9789140697011

Page 1

3

New Levels 3 är ett läromedel avsett för Engelska, nationell delkurs 3 inom kommunal vuxenutbildning på grundläggande nivå samt gymnasiets introduktionsprogram.

• Elevbok, tryckt

40-69701-1

• Elevwebb, individlicens, 6 mån

51-10037-1

• Elevwebb, individlicens, 12 mån

51-10033-3

• Lärarwebb, individlicens, 12 mån

51-10034-0

Ewa Holm är verksam komvuxlärare i engelska, svenska och svenska som andraspråk i Stockholm, samt erfaren textgranskare, redaktör och läromedels­­ författare.

Bryan Stephens är en mycket erfaren lärare, lärarutbildare, utbildnings­ konsult, skolinspektör och författare som har skrivit läromedel i över 30 år.

ISBN 978-91-40-69701-1

9

789140 697011

New Levels 3 1 New Levels

Utöver elevboken finns även en elevwebb med verktyg och ytterligare träningsmöjligheter för eleven, samt en lärarwebb med värdefulla resurser för läraren att använda i undervisningen.

Bryan Stephens Ewa Holm Bryan Stephens Ewa Holm

New Levels

Bryan Stephens Ewa Holm

New Levels

3



Introduction Welcome to New Levels 3, a course book for Level 3 of the Swedish basic adult English course (Engelska, nationell delkurs 3), and also for students who need to learn or revise basic English language skills. The book has five units, and Unit 1 revises the main grammar from Level 2 (New Levels 2). Each unit is divided into three parts. Each of the five units is based on a general theme and the three parts in each unit are linked to that theme. Each part has the following structure: • Show what you know – exercises allowing you to show what you already know and to practise the key vocabulary of the unit. You can also find extra practice on skills vocabulary in the Focus points section at the end of the book. • Main texts for reading and listening – texts of different types and genres, from different parts of the world, which contain key vocabulary and grammar and help you develop your reading skills. Each text is followed by questions and activities. At the end of this section is a grammar discovery activity called I spy grammar. Here you have the chance to show what you already know about the grammar before it is presented. • Improve your English – presentation of the key grammar, with examples taken from the main texts. You can then practise the grammar in a wide variety of exercises, as well as further tasks and activities to help you develop your pronunciation, listening, speaking and writing skills. There are also additional Time out pages which focus on cultural aspects of the English-speaking world. Finally, each unit also contains one or more Web IT! boxes – tasks related to the theme, where you and your classmates have to look for information online and then share it in class. Each exercise also has a small symbol to show you which skill is practised: reading pronunciation

listening

speaking

discovery exercise

writing grammar presentation/rules

At the back of the book there are Focus points pages to practise the main skills vocabulary, and a Language school section with useful information on grammar, writing and speaking – with examples of the main text types you need to write at Level 3. Finally, there are Fact files of the main characters that you will get to know in New Levels 3 and the other books in the series. In the online New Levels 3 Web you can find: • audio files for all main texts, listening and pronunciation exercises (plus Internet links for songs) • the answer key for all exercises and scripts for all listening texts • extra interactive exercises to practise grammar, vocabulary, reading and listening • word lists for each part, with definitions and synonyms in English • an interactive word list that allows you to listen to correct pronunciation We hope that this book can help you take your English to a new level!

three 3


Contents VOCABULARY

GRAMMAR

1.1 My family and friends 8

Family; Antonyms and definitions; Fractions (Focus point)

Verb ‘be’; Have/has got; There is/are; Regular verbs; Comparatives and superlatives; Question words

1.2 The quality of life 22

Places and things in a town; Animals; Antonyms and definitions; Climate (Focus point)

Modal verbs (can/can’t, have/has to, must); Love/hate + -ing; Adverbs; Adverbs of frequency

1.3 Taking care of yourself 36

Daily routine; Snacks; Physical activities; Adjectives; Looking after yourself (Focus point)

Imperatives; More modal verbs (should/shouldn’t); Present continuous

2.1 Coping in English 48

Studying; Antonyms and definitions; Using the dictionary (Focus point)

Past simple; Ordinal adverbs (sequencing words); Need to + verb

2.2 Finding a good job 60

Working; Synonyms and definitions; Writing a CV (Focus point)

Would/wouldn’t; Going to; Prepositions

2.3 Fitting in 72

Socializing; Definitions; Making small talk (Focus point)

Every-, some-, any-, no-; Reported speech

3.1 Shopping for a bargain 84

Shopping; Definitions; Everyday phrases; Verbs in context; Bargaining (Focus point)

