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Final Report Stage 1:

Building on our past‌looking to our future Socio Economic Profile of East Sligo City: Cranmore and Environs Regeneration Masterplan April 2013

Masterplan Team: DMOD Metropolitan Workshop Stephen Little & Associates Arup Mitchell + Associates Ann Irwin & Aiden Lloyd Ciaran Murray Bernard Williams and Associates Mulcahy McDonagh & Partners


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Foreword The planned regeneration of the East City area of Sligo is ambitious and comprehensive. The project aims to transform the social, economic and physical landscape of the area through collaborative long-term strategic planning, investment of resources and urban regeneration. The Masterplan Team appointed by Sligo Borough Council is a multi-disciplinary team of project managers, social and economic analysts, urban designers, architects, planners, engineers, landscape designers and quantity surveyors. We have been working collaboratively on the project and are looking forward to further engagement with communities and other stakeholders. Divided into five stages, the first stage of the project required the Masterplan Team to compile a socio-economic profile of the communities to be considered for inclusion in the Regeneration Masterplan focusing on communities experiencing significant social and economic disadvantage and with a poor quality living environment. This first stage of the project has been led by Ann Irwin and Aiden Lloyd. Though less visible, the rest of the team has been working and meeting regularly to share ideas with Ann and Aiden on how their work informs subsequent stages. Stage 2 will see different members of the Masterplan Team in the regeneration area to analyse the physical aspects of the district. This report covers the first stage of work. The socio-economic analysis undertaken provides an evidence base on which future stages of the project will build. It will help shape the emerging ideas for the Regeneration Masterplan that will coordinate the social, economic and physical strategies that will forge an optimistic future for the communities involved. The Master Plan team appreciate the support and inputs from the Sligo Borough Council Regeneration Office and the Independent Community Liaison Officer. We are thankful for the time and commitment by all the agencies, organisations and communities that have engaged to date for the information and insights provided and for the very warm welcome that the Masterplanners have received so far. Your continued guidance and inputs will be essential for the Masterplan Team to achieve success. Each regeneration project requires bespoke plans and has particular priorities. Establishing an appropriate combination of social, economic and physical strategies will be a challenge in this era of austerity. However, the Masterplan Team is committed to listening and responding with enthusiasm to create a Masterplan that has broad support and defines a road map for a brighter future for the Regeneration area and for Sligo.

Coli O’Donoghue - DMOD David Prichard - Metropolitan Workshop


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Table of Contents Foreword ........................................................................................................................................ II Executive Summary ...................................................................................................................... VII Section 1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 1 Section 2 Disadvantage and Affluence.......................................................................................... 13 Section 2.1 Pobal HP Deprivation Index ............................................................................ 13 Section 2.2 Vulnerable Groups .......................................................................................... 16 Section 3 Demographic Profile ...................................................................................................... 22 Section 3.1 Population and Population Change ................................................................. 22 Section 3.2 Gender ........................................................................................................... 23 Section 3.3 Age & Age Dependency.................................................................................. 24 Section 4 Employment, Unemployment and Economic Development ........................................... 29 Section 4.1 Employment & Unemployment........................................................................ 29 Section 4.2 Economic development................................................................................... 43 Section 5 Education, Family Supports & Youth ............................................................................. 61 Section 5.1 Education........................................................................................................ 61 Section 5.2 Family Support ............................................................................................... 74 Section 5.3 Youth Work ..................................................................................................... 81 Section 6 Community Safety, Housing Management and Support ................................................ 87 Section 6.1 Community Safety .......................................................................................... 88 Section 6.2 Housing Management and Support................................................................. 91 Section 7 Community Development, Arts, Culture, Sport and Recreation ..................................... 99 Section 7.1 Community Development ................................................................................ 99 Section 7.2 Arts and Culture ............................................................................................ 102 Section 7.3 Sport & Recreation ....................................................................................... 104 Section 8 Health and Wellness ................................................................................................... 109 Section 9 Conclusion – Building on our past…looking to our future ............................................ 118 Section 9.1 Building on our past ...................................................................................... 118 Section 9.2 Looking to our future ..................................................................................... 119 Section 9.3 Identifying issues, needs & strategies ........................................................... 121 Section 9.4 Establishing the baseline & identifying indicative bench marks ..................... 126 Section 9.5 Overarching issues ....................................................................................... 127 Appendix 1 References ............................................................................................................... 129 Appendix 2 List of contributors .................................................................................................... 132


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Tables Table 1 Recommended Regeneration Area Assessment ................................................................ 7 Table 2 Recommended Regeneration Area .................................................................................. 11 Table 3 HP Pobal Deprivation Index 2006 & 2011 ........................................................................ 14 Table 4 National Poverty Statistics ................................................................................................ 15 Table 5 Income levels of local authority tenants in the Recommended Regeneration Area ........... 15 Table 6 Rent Arrears..................................................................................................................... 15 Table 7 People aged 65 years and over........................................................................................ 16 Table 8 National Poverty Statistics ................................................................................................ 17 Table 9 Lone Parent Households in the Recommended Regeneration Area ................................. 17 Table 10 Non-Irish Nationals ........................................................................................................ 19 Table 11 Members of the Traveller Community ............................................................................. 20 Table 12 Population & Population Change 2006 & 2011 ............................................................... 22 Table 13 Gender ........................................................................................................................... 23 Table 14 Age Profile ..................................................................................................................... 24 Table 15 Age profile according to the Life Cycle ........................................................................... 25 Table 16 Age Dependency............................................................................................................ 26 Table 17 Low and High Social Class ............................................................................................. 33 Table 18 Principal Economic Status Profile ................................................................................... 35 Table 19 Unemployment Rate 2006 & 2011.................................................................................. 36 Table 20 Occupation ..................................................................................................................... 38 Table 21 Industry .......................................................................................................................... 39 Table 22 Public / Private Sector Employment Sligo 2001- 2011 .................................................... 48 Table 23 Employment by gender .................................................................................................. 48 Table 24 Size of PAYE / VAT Registered Businesses in Sligo and the State 2010 ....................... 50 Table 25 Households with no car .................................................................................................. 56 Table 26 Education Levels ............................................................................................................ 68 Table 27 Households with and without a personal computer & Internet access ............................ 70 Table 28 Family Profile in the Recommended Regeneration Area ................................................ 77 Table 29 Young Age Profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area ......................................... 83 Table 30 Tenure profile ................................................................................................................. 92 Table 31 Housing List – Age ......................................................................................................... 95 Table 32 Housing List – Property Size .......................................................................................... 95 Table 33 Perception of health ..................................................................................................... 115 Table 34 Disability & Carers ........................................................................................................ 116


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Maps Map 1 Initial Research Area ............................................................................................................ 5 Map 2 Recommended Regeneration Area .................................................................................... 10 Map 3 HP Pobal Index 2006 ......................................................................................................... 14 Map 4 HP Pobal Index 2011 ......................................................................................................... 14 Map 5 Lone Parent Households .................................................................................................... 18 Map 6 Non-Irish Nationality ........................................................................................................... 19 Map 7 Members of the Traveller Community................................................................................. 20 Map 8 Age Dependency – Young ................................................................................................. 27 Map 9 Age Dependency – Old ...................................................................................................... 27 Map 10 Age Dependency – Total .................................................................................................. 27 Map 11 Low Social Class .............................................................................................................. 34 Map 12 High Social Class ............................................................................................................. 34 Map 13 Labour Force Participation Rate ....................................................................................... 36 Map 14 Unemployment Rate ........................................................................................................ 36 Map 15 Economic Dependency Ratio ........................................................................................... 37 Map 16 General Location and Context .......................................................................................... 54 Map 17 Accessibility to Employment: 30 minute walk ................................................................... 55 Map 18 Car Mode Share ............................................................................................................... 56 Map 19 Walk /Mode Share............................................................................................................ 56 Map 20 Low Education Levels ...................................................................................................... 69 Map 21 High Education Levels...................................................................................................... 69 Map 22 Number of households without a personal computer ........................................................ 71 Map 23 Number of households without Internet access ................................................................ 71 Map 24 Rented from Local Authority ............................................................................................. 93 Map 25 Rented from a Voluntary Body ......................................................................................... 93 Map 26 No Central Heating ........................................................................................................... 94 Map 27 Health – Very Bad & Bad ............................................................................................... 115 Map 28 People with a disability ................................................................................................... 116 Map 29 Carers ............................................................................................................................ 116


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Figures Figure 1 Lessons learned - Ballymun and Fatima Mansions Regeneration .................................... 1 Figure 2 HP Pobal Deprivation Index 2006 & 2011 ....................................................................... 13 Figure 3 People aged 65 years and over ...................................................................................... 16 Figure 4 Lone Parents .................................................................................................................. 18 Figure 5 Non-Irish Nationals ......................................................................................................... 19 Figure 6 Members of the Traveller Community ............................................................................. 20 Figure 7 Gender ............................................................................................................................ 23 Figure 8 Gender ............................................................................................................................ 23 Figure 9 Age Profile Population Pyramid ....................................................................................... 24 Figure 10 Age Profile of the Lifecycle ............................................................................................ 25 Figure 11 Age Composition of the Lifecycle .................................................................................. 25 Figure 12 Age Dependency .......................................................................................................... 26 Figure 13 National Employment & Unemployment 2006-2012 ..................................................... 29 Figure 14 Unemployment Rate by Age & Gender ......................................................................... 30 Figure 15 Unemployment & Unemployment Rate by Education Level........................................... 30 Figure 16 Low & High Social Class ............................................................................................... 34 Figure 17 Low & High Social Class in the Recommended Regeneration Area .............................. 34 Figure18 Principal Economic Status Profile................................................................................... 36 Figure 19 Occupation .................................................................................................................... 38 Figure 20 Occupations in the Recommended Regeneration Area ................................................. 39 Figure 21 Industry ......................................................................................................................... 40 Figure 22 Industry in the Recommended Regeneration Area ........................................................ 40 Figure 23 Employment by sector................................................................................................... 49 Figure 24 Active Enterprises in Sligo by Activity 2010 ................................................................... 50 Figure 25 Households with no car ................................................................................................. 56 Figure 26 Education Levels ........................................................................................................... 68 Figure 27 Education Profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area.......................................... 69 Figure 28 Households with and without a personal computer & Internet access ........................... 70 Figure 29 Comparison of the stages in the Lifecycle ..................................................................... 78 Figure 30 Family Profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area ............................................... 78 Figure 31 Young Age Profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area ........................................ 83 Figure 32 Tenure profile ................................................................................................................ 92 Figure 33 Tenure profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area .............................................. 93 Figure 34 No Central Heating ....................................................................................................... 94 Figure 35 Determinants of Health ............................................................................................... 109 Figure 36 Health – Very good & good ......................................................................................... 115 Figure 37 Health – Very bad & bad ............................................................................................. 115 Figure 38 People with a Disability & Carers ................................................................................ 116 Figure 39 Lifecycle Approach ...................................................................................................... 120 Figure 40 Issues and Strategies Required .................................................................................. 121


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Executive Summary Introduction The aim for regeneration projects is to build sustainable communities through a combination of social, educational and economic initiatives and by rejuvenating the built environment by a mixture of demolition, construction and refurbishment of dwellings having regard to urban design guidelines. It is recommended that a strategic multi-faceted approach is taken to address the wide range of social, educational and economic issues that may be evident. To date the regeneration initiative in Sligo has focused on the Cranmore Estate. There has been significant investment in the area to date in both physical improvements and strategies, and in social initiatives. This investment has yielded significant results for the community. This phase of the Regeneration Project seeks to develop a long-term Masterplan for the integrated physical, social and economic development of the area. It is intended that the Regeneration Masterplan will be focused on addressing the needs of communities in the Sligo East City Area experiencing significant social and economic disadvantage, living in areas of poor quality housing and infrastructure. The Masterplan will identify necessary interventions, principles and priorities. It will provide a framework in which development can occur, including targeted solutions to address local problems, and guidance for their delivery over a ten year period. The development of the Regeneration Masterplan is structured into five phases. Stage 1, the Socio-Economic Analyses Review and Appraisal, was required to analyse existing information sources to compile a socio-economic profile of the communities to be considered for inclusion in the Regeneration Masterplan. The process was required to:   

Identify needs and present draft socio-economic strategies for exploration, development and consultation; make a recommendation for the definition of the extent of the regeneration area; make recommendations for draft indicative benchmark indicators for the regeneration

In the context of making recommendations for the definition of the extent of the regeneration area, the initial phase of Stage 1 focused on a broad socio-economic analysis of the East Sligo City area. Building on the socio-economic information, the Masterplan Design Team focused on applying a physical/community boundary logic to the socio-economic data and analysing the areas from the poor quality living environment and infrastructure1 filter. This process drew on guidance information from the Department of the Environment, Community and Local Government, specifically Circular N11/2007, Policy Framework for Regeneration of Local Authority Estates, and acknowledged the recommendations from the Centre for Housing Research2 in relation to determining the target for regeneration. It also drew on an initial physical assessment and on information on the extent of physical investment projects that have taken place to date.

1

Masterplan Brief to Tenders Housing Policy Discussion Series Regenerating Local Authority Housing Estates: Review of Policy and Practice, p 54 2


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On this basis, the Masterplanning Team recommend that the extent of the Regeneration Area should be as outlined in the following Map (black dotted line).

Recommended Regeneration Area

This Socio-Economic Profile Report presents the information and data gathered as part of Stage 1 for the Recommended Regeneration Area (RRA). The Profile Report is divided into a number of sections. Each section examines the national policy in the thematic area. Where appropriate it also examines the situation pertaining to Sligo. It then presents information pertinent to the Recommended Regeneration Area. Finally each section presents evidence based conclusions. The final section seeks to build on these findings and presents preliminary ideas for strategies to address the issues identified to be explored through further consultation with communities and agencies.

