not found for the non heavy-duty vehicle Any vehicle that meets the California Air Resource Board Certification for Partial Zero Emissions

15

Any vehicle that meets the California Air Resource Board Certification for Zero Emissions Vehicle

40

15


During the application process, applicants will provide the vehicle identification number (VIN) of the motor vehicle(s) to be certified. Additionally, applicants will be instructed through the online application tool, as well as through communication with us, to provide additional documents for us to review related to these criteria. The following guidelines are in relation to air pollutant levels:   

    

Even if a vehicle qualifies under other criteria, they may not be permitted into the program if the engines are not in good repair and/or they have a leaky exhaust system An engine that produces excessive smoke, and/or fails to meet any state or federal mandates, will disqualify a vehicle for certification Heavy-duty vehicles with diesel engines older than the 1994 model year will not be permitted in the program unless they are retrofitted with diesel emission controls (DEC) that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) classifies as a Level 3 control By January 1st, 2015, heavy-duty vehicles with an engine year of 1998 or older will not be permitted into the program unless they have been retrofitted with a CARB Level 3 DEC By January 1, 2018, the same requirement will hold true for heavy-duty vehicles with a diesel engine year of 2004 or older All heavy-duty diesel vehicles in the program should have Level 3 DEC approved technology by January 1, 2022 By January 1, 2025, all vehicles in the program must have 2010 EPA compliant diesel emissions controls or greater No heavy-duty vehicles with diesel engines without a CARB level 3 DEC, a EPA 2007 compliant, or an EPA 2010 compliant engine shall receive an E4 level certification even if their total points add up and appear to make them eligible for this category No motorized light-duty vehicles may receive an e4 level of certification unless they meet CARB Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle (PZEV) or Zero Emissions Vehicle (ZEV) standards

Alternative fuels Shifting away from the use of petroleum fuels is a national priority for the United States. The CST program recognizes that much debate surrounds the lifecycle costs, environmental benefits and societal impacts of many non-petroleum fuels included in the CST program. We want to acknowledge that the scientific community and others are still debating the merits of many alternative fuels. Current research supports the belief that fuels included for use in this program can help reduce emissions levels, and may help reduce the use of petroleum fuels. These alternative fuels also help promote the legitimization and acceptance of alternatives to gasoline and petroleum diesel. With these factors in mind, and after reviewing research on a variety of environmental factors related to different fuels (including lifecycle costs), we decided that, although it is not the most heavily weighted category, the use of alternative fuels will be one way an applicant can earn points toward certification.

16


The following table lists the number of points earned toward certification for use of each type of alternative fuel. In order to qualify, the fuel listed must be used a minimum of 80 percent of the time.

Table 3: CST points earned for using alternative fuel(s)

Alternative Fuel

Points

Propane

5

Biodiesel B5

5

Biodiesel B20

15

E85 ethanol

20

Compressed natural gas

25

Biodiesel B100

25

Hydrogen

35

All Electric

35

100% Human Powered Transportation (i.e biclycle, hiking boots)

100

Applicants will be instructed through the online application tool, as well as through direct communication with us, what documents to include for us to review regarding alternative fuel use. Voluntary Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reduction Credits (GHG Offsets) Operators have the option of obtaining points toward a vehicle(s) certification score by the voluntary purchase of verified GHG offset reductions generated by third party projects. In order to receive GHG points, participants must purchase offset credits that are certified by one of the following organizations:  

Climate Action Reserve (formerly the California Climate Action Reserve): http://www.climateactionreserve.org/ Verified Carbon Standard (formerly Voluntary Carbon Standard): http://v-cs.org/ 17


 Green-e Certified (for energy based offsets): http://www.green-e.org/ In order to qualify GHG offset, credits must be verified by an independent verifier certified by one of the three organizations listed above. This verification must comply with the protocol for the specific type of project that is creating the GHG emissions reduction. Verifiers must hold accreditation from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), or another International Statndards Organization (ISO) approved accreditation body. In addition, the GHG offset project must: 

Be located within the region of intended use. If you are an operator from another region, or want to use offsets from another region, or from a certification organization not listed below, please contact CST. Initially the regions are: o North America o Central America o Europe

  

Not be mandated by any government entity and must be additional, meaning at the very least that the GHG reductions would not occur in the absence of the GHG offset project; Not have been sold or used to meet any other regulatory, contractual, or other purpose (the GHG offsets cannot be double-counted); and Have already taken place and been verified as described, but be no more than 2 years old.