Demonstrative pronouns; Countable and uncountable nouns; Zero conditional

3.2 To tip or not to tip? 94

Jobs (1); Everyday phrases; Food and eating out; Definitions; Credit cards and debit cards (Focus point)

First conditional

3.3 But money isn’t everything 104

Common words; Synonyms, antonyms and definitions; Being polite (Focus point)

Second conditional; Phrasal verbs; Possessive pronouns

4.1 I did it! 118

Tourism; Definitions, synonyms and antonyms; Insects; Making your writing more interesting (Focus point)

More past simple

4.2 Been there, done that, got the T-shirt 130

Experiences (1); Everyday phrases; Definitions; Verbs in context; Dreams (Focus point)

Present perfect

4.3 What were you doing when…? 142

Experiences (2); Definitions, synonyms and antonyms; Verbs in context; Describing events in the past (Focus point)

Past continuous

5.1 How will science help us in the future? 156

Science and technology; Definitions, synonyms and antonyms; Future expressions (Focus point)

Future tenses (going to, will)

5.2 Any holiday plans? 168

Holiday activities; Definitions; Camping; Types of holiday (Focus point)

Present continuous with future meaning

5.3 A selfie with a VIP 178

Jobs (2); Synonyms; Dining; Everyday phrases; Direction; Time management (Focus point)

Tenses review

UNIT 1: MY WORLD 7

UNIT 2: REACHING YOUR GOALS 47

UNIT 3: MONEY, MONEY, MONEY 83

UNIT 4: EXCITING EXPERIENCES 117

UNIT 5: OUR FUTURE 155

FOCUS POINTS 192

LANGUAGE SCHOOL Grammar 207  Writing 224  Speaking 234

Contents


PRONUNCIATION

SPEAKING/WRITING

OTHER

Intonation for questions

Friends and family – short talk and live chat/ blog post

Storyline: Can you tell us about your family?

Adverbs of frequency

Write and talk about your home town and choosing where to live

Web IT! Somewhere you would like to live/Snow White – original version

Present continuous

Healthy lifestyle - discussion, email and tips

Time out: A nasty stepmother

Past simple verbs ending in [d], [t] or [ɪd]

Learning a foreign language – brainstorm, discussion, article

Storyline: Learning a foreign language/Settling in Web IT! Qualities for the job/Job vacancy/Social hobbies

How do we pronounce going to?

Applying for jobs – brainstorm, discussion, letter of application

Is the ‘g’ always pronounced?

Talk and write about moving countries/ making friends/multilingualism

This and these Tongue twister

Shopping advice – discussion, tips list and role play

Storyline: I’d like to hear your views on.../Job talk

First conditional sentences

Tipping – discussion and blog post

Web IT! Famous tippers/A special company

Phrasal verbs

Special jobs and perks – discussion and writing Quiz: What would you do if… ?

Past simple verb endings: -ed or -t

Holiday descriptions and advice – oral and written (email)

Storyline: Let me tell you about my holidays/A concert to remember

Questions and answers in the present perfect

Survey on experiences and regrets – prepare, perform and summarize

Web IT! Places to stay in Vietnam/Tips for success

Was and were in past continuous phrases

Describe a situation (long and short actions/ events) – written and oral

Time out: Englishman in New York by Sting

Time out: Money, Money, Money by ABBA

Time out: The Northern Territory expedition

Storyline: Lecture at the science museum/What are you doing in the holidays?

Going to or gonna? The short form ’ll

Inventions and adverts – note-taking, presentation, discussion, description, instructions, creation

How do you say the ‘-ing’?

Holiday plans – discussion and blog post

Web IT! Interesting inventions/ Adverts from the past/Crazy inventions from the past

Adjectives ending in -ed

Talk and write about special events and visitors

Time out: Paparazzi by Lady Gaga

FACT FILES 236

Contents

five 5


We are the students and teachers in New Levels 3. Nice to meet you!

Students

Alia

Ana

Hamid

Ivan

Mamdouh

Mona

Teachers

6 six

Jim

Linda

Maria

Sam


1

Unit 1 My world

1.1 My family and friends (pages 8–21) 1.2 The quality of life (pages 22–35) 1.3 Taking care of yourself (pages 36–44) Time out A nasty stepmother (pages 45–46) Focus points Fractions, Climate, Looking after yourself (pages 192–194)

seven 7


1

1.1 My family and friends Show what you know A1. Write the letter of the photo in each description. (You will only use four photos.) A

B

C

D

E

F

1 Hi, my name’s Leila. I live in an extended family. My parents have three children and I’m the youngest. My mum and dad are in their late thirties. Our grandparents also live with us. You can see me and my family in picture ________.

2 Hello, I’m Dan. My family is quite small. There are just four of us – my parents, my younger sister and me. She’s the baby of the family! You can see me and my family in picture________.