Section 2 Disadvantage and Affluence Section 2 Disadvantage and Affluence provides an overview of disadvantage and affluence in the Recommended Regeneration Area, drawing primarily on data from the HP Pobal Index and other data and information from Census 2011, Sligo Borough Council and other agencies. It also looks at


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the statistics for a number of groups that may be more vulnerable to poverty and disadvantage. It is clear from this analysis that the Recommended Regeneration Area is one that is significantly disadvantaged compared to the Sligo Borough Council area, Co Sligo and the State. The HP Pobal Index deprivation scores for the areas in the Recommended Regeneration Area ranged from -6.3 to -22.6 compared to an average for the State of 0.24, for Co Sligo of -0.17 and for the Sligo Borough Council Area of -2.97. An analysis of information from Sligo Borough Council shows that significant numbers of local authority tenants are living on incomes below the poverty line and 36% are in rent arrears. In relation to vulnerable groups, there are higher than average proportions of most of the categories that may be vulnerable to poverty and disadvantage - lone parent families, non-Irish nationals, members of the Traveller community and those with disabilities. Lone parent families account for 40% of all family units in the Recommended Regeneration Area. This is significantly higher than the averages for the State (18.3%), for Co Sligo (17.4%) and for the Sligo Borough Council Area (25.3%).

Section 3 Demographic Profile Section 3 Demographic Profile provides a demographic overview of the area and examines the population and population change, the gender and age profile and age dependency. Overall, the distribution of age and gender in the Recommended Regeneration Area is not unusual and follows a pattern close to the national picture with, for example, 68.5% of people living in the Regeneration Area of working age (15-64). It is in the areas of employment, education and health that significant factors of disadvantage are apparent.

Section 4 Employment, Unemployment and Economic Development Section 4 Employment, Unemployment and Economic Development outlines the current employment and unemployment profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area. It also provides a profile of economic development in the North West region, County Sligo and Sligo City. The key national policies and issues in relation to employment are outlined and the work undertaken to date in the current regeneration area is discussed. Suggests are made for areas that may be explored in further stages of the project. The section notes that, nationally, unemployment is at levels unseen since the 1980s.. Young people and those with low educational attainment are particularly affected by unemployment. The economic indicators from Census 2011, such as social class and Principal Economic Status, were examined. These showed that the Recommended Regeneration Area is considerably disadvantaged with:   

An unemployment rate at twice the national average and an unemployment rate for males of over 50% in a number of the areas Significantly higher rates of low social class and corresponding lower rates of high social class in the Recommended Regeneration Area than the averages for the State, Co Sligo or the Sligo Borough Council Area. An Economic Dependency Rate3 that was also significantly higher in the Recommended Regeneration Area at 1.7 compared to 1.0 for the State.

An analysis of the information on occupations shows that the highest proportion of those at work in the Recommended Regeneration Area work in Elementary Occupations followed by Skilled Trades 3

The Economic Dependency Ratio is the rate of the total inactive population (children 14 and under, unemployed, first time job seekers, those engaged in home duties, those retired, students, and those unable to work) to those at work


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Occupations, Process, Plant and Machine Operatives and Sales and Customer Service Occupations. The Census picture for employment as defined by sectors of industry for the Recommended Regeneration Area is less clear, as the highest proportion (34.3 %) described their industry as ‘Other’ followed by Professional Services (25.2%), Commerce and Trade (17.7%) and Manufacturing Industries (11.5%). Only 2.1% described their industry as Building and Construction. The section on economic development describes the economic context of Sligo and the region. In general, economic development has been much greater along the East coast and around the major urban centres of Dublin, Cork, Limerick and Galway. Outside of these areas there has been less benefit in terms of industrial development and growth, especially in the Western counties and particularly in the North Western region. The public sector is clearly an important employment sector for Sligo, providing just over one-third of all County employment; a proportionate share of employment which has progressively grown over the last 10 years, reflecting Sligo’s position as a regional centre for the North West, with a Regional institute of Technology, Regional Hospital and decentralised government departments. The highest proportion of employment in County Sligo is in the Health and Social Work Sector, at rates that are significantly higher than the national average, followed by wholesale and retail, and then industry, at rates that are also higher than the national average. This is a reflection of the number of indigenous and multinational manufacturers operating in the county. Sligo has a low share employed in knowledge intensive services. Small and medium sized enterprise is a significant and important source of employment in Sligo, as is the case nationally. Small enterprise with nine or fewer employees represented 92% of the total number of business enterprises in County Sligo in 2010 indicating the critical importance of the small enterprise sector to the local economy. There were only four businesses employing 250 people or more and 22 businesses employing between 50 and 249 people. An examination of Transport in Sligo and the Recommended Regeneration Area shows that although Sligo is a fairly compact city, the East City Area is cut off from easy access to key services across the river on the North East. The section highlights the importance of the proposed Eastern River Crossing as the key element of a new road route connecting the Cranmore area to the northeast of the City. The development of the Eastern River Crossing would integrate the regeneration area more comprehensively into the overall city, especially in terms of easing the access of residents to important health, education and training facilities. There is a city bus service but it is insufficiently used because it operates on a rather circuitous route system. The section concludes that economic development and employment are particularly important factors in the regeneration of disadvantaged areas. In the absence of a focus on employment, issues such as poverty and disadvantage cannot be addressed. Increased competition for scarce jobs coupled with low levels of skills and education will create difficulties for some residents in the Recommended Regeneration Area without significant intervention. In terms of addressing areas with significant unemployment, support for small scale economic development and micro enterprise may be more realistic than relying on the enterprise development agencies, important as these are in defining the macro employment context. The remits of many of the larger state development agencies make it difficult to focus their operations on smaller zones such as the Recommended Regeneration Area. There may be some potential for focusing on smaller scale areas when the Socio-Economic Committee is established as part of the reform of local government. The new Micro Enterprise and Small Business Unit in Enterprise


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Ireland that will work with Local Authorities to establish the Local Enterprise Office network will be worthy of exploration for its potential to the Recommended Regeneration Area.

Section 5 Education, Family Supports & Youth The section on education highlights the importance of education at all stages of people’s lives from early childhood education to lifelong learning and literacy supports. It makes the link between educational disadvantage, higher levels of unemployment and higher risk of poverty and disadvantage. It shows that there are significantly high levels of educational disadvantage in the Recommended Regeneration Area with levels of low education4 approaching twice the national average and levels of high education5 correspondingly low at less than half the national average. Access to a computer and Internet, now regarded as educational prerequisites, were significantly lower in the Recommended Regeneration Area than average. There have been significant developments in relation to supporting education in the schools, third level institutions and in the community. However, many of these are now feeling the impact of cutbacks. The section concludes that education is a key determinant to life chances and one of the key areas of focus that will determine any social and economic transformation of the regeneration area. It suggests that future interventions need to be strategic and take a life-cycle approach to educational need, beginning at early childhood education level through to Third Level and adult education. It further suggests that community-based interventions, such as early education, homework support and family learning support need to maintained and developed and interventions to support parents to realise the importance of education also need to be undertaken. Initiatives such Third Level Access Programmes need to be encouraged to focus on the Regeneration area. The importance of Family Support in a disadvantaged area cannot be overestimated. The section on Family Support outlines this and some of the major achievements in developing family support in the area. It acknowledges the collaborative nature of service provision. It is crucial that family supports are maintained as the Regeneration Project moves to the next phase. Family Support will be crucial to supporting the social and economic development of the area. The collaborative nature of Family Support service provision is important in ensuring that there is no duplication of services and it is important that this is facilitated to continue. There is potential for the development of further collaboration with social and economic initiatives that will emerge as part of the next phase of the Regeneration Project. The Family Support services will be an important referral source for initiatives targeted at those who are unemployed, lone parents, older people etc. and will be an important partner in future community development initiatives to address poverty, social exclusion and disadvantage. In relation to Youth Work, the section acknowledges the concerted effort to engage young people in a range of activities during the Regeneration Project to date. One of the key features has been the interagency co-operation in the focus on young people. A number of activities and initiatives are based in the current Regeneration area and a wide range of others are available to the community in areas adjacent or just outside the area. There is a need to build on this work and to provide a comprehensive range of developmental youth work activities to.

4 5

No formal education or primary education only Third level education


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Section 6 Community Safety, Housing Management and Support Section 6 Community Safety, Housing Management and Support outlines the key national policies in these areas and a profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area in relation to housing. It highlights the fact that approximately 45% of houses are owner occupied in the Recommended Regeneration Area compared to 70% nationally. A further 27% are rented from the Local Authority, almost four times the national average, with the remainder rented from a private landlord or rented from a Voluntary Housing Association. The achievements of the Regeneration Office, the Community Warden Scheme and the Tenancy Support Officer and the resultant change in perceptions in regard to Cranmore are outlined. These are important advances for a Regeneration Project to make, and provide a good foundation for further Regeneration work. It notes the importance of initiatives to ensure community safety and estate management and highlights how those involved in these aspects of the regeneration project to date have worked collaboratively to make significant beneficial changes to the area. There are issues that remain to be addressed, such as illegal money lending and substance abuse is still widespread, though not as visible as before. Innovative measures to address these issues need to be developed. Establishing alternatives to money lenders must be given greater priority.

Section 7 Community Development, Arts, Culture, Sport and Recreation Section 7 Community Development, Arts, Culture, Sport and Recreation outlines the key national policies in these areas. In relation to community development it notes the key achievements to date including initiatives to ensure community participation and representation. It suggests that it is now important that the Regeneration Project builds on these achievements and further embeds community development in the regeneration work, not only as a means of ensuring community representation and participation, but as a key strategy to address disadvantage. In relation to Arts and Culture, this section notes the initiatives that have been carried out to date in the context of the strategies and frameworks at national and local level. It highlights the importance of the Arts in developing a sense of pride in place and a pride in self. It notes that to date initiatives have largely been short-term and based on available funding. It suggests a more comprehensive, holistic strategy Arts Strategy for the Regeneration Project. Embedding the Arts in the Regeneration project should be a feature of the project as it evolves. The importance of sport and recreation as a medium for education, as a basis for healthy living and as a vehicle for social inclusion is noted in the section dealing with Sport & Recreation. It recognises the key achievements of initiatives in sport and recreation to date and notes the collaborative manner in which initiatives are being developed and implemented. It suggests that this needs to be continued and that the development of further sports infrastructure would complement the facilities that already exist either in or immediately adjacent to the Recommended Regeneration Area.

Section 8 Health and Wellness Section 8 Health and Wellness examines the key national policies in relation to health and presents a profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area in relation to issues affecting health. It notes that Healthy Ireland, the new government framework for action to improve health and wellbeing acknowledges that health and wellbeing are not evenly distributed across Irish society and that interventions to target health should focus on the wider social determinants of health. It presents evidence that show links between socio-economic disadvantage and poor health. It


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examines the perception of health in the Recommended Regeneration Area and notes that they are poorer than the averages for the State, Co Sligo and the Sligo Borough Council area. It highlights the fact that a number of health services are provided on an outreach basis in the Recommended Regeneration Area but there are no primary care or GP services located in the area. It also highlights some of the health issues identified by those interviewed including child weight, food poverty, drug and alcohol abuse, mental ill health and depression. The section concludes that health is intrinsic to people’s life experiences and outcomes and that health provision in the Recommended Regeneration Area must be viewed in the context of the level of disadvantage in the area. It suggests that initiatives to promote good, positive physical and mental health will be key to the achievement of a healthy community. Equally important is ensuring that residents have appropriate access to primary physical and mental health services.

Section 9 Conclusion – Building on our past…looking to our future Section 9 Conclusion – Building on the past…looking to the future is the final section of the report. It provides a summary of the sections and makes suggestions for the development of a number of socio-economic strategies to inform the following phases of regeneration. It outlines the fact that a comprehensive, strategic approach is required to transforming the socioeconomic situation of residents in the Recommended Regeneration Area. It makes the case that education and economic development will be key to this. Community development, family support, youthwork, arts and culture, sports and recreation will continue to have pivotal parts to play in the development of cohesive communities, healthy lifestyles and in ensuring social inclusion. It states that community safety and estate management must be maintained at current levels and be developed further to create the environment in which residents can live in safety. It states that the development of a healthy community and ensuring adequate access to health services will be central elements of the Masterplan. It outlines the key decisions that need to be made before the indicative benchmarks for the Regeneration Project can be selected, and critically it calls for a focus on strategic outcomes and leadership from national government level through to local level to enable the delivery of a successful multi-disciplinary, multi-agency approach to Regeneration objectives.


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Section 1 Introduction The aim for regeneration projects is to build sustainable communities through a combination of social, educational and economic initiatives and by rejuvenating the built environment by a mixture of demolition, construction and refurbishment of dwellings having regard to urban design guidelines.1 Research increasingly indicates that physical regeneration interventions on their own are insufficient to transform an area and interventions should be tailor-made to address underlying causal factors that require social and economic, as well as, physical interventions. The Design Team’s experience from other regeneration projects2 strongly suggests the importance of:   

An integrated, comprehensive approach to regeneration, including economic, social and physical regeneration; combined with Consultation with the community in the regeneration area and, crucially, Responding to community identified needs.