A copy of the receipt for the purchase of the offsets, as well as a copy of the verification report, must be submitted with the application for crediting the GHG offset. Applicants will be instructed through the online application tool, as well as through direct communication with us, what documents to include for review. In most instances, 1 point will be awarded toward certification for every 5 percent of emissions offset. When operators begin offsetting more than 100 percent of the emissions from the vehicle(s) for which they are seeking certification, the scoring system shifts away from the 1-point per 5 percent system. The following table outlines the scoring system to be used for these criteria:

18


Table 4: CST points earned for purchasing carbon offsets Percentage of GHG Emissions Addressed by Carbon Offsets Purchased

Points

0-4.9

0

5-9.9

1

10-14.9

2

15-19.9

3

20-24.9

4

25-29.9

5

30-34.9

6

35-39.9

7

40-44.9

8

45-49.9

9

50-54.9

10

55-59.9

11

60-64.9

12

65-69.9

13

70-74.9

14

75-79.9

15

80-84.9

16

85-89.9

17

90-94.9

18

95-99.9

19

100 -105

20

105-120

21

120-140

22

140-160

23

160-180

24

180+

25

19


Training Programs and Idle policy Properly training drivers to be more conscious about the way they operate a vehicle can greatly reduce the environmental impacts associated with driving. Studies have shown that eco-driving courses, which train drivers on techniques to improve fuel economy (e.g. limiting fast accelerations), can help reduce fuel consumption by more than 20 percent in certain circumstances. Applicants applying to the CST eRating certification program will be able to earn points toward certification of their vehicles if they do either or both of the following:  

Adopt an idle-free policy for themselves and/or operation, have 80% or more of the vehicle’s drivers take the CST Idle-Free online training, and have those drivers pledge to go idle free Adopt an eco-driving policy for themselves and/or operation, have 80% or more of the vehicle’s drivers take the CST Eco-Driver online training, and have those drivers pledge to use eco-driving principles

Table 5: CST points earned for training and policy Training / Policy

Points

Eco-driving

20

Idle-free

20

Operators who already hold an eRating certification will have free access to the training programs for a certain percentage of their drivers. We have created a ratio in which for every vehicle certified in the program, there will be an average of 1.25 (rounded up) drivers who have free access to the courses. For example, if a company or individual certifies 1 vehicle, 2 of their drivers take the courses for free; if a company or individual certifies 100 vehicles, 125 of their drivers take the courses for free. If a company has vehicles that are not certified and would like for their drivers to take one or both of the courses, then there will be a fee of $20 per driver for one course, or $25 per driver for both courses. These fees may be applied as a credit toward their certification if a company chooses to begin certifying their vehicles at a later date (within 12 months). Applicants will be instructed through the online application tool, as well as through direct communication with us, what documents to include for us to review regarding the training programs. Other Pro-Environmental Behaviors and Practices Transportation providers’ commitment to the environment can go beyond the way they operate their vehicles. Providers can increase their contribution to environmental protection by running their offices in an environmentally friendly way. Based on experience from the GCC pilot research program, as well as 20


behavioral changes (e.g. implementing systems to recycle waste left behind by customers on vehicles) that have occurred during the pilot phase, we believe it is important and valid to offer applicants an opportunity to earn points toward certification for using or adopting certain waste-management and proenvironmental procedures and practices. Points can be earned in this category by:   

Reducing energy consumption at the office Utilizing documented and verifiable environmental policies and operating procedures within a company Recycling office waste, shop waste, and waste left behind by travelers

Energy reduction and recycling programs at offices and shops can earn an applicant between 1 and 15 points (see Table 6.) Operators who recycle paper at the office, for example, may earn a single point, operators who recycle customer waste can earn even more, and operators who have taken extensive steps to “green” their offices and shop (e.g. having net-zero, LEED-certified buildings powered by renewable energy with rainwater catchment systems and wash water recycling and purification systems) may earn up to 15 points.

Table 6: Other Pro environmental Practices, Policies, and Procedures Other Pro-Environmental Procedures/Practices Awarded by CST evaluators based on applications submitted

Points 1-15

Applicants will be instructed through the online application tool, as well as through direct communication with us, what documents to include for us to review.

Rights and Responsibilities The rights and responsibilities of the University of Vermont and the applicant shall be enumerated in the Participation Agreement between the parties. This agreement will be signed in accordance with the University’s policy on Contract Approval and Signatory Authority. This Agreement shall at all times control the criteria for which an applicant seeks recognition for certification and all aspects of the applicant’s operation are at the discretion of the applicant. Applicants who earn certification from the CST program will continue to operate as an independent entity, and their participation in the CST program does not create a partnership, franchise, joint venture, employer-employee, or agency relationship. The University of Vermont assumes no responsibility for any aspect of the applicant’s business operation.