3 Good morning, my name’s Faris. My family is very large. My father has four wives and together they have twelve children. When we all meet with grandparents, aunts, uncles and cousins for a family wedding, we are nearly forty people. You can see me and my family in picture________.

4 Hi, I’m Rocio. I come from a very small family. I’m an only child. I haven’t got any brothers and sisters. There are just the three of us. You can see me and my family in picture ________.

8 eight

1.1 My family and friends / Show what you know


1 A2. Match the opposites 1 (adjectives). Check your answers in a dictionary. 1. lively

A. easy-going

2. cheerful

B. intolerant

3. stressed

C. unhappy

4. patient

D. calm

5. strict

E. dull

A3. Match the opposites 2 (adjectives). Check your answers in a dictionary. 1. distant

A. small

2. delicious

B. unfaithful

3. honest

C. tasteless

4. loyal

D. dishonest

5. extended

E. close

A4. Match the words and phrases with the definitions. 1. adult

A.

noun all the people of about the same age in a society

2. generation

B.

noun websites where people communicate and share information

3. conflict

C.

noun an argument or fight between people with different ideas

4. wedding

D.

noun a person who is over eighteen years old

5. spoil

E.

noun the ceremony or celebration when people marry

6. social media

F.

verb to allow a child to have everything that it wants

A5. Listen and say the fractions.

1/3

a third

1/5 a fifth

1/10 a tenth

1/2 a half

1/4 a quarter

3/4 three quarters

  Focus point 1.1: Fractions (page 192)

1.1 My family and friends / Show what you know

nine 9


1

Is bigger better? B1. Read and listen to the article about large, or ‘extended’, families. How common are extended families in the country you are from?

EXTENDED FAMILIES: IS BIGGER BETTER? In many cultures, a family isn’t just parents and children living together. In some countries,

it is more normal for people to live in extended families, where children grow up with other adults, such as aunts, uncles and grandparents in addition to their parents. The bar chart below shows the percentage of children in extended families in different parts of the world. The largest number of these families is in South Africa and the smallest in Europe. Some people feel that there are many advantages of living with more than just your parents. They say that older people are more fun to live with because they aren’t so stressed and they are patient. They claim that grandparents usually have more time to play with children or read to them. Percentage (%) of children in extended families 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Asia

10 ten

The South Parts of Middle America North East Africa

South Africa

Europe Australia North America

1.1 My family and friends / Is bigger better?


1 On the other hand, some say that older people don’t understand the problems of the younger generation. There are other negative aspects of extended families too. Often there is conflict between the different generations. Sometimes parents don’t agree with the way grandparents behave towards their children. Some grandparents say the parents aren’t strict enough and some parents say that the grandparents are too easy-going and spoil the children by giving them too many presents. However, it is often true that in many extended families, the children feel closer to their grandparents than to their parents. So, there are advantages and disadvantages of living in an extended family.

B2. Complete the sentences with the words in the box.

grandparents

problems

advantages

fun

Europe

1. Some people feel that there are many _______________ of living in an extended family. 2. Some people say that older people are more _______________ to live with. 3. Some people think that _______________ have got more time to play with children. 4. Some people say that older people don’t understand young people’s _______________. 5. There aren’t many extended families in _______________.

B3. Answer the questions with full sentences. 1. What are some of the disadvantages of extended families? 2. Why are there often fights or arguments between generations? 3. What do some grandparents say about parents? 4. What do some parents say about grandparents? 5. How do many children feel about their grandparents?

1.1 My family and friends / Is bigger better?

eleven 11


1

Can you tell us about your family? C1. Read and listen to the classroom discussion about families. Who has the biggest family? Who has the smallest family?

Ana

Hamid

Ivan

Mamdouh

Maria

Maria: I’d like to start the lesson today with the topic of family and friends. This topic is very important for everybody. It doesn’t matter where you come from. So, let’s begin by talking about your families. I’d like each of you to say just a few words. Ana, can you begin please? Ana: Sure. Well, my family is quite large. It’s typical for my country. I grew up in an extended family, in fact. My parents have got six children and I’m the oldest. My mum and dad are in their late forties. My dad is a university professor and for him foreign languages are so important. He wants us all to speak perfect English and French as a minimum. My mum is a doctor. She hasn’t got a lot of free time, but her passion is painting. We all love her paintings. They’re so lively and cheerful. I’ve got one in my room here. It reminds me of home. I love its bright colours. Our grandparents also live in the same house. My gran is sixty-eight. She’s very fit and healthy and helps to look after my younger brothers and sisters. My grandad is seventy and he still works. He’s got his own business, which sells building materials. My uncle and aunt live in the next street with my cousins, they … Maria: That was fantastic and such an interesting description, Ana, but I’m going to have to stop you there because there won’t be enough time for the others to speak, if you continue for much longer. OK, can I bring you in now, Ivan? Can you tell us about your family? Ivan: Well, my family isn’t large. It’s quite small, in fact. It’s just my parents, my older sister and me. So, I’m the baby of the family! We’re a very close and happy family. We do a lot of things together, particularly cooking and eating delicious food. We spend a lot of time with each other in the kitchen. My father’s a very good cook. Actually, he’s much better than my mother. My sister’s getting married next year, so I’m looking forward to having a brother-in-law! And perhaps our family will soon increase in numbers! I’d love to have a little niece or nephew to play with.