Figure 1 Lessons learned - Ballymun and Fatima Mansions Regeneration


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A new Strategic Direction for Regeneration in Sligo To date the regeneration initiative in Sligo has focused on the Cranmore Estate. The scale and design of Cranmore, combined with a lack of investment in maintenance and management, and a concentration of high levels of socio-economic disadvantage, resulted in a disadvantaged urban environment and community. In order to reverse the social, environmental and physical decline of the area, and recognizing that here was an issue which required long term targeted intervention, Sligo Borough Council (SBC) with the support of the DoECLG, established the Cranmore Regeneration Project in 2004. A Draft Framework Plan for the Regeneration of Cranmore was prepared in 2006 and submitted to the DoECLG for funding approval. In its review of the Framework Plan, the Department’s Housing and National Spatial Planning Units recommended the consideration of a wider area, and emphasized the importance of integrating Cranmore into its hinterland and of linking the Regeneration Initiative to the broader objective of the development of Sligo as a Gateway City, complementing the City’s objectives under the National Spatial Strategy. This represented a significant change in strategic direction for the Regeneration project from a localised housing redevelopment project (focused on Cranmore) to a major Gateway City project. The Cranmore Regeneration Social Plan, produced by the Social Working Group and submitted to the Department in 2007, aimed to improve the quality of life in the area through better co-ordination of services, community development and integrated planning. The Social plan was a multi-agency plan including 60 strategic objectives in relation to education, employment, community development, family supports, housing and estate management, crime and policing, opportunities for young people and sport and recreation. The Social Plan has acted as the blueprint for the social regeneration of Cranmore since. We have engaged with agencies and community groups in a review of the Social plan. The achievements of the work under the Social Plan are many and are highlighted in the relevant sections of this report. There has been significant investment in the area to date in both physical improvements and strategies and in social initiatives. This phase of the Regeneration Project seeks to develop a long-term Masterplan for the integrated physical, social and economic development of the area. It is intended that the Regeneration Masterplan will be focused on addressing the needs of communities experiencing significant social and economic disadvantage, living in areas of poor quality housing and infrastructure. The Masterplan will identify necessary interventions, principles and priorities. It will provide a framework in which development can occur, including targeted solutions to address local problems, and guidance for their delivery over a ten year period. The development of the Regeneration Masterplan is structured into five phases: Stage 1. Socio-Economic Analyses: Review and Appraisal Stage 2. Review and appraisal of the physical, social and economic contexts for Regeneration Stage 3. The development of the preliminary Masterplan proposals and actions Stage 4. A detailed design consultation stage Stage 5. Publication of final Regeneration Masterplan Report


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Stage 1 Socio-Economic Analyses Review and Appraisal The Stage 1, the Socio-Economic Analyses Review and Appraisal, was required to use existing information sources to compile a socio-economic profile of the communities to be considered for inclusion in the Regeneration Masterplan, focussing on communities experiencing: 1. 2.

Significant social and economic disadvantage; and With a poor quality living environment.

The process was required to: 

Identify needs and present draft socio-economic strategies for exploration, development and consultation; make a recommendation for the definition of the extent of the regeneration area; make recommendations for draft indicative benchmark indicators for the regeneration

 

Methodology The methodologies used to gather information included both primary and secondary research yielding qualitative and quantitative information. The methodologies included:

Primary research o o o o

A significant number of interviews and cluster meetings were carried out with agencies, organisations, community groups and other stakeholders; A template to facilitate the review of the Cranmore Regeneration Project Social Plan 2007 was distributed and used as the basis for the Review of the Social Plan; A template to facilitate agencies and organisations to map the services that they provide in and to the area was distributed and collated as the basis for the Services Map. Two multi-agency meetings were held to share the interim findings of the Stage 1 research with agencies working in the area, and to gather responses regarding the issues that need to be addressed in the Regeneration Masterplan

Secondary/Desk research o o o o

Review and analysis of existing statistical information sources including an in-depth analysis of the information from Census 2011: A review of relevant national and local plans and strategies; A review of all reports written about the Regeneration process and area to date. A review of the reports of the Consultation history

Consultation meetings & issues raised Four consultation meetings were held during the course of Stage 1. Two of these were held with key socio-economic agencies and community groups working in the area (21st February and 11th March 2013). These meetings focused on collaboratively reviewing the Cranmore Regeneration Social Plan 2007, sharing information from the initial Census Analysis prepared by the Team and building ideas for strategies for further exploration in further stages of the project. A further two consultation meetings were held with Elected Representatives and the Key Stakeholder Leadership Group on 9th April 2013. A Draft Report of the Stage 1 Socio-Economic Profile Building on our past... looking to our future was circulated to those invited and this was


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presented at the briefing/consultation meetings. These meetings and subsequent submissions raised a number of issues that the Masterplan Team were asked to consider. In summary, these were:   

Concern regarding the Recommended Regeneration Boundary and the need for a more comprehensive outline of the criteria and process for proposing the Recommended Regeneration Area; Concern regarding Funding Sources and the commitment of agencies to the regeneration area and process; Concern regarding consultation with communities affected.

This Final Draft of the Stage 1 Socio economic Profile has been revised to reflect these considerations, as outlined below: 

 

A more comprehensive outline of the reasoning for the Draft Recommended Regeneration Area is contained in this Final Draft report, and some revisions have been made to the Recommended Regeneration Area boundary. It should be noted that this Recommended Regeneration Area boundary will be developed/refined further following the detailed physical analysis which will take place in Stage 2. The Masterplan Team considered the concern regarding funding and commitment of agencies to be dealt with in the report, and particular attention is drawn to this issue in the final section (Section 9) The consultation with communities has been scheduled for Stage 2 and future stages of the Masterplan project. Prior to and parallel to the work carried out by the Masterplan Team in Stage 1, an Independent Community Liaison Officer contracted by the Housing Agency has been working extensively with communities in the area to prepare and support them to engage with the Masterplan Team. The Masterplan Team have met with the Independent Community Liaison Officer on a number of occasions and have been thoroughly briefed on the process carried out to date.

This Stage 1 Draft Report is the first Stage of the five Stage process of developing the Masterplan. Future stages will build on and add to the information presented here.


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Initial Research Area & Identifying the Boundaries One of the main requirements of Stage 1 of the Masterplan project was to make initial recommendations for the definition of the extent of the regeneration area (to be more definitively defined in Stage 2). In this context, the initial phase of Stage 1 focused on a socio-economic analysis of the East Sligo City area. Initially all the areas in the East City Area of Sligo were assessed for social and economic needs as demonstrated by the information derived from Census 2011. Map 1 below shows the initial research areas that were analysed. The results of this analysis informed the process for refining the boundaries of the Recommended Regeneration Area.

Map 1 Initial Research Area

The Masterplan Brief states that it is intended that the Regeneration Masterplan will be focused on addressing the needs of communities ‘experiencing significant social and economic disadvantage, living in areas of poor quality housing and infrastructure’. Building on the socio-economic information, the Regeneration Masterplan Design Team focused on applying a physical/community boundary logic to the socio-economic data and analysing the areas from the poor quality living environment3 filter. This process drew on guidance information from the Department of the Environment, Community and Local Government, specifically Circular N11/2007, Policy Framework for Regeneration of Local Authority Estates, and acknowledged the


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recommendations from the Centre for Housing Research4 in relation to determining the target for regeneration. It also drew on an initial physical assessment and on information on the extent of physical investment projects that have taken place to date. It should be noted that the comprehensive physical assessment will take place as part of Stage 2 of the Masterplan project. The Team’s rationale for the recommended boundary is derived from combining the socioeconomic analysis of the Small Areas that are disadvantaged (the majority are very disadvantaged or disadvantaged with a small number that are marginally below the average considered) with a filter of poor quality living environment and infrastructure. The detail of this analysis is outlined in Table 1 below. On this basis, the Masterplan Team recommend that the extent of the Regeneration Area should be as outlined in Map 2 and Table 2. This boundary will be reviewed at the end of Stage 2 after further assessment of the physical environment of the above areas.


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Table 1 Recommended Regeneration Area Assessment Key:

Small Area

01

The Recommended Regeneration Area is highlighted in blue. Further stages of the Masterplan process will focus on consultation with communities in the Recommended Regeneration Area Communities in Small Areas 21 and 23 are highlighted in green and will be consulted in relation to the potential strategic infrastructural changes and broader regeneration proposals. The detailed design of the Eastern Bridge and Approach Roads (as approved by An Bord Pleanála) is being consulted upon by Sligo Local Authorities (in preparation for a tender package) in April and May 2013. The Regeneration Masterplan will focus on Cranmore, as circled on Map 2, and Environs as outlined in the Brief for the Masterplan Team.

Socio-Economic Assessment filter

Physical assessment filter

Deprivation Score & Description

Initial assessment of physical infrastructure & investment to date

-2.9

Recommended for inclusion in the Recommended Regeneration Area Yes or No

Reason

Marginally Below Average

 Good connectivity as a result of proximity to City Centre.

No

Socio-Economic Assessment is only marginally below average and good existing connectivity

Yes

Socio-Economic Assessment is disadvantaged with potential impact from infrastructural development

02

-16.3

Disadvantaged

 Possible employment land uses including a historic building with potential;  Impact from the proposed new bridge (as approved by An Bord Pleanála) and transport proposals;  Significant investment under the Remedial Works Scheme by the DoECLG between 2004 & 2006.

03

-22.6

Very Disadvantaged

 Poor physical fabric and potential for new infrastructure.

Yes

Socio-Economic Assessment is disadvantaged with poor physical infrastructure

04

-16.7

Disadvantaged

 Poor physical fabric and potential for new infrastructure.

Yes

Socio-Economic Assessment is disadvantaged with poor physical infrastructure

05/06

4.8

Marginally Above Average

 Good connectivity as a result of proximity to City Centre.

No

Socio-Economic Assessment is above average and good existing connectivity

07

6.3

Marginally Above Average

 Good connectivity as a result of proximity to City Centre.

No

Socio-Economic Assessment is above average and good existing connectivity

08

-12.1

Disadvantaged

 Good connectivity as a result of proximity to City Centre;  No opportunity for new physical infrastructure or regeneration initiatives;  Significant investment under the Remedial Works Scheme by the DoECLG between 2007 & 2009.

No

Socio-Economic Assessment is disadvantaged but physical assessment suggests limited potential for regeneration and good existing connectivity

Disadvantaged

 Good connectivity as a result of proximity to City Centre;  No opportunity for new physical infrastructure or regeneration initiatives;  Some local authority housing, mainly new stock.

09

-10.2

No

Socio-Economic Assessment is disadvantaged but physical assessment suggests limited potential for regeneration and good existing connectivity


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Small Area

Socio-Economic Assessment filter

Physical assessment filter

Deprivation Score & Description

Initial assessment of physical infrastructure & investment to date

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Recommended for inclusion in the Recommended Regeneration Area Yes or No

Reason Socio-Economic Assessment is disadvantaged but physical assessment suggests limited potential for regeneration and good existing connectivity

10

-17.0

Disadvantaged

 Good connectivity as a result of proximity to City Centre;  No opportunity for new physical infrastructure;

No

11

-13.8

Disadvantaged

 Physical fabric is poor and potential for new infrastructure links to open spaces and destination land uses.

Yes

Socio-Economic Assessment is disadvantaged with poor physical infrastructure. Potential for improved linkages

12

-6.3

Marginally Below Average

 School and retail land uses with potential for new infrastructure links.

Yes

Socio-Economic Assessment is only marginally below average but adjacent to RRA with mix of housing, schools & retail

13

-14.8

Disadvantaged

 Poor physical fabric and potential for new infrastructure links.

Yes

Socio-Economic Assessment is disadvantaged with potential for regeneration and infrastructural development

14

-2.4

Marginally Below Average

 Significant investment in social housing and environmental works under the Remedial Works Scheme by the DoECLG between 2007 & 2009.

No

Socio-Economic Assessment is only marginally below average and significant physical investment to date

15

0.1

Marginally Above Average

 Not contiguous with the core area or in need of new physical infrastructure or regeneration initiatives.

No

Socio-Economic Assessment is above average and not in need of regeneration proposals

16

7.5

Marginally Above Average

 Not contiguous with the core area or in need of new physical infrastructure or regeneration initiatives.

No

Socio-Economic Assessment is above average and not in need of regeneration proposals

17

-13.2

18

19

Disadvantaged

 The proposed new bridge (as approved by An Bord Pleanála) and transport changes will impact on existing infrastructure.

Yes

Socio-Economic Assessment is disadvantaged with potential impact from proposed infrastructural developments

-8.6

Marginally Below Average

 The proposed new bridge (as approved by An Bord Pleanála) and transport changes will impact on existing infrastructure.

Yes

Socio-Economic Assessment is marginally below average but with potential impact from proposed infrastructural developments

5.7

Marginally Above Average

No

Socio-Economic Assessment is above average and not in need of regeneration proposals

 Not contiguous with the core area and no need for new physical infrastructure or regeneration initiatives.


STAGE 1 REPORT FINAL DRAFT April 2013

Small Area

20

Socio-Economic Assessment filter

Physical assessment filter

Deprivation Score & Description

Initial assessment of physical infrastructure & investment to date

-0.1

21

7.4

22

-18.2

23

-9.7

1006

-20.3

 Not contiguous with the core area and no need for new physical infrastructure or regeneration initiatives.

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Recommended for inclusion in the Recommended Regeneration Area Yes or No

Reason

No

Socio-Economic Assessment is only marginally below average and not in need of regeneration.

Marginally Above Average

 May experience some changed in traffic movements as a result of the proposed new bridge (as approved by An Bord Pleanála).

No

Socio-Economic Assessment is above average – not recommended for regeneration but communities will be consulted in relation to further possible strategic transport interventions

Disadvantaged

 Poor physical fabric and potential for enhanced infrastructure.

Yes

Socio-Economic Assessment is disadvantaged with poor physical infrastructure

Marginally Below Average

 Will experience some changes as a result of the proposed new bridge (as approved by An Bord Pleanála);  Potential changes if other new street infrastructure is proposed.

No

Socio-Economic Assessment is only marginally below average – not recommended for regeneration but communities will be consulted in relation to further possible strategic transport interventions

Very Disadvantaged

 Good connectivity as a result of proximity to City Centre and no opportunity for new physical infrastructure or regeneration initiatives;  Significant investment in social housing and environmental improvements under the Remedial Works Scheme funded by the DoECLG between 2002 & 2007.