21


If an applicant receives certification from the CST program, it means the applicant provided documentation to researchers at the University of Vermont to demonstrate compliance with the criteria listed in the standards section of this document. Upon submittal of an application to the CST program, and again upon receiving certification, the applicant must attest, to the best of his or her knowledge, that the documentation provided is complete, accurate, correct, and represents an honest portrayal of the company’s activities. As a participant in the CST program, certified operators have the following rights and obligations:  

Operators may use the certification label and logo as a marketing tool, but must follow the usage criteria provided by the CST program. Operators must ensure that an informed representative of the operation makes him/herself available to representatives of the CST team to complete questionnaires, interviews, and onsite audits. These activities may be carried out in person, via the Internet, or over the telephone. Operators must remain in compliance with certification criteria. If, during an audit, an operator is found to be non-compliant with certification criteria for which they had previously received recognition, the operator will be given four weeks to demonstrate compliance. If after four weeks the operator is unable to demonstrate compliance, points will be deducted from the previous certification score and the operator will risk losing a vehicle(s) certification(s). Operators will be eligible to receive one-on-one assistance from the CST team and have access to educational programming to help them become compliant. Operators will participate in the CST program in an open and honest fashion. If operators cease compliance with the criteria for which they have received recognition, they must inform a representative of the CST team and cease use of the associated certification labels. Operators may stop participating in the CST program at any time. If an operator decides to end participation, a company representative must contact the CST team and immediately cease the use of any certification labels.

As the party responsible for the implementation of the CST program, the University of Vermont has the following rights and responsibilities:  

The University will diligently pursue the project. The University will develop and maintain a website outlining the program, providing educational resources, and listing operators participating in the program.

22


 

 

The University will provide copies of certification labels, use of which is subject to restriction, in accordance with the Participation Agreement of the parties. The University may use all information gathered during interviews, surveys, questionnaires, and formal and informal communication to prepare reports and outreach materials. Unless a company grants special permission, data gathered during interviews, surveys, questionnaires, formal and informal communication will be decoupled from the names of individual operators in an effort to provide anonymity and confidentiality of sensitive information. The University may terminate an operator’s participation in the program if the operator fails to meet the criteria for participation, or it is discovered that information provided to the University was inaccurate. The University may terminate operators’ participation in the program if, for reasons beyond its control, it is in the University’s best interest to end the CST program. In the event of such termination, the University will make every reasonable effort to give advance notice.

Future Work The CST eRating certification program, version 1.0, has been designed as the foundational phase for what is hoped to become an international standard to help promote the use of passenger transportation options that aim to:   

Reduce greenhouse gas and other harmful emissions Increase energy efficiency Promote the use of alternative fuels and new technologies

The CST program aims to grow in size, scope, and sophistication over time. The program will implement new and refined standards, criteria, and reporting protocols as the project evolves, builds new partnerships, and expands its geographic reach and market penetration.

Works Consulted Anderson, L.E., L.C. Chase, D. Kestenbaum, and C. Mastrangelo. “Adopting Sustainable Transportation Practices: The Relationship Between Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors and Support for Green Certification, ”International Journal of Sustainable Transportation (in review). Black, William R., and Noriyuki Sato. “From Global Warming to Sustainable Transport 1989-2006,” International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, Vol. 1, Issue 2, 2007, pp. 73-89.

23


Crist, P. “Transport Demand Management: Insights From Eco-Driving and Corporate Mobility Management,” International Transport Forum, Leipzig, Germany, May 28-30, 2008. Luers, Amy L., Michael D. Mastrandrea, Katharine Hayhoe, and Peter C. Frumhoff.“How to Avoid Dangerous Climate Change: A Target for U.S. Emissions Reductions,” Union of Concerned Scientists, 2007, retrieved February 15, 2011 from www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/global_warming/emissions-targetreport.pdf. Lumsdon, Les, Paul Downward, and Steven Rhoden. “Transport for Tourism: Can Public Transport Encourage a Modal Shift in the Day Visitor Market?” Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Vol. 14, Issue 2, 2006, pp. 139-156. Mastrangelo, C., L.E. Anderson, L.C. Chase, and David Kestenbaum. Green Transportation for Tourism: Assessing Demand for Ecolabels, ”Compendium of papers for the Transportation Research Board 89th annual meeting, 2010, Report 10-3290. Nathan Associates Inc. Motorcoach Census Update 2009, 2010,retrieved August 24, 2010 fromwww.buses.org/files/Motorcoach%20Census%20Update%202009.pdf. Potter, Stephen. “Exploring Approaches Towards a Sustainable Transport System,” International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, Vol. 1, Issue 2, 2007, pp. 115-131. United States Department of Transportation. Transportation’s Role in Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Volume 2 Synthesis Report: Report to Congress, 2010, Report 01159301. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2008, 2010, Report 430-R-10-006.

24

University of Vermont Extension Certification for Sustainable Transport  

The mission of The University of Vermont Extension (UVM) Certification for Sustainable Transportation (CST) is to build awareness of, and pr...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you