12 twelve

1.1 My family and friends / Can you tell us about your family?


1

Maria: Thank you, Ivan. That was great. What is your family like, Mamdouh?

Mamdouh: My family is enormous. My father and his new wife have got several children. My father's wife doesn't work. She and my father employ foreign maids to look after the children and clean the house. My aunts and uncles all live nearby. When the family meets for a special event like a wedding, there are nearly sixty of us.

Maria: Thank you, Mamdouh. Can you say a few words now, Hamid?

Hamid: Sure. Well ... we’re a small family, which is quite unusual for my country. It’s just me and my parents. I haven’t got any brothers and sisters. I’m an only child. So now my parents are alone but we stay in contact by Skype.

Maria: Thanks Hamid. OK, let’s move on now to the topic of friends …

C2. Look again at the discussion. Write the name of the person. 1. Who is looking forward to a wedding next year? 2. Who doesn’t have any brothers or sisters? 3. Who has an artistic parent? 4. Whose parents are almost fifty years old? 5. Whose family pays for help at home? 6. Who has five brothers and sisters? 7. Whose mother is very busy? 8. Whose parents and grandparents live together? 9. Who hopes his/her family will get bigger?

C3. Write one or two sentences about the following people. 1. Ana’s grandparents 2. Ivan’s dad 3. Mamdouh’s father’s wife 4. Hamid’s parents 5. Your own family (at least two sentences)

C4. Which of the classmates' families is the closest to your own? Discuss in a group.

1.1 My family and friends / Can you tell us about your family?

thirteen 13


1

What is friendship? D1. Read and listen to Melanie’s blog. Which person do you agree with most? Hi, I’m Melanie from Toronto, Canada. A recent university study showed that it wasn’t possible to have more than 150 friends, but with today’s use of social media, many people now say that they have over 300 friends. Some people, however, don’t think that these friends are real friends. So, I want to hear from people all over the world about their friends. How many friends do you have? How did you meet? How long have you known each other? Why are you friends? What do you have in common? Do you think that friends on social media are real friends? What makes a ‘close’ friend? What’s special about a ‘best’ friend? How much time do you spend with your close friends? Write and tell me anything about friends. I want to hear what you really think.

Lauren (Essex, England): I know lots of people from college and from a local sports club I go to, but I’ve only got one close friend. I don’t think it’s possible to have more than one best friend. A best friend is somebody very special and you need to spend lots of quality time together. You need to have enough time to talk together about things that really matter to you both. You also need time to do things together. I think it’s very important to have things in common. You need to be able to share experiences. Jason (New York, USA): I agree completely with Lauren. I’ve only got one best friend. I’ve known Jacky for years. We went to primary school together and we are both students at the same university now. I think that you can only be a great friend, if you are a great listener. You have to know what matters to your friend so you can really help, if needed. Penny (Stockholm, Sweden): I think Lauren and Jason are both right. You need to listen but you must be loyal and trustworthy. You must never tell others your best friend’s secrets. Your friend’s secrets must be safe with you. Also, I think communication is really important. If something is wrong, you must speak up. If your friend upsets you, you must talk about it. It’s important to be open and honest.

14 fourteen

1.1 My family and friends / What is friendship?


1 Hamish (Glasgow, Scotland): I’m happy to say a few things about friendship. I think that a true friend always accepts you exactly as you are. Real friends don’t expect you to be perfect and they don’t ask you to change. As the saying goes, ”friends are the family you choose”.

Jack (Boston, USA): I just want to say that sometimes friendships end and that need not necessarily be a problem. Friendships don’t have to last a lifetime. It’s sad when a friendship ends, but it’s a normal part of life. If one person moves to another town, gets another job or gets married it might be difficult to continue doing the things that keep a friendship going. Phone calls, texts and emails cannot always replace regular face-to-face contact. Maggie (Sydney, Australia): I would like to say that I don’t agree with Jack. I think there are some friends that you don’t see every day, or even every month or year. But when you’re together again, it’s like no time has passed at all. You don’t have to see each other regularly to stay close friends.