No

Socio-Economic Assessment is very disadvantaged but significant investment to date with no potential for regeneration infrastructural development

Marginally Below Average

For Reference Co Sligo

-0.17

Marginally Below Average

SBC

-2.97

Marginally Below Average

State

0.24

Marginally Above Average

Key:

The Recommended Regeneration Area is highlighted in blue. Further stages of the Masterplan process will focus on consultation with communities in the Recommended Regeneration Area Communities in Small Areas 21 and 23 are highlighted in green and will be consulted in relation to the potential strategic infrastructural changes and broader regeneration proposals. The detailed design of the Eastern Bridge and Approach Roads (as approved by An Bord Pleanála) is being consulted upon by Sligo Local Authorities (in preparation for a tender package) in April and May 2013. The Regeneration Masterplan will focus on Cranmore, as circled on Map 2, and Environs as outlined in the Brief for the Masterplan Team.


STAGE 1 REPORT FINAL DRAFT April 2013

Map 2 Recommended Regeneration Area

The Recommended Remigration Area is indicated by the black dotted line

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Table 2 Recommended Regeneration Area Census Small Area Reference

Map & Table Reference

Total Population 2011

207082002

02

270

207082003

03

142

207082004

04

247

207082011

11

170

207082012

12

345

207082013

13

256

207082017

17

117

207082018

18

143

207082022

22

214

Total Population

1,904

It is acknowledged that there are a number of areas outside the Recommended Regeneration Area in Sligo that are socio-economically disadvantaged and these areas are in need of initiatives to address poverty, educational disadvantage and unemployment. However, the areas that are in the Recommended Regeneration Area are the areas that require social, economic and physical interventions and are therefore included on this basis. The physical assessment of the Recommended Regeneration Area will be developed in more detail in Stage 2 of the Masterplan project.

Profile Report This Profile Report presents the information and data gathered as part of Stage 1 for the Recommended Regeneration Area (RRA). The Profile Report is divided into a number of sections. Each section examines the national policy in the thematic area. Where appropriate it also examines the situation pertaining to Sligo. It then presents information pertinent to the Recommended Regeneration Area. Finally each section presents evidence based conclusions. The final section seeks to build on these and present preliminary ideas for strategies to address the issues identified. 

Section 1 provides an introduction to regeneration, the regeneration project to date and the current phase of regeneration. It presents the methodologies used in researching the profile. It outlines the Initial Research Area and the process engaged to identify the Recommended Regeneration Area.

Section 2 Disadvantage and Affluence provides an overview of disadvantage and affluence in the Recommended Regeneration Area, drawing primarily on data from the HP Pobal Index and other data and information from Census 2011, Sligo Borough Council and other agencies. It also looks at a number of groups that may be more vulnerable to poverty and disadvantage.

Section 3 Demographic Profile provides a demographic overview of the area under the headings Population and Population Change, Gender, Age and Age Dependency.


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Section 4 Employment, Unemployment and Economic Development outlines the current employment and unemployment profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area and a profile of economic development in the region, County Sligo and Sligo City. It outlines key national policies and issues and highlights the work undertaken in the current regeneration area under these headings and makes suggestions for areas that may be explored in further stages of the project.

Section 5 Education, Family Supports & Youth outlines the current profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area in relation to education, family support and youth work. It highlights the key national policies in these areas and notes the work undertaken to date under these headings, as well as making suggestions for embedding and strengthening the work in the next phase of the project.

Section 6 Community Safety, Housing Management and Support outlines the key national policies in these areas and a profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area in relation to housing. It notes the key achievements to date and makes a number of suggestions for the next phases of regeneration under these headings.

Section 7 Community Development, Arts, Culture, Sport and Recreation outlines the key national policies in these areas. It describes the achievements of the regeneration project to date and presents suggestions for how the work in these areas can be embedded into future phases of regeneration.

Section 8 Health and Wellness examines the key national policies in relation to health and presents a profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area in relation to issues affecting health. It presents suggestions for how health and wellness can become features of future regeneration work.

Section 9 Conclusion – Building on our past…looking to our future is the final section of the report. It provides a summary of the sections and suggestions for the development of strategies to inform the following phases of regeneration. It outlines the key decisions that need to be made before the indicative benchmarks for the Regeneration Project can be selected.


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Section 2 Disadvantage and Affluence Introduction The Brief for the Masterplan requires an analysis of the communities experiencing significant social and economic disadvantage and with a poor quality living environment. This report presents data from the Census of Population 2011 and other sources of information that indicate disadvantage. In this section, an overview of disadvantage and affluence in the Recommended Regeneration Area is presented, drawing primarily on data from the HP Pobal Index and other data and information from Census 2011, Sligo Borough Council and other agencies. Information pertaining to groups that are more vulnerable to poverty, disadvantage and social exclusion is also presented. Other key variables such as unemployment and education levels are presented in the relevant sections of the report.

Section 2.1 Pobal HP Deprivation Index The Pobal HP Deprivation Index5 is a method of measuring the relevant affluence or disadvantage of a particular geographical area using data compiled from the census.6 The index uses a number of indicators under the headings of demographic profile, social class composition and labour market situation on the basis of which an area is assigned a score that ranges from 35 (Extremely Affluent) to -35 (Extremely Disadvantaged). The score indicates the level of disadvantage in an area. It is possible to compare the area with others and track changes within the area over time. In 2012, the Pobal HP Deprivation Index became available for Small Areas, allowing for an analysis of affluence and deprivation at this level. The HP Index was analysed for the Recommended Regeneration Area. Although the information at Small Area level only became available after the 2011 census, the authors of the index7 were able to analyse the data for the 2006 census providing an opportunity to compare the levels over two census periods. An analysis of the HP Pobal Index indicates that a number of the Small Areas in the Recommended Regeneration Area are significantly disadvantaged. The scores for the Recommended Regeneration Area ranged from -6 to -22.6 compared to an average for the State of 0.24, for Co Sligo of -0.58 and for the Sligo Borough Council area of -2.52. The most disadvantaged were areas 03 22, 04 and 02. When analysed across the two census periods, two areas, 03 and 11 showed a decline in the period 2006-2011.

Figure 2 HP Pobal Deprivation Index 2006 & 2011

Deprivation & Affluence 2006 & 2011 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30

Deprivation Score 2006

Deprivation Score 2011

Area 02 Area 03 Area 04 Area 11 Area 12 Area 13 Area 17 Area 18 Area 22 Sligo Borough Council Co Sligo State


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Table 3 HP Pobal Deprivation Index 2006 & 2011 Small Area Reference

Area 02 Area 03 Area 04 Area 11 Area 12 Area 13 Area 17 Area 18 Area 22 Sligo Borough Council Co Sligo State

Total Population 2011 270 142 247 170 345 256 117 143 214 17,568 65,393 4,588,252

Deprivation Score 2006 -19.8 -18.8 -26.4 -13.3 -6.8 -20.1 -15.4 -10.7 -15.1 -2.52 -0.58 -0.23

Deprivation Score 2011 -16.3 -22.6 -16.7 -13.8 -6.3 -14.8 -13.2 -8.6 -18.2 -2.97 -0.17 0.24

Pobal HP 2011 Description

Disadvantaged Very Disadvantaged Disadvantaged Disadvantaged Marginally Below Average Disadvantaged Disadvantaged Marginally Below Average Disadvantaged Marginally Below Average Marginally Below Average Marginally Above Average

Map 3 HP Pobal Index 2006

Map 4 HP Pobal Index 2011


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Poverty analysis Using two sets of data (see Tables 4 and 4 below), this research has endeavoured to compare the income levels of the residents of the regeneration area that are renting from the local authority with the national poverty levels. It is acknowledged that this data is imprecise but it does give an indication of the poverty levels of people in the area.

Table 4 National Poverty Statistics 2007 Average equivalised disposable 8 income (per individual) At risk of poverty threshold At risk of poverty Material Deprivation Consistent Poverty

2008

2009

2010

2011

€23,610

€24,380

€24,326

€22,138

€21,440

€11,890 16.5% 11.8% 5.1

€12,455 14.4 13.8 4.2

€12,064 14.1 17.1 5.5

€11,155 14.7 22.6 6.3

€10,889 16.0 24.5 6.9

Source: CSO (various years) EU Survey on Income and Living Conditions

Table 5 Income levels of local authority tenants in the Recommended Regeneration Area Size of household

One person households Two Person households Three person households

Approximate poverty line for size of household €11,000

Income range

Number of households

Less than €11,000 Less than €22,000 Less than €31,000

95

Percentage of households of that size 75%

78

95%

28

85%

€22,000 €33,000

Source: Derived from information provided by Sligo Borough Council

The poverty line (the income threshold below which people are considered to be income poor and at risk of poverty) was €10,889 per individual in 2011. An analysis of information from Sligo Borough Council suggests that a significant number of local authority tenants are living on incomes that are well below the poverty threshold. Ninety-five one person households are living below the poverty line, with 27 two person households and 28 three person households significantly below the poverty lines for their household size.

Table 6 Rent Arrears Total no of Tenancies

Up to 8 weeks arrears N 273

% 47

Over 8 weeks arrears N

17%

% 52

Total in arrears N

19%

99

% 36%

Source: Derived from information provided by Sligo Borough Council

Table 6 shows the number of local authority rented households that are in rent arrears. Of the total 273 houses, 99 or 36% are in arrears, with 17% in rent arrears up to eight weeks and a further 19% in rent arrears for over eight weeks. This indicates that there are a considerable number of households in the Recommended Regeneration Area that are experiencing financial difficulties.


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Section 2.2 Vulnerable Groups This section of the report briefly examines the area in relation to groups that may be considered more vulnerable to poverty, social exclusion and inequalities. A number of indicators are examined – the proportion of older people, the proportion of lone parents, the proportion of Travellers, the proportion of non-Irish nationals and the proportion of people with a disability.

Older People Older people and particularly older people living alone can face significant levels of deprivation and isolation. There are a total of 245 older people in the Recommended Regeneration Area. The majority of older age categories outlined below in Table 7 and Figure 3 are similar in proportion to the national averages with proportionately more in the 70-74 age category.

Table 7 People aged 65 years and over 65-69 N % RRA Sligo Borough Co Sligo State

70-74 N %

75-79 N %

80-84 N %

85+ N %

Older people N %

72

3.8

76

4.0

39

2.0

33

1.7

25

1.3

245

12.9

670

3.8

550

3.1

475

2.7

383

2.2

372

2.1

2,450

13.9

2,820

4.3

2,122

3.2

1,701

2.6

1,234

1.9

1,166

1.8

9,043

13.8

173,638

3.8

131,190

2.9

102,036

2.2

70,113

1.5

58,416

1.3

535,393

11.7

RRA – Recommended Regeneration Area

Figure 3 People aged 65 years and over 14.0 12.0 10.0

RRA

8.0

Sligo Borough 6.0

Co Sligo State

4.0 2.0 0.0 65-69

70-74

75-79

80-84

85+

Older people

Information from Sligo Borough Council suggests that there are 14 people/families over the age of 65 approved for housing in the area (see Table 31) and there are a total of 69 local authority houses where the age of the reference person is 65 years or over.


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Lone Parent Households The proportion of households headed by a lone parent is general regarded as an indicator of the levels of disadvantage in an area as lone parent households have consistently had the highest levels of poverty and deprivation. This is reflected in Table 8, which shows the difference in the levels of income, poverty and deprivation levels amongst the general population and households headed by a lone parent for 2011.9

Table 8 National Poverty Statistics Poverty Statistics 2011 Average annual household disposable income Average annual equivalised household disposable income At risk of poverty Material Deprivation Consistent Poverty

General population 41,819 21,440

Households headed by a lone parent 24,934 15,995

16.0 24.5 6.9

28.4 56.0 16.4

Source: CSO 2013, EU SILC 2011

Lone parents are significantly more likely to be living on lower incomes, in poverty and with deprivation than the general population. There are 191 lone parent families in the Recommended Regeneration Area, accounting for 40% of all family units. This figure is significantly higher than the averages for the State (18.3%), for Co Sligo (17.4%) and for the Sligo Borough Council Area (25.3%).

Table 9 Lone Parent Households in the Recommended Regeneration Area Total Family Units N RRA Sligo Borough Co Sligo State

Lone mother with children N %

Lone father with children N %

Lone Parents N

%

476

171

35.9

20

4.2

191

40.1

3,788

849

22.4

108

2.9

957

25.3

16,316

2,430

14.9

403

2.5

2,833

17.4

1,179,210

186,284

15.8

29,031

2.5

215,315

18.3

RRA – Recommended Regeneration Area


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Figure 4 Lone Parents

Lone Parents 50.0

40.0

RRA

30.0

Sligo Borough

20.0

Co Sligo

10.0

State

0.0 Lone mother with Lone father with children children

Map 5 Lone Parent Households

Lone Parents


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Non-Irish Nationals Though it is important to acknowledge that not all migrants are vulnerable to poverty and social exclusion, it is also important to acknowledge that a significant number are. The Quarterly National Household Survey on Equality10, for example, shows the high rates of discrimination that people experience on the basis of skin colour or nationality. The work of the migrants Rights Centre Ireland consistently shows that migrants are more vulnerable to exploitation in the workplace and in other areas. According to the CSO11 the rate of unemployment among non-Irish people in 2011 was 22% compared with a rate of 18.5% among Irish people. As Table 10 and Figure 5 show, there are a total of 265 people that describe themselves as nonIrish national in the Recommended Regeneration Area, accounting for 14% of the population, slightly higher than the average for the State. Globe House, a direct provision centre for members of the asylum seeking community is a significant influencing factor on this figure.

Table 10 Non-Irish Nationals

RRA Sligo Borough Co. Sligo State

Total non-Irish N % 265 14.0 2,781 16.1 6,420 9.9 544,357 12.0

RRA – Recommended Regeneration Area

Figure 5 Non-Irish Nationals

Non-Irish Nationals 20.0

RRA

15.0

Sligo Borough

10.0

Co. Sligo

5.0

State

0.0 Total non-Irish

Map 6 Non-Irish Nationality


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Irish Traveller Though small in number, the Irish Traveller community is acknowledged to be one of the most disadvantaged groups in Irish society. Fewer than 3% of the Traveller community live to 65 years of age. The All Ireland Health Study12 provided evidence that the Traveller mortality rates are three times the national average and that the suicide rate is six times the average. A total of 1% of the population of the Recommended Regeneration Area is made up of members of the Traveller community, compared to an average in the State of 0.7% and 0.9% in the Sligo Borough Council area.

Table 11 Members of the Traveller Community Ethnicity

Traveller Community

RRA Sligo Borough Co. Sligo State

1.0 0.9 0.6 0.7

RRA – Recommended Regeneration Area

Figure 6 Members of the Traveller Community

Traveller Community 1.5

RRA

1.0

Sligo Borough

0.5

Co. Sligo State

0.0 Traveller Community

Map 7 Members of the Traveller Community


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People with a disability The data on people with a disability is presented in the Health and Wellness section. It shows that 19.8% of people in the Recommended Regeneration Area had a disability compared to 13.0% of the population were classified as having a disability.

Conclusion The Recommended Regeneration Area is one that is significantly disadvantaged compared to the Sligo Borough Council area, Co Sligo and the State. The deprivation scores ranged from -6.3 to -22.6 compared to an average for the State of 0.24, for Co Sligo of -0.17 and for the Sligo Borough Council Area of -2.97. An analysis of information from Sligo Borough Council shows that significant numbers of local authority tenants are living on incomes below the poverty line and 36% are in rent arrears. In relation to vulnerable groups, there are higher than average proportions of older people, lone parents, non-Irish nationals, members of the Traveller community and people with a disability. These are groups that are vulnerable to poverty and disadvantage.


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Section 3 Demographic Profile Section 3 Demographic Profile provides a demographic overview of the area under the following headings: Population and Population Change Age Profile Age Dependency

Section 3.1 Population and Population Change The Recommended Regeneration Area comprises nine Small Areas13, the populations of which range from 142 in area 03 to 270 in area 02. The total population of the Recommended Regeneration Area is 1,904, accounting for almost 11% of the total population of the Sligo Borough Council area. Area 03 showed the highest population change. This is due to the demolition of housing in the Centre Block area, undertaken in 2008.

Table 12 Population & Population Change 2006 & 2011 Small Area ID

Total Population 2011 Total Population 2006 Population change N N N %

Area 02

270

238

32

13.4

Area 03

142

310

-168

-54.2

Area 04

247

241

6

2.5

Area 11

170

190

-20

-10.5

Area 12

345

271

74

27.3

Area 13

256

346

-90

-26.0

Area 17

117

163

-46

-28.2

Area 18

143

163

-20

-12.3

Area 22 RRA

214

242

-28

-11.6

1,904

2,164

-260

-12.0

Sligo Borough Council

17,568

17,892

-324

-1.8

Co Sligo

65,393

60,894

4,499

7.4

4,588,252

4,239,848

348,404

8.2

State

RRA – Recommended Regeneration Area


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Section 3.2 Gender Gender Table13 and Figures 7 and 8 present the gender breakdown of the Recommended Regeneration Area, the Sligo Borough Council Area, County Sligo and the State. There are slightly more females (50.8%) than males (49.2%) in the Recommended Regeneration Area. This figure is broadly in line with the average for the Sligo borough Council Area, Co Sligo and the State.

Table 13 Gender Gender RRA SBC Co Sligo State

Total N

Male N

1,904 17,568 65,393 4,588,252

937 8,407 32,435 2,272,699

Female % 49.2 47.9 49.6 49.5

N 967 9,161 32,958 2,315,553

RRA – Recommended Regeneration Area

Figure 7 Gender

Gender 53.0 52.0 51.0 50.0 49.0 48.0 47.0 46.0 45.0

RRA

SBC Co Sligo State

Male

Female

Figure 8 Gender

Gender in the RRA 50.8

49.2 Male Female

% 50.8 52.1 50.4 50.5


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Section 3.3 Age & Age Dependency Age Profile Table 14 and Figure 9 below present the age profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area, the Sligo Borough Council Area, County Sligo and the State. The age profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area is broadly similar to that of the State, Sligo Borough Council area and County Sligo.

Table 14 Age Profile Age 0-4 years 5-9 years 10-14 years 15-19 years 20-24 years 25-29 years 30-34 years 35-39 years 40-44 years 45-49 years 50-54 years 55-59 years 60-64 years 65-69 years 70-74 years 75-79 years 80-84 years 85+ years

RRA 8.1 5.0 5.5 5.6 8.2 10.3 8.6 6.1 5.1 6.1 7.0 6.6 4.9 3.8 4.0 2.0 1.7 1.3

Sligo Borough 6.1 4.5 5.1 8.0 11.2 8.8 8.4 6.4 5.6 5.8 5.9 5.4 4.9 3.8 3.1 2.7 2.2 2.1

Co Sligo

State 7.0 6.4 6.6 6.7 6.6 6.8 7.2 7.1 6.8 6.8 6.6 6.0 5.5 4.3 3.2 2.6 1.9 1.8

RRA – Recommended Regeneration Area

Figure 9 Age Profile Population Pyramid 80-84 years

Age Range

70-74 years 60-64 years 50-54 years 40-44 years

RRA

30-34 years

State

20-24 years 10-14 years

0-4 years -10.0

0.0

10.0

Population

20.0

7.8 7.0 6.6 6.2 6.5 7.9 8.6 7.9 7.2 6.7 6.0 5.3 4.8 3.8 2.9 2.2 1.5 1.3


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Table 15 and Figures 10 and 11 show the age profile according to the Life Cycle. It presents the total numbers and percentage of the population of young people, people of working age and older people. As above the general profile if the area is similar to that of the State with slightly fewer in the young people category, slightly more in the people of working age and older people categories.

Table 15 Age profile according to the Life Cycle Age

Young People 0-14 N

RRA Sligo Borough Co Sligo State

People of Working Age15-64

%

N

%

Older people 65+ N

%

354

18.6

1,305

68.5

245

12.9

2,763

15.7

12,355

70.3

2,450

13.9

13,109

20.0

43,241

66.1

9,043

13.8

979,590

21.3

3,073,269

67.0

535,393

11.7

RRA – Recommended Regeneration Area

Figure 10 Age Profile of the Lifecycle

Figure 11 Age Composition of the Lifecycle

80.0

100.0

70.0

90.0 80.0

60.0

70.0

50.0

60.0

40.0

RRA

50.0

30.0

Sligo Borough

40.0

Co Sligo

30.0

State

20.0

20.0 10.0 0.0

10.0 0.0

Older people 65+ People of Working Age15-64 Young People 0-14


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Age Dependency The age dependency rates14 provide crude but useful indicators of the age structure of the population. Age dependency rates are crude because the notion of age dependency is not precise. There is a likelihood that there may be a substantial number of people aged 15 years and over still in education and there is also a likelihood that people aged 65+ may still be at work. However, they are still useful indicators, showing the number of those age dependent on the population of working age. In 2011, the age dependency rate for the State was 49.3%. The rate for Co Sligo (42.2%) was lower but the rate for Sligo Borough Council (51.2%) was higher. The Recommended Regeneration Area had a lower overall rate of age dependency at 45.9% but a slightly higher old age dependency rate than that of the State.

Table 16 Age Dependency Age

Young Dependency

Old Dependency

Total Dependency

RRA

27.1

18.8

45.9

Sligo Borough

22.4

19.8

42.2

Co Sligo

30.3

20.9

51.2

State

31.9

17.4

49.3

RRA – Recommended Regeneration Area

Figure 12 Age Dependency 60.0 50.0

40.0

RRA

30.0

Sligo Borough

20.0

Co Sligo

10.0

State

0.0

Young Dependency

Old Dependency

Total Dependency


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Map 8 Age Dependency – Young

Map 9 Age Dependency – Old

Map 10 Age Dependency – Total


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Conclusions: Analysis of the demographic profile indicates that in terms of proportions by gender, age and age dependency, the Recommended Regeneration area does not display any unusual characteristics and is broadly similar to figures found for the State and County Sligo. The chapters of this report which look at employment, education levels and health highlight characteristics of the population which indicate disadvantage.


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Section 4 Employment, Unemployment and Economic Development This section of the report examines employment and unemployment, principal economic status, social class and occupations both nationally and in the context of the Recommended Regeneration Area. In the second part of this section, an economic profile of the North West region, County Sligo and Sligo City is presented, briefly examining economic linkages, enterprise and innovation, business needs and transport and areas and opportunities that need to be explored in more detail through the Masterplan process.

Section 4.1 Employment & Unemployment National Context Unemployment in Ireland is currently at levels unseen since the 1980s. An analysis of figures from the Quarterly National Household Survey indicates that, nationally, unemployment grew from 4.1% in the last quarter of 2006 to 14.5% in the last quarter of 2011 and has since decreased slightly to 13.7% in the last quarter of 2012. Long-term unemployment accounted for 59.5% of total unemployment in Quarter 4 2012. The latest figures from the Live Register15 show that, nationally, there are 430,100 in receipt of an unemployment support payment. Based on the 2011 census, the unemployment rate16 in the Sligo Borough area was 23.6%, compared to the national average of 19%17.

Figure 13 National Employment & Unemployment 2006-2012 National Unemployment Rate '06-'12

National Employment Rate '06 -'12 90.0

20.0

80.0

18.0

70.0

16.0

60.0

14.0

50.0

Male

12.0

Male 10.0 Female The impact of recession has been widespread, affecting 8.0 business, employment and income and Female 30.0 Total persons restricting public services. Levels of emigration are also increasing. According to the CSO18 Total 6.0 20.0 40.0

emigration has increased from 36,000 people in 2006 to 87,000 people in 2012. Many of those 4.0 10.0 emigrating are highly educated and skilled and are a considerable loss to the economy. 0.0

2.0

Unemployment Youth & Levels of Education 0.0 Q4 Q4 Q4–Q4 Q4 Q4 Q4 Young people people affected the Q4 Q4 Q4 Q4 Q4byQ4 06 07 and 08 09 10 11with 12 low education levels have beenQ4particularly 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 economic crisis and unemployment.


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Young people and people with low education levels have been particularly affected by the economic crisis and unemployment. The national data that shows that the unemployment rate amongst young people is considerable. The unemployment rate for young men aged between 20 and 24 years is 35% compared to an average of 17.8%. The rate for young women aged between 20 and 24 years is 22.5% compared to an average of 11.5%. It is safe to assume that the situation in Sligo and the Recommended Regeneration Area is similar. We are awaiting figures in this regard to confirm this.

Figure 14 Unemployment Rate by Age & Gender Unemployment Rate by Age & Gender 15-19 50.0

20-24

40.0

25-34 35-44

30.0

45-54

20.0

55-59

10.0

60-64 65+

0.0 Males

Females

Total

Total

Source: CSO 2012 Quarterly National Household Survey Q3 2012

The link between education levels and unemployment is also clear. As Figure 15 shows in relation to the national picture, according to the CSO19, employment rates clearly increased as the level of education attained increased with an employment rate of 35% for persons with at most primary level education compared with an employment rate of 81% for those with a third level qualification. Those aged 25-64 with at most primary education were over three times more likely to be unemployed in (24%) when compared with those who had attained a third level qualification (7%). Higher levels of education in all age groups resulted in lower unemployment rates. The largest difference is evident in the 25-34 age group where those with at most primary education are almost seven times more likely to be unemployed (55%) than those with a third level qualification (8%). This is a significant issue for the Regeneration area given the low levels of educational attainment.

Figure 15 Unemployment & Unemployment Rate by Education Level Unemployment Rate by Education Level 25 20 15 10 5 0 Unemployment Rate

Primary or below Lower secondary Higher secondary Post Leaving Cert Total third level

Empolyment Rate by Education Level 100 Primary or below

80

Lower secondary

60

Higher secondary

40

Post Leaving Cert

20

Total third level

0 Employment Rate

Source CSO, 2011. Quarterly National Household Survey Educational Attainment Thematic Report 2011


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Unemployment and Poverty From a social inclusion perspective, unemployment is clearly linked to higher levels of poverty. The research report, Work and Poverty in Ireland, by the Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI)20 found a strong link between household joblessness and poverty. The report finds that while the Irish social welfare system has become more efficient over time at lifting people in jobless households above the national financial poverty threshold, there has been essentially no improvement in their living standards (as measured by the basic deprivation indicator, 51% in 2010 for those in jobless households) or levels of financial stress (58% in 2010)21. The report states that labour market activation of adults in jobless households needs to be emphasised as a long term solution to poverty. This requires a broad range of policies, including childcare, services and supports for people with a disability as well as the more traditional activation strategies focused on job search and developing education and work skills. The Department of Social Protection believe that addressing joblessness will contribute to addressing poverty and are to establish a poverty sub target aimed at jobless households.

Employment Targets As a member of the European Union, Ireland is party to Europe 2020: A European strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. As a Programme22 country, the Irish employment targets are slightly lower than other European countries and aim to raise to 69-71% the employment rate for women and men aged 20-64 through the greater participation of young people, older workers and low-skilled workers, and the better integration of legal migrants. The Irish Government policy is to ensure that those who are unemployed will be provided with appropriate advice, support, education and training to take advantage of new job opportunities as the economy recovers.23 Intreo is a new service from the Department of Social Protection. The service provides a single point of contact for all employment and income supports. Designed to provide a more streamlined approach, Intreo offers practical, tailored employment services and supports for jobseekers and employers alike. Sligo is one of the pilot areas for Intreo and the office is situated in Cranmore.