D2. Are the sentences true or false? Correct the false ones! 1. A university study showed you can have more than 300 friends on social media. 2. Melanie wants to have a lot of information from people about friends. 3. Lauren knows a lot of people but she only has one close friend. 4. Lauren thinks that you need to spend a lot of time with a best friend. 5. Jason doesn’t agree with Lauren. 6. Jason has known his best friend for most of his life. 7. Penny thinks you must never reveal your best friend’s secrets. 8. Hamish wants his best friend to do exactly what he tells her to do.

True False

R R R R R R R R

R R R R R R R R

D3. Answer the questions. 1. What does Jack think about ending friendships? 2. Why doesn’t Maggie agree with Jack? 3. What is the most important thing about friendship for Penny? 4. What is the meaning of the saying that Hamish mentions? Do you agree with it?

1.1 My family and friends / What is friendship?

fifteen 15


1 D4. I spy grammar!  Look at the texts on pages 12–15 and: 1. Underline five negative and five positive verbs in the present simple. 2. Underline questions with how, how long, how much, what and why. 3. Circle ten adjectives and five adverbs.

Improve your English Present simple Verb ‘be’ For rules and examples go to page 214.

E1. Use the present simple of ’be’ to complete the positive sentences (+), negative sentences (–) and questions.

are

1. His parents __________ very easy-going. (+)

7. She ___________ the youngest in her family. (–)

2. I __________ the oldest child in my family. (+)

8. You ___________ from Europe. (–)

3. We __________ a happy family. (+)

9. __________ your dad in his late forties?

4. He __________ Melanie’s father. (+)

10. __________ your parents very strict?

5. His grandparents __________ easy-going. (–)

11. __________ his sister younger than him?

6. It __________ true. (–)

12. __________ you from America?

Have/has got For rules and examples go to page 214.

E2. Change the sentences from have to have got. Use short forms if possible. 1. He has his own company.

He's got his own company.

_________________________________________________________

2. She doesn’t have much money. _________________________________________________________ 3. Do you have a baby brother?

_________________________________________________________

4. They don’t have six children.

_________________________________________________________

16 sixteen

1.1 My family and friends / Improve your English


1 There is/are For rules and examples go to page 214.

E3. Complete the questions and write positive and negative answers.

there is

Yes, ______________________.

1. __________ there a factory near here?

No, ______________________. Yes, ______________________.

2. ___________ there many small families?

No, ______________________. 3. ___________ there many advantages of living with your parents?

Yes, ______________________. No, ______________________.

Regular verbs + Positive

- Negative

I love the bright colours. He sells building materials.

I don’t agree with him. My mum doesn’t have a lot of free time.

? Question

Short answer

Do you agree with her? Does he live in an extended family?

+ Yes, I do. / - No, I don’t. + Yes, he does. / - No, he doesn’t.

For more rules and examples go to page 215.

E4. Write the missing questions and answers.

Does he think he’s right

1. ____________________________________? Yes, he thinks he’s right. 2. ____________________________________?

No, she doesn’t live in Europe.

3. ____________________________________?

Yes, they live in a large family.

4. ____________________________________?

No, we don’t own a factory.

5. Do you like his paintings?

Yes, ____________________________________

6. Do they live near here?

No, ____________________________________

7. Does he still work?

Yes, ____________________________________

8. Does she speak good French?

No, ____________________________________

1.1 My family and friends / Improve your English

seventeen 17


1 Comparative and superlative adjectives

$$ $$$ $ $$$ warm

warmer

the warmest

expensive

more expensive the most expensive

For more rules and examples go to pages 207–208.

E5. Make sentences in the comparative or superlative.

younger

1. His mother is much _______________________ (young) than his father. 2. My best friend is ten years _______________________ (old) than me. 3. Her car is _______________________ (small) than your car. 4. He has a _______________________ (large) house than his sister. 5. Her wedding was ___________ _______________________ (expensive) than her sister’s.

the

largest

6. They live in _______ _______________________ (large) house in the street. 7. We’ve got _______ _______________________ (small) family here. 8. Our factory is _______ _______________________ (old) in the town. 9. Who has got _______ _______________________ (young) child in the class? 10. Our car is _______ ___________ ______________________ (expensive) in the street.

Question words How

What

How did you meet? How long have you known each other? How many friends do you have? How much time do you spend together?

What do you have in common? Why Why are you friends?

For more rules and examples go to pages 215–216.