Agencies and strategies relevant to the Recommended Regeneration Area The Sligo County Development Board (CDB) is responsible for the development of an integrated strategy for the economic, social and cultural development of the county. The present strategy, covering the period 2002-2012, details a comprehensive list of objectives, actions and the lead agency (or agencies) responsible for the implementation of each action. The CDB took a strong social inclusion focus, developing most of its strategies through its Social inclusion Measures Subcommittee (SIM). The CDB Strategy is specifically designed to ensure coordination and seamless delivery of services within a framework of agreed needs. In that sense, it does not devise or develop responses but co-ordinates the delivery of actions appropriate to the identified needs. Relevant economic actions include:     

Promotion/facilitation of community businesses Encouraging local business involvement in regeneration of disadvantaged communities A long-term unemployment steering group as an integrated multi-agency approach to reintegrate the long-term unemployed Financial incentives to employers to recruit/train additional staff Mentoring supports for unemployed returning to work


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 

P a g e | 32

Encourage childcare-friendly workplaces Improve training and working conditions

Putting People First: an action plan for strong local government sets out proposals for the reform of local government. Under these proposals the City and County Development Boards will be replaced by Socio-Economic Committees that will have an increased role in relation to economic and local development. The SEC will be responsible for developing a 5 Year Community Plan that will form part of the City/County Development Plan24. The Sligo LEADER Partnership (SLPC) remit includes the delivery of the Local and Community Development Programme (LCDP). This programme aims to tackle poverty and social exclusion through partnership and constructive engagement between government and its agencies and people in disadvantaged communities. More specifically, the programme is focused on promoting awareness and uptake of statutory and community services, increasing access to education, recreation and cultural activities/resources, increasing work readiness and employment prospects and promoting active engagement in policy and decision-making processes affecting local communities. SLPC provides one-to-one advice to the unemployed; operates the Back to Work Enterprise Allowance Scheme (BTWEAS) and provides a Jobs Club that has benefitted approximately 40 people from the East City/Cranmore area. SLPC also administers the TUS scheme. RAPID (Revitalising Areas through Planning, Investment and Development) was launched in 2002 to target excluded social groups and to tackle the spatial concentration of unemployment, poverty and social exclusion. Sligo City has five designated RAPID areas, two of which cover the Cranmore and Doorly Park/Garavogue Villas areas. The vision of the Sligo RAPID programme was to work together with a common purpose to eliminate disadvantage within the five RAPID areas of Sligo. The RAPID Area Plan 2008 - 2012 listed seven strategic aims focused on employment and training, including identifying skills needs, first step responses to unemployed and youth unemployed and the extension of the School Completion Programme. The RAPID Plan indicated an employment focus in RAPID areas on manufacturing and construction and noted the low levels of education and the relatively poor uptake of programmes and grants supporting continuing education or return to education. Employment and training actions in the Plan, to be implemented by a range of agencies and organisations25, were focused on:  

Employment: Identifying target areas for Jobs Clubs and responding accordingly, identifying training needs. Youth Unemployment: developing an integrated strategy, identifying need for social employment and other supported-employment responses, extending the School Completion Programme and improved targeting. Funding: building a sustainability strategy into future revenue projects.

RAPID has been a significant player in the development of area-based initiatives, particularly so in the development of the Cranmore regeneration initiative. However, RAPID no longer has a capital fund and its activities are currently being wound down in Sligo.


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Profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area Information from the Census 2011 was analysed to provide a profile of the Recommended Reservation Are in relation to Social Class26, Principal Economic Status, Unemployment, Employment and Occupation.

Social Class The profile of social class is a good indicator of the concentrations of relative affluence and poverty in a geographic area. As everyone in the population is assigned a social class based on their census returns, it is possible to compare the profile of the area with the averages for the State and other areas. A large proportion of the population in the higher social classes suggests good educational attainment and earning potential, while a large proportion of the population in the lower social class indicates lower levels of educational attainment, fewer qualifications and lower income generating potential. Research has shown that social class is both deeply-rooted and extremely resistant to change and is therefore resistant to cyclical variations such as economic growth27. This section of the report looks at the concentrations of lower and higher social classes, the former as an indicator of disadvantage, and the latter as an inverse indicator of disadvantage. As the following tables, figures and maps show, there are high rates of low social classes (semi and unskilled social classes) in the Recommended Regeneration Area with corresponding low rates of high social classes (professional social classes). In 2011, 14.3% of the population of the State were in the low social classes. The figure for Co Sligo was 14.1% and the figure for the Sligo Borough Council area was 15.7%. The average for the Recommended Regeneration Area was 19.6%, with the figure as high as 27% in two of the small areas (areas 02 and 13). The rates for high social class were correspondingly low. In 2011, 34.6% of the population of the State were in the high social classes. The figures for Co Sligo showed was 32.7% and the figure for the Sligo Borough Council area was 23.7%. The figure for the Recommended Regeneration Area was 11.7%, with the figure as low as 6% in two of the areas (areas 04 and 03).

Table 17 Low and High Social Class

RRA Sligo Borough Co. Sligo State

Low Social Class (Semi & Unskilled ) N N 374 19.6 2,762 15.7 9,211 14.1 657,463 14.3

RRA – Recommended Regeneration Area

High Social Class (Higher Professionals) N 222 11.7 4,166 23.7 21,355 32.7 1,588,291 34.6


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Figure 16 Low & High Social Class

Low & High Social Class 40.0 RRA

30.0

Sligo Borough

20.0

Co. Sligo

10.0

State

0.0 Low Social Class

High Social Class

Figure 17 Low & High Social Class in the Recommended Regeneration Area High & Low Social Class in the RRA

11.7 19.6

Higher Professionals Semi & Unskilled

Map 11 Low Social Class

Map 12 High Social Class


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Principal Economic Status An analysis of the Principal Economic Status of the population from Census 2011 provides a range of useful information. This is made up of three elements:   

The Labour Force Participation Rate28 indicates the proportion of the population that is economically active. It is calculated as the sum of those at work, seeking their first job and unemployed as a percentage of the overall population aged 15 years and over. The Unemployment Rate29 is the sum of those unemployed and those seeking their first job as a percentage of the labour force. The Economic Dependency Ratio is the rate of the total inactive population (children 14 and under, unemployed, first time job seekers, those engaged in home duties, those retired, students, and those unable to work) to those at work. The higher the EDR, the more inactive people are dependent on the active population. The EDR helps to highlight those areas with smaller numbers of income earners relative to the economically dependent population and is regarded as one of the most reliable indicators of disadvantage in an area.

Table 18 and Figure 18 below outlines the Principal Economic Status of the Recommended Regeneration Area, the Sligo Borough Council area, County Sligo and the State. It shows that the Labour Force Participation Rate in the Recommended Regeneration Area is similar to the rate for the State and County Sligo and is a little higher than the rate for the Sligo Borough Area. The lowest rates of labour force participation were in areas 18, 12, 17 and 12. The highest were in areas 01 and 13. The Unemployment Rate in the Recommended Regeneration Area was 37.6%. This was significantly higher than the average for the State (19%), Co Sligo (18.1%) or the Sligo Borough Council area (23.6%). The highest concentrations of unemployment were in areas 22, 3, 11 and 13. All the areas had unemployment rates that were double the national average, except areas 117 and 18.The unemployment rate for males was over 50% in a number of the areas and a number of areas showed a significant increase in the unemployment rates for men and women between 2006 and 2011. In 2011, the average economic Dependency Ratio (EDR) for the State was 1.0. The average for Co Sligo was 1.1 and the average for the Sligo Borough Council area was 1.4. The average for the Recommended Regeneration Area was 1.7%. A number of areas in the Recommended Regeneration Area had EDRs that were significantly higher than these averages. These include areas 03 (2.2), 11 (2.0), 22 (1.9) and 18 (1.7).

Table 18 Principal Economic Status Profile

RRA

Total population aged 15 & over

Labour Force

Not in the Labour Force

Labour Force Participation Rate

N

N

N

%

Outside the Labour Force %

Unemployment Rate

No.

%

EDR

Rate

1,550

917

633

59.2

40.8

345

37.6

1.7

Sligo Borough

14,805

8088

6717

54.6

45.4

1,906

23.6

1.4

Co. Sligo

52,284

31,058

21,226

59.4

40.6

5,624

18.1

1.1

3,608,662

2232203

1376459

61.9

38.1

424,843

19.0

1.0

State

RRA – Recommended Regeneration Area


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Figure18 Principal Economic Status Profile

Principal Economic Status Profile

Unemployment Rate

State Co. Sligo Sligo Borough

Labour Force Participation Rate

RRA 0.0

10.0

20.0

30.0

Map 13 Labour Force Participation Rate

40.0

50.0

60.0

70.0

Map 14 Unemployment Rate

Table 19 Unemployment Rate 2006 & 2011 Area

Unemployment rate Male 2006

Unemployment rate Male 2011

Change In rate

02

20.6

52.9

32.3

03

21.6

50.0

04

48.7

11

Unemployment rate Female 2006

Change in rate

15.8

Unemployment rate Female 2011 18.8

28.4

19.4

46.4

27.0

47.9

-0.8

26.0

32.4

6.4

26.9

52.1

25.2

11.8

25.8

14.0

12

19.2

42.2

23.0

8.9

26.5

17.6

13

36.0

48.2

12.2

19.5

29.8

10.3

17

20.0

33.3

13.3

6.3

18.2

11.9

22

29.4

57.1

27.7

12.5

27.7

15.2

3.0


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Map 15 Economic Dependency Ratio

Supporting Data – welfare payments The Department of Social Protection maintain detailed records of payments made to welfare recipients. They were unable to provide this information to the project at this stage. It is hoped that this information will be available as part of the strategic planning process over the coming stages of the Regeneration Masterplan project.


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Occupation & Industry Occupation An analysis of the information on occupations from the Census 2011 shows that the highest proportion of those at work in the Recommended Regeneration Area are at work in Elementary Occupations followed by Skilled Trades Occupations, Process, Plant and Machine Operatives and Sales and Customer Service Occupations. Proportionately there are few at work in the Managers, Directors and Senior Officials and the Professional Occupations. The number of people in the Recommended Regeneration Area who did not state their occupation was considerable (31%). Though it is only possible to speculate the category or categories these might fall into if answered, it is probable that at least a proportion would fall into the Elementary Occupation category.

Table 20 Occupation

Managers, Directors and Senior Officials Professional Occupations Associate Professional and Technical Occupations Administrative and Secretarial Occupations Skilled Trades Occupations Caring, Leisure and Other Service Occupations Sales and Customer Service Occupations Process, Plant and Machine Operatives Elementary Occupations Not stated

RRA Sligo Borough % % 2.9 5.3 3.7 13.6 5.7 8.5 4.4 8.9 10.9 11.4 7.9 8.2 8.2 8.8 8.9 7.7 16.2 13.2 31.0 14.3

Co Sligo % 6.5 15.9 9.8 10.2 17.8 7.6 6.9 7.6 8.7 9.0

State % 7.8 16.1 10.5 10.3 15.8 6.6 7.1 7.6 9.2 9.0

RRA – Recommended Regeneration Area

Figure 19 Occupation

Occupations Elementary Occupations

Process, Plant and Machine Operatives Sales and Customer Service Occupations State

Caring, Leisure and Other Service Occupations

Co Sligo

Skilled Trades Occupations

Sligo Borough

Administrative and Secretarial Occupations Associate Professional and Technical‌ Professional Occupations Managers, Directors and Senior Officials 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0

RRA


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Figure 20 Occupations in the Recommended Regeneration Area

Occupations in the RRA Managers, Directors and Senior Officials 2.9 3.7

16.2

5.7

8.9

Professional Occupations

4.4

Associate Professional and Technical Occupations

10.9 8.2

Administrative and Secretarial Occupations

7.9

Skilled Trades Occupations Caring, Leisure and Other Service Occupations Sales and Customer Service Occupations Process, Plant and Machine Operatives Elementary Occupations

Industry An analysis of those at work by industry shows that there are proportionately fewer at work in Building & Construction, Commerce and Trade, Transport and Communication and Public Administration than average in the Recommended Regeneration Area, with a proportionately high number stating that they worked in 'Other' (34.3%).

Table 21 Industry Industry

RRA N

Agriculture, forestry and fishing Building and construction Manufacturing industries Commerce and trade Transport and communications Public administration Professional services Other Total

%

Sligo Borough N % 33 0.5

Co Sligo N % 1,721 6.8

State N 91,526

% 5.1

87,371

4.8

3

0.5

12

2.1

167

2.7

1,169

4.6

66

11.5

853

13.8

3,253

12.8

209,803 11.6

101

17.7

1268

20.5

5,071

19.9

456,289 25.2

23

4.0

286

4.6

1,215

4.8

146,530

8.1

27

4.7

449

7.3

2,043

8.0

113,860

6.3

144

25.2

1694

27.4

6,807

26.8

425,349 23.5

196 572

34.3 100

1432 6,182

23.2 100

4,155 25,434

16.3 100

276,632 15.3 1,807,360 100

RRA – Recommended Regeneration Area


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Figure 21 Industry

Comparison of Industry Other Professional services Public administration State Transport and communications

Co Sligo

Commerce and trade

Sligo Borough

RRA

Manufacturing industries Building and construction Agriculture, forestry and fishing 0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

35.0

Figure 22 Industry in the Recommended Regeneration Area

0.5 2.1

Industry in the RRA Agriculture, forestry and fishing 11.5

34.3

17.7 25.2

4.0 4.7

Building and construction Manufacturing industries Commerce and trade Transport and communications Public administration Professional services Other

Summary The profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area shows that the area is significantly disadvantaged. The analysis on social class indicates that rates of low social class are far higher and rates of high social class are far lower than the averages for the State, County Sligo or the Sligo Borough Council area. The Unemployment Rate is very high and the Economic Dependency Rate is significantly higher than the average. Where people are working they tend to be working in Elementary occupations or in other lower end occupations, though when analysed by Industry, the proportion working in the Professional services was similar to the national average


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Many of those interviewed stated that there is a high rate of unemployment amongst males, particularly young males. This would be supported by the national data as outlined in Figure 14 that shows that the unemployment rate amongst young people is considerable. Many of those interviewed also spoke of the challenges of increasing employment levels and social class in an area where the education levels are poor. Again this is supported by the national data as outlined in Figure 15.