18 eighteen

1.1 My family and friends / Improve your English


1 E6. Choose the right question word. 1. What/How/Why many friends have you got on social media? 2. What/How/Why did she meet her husband? 3. What/How/Why long has she known his best friend? 4. What/How/Why are they together if they don’t like each other? 5. What/How/Why much time do you spend on your homework? 6. What/How/Why’s special about living in an extended family? 7. What/How/Why are some of the advantages of small families? 8. What/How/Why are there often fights in families?

E7. Correct the grammar mistakes.

is

1. His family are very large.

8. I loves fast cars.

2. We is a very close family.

9. He sell paintings.

3. Am they both twenty years old?

10. My mom don’t have much free time.

4. I’m got three brothers.

11. Does you agree with her?

5. His parents has got four children.

12. His mother is much old than his father.

6. My mum haven’t got any brothers.

13. He lives in the smaller house in the village.

7. Have he got a baby brother?

14. What much does it cost?

F. Listen and repeat the questions. Does the voice go up or down at the end of the question? 1. How many friends has he got? 2. How did you meet your boyfriend? 3. How long have you known your best friend? 4. How much time do you spend going out with friends? 5. What do you and your close friends have in common? 6. Why do you like being with your friends? 7. Why are you friends with Jason? 8. How do many parents feel about their children's friends?

1.1 My family and friends / Improve your English

nineteen 19


1 G1. Read the beginning of a talk about friendship by a university psychologist. Complete the text with words from the box. Then listen and check. information real

interests meet

advantages controversial

opinion friends

Many people use the Internet for finding (1) ______________ but more and more people are starting to use it to make (2) ______________. The Internet has made it easy to (3) _____________ new people who have the same (4) _____________. However, making friends online is still a (5) _____________ topic. Some people are of the (6) _____________ that online friendships are great, while others think that they are not (7) _____________. Probably the truth is somewhere in the middle, because online friendships have their (8) _____________ and disadvantages.

G2. Now listen to Part 2 of the talk. Choose A or B. 1. One advantage of online friendships is that you can meet people from A other countries B Europe and the US. 2. You can also learn about people’s A culture B lifestyle. 3. One disadvantage is that you won’t meet most of your online friends in A your country B real life. 4. It is good that you can end an online conversation A when you want B after 2 or 3 minutes. 5. Communication without body language can be A easy B hard.

G3. Now listen to Part 3. Complete the sentences with words from the box. You will NOT need all the words.

speaking

information

forty writing

news

fifty

world

country place

1. It’s easier to communicate with online friends by _____________. 2. Sometimes online friends say they are twenty and really they are _____________. 3. It’s dangerous to give your online friends too much _____________. 4. The biggest disadvantage is that you can get lost in the online _____________.

20 twenty

1.1 My family and friends / Improve your English


1 H1. Why do you think so many people try to make friends on the Internet? Give your reasons. H2. Write a post for a live chat/blog (100–150 words) giving your views on either friends or family. Use the texts on pages 14–15 as models.

For family think about: • small/large/extended families • number of brothers and sisters • the other members of the family

For friends think about: • the number of friends you have • how and where you met • what you have in common • why you are friends

I know a lot of people, but I only have two very close friends. They …   Language school: Writing/Blog post (page 232)

H3. Use the points in exercise H2 (and the live chat/blog post that you wrote) to help you give a short talk (1–3 minutes) on friends OR family. Also look at the instructions for making presentations on page 235. I have a very large family. One advantage of a large or extended family is that …

1.1 My family and friends / Improve your English

twenty-one 21


1

Focus points 1.1 Fractions A. Match the pairs. 1. a half

A ⅓

2. three fifths

B 4/5

3. six tenths

C 3/4

4. three quarters

D 2/3

5. two thirds

E 6/10

6. a fifth

F 1/2

7. a tenth

G 1/5

8. a third

H 1/10

9. a quarter

I 3/5

10. four fifths

J 1/4

B. Write the percentages as words in fractions. Use one word from box A and one word from box B. Note: Sometimes you need to write the second word in the plural. A a two

three four

six eight

seven

B half  third  quarter  fifth  tenth

two fifths

1. 40%

______________________

6. 25%

______________________

2. 60%

______________________

7. 80%

______________________

3. 75%

______________________

8. 66.666% ______________________

4. 50%

______________________

9. 70%

______________________

5. 20%

______________________

10. 30%

______________________

C. Look at the percentages and choose the fractions A, B or C. 1. 49% is A nearly half B a bit over a half C exactly a half. 2. 39% is A just under two fifths B exactly two fifths C a bit more than two fifths. 3. 74% is A just over three quarters B just under three quarters C exactly three quarters. 4. 21% is A nearly a fifth B a fifth C just over a fifth. 5. 33.333% is A nearly a third B just over a third C exactly a third.