Employment & Economic Development - Achievements & Issues Arising The report Listening to the Voices of Residents in Cranmore: A Platform for Social Regeneration (2006), also known as the Forkan Report, was based on a survey of residents conducted over the period March 2005-May 2006). The report identified the key social issues in Cranmore as:      

Early school leaving Lack of childcare facilities An increasing level of dependent elderly Increasing levels of anti-social behaviour Lack of sport/recreation facilities Physical appearance of estate

     

High levels of unemployment High levels of welfare dependency Inadequate quality of housing stock Absence of adequate youth facilities Low property prices Concern over housing allocations and tenancy agreements

The Audit of Services in Cranmore initiated by RAPID in 2005, indicated Community Employment (CE), Jobs Initiative (JI) and Back to Work (BTW) scheme (administered by SLPC) as key economic interventions in Cranmore. According to the survey, direct economic interventions in the form of enterprise training, business start-up space, specific job training and social enterprise interventions was not considered by respondents to be a gap in services. FAS Community Employment was given the lowest indication amongst a group of community interventions and employment, only rated above sport at the bottom of a list of 17 relevant programme purposes at that time. The Cranmore Regeneration Project Social Plan (2007) identified unemployment as one of the key social issues in the area (p. 28). The analysis of employment in the 2007 Social Plan concluded that ‘many of the people living in the Cranmore area would be vulnerable in the event of a downturn in the economy, particularly in the construction and manufacturing sectors.’ The same report indicated that 34% of the population over 18 years were welfare dependent - lone parent and jobseeker payments constituting the highest numbers receiving benefit. A number of issues and priority actions were listed under the Employment and Economic Development section in the Cranmore Regeneration Project Social Plan (2007). Education, training and up-skilling were identified as key factors in addressing unemployment and economic development in the area. The Plan outlined an action plan comprised of 12 specific measures focused on integrated service delivery including:        

The identification of barriers in Cranmore to accessing employment; The provision of training programmes in line with needs identified; Ensuring existing employment support programmes are maintained; The delivery of a Jobs Club programme on-site at Abbeyquarter; The examination of pilot CE for young people; The promotion of awareness of the Linkage programme for ex-offenders; The integration of service delivery; The promote awareness of PEPPA for people parenting alone;


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The development of protocols to promote local employment opportunities as part of regeneration The promotion of enterprise development start-up development and expansion in the area; Work with the FAS Link Work programme; The promotion of further education for people in vulnerable/declining employment sectors.

In terms of responses required to address unemployment, the 2007 Social Plan concluded that ‘a more focused inter-agency approach would help to address the issues raised and provide a way forward.’ A preference for computer training and the importance of childcare supports in developing responses to unemployment was indicated by recipients. A comprehensive profile and tracking process was identified as a priority action to gain a better understanding of need and to inform the type of tailored responses required. A number of objectives were achieved, the Jobs Club operates from the Abbeyquarter Centre approximately twice a month and a number of initiatives such as the PEPPA programme for people parenting alone were implemented. The general improvement in the Cranmore area also contributed to the reduction in negative stereotyping of residents as they presented for jobs, something that was reportedly widespread before the Regeneration Project. However, achievements in the area of employment and economic development were limited. The reasons for this include the fact that outside of some small scale initiatives, both unemployment and economic development are macro issues affected by the wider city and national economy. Regional plans and strategies in the area of economic development include very little that directly targets specific areas of cumulative disadvantage such as Cranmore in an integrated way. This was largely left to area interventions such as RAPID, to specific area-based community development and youth work projects and resource centres, or to exceptional regeneration initiatives such as Cranmore Regeneration. However, in the context of significant and embedded unemployment in a Region that is subject to economic underdevelopment, achievements in this area will continue to be limited in the absence of a sustained strategic focus by all the relevant agencies. The next section looks in more detail at the economic context in Sligo.


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Section 4.2 Economic development National Policy 2013 Promoting economic development and employment creation are key features of Irish public policy. The general framework for the implementation of policy in this area is the National Development Plan (NDP) 2007 - 201330. Like many other areas of national policy in the wake of the economic downturn the NDP has effectively been replaced by the Infrastructure and Capital Investment Framework (2012-16)and the Action Plan for Jobs 2013. The Infrastructure and Capital Investment Framework states that the country’s infrastructural and capital investment needs are a function of broad societal and economic developments. It identifies four main components of the investment strategy: 

Economic infrastructure – encompassing transport networks, energy provision and telecommunications capacity.

Investment in the productive sector and human capital – such as direct supports for enterprise development; science, technology and innovation advancement; supports for tourism, agriculture, fisheries and forestry; and capital investment in education infrastructure.

Environmental infrastructure – including waste and water systems and investment for environmental sustainability.

Critical social investment – such as the health service and social housing programmes. 31

In the context of unprecedented unemployment levels, Government policy is focused on supporting unemployed people into employment by creating the conditions for economic activity. A key policy initiative is the Action Plan for Jobs32, which sets out to methodically reconfigure and retool the economy so that long-term sustainable jobs are created. The primary goal of the Action Plan for 2013 is to set out the actions to be undertaken by all Government Departments and their agencies to support employment creation and new actions to be taken in support of those that are currently unemployed to help them access the labour market. The 2013 Action Plan lists the chief areas of focus, including:         

Pathways to Work - which focuses on activation measures; Access to Finance for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises - which sets out the wide and detailed range of streams of funding in place or being developed through bank and nonbank sources; Disruptive Reforms - This is a new category of high impact, cross cutting measures that the Government is determined to deliver in 2013 that will have a real and immediate impact on enterprise and jobs33. Building Competitive Advantage; Assisting Indigenous Business to Grow; Driving Entrepreneurship and Start-Up Companies; Supporting Employment at Community and Local Level; Developing and Deepening the Impact of FDI, and; Sectoral Opportunities.

Under the Action Plan for Jobs, a “one-stop-shop” for small business supports will be created in each area by dissolving the County and City Enterprise Boards (CEBs) and creating a new MicroEnterprise and Small Business Unit in Enterprise Ireland that will work with Local Authorities to establish a new network of Local Enterprise Offices (LEO) in each Local Authority. The Local Enterprise Offices will be mandated to provide a range of supports and services to all local


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microenterprises who seek such supports. Essentially, the LEOs will carry out the combined work of the CEBs and the Business Support Units of the Local Authorities. Progression pathways for high-growth and high-potential companies to access appropriate Enterprise Ireland supports will be put in place, and Enterprise Ireland will formalise Service Level Agreements with the Local Authority system. It is envisaged that Enterprise Ireland will allocate an annual budget to each Local Authority and agree a Service Level Agreement on foot of that budget.

Overview of Regional Development Policy for the North West Economic development in the North West is determined by a number of geographical, political and historical factors and a set of policy frameworks designed to promote industrial development or address particular socio-economic issues in the region. Primary factors in the North West include the lack of significant centres of industrial and commercial activity, a factor that is compounded by the border with Northern Ireland which cuts the area off from much of its natural hinterland and commercial networks, as well as a number of key infrastructural deficits in roads, communications, energy and transport - next generation broadband being a particular concern. A feature of the North West Region is that it is more reliant on local and public services employment than the Southern parts of the whole Western Region34. According to the IDA, the relatively modest numbers employed in industry reflects a general weakness in investment in the North West compared with other Regions, especially foreign direct investment (FDI)35. The National Spatial Strategy (NSS) was devised as a coherent national planning framework to ensure a better balance of social, economic and physical development across the country. The NSS proposed that areas of sufficient scale and critical mass be built up through a network of Gateways and Hubs. Sligo City was designated as one of the new Gateways added to the existing 5 listed in the National Development Plan 2000 - 2006. Sligo was also an integral part of the proposed Atlantic Gateways Corridor as an initiative to contribute to more balanced regional and inter-regional development in the implementation of the National Spatial Strategy36. The National Development Plan 2007 - 201337 intended to prioritise capital investment and introduced the Gateway Innovation Fund to assist the implementation of the National Spatial Strategy. While the concept of a National Spatial Strategy was initially generally agreed to be a positive policy instrument for regional development, sufficient funding to ensure its implementation was never invested. In February 2013, the Minister for the Environment, Community and Local Government announced that the National Spatial Strategy was to be ‘scrapped’38 and replaced by a new strategy. In the interim, regional and local authorities are proceeding on the basis of what is in place. The Planning and Development (Amendment) Act 2010 provides for greater cohesion between local, regional and national planning policies. Local authorities are now obliged to develop a “core strategy” and to demonstrate that it is compatible with both regional and national policy. This change will seek to ensure that inappropriate, inconsistent and intensive developments are no longer permitted. The Act requires Regional Authorities to provide a long-term strategic planning framework for the sustainable development of the Region for a 12 year period up to 2022. The Border Regional Authority’s Regional Planning Guidelines were produced in 2010 and aims to direct the future


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growth of the Border Region by informing and providing direction to County Development Plans of the areas in the Border Region including Sligo.

Economic linkages in the North West Region Successive Irish governments have been concerned over many years to address regional imbalances in the benefits deriving from national economic development policies. In general, economic development has been much greater along the East coast and around the major urban centres of Dublin, Cork, Limerick and Galway. Outside of these areas there has been less benefit in terms of industrial development and growth, especially in the Western counties and particularly in the North Western region. Sligo and Letterkenny are two important commercial centres pivoting the economies of the Northwest. The National Spatial Strategy identifies both Sligo and Letterkenny as urban centres to be developed as Gateways to drive the overall development of the North-West and this was endorsed in the National Development Plan 2007 - 2013 through the Gateway Innovation Fund and the strengthening of Regional Planning Guidelines to achieve a better balance to regional development, stimulate the growth of the region and to connect up the Western and North Western under the proposed Atlantic Gateways Corridor.39 In terms of existing economic linkages, Sligo houses a number of multinational and indigenous companies in the medical care, precision engineering and information technology sectors that connect into wider national, European and global markets, while those companies providing goods and services for the home market serve a hinterland that extends beyond the county boundary. Economic linkages could be improved greatly if some of the major infrastructural deficits were addressed, particularly in communications, roads, transport and energy. Tourism is an area with growth potential but this will be influenced by the development of Knock as a regional airport and adequate rail/road links. The development of the North West Gateways (Sligo and Letterkenny) and Atlantic Corridor would also open up a wider set of economic linkages and begin to broaden out the employment catchment area, similar to other more developed regions. In that context, the replacement to the National Spatial Strategy will be of crucial interest to the region.

Agencies Working in Regional Development in the North West The Industrial Development Agency (IDA) is the Irish inward investment promotion agency. IDA Ireland is responsible for the attraction and development of foreign investment in Ireland. Published in 2010, Horizon 2020 is the IDA Strategy. It presents the IDA priorities for foreign direct investment (FDI) for the period 2010-2014: • • • • •

105,000 new jobs 640 investments 50% of investments will be located outside Dublin and Cork 20% of greenfield investments originating from emerging markets by 2014 Annual client spend of €1.7bn in research, development and innovation by 2014

The Strategy states that the IDA will increase its focus on winning new investments in the following areas: • • •

Global services High-end manufacturing Research, development and innovation


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It also states that the IDA will focus on winning new investments, particularly from the following sectors:   

Clean technologies Financial services Life sciences o Pharma and biopharma o Medical devices

  

Information & communications technology Diversified industries and engineering Content industry, consumer and business services

Connect and Invest is a digital marketing initiative for attracting inward investment by highlighting the specific attributes of individual regional urban centres. Sligo is one of the three areas covered by the initiative.40 There is an IDA Business & Technology Park located in Finisklin in Sligo. In 2011 total employment in the North West Region by IDA supported companies was 5,30641 considerably lower than other IDA regions. Enterprise Ireland (EI) is the government organisation responsible for the development and growth of Irish enterprises in world markets. EI works in partnership with Irish enterprises to help them start, grow, innovate and win export sales on global markets. In this way, EI supports sustainable economic growth, regional development and secure employment. Enterprise Ireland's priority is the achievement of export sales growth from Irish-owned companies. Enterprise Ireland works with entrepreneurs and business people across the full business development spectrum from early-stage entrepreneurs, to established business owners and Irish multinational companies. Clients include: 

High Potential Start-Up companies with the capability to start a business and sell in export markets.  Established manufacturing and internationally traded services businesses that are Small or Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs).  Large companies (employing more than 250). EI does not work with locally traded service companies or with micro-enterprises such as sole traders. The EI office in Sligo is based in the Finisklin Business Park. The Western Development Commission (WDC)42 was established in 1998 as a statutory response to underdevelopment in the western counties. The WDC implements its social and economic development role by: 

Making recommendations on how government policy can facilitate the social and economic development of the Western Region, based on thorough analysis;

Developing and implementing projects in renewable energy, creative industries and tourism with a particular focus on regional assets, including those of rural areas;

Promoting the Western Region as a location for enterprise and living and linking closely with the region’s diaspora;

Implementing the Western Investment Fund to provide seed capital to businesses and local communities in the Western Region, as well as the WDC Micro-Loan Fund: Creative Industries. The WDC has taken a strategic focus on stimulating growth in the renewable biomass sector, the development of innovative export-led industries, tourism development and organic food production. Although the Western Development Commission is commissioned to put proposals to government on policy matters in relation to the West, it is not structurally linked to key


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development agencies such as the Industrial Development Authority and Enterprise Ireland, the two main national enterprise agencies. The City & County Enterprise Boards (CEBs) were established in Ireland in 1993 to provide support for small businesses (‘micro-enterprises’) with 10 employees or less, at local level. CEBs provide direct grant-support to new and existing enterprises and promote entrepreneurship, capacity building and women-in-business at local level, to micro enterprises in the commercial sphere. CEBs are co-funded by the Irish Government and EU Structural Funds and support both new and established businesses by providing:    

Advice Mentoring Grants Supports for Training and Growth


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Features of County Sligo’s Local Economy The 2011 Census shows that there are 25,434 people at work in County Sligo.