192  a hundred and ninety-two

Focus points / Unit 1


1

1.2 Climate A. Read and listen about four different types of climate. Match the pictures (A–D) with the type of climate (1–4).

A

B

C

D

1) Tropical Wet is only found along the equator in countries such as Brazil, the Congo, Indonesia and the Philippines. It has only one season. The average temperature is about 80 degrees Fahrenheit. It has regular rain throughout the year and it sometimes rains every day. The countries with this climate have between one and three hundred inches of rain a year. 2) Mediterranean is found in all the countries which have their coastlines on the Mediterranean Sea. It has two seasons: summer and winter. Summers are longer than the winters, and the climate ranges from warm to hot. It has dry summers and mild, wet winters. There is about twenty inches of rain a year and snow only falls on the tops of mountains in winter. 3) Humid Continental is found in the interior of northern continents, for example the northern states of the US and countries in the north of continental Europe. The Humid Continental climate has four different seasons: warm summer, cool and dry autumn, cold and harsh winter, and a warm and wet spring. Summer temperatures average about 71 degrees Fahrenheit and winter months 25 degrees Fahrenheit. Between 20 and 50 inches of rain falls in this region every year and there is also snow in winter. 4) Arid covers nearly a third of the Earth’s land. Land with an Arid climate is usually desert. The biggest desert regions are in the north of Africa and Australia. Most Arid areas do not have proper seasons. For example, the Sahara Desert is always hot and dry, but some places do have changes in temperature, so we can say they have a summer and a winter. Temperatures can range from 130 degrees Fahrenheit to minus 30 degrees Fahrenheit. Most Arid areas have less than ten inches of rain per year, but some deserts don’t have ten inches of rain in ten years! The Atacama Desert in Chile is the driest place on Earth with only 0.04 inches of rain each year. B. Now discuss/answer the questions. 1. What is the climate of the Philippines?

5. Which climate has four seasons?

2. Which continents have big arid areas?

6. What is the climate of your home country?

3. What is the climate in parts of northern Europe? 7. Which climate do you think is the best for going on holiday? Why? 4. Can you describe the Mediterranean climate? Focus points / Unit 1

a hundred and ninety-three  193



Language school Grammar Web IT! There are many grammar sites on the Internet. They are usually free and they have lots of information and good examples of English grammar. For example: EnglishClub.com Perfect English Grammar

BBC Learning English LearnEnglish (British Council)

Grammar-monster.com

You can also just search online for information with these keywords (or any other words in this grammar section): adjectives adverbs articles nouns singular plural prepositions pronouns verbs

Adjectives Adjectives describe people, places, and things: The old man.  The beautiful city.  The big dog.   The coffee is hot. You can use adverbs like very, too, quite and nearly to modify the meaning of the adjective: This coffee is very hot. (the coffee is hot but you can still drink it) This coffee is too hot. (negative meaning – you can't drink the coffee because it is so hot) My room’s quite big. (it isn't small, but it isn't very big) Your English is nearly perfect. (it is close to perfect)

Comparative and superlative adjectives You usually use a ‘comparative’ adjective when you talk about two things, and a ‘superlative’ adjective when you talk about more than two things. Most short adjectives end in -er in the comparative and -est in the superlative: fast – faster – the fastest

slow – slower – the slowest

If the adjective ends in a consonant + -y you change it to -ier / -iest: easy – easier– the easiest happy – happier – the happiest If the adjective has one syllable and ends in a single consonant you double the consonant: big – bigger– the biggest

sad – sadder – the saddest

For longer adjectives you add the words more (comparative) or most (superlative): modern – more modern – the most modern Language school / Grammar / Adjectives

popular – more popular – the most popular

two hundred and seven  207


Some comparative and superlative adjectives are irregular: good – better – the best

bad – worse – the worst

Use the word than when you compare two things: Tom is faster than Billy.

Football is more popular than rugby.

You usually add the word the before a superlative adjective: Tom is the fastest in the class.

Football is the most popular sport in the world.

The opposite of more is less: Buses are less expensive than taxis.

Rugby is less popular than football.

The opposite of most is least: Walking is the least expensive way to travel.

Ten o'clock is the least convenient time.

Adverbs An adverb tells us more about an adjective or a verb (adverb – you add it to the verb). Most adverbs are adjectives with -ly (pronounced [li]) at the end: different – differently

quick – quickly

slow – slowly

fast – fast

hard – hard

Some adverbs are irregular: good – well

early – early

I walked quickly to the station.   She spoke slowly to the children. He did well in the test.

They got up early this morning.

Adverbs of frequency The following are adverbs of frequency. They say how often we do something: I never eat meat. (0% of the time)

I regularly drink milk. (60%)

I don't often eat carrots. (20%)

I generally drink water. (80%)

I hardly ever drink juice. (20%)

I normally eat bananas. (80%)

I sometimes eat fish. (40%)

I usually eat potatoes. (80%)

I often eat pasta. (60%)

I always eat vegetables. (100%)

Ordinal adverbs (sequencing words) We use these adverbs to put events or ideas in the correct order: First ... Secondly ... Then/Next/After that ... Finally ... First come in and sit down, then listen carefully to the recording and after that answer all the questions. Finally, put your pen down when you have finished.

208  two hundred and eight

Language school / Grammar / Adjectives, Adverbs



Email (informal) An informal email or letter is a text written to someone that you know in order to ask or tell them something. The language is usually simple, with short sentences, and the style is relaxed. The example below is an email between two neighbours. You structure it like this: 1. Header – for emails only (not letters). Examples: Where are you? / Are you free now? 2. Greeting and opening comment. Examples: Dear/Hi/Hiya…, (you usually write a comma after the greeting) ... THEN ... Great to hear from you. / Thanks for your email/message. / I hope you’re well. / How’s it going? 3. Body – five to ten short sentences related to the topic. Use plenty of adjectives to make your writing interesting! 4. Ending. Examples: That’s all for now. / Looking forward to hearing from you. / Hope to hear from you again. / Write soon / Give my love to ... THEN ... All the best / Best wishes / Bye for now / Take care / Cheers / Love / Lots of love (for close friends and relatives).

From: Dan Thomson (dan09@hutmail.com) To: Mel Briggs (melaniebriggs@writeme.org) Subject: Back home

1

Hi Melanie, 2 Hope all’s well with you. The kids and I have just got back from our holiday in Wales. 2 I’m not sure if you’ve been there, but Wales is such a beautiful country. We stayed in a small village in the north of the country. It was in the mountains, but not far from the sea. We had a room in a cheap but cosy hotel. It rained a lot but we still went for long walks in the mountains every day, and we took some lovely photos. We usually ate in pubs or small restaurants. The food was really tasty!

3

Anyway, I just wondered if you managed to pick up our post while we were away? Maybe Bev or I can come around tomorrow evening to get it, if you’re in then? Thanks again for helping us out. Best wishes,

4

Dan

230  two hundred and thirty

Language school / Writing


Letter (formal) A formal email or letter, such as an application for a job, is a text you write to someone that you don’t know personally. The language is simple, with short sentences, and the style is formal – so it usually won’t contain contracted forms like it’s or we’re and slang or colloquial language, such as gonna or hiya. Note: These days we often write formal emails instead of formal letters. You structure it like this: 1. Header – for letters only (not emails). On the right: your own postal address, email address and the date. On the left: the name and address of the person you are writing to. 2. Greeting. Examples: Dear Sir or Madam (if you don’t know the person’s name) / Dear Mr White (if you know the person’s name – male) / Dear Ms (pronounced [mz]) Brown (if you know the person’s name – female). 3. Body – for example, for a job application: reason for writing the letter (I am writing about...) + job title + place of work, where you saw the job, attach your CV + details of experience, skills and interests. 4. Ending – for example (job application): I would be pleased if you would consider me for this position / I look forward to receiving your reply/hearing from you. ... THEN ... Yours faithfully (if you used Dear Sir or Madam for the greeting) / Yours sincerely (if you used the person’s title and surname for the greeting). 5. Your name – signature and printed.

Mr Tom Blake, Manager, Blake & Co. Swan Industrial Estate Yeovil BA66 8UY

Joanna Wilcox 3 Brook Drive Yeovil BA67 3TE jwilcox@me.net 26 May 2020

1

1

Dear Mr Blake, 2 I wish to apply for the post of assistant in the sales department of your company. 3

I saw the job advertised in the Eastbourne Herald on 21st May. For your information, I enclose an up-to-date CV, which gives full details of my qualifications, experience and interests.

I would be pleased if you would consider me for this position and look forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely,

J. Wilcox Joanna Wilcox

4

4 5

Language school / Writing

two hundred and thirty-one  231


3

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Ewa Holm är verksam komvuxlärare i engelska, svenska och svenska som andraspråk i Stockholm, samt erfaren textgranskare, redaktör och läromedels­­ författare.

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ISBN 978-91-40-69701-1

9

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Utöver elevboken finns även en elevwebb med verktyg och ytterligare träningsmöjligheter för eleven, samt en lärarwebb med värdefulla resurser för läraren att använda i undervisningen.

Bryan Stephens Ewa Holm Bryan Stephens Ewa Holm

New Levels

Bryan Stephens Ewa Holm

New Levels

3