Employment by Public & Private Sector Table 22 below indicates the distribution between public and private sector employment, and how the share of public sector employment has grown in the last 10 years.

Table 22 Public / Private Sector Employment Sligo 2001- 2011 Area

2001 / 2002

2006

Public Sector N Sligo Rep of Ireland

2011

Public Sector

%

N

%

Public / Private Sector Public N

Public %

Private N

Private %

7,716

32.2%

8,966

32.8%

9,318

36.6%

16,116

63.4%

411,900

25.1%

500,317

25.9%

565,293

31.3%

1,242,067

68.7%

Source: Census 2011

The public sector is clearly an important employment sector for Sligo, providing just over one-third of all County employment; a proportionate share of employment which has progressively grown over the last 10 years. This large share of public sector employment is a reflection of Sligo’s position as a regional centre for the North West, with a regional Institute of Technology, Hospital and decentralised Government Departments. The Local Authority is also a significant public sector employer.

Employment by Gender Women are an increasingly important component of the Sligo workforce. Table 23 shows the breakdown of employment by gender between 2001 and 2011.

Table 23 Employment by gender Area 2001 / 02

Total Male Female

2006

Total Male Female

2011

Total Male Female

N % N % N % N % N % N %

Sligo Rep of Ireland 23,927 1,641,587 13,557 963,253 56.7 58.7 10,370 678,334 43.3 41.3 27,328 1,930,042 15,147 1,107,234 55.4 57.4 12,181 822,808 44.6 42.6 25,434 1,807,360 13,108 954,541 51.5 52.8 12,326 852,819 48.5 47.2

Male employment went from just over 13,500 to just over 15,100 between 2001/2002 and 2006 and then dropped to just over 13,100. Proportionately, the share of male employment dropped from almost 57% in 2001/2002 to 55% in 2006 to just over 51% in 2011. Female employment was


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at just over 10,300 in 2001/2002. It rose to just over 12,100 in 2006 and just over 12,300 in 2011. Proportionately female employment was at 43% in 2001/2002, 44.6% in 2006 and 48.5% in 2011.

Employment by Sector Figure 23 below shows the percentage of the workforce employed by sector. The highest proportion of employment in County Sligo is in the Health and Social Work Sector, (significantly higher than the national average) closely followed by wholesale and retail, and then industry. The presence of a regional hospital, private hospital and a number of elder and disability care facilities are factors in the dominance of health and social work. There are also higher than average proportions employed in Public Administration and Defence, reflecting the decentralisation of a number of government departments that have bases in the county .The high share of Industry reflects a number of indigenous and multinational manufacturers operating in the county. According to WDC manufacturing in Sligo is dominated by Modern Manufacturing, whereas jobs in Traditional Manufacturing have declined very sharply in recent years.

Figure 23 Employment by sector

Source: CSO, Census of Population 2011, Profile 3 – At Work, Table 3

43

Sligo has a low share employed in knowledge intensive services. According to the WDC, it has the second lowest share working in Financial, Insurance and Real Estate in the country, and very low shares in Information and Communication and Professional, Scientific and Technical Activities. Sligo’s position with regard to the knowledge intensive services sectors differs from that of the other western counties with NSS Gateways (Galway, Donegal and Clare) which all have far higher shares working in these sectors. Tourism is a significant sector in Sligo, attracting 170,000 overseas visitors in 2011 and generating overseas tourism revenue of €51m44, and is considered to be an area that has significant employment growth potential.


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Enterprise Enterprise is a significant source of employment in Sligo. Table 24 indicates that small enterprise with nine or fewer employees represented the largest share of business enterprises in 2010 (91.9%) and indicates the importance of the small enterprise sector to the economy in Sligo. The figures for Sligo are close to national averages in this regard. There were only four businesses employing 250 people or more and 22 businesses employing between 50 and 249 people.

Table 24 Size of PAYE / VAT Registered Businesses in Sligo and the State 2010 0-9 N Sligo Rep of Ireland

10-19

%

N

20-49

%

N

50- 249

%

N

%

250+ N

Total Firms

%

2260

91.9%

105

4.3%

67

2.7%

22

0.9%

4

0.2%

2,458

177,547

90.8%

9,769

5.0%

5,215

2.7%

2,441

1.2%

459

0.2%

195,431

Source: CSO Statbank Figure 24 provides a breakdown of the number of active enterprises by sector in 2010. Construction figured along with Wholesale and Retail as being the dominating factors in the pattern of enterprise in County Sligo. The figure for Construction Enterprises in 2010 reflected a loss of 74 enterprises from 2009, and it is likely that this figure will be lower again for 2013. The figure for Wholesale and Retail for 2010 also reflected a decrease of 5.7% from 2009, and it is also likely that this figure will be reduced again in 2013.

Figure 24 Active Enterprises in Sligo by Activity 2010

Source: Business Demography 2010


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Sligo City Sligo city, with a population of 17,568 (2011)45 in the borough area and approximately 40,000 within a 10 mile radius, serves as an administrative, commercial, heritage and recreation centre of the North West. The city is a significant retail and commercial centre servicing a large hinterland.

Features of Sligo’s local economy Sligo’s local economy is primarily centred on the commercial sector (retail/wholesale), professional services and manufacturing. Traditional industries such as agriculture, fisheries and forestry now represent only a small section of the labour market. There is a significant public sector presence in the town. Aside from those agencies and authorities focused on locally devolved responsibilities large elements of the Department of Social Protection are located in Sligo. Manufacturing has become more important and there is a significant engineering/technical sector in the area. Construction activity has hugely reduced on foot of the property collapse, with devastating effects for many people with limited skills and a poor fit with other labour market demands. The vast majority of businesses in the area are small scale, employing less than 10

Strategies and Policies for Sligo’s Economic Development The Sligo and Environs Development Plan 2010 - 2016 sets out a growth framework for the city. The Plan views the designation in the National Spatial Strategy as providing a policy framework to enable Sligo to be developed in an accelerated manner as a Gateway that will drive the overall development of the North West, combating its relative isolation and opening up the area to industrial, commercial and cultural development. Sligo applied for Gateway City Funding of €69m for a number of key infrastructural projects including the Eastern Garavogue Bridge and approach roads, enhancement of O’Connell Street, the Cultural Quarter/Green Fort project and Cleveragh Regional Park. The potential of this fund is now in question until a new government policy relative to regional development and spatial strategy is determined. The Sligo and Environs Development Plan sets out the employment, enterprise and economic development aims of the County and Borough Councils to support the development of Sligo. These include the development of:     

Electronic commerce with the appropriate telecommunications; Vital business services; Tourism initiatives, particularly with regard to untapped tourism potential; Research and technology development, redesigning and upgrading RTD (regional technical development) facilities at the Institute of Technology; Establishment of new technology parks at Sligo.

Priorities include the development and consolidation of Sligo as the North West Gateway City; increased decentralisation of state services towards the area, and a continuation of efforts to attract and accommodate inward investment. In terms of specifics, there is a proposal to develop a growth corridor along the proposed inner relief road from Carrowroe and continuing along the Bundoran road, north of the city centre. Other specific priorities are:   

The completion of the remaining sections of the N4 (Dublin Road) requiring upgrades; The development of the Atlantic Road Corridor (N15-N4-N17) enhancing road connections to other Gateways; Construction of new eastern and western urban distributor road systems to open up strategic land banks for accelerated development of new private housing areas;


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Strengthening the research and development capacity of Sligo Institute of Technology and linkages between third-level institutions and industry; Development of regional sports and recreation facilities; Continued development of the emerging cultural and entertainment quarter; Targeted urban regeneration including urban enhancement, pedestrianisation and redevelopment of the Docklands area.

Foreign Direct Investment Foreign-owned companies employed 2,037 people in Sligo in 2010. Nineteen multinational companies are based in Sligo including Abbott Ireland, (which employs 700 people), Braun, Amcor, Hospira, Equinoxe, Fohrenbach, Litec Moulding and Elanco. The IDA is committed to targeting FDI investment in Sligo in line with the NSS prioritisation set out in the National Development Plan - however, this does not appear to be converting into tangible enterprise outcomes, largely because Sligo is competing with other cities and towns with more favourable supporting factors.

Small and Medium Enterprise (SMEs) Enterprise Ireland and the County Enterprise Board are also active in supporting SME development in the city and its environs. Enterprise Ireland supported 50 companies located in the city and environs in 2011. Many of these enterprises are involved in engineering, food and plastics and some are involved in high-tech endeavours. Enterprise Ireland is currently promoting the concept of a prototype regional information technology hub in association with IT Sligo as a flanking support to such companies. The Institute of Technology Sligo also houses the Business Innovation Centre (BIC), targeting entrepreneurs and research companies involved in research and development. The BIC provides 32 offices, 20 ‘hot desks’ and four laboratory work spaces. As outlined above, the Small and Medium Enterprise sector is crucial to economic development in Sligo.

Space for Enterprise There are a number of private retail and industrial parks and three commercial enterprise centres providing 44 office/manufacturing units. There is an IDA business park at Finisklin. In addition, Collooney Business Park (11k) and the Airport Enterprise and Technical Centre at Strandhill (9k) are part of the enterprise/employment catchment area.


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Enterprise and innovation As outlined above, there are a considerable number of enterprises active in Sligo. The County Enterprise Board and Sligo Leader Partnership are the organisations that provide support to small scale businesses and self-employment. Enterprise supports delivered through Enterprise Ireland are focused on companies that are exporting - providing business and marketing advice and guidance to both existing and start-up companies. Enterprise Ireland also supports the Business Innovation Centre in the Sligo Institute of Technology, linking industry with technological innovation. The creation of the new Micro Enterprise and Small Business Unit in Enterprise Ireland (EI) that will work with Local Authorities to establish the network of Local Enterprise Offices (LEOs) in each Local Authority may have significant potential.

Business needs in Sligo Businesses are sensitive to changes in the general economic climate and this has been less than favourable in recent years. Notwithstanding these universal factors, businesses tend to thrive where there is good supporting infrastructure and an adequate population base and/or opportunities to export. Suitable trading space is not an issue in Sligo. There is a plentiful supply of property - retail, wholesale and industrial space - and purchase/rental prices are moderate. The town is compact and very conducive to commercial activity. According to some of those interviewed, improvement is needed in core infrastructure such as transport and communication to ensure the conditions for multinational companies. The development of Knock as a regional airport offering a comprehensive passenger and cargo schedule and the upgrading of the N4 would be beneficial. Ensuring high quality next generation internet access will also be necessary to business development. These are issues that will be further explored in the next stages of the Masterplan project.


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Transport in Sligo and the Recommended Regeneration Area The Cranmore and Environs Regeneration area is situated south-east of Sligo City Centre with the N4 and R287 running to the east of the area and the R292 running to the north as shown in Map 16. Within the city centre there are two bridges for local traffic connecting both sides of the city and facilitating the one-way system, which is in place in the city centre. The N4 also crosses the river, facilitating traffic on a regional basis. The main rail and bus stations are located towards the western side of the city centre.

Map 16 General Location and Context

Although Sligo is a fairly compact city and the central location of Cranmore, is recognised as an advantage by Forken46, the East City Area is cut off from easy access to key services across the river on the North East, including the Institute of Technology, the Regional Hospital and the FAS training centre at Ballytivnan. The examination of strategic linkages and transport connection undertaken by the National Building Agency (NBA) highlights the importance of the proposed Eastern River Crossing as the key element of a new road route connecting the Cranmore area to the northeast of the City. The development of the Eastern River Crossing would integrate the regeneration area more comprehensively into the overall city, especially in terms of easing the access of residents to important health, education and training facilities. Most of Sligo city is easy to reach by foot as indicated in the map presented in Figure 17. The map shows the 30 minute walk catchment from the centre of Cranmore as well as the catchment that


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would be facilitated by the proposed new bridge. It can be seen that key locations such as the Hospital, Civic Offices and main retail are within this potential catchment.

Map 17 Accessibility to Employment: 30 minute walk

However, it can also be seen that the outlying enterprise/business parks (e.g. Finisklin Business Park and Carraroe Retail Park) are on the edge or outside of the 30 minute walk catchment and can only be reasonably accessed by car or bus. It is important to note that the bus service in Sligo, and especially in Cranmore, is somewhat irregular and infrequent with convoluted routeing, therefore not providing a real alternative to the car for trips outside a reasonable walking distance.


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This presents a particular problem for communities in disadvantaged areas such as the Regeneration Area, where car ownership tends to be low. Whilst some cycle lanes have been developed in the city, bicycle use has not been facilitated to any significant degree, despite the suitability afforded by the compact nature of the city. As illustrated in the following tables, figures and maps, almost 50% of households in the Recommended Regeneration Area do not have a car, compared to the average in the State of 17.6%. A significant amount of the area has a car mode share of less than 40%. It can also be seen that areas where a low car mode share is present there is a corresponding high walk mode share.

Table 25 Households with no car Households

No motor car N

RRA Co Sligo Sligo Borough State

N 788

389

49.4

24,428

4,196

17.2

6,910

2,276

32.9

1,649,408

289,722

17.6

Figure 25 Households with no car

No Motor Car 50.0 40.0

RRA

30.0

Co Sligo

20.0

Sligo Borough

10.0

State

0.0 No motor car

Map 18 Car Mode Share

%

Map 19 Walk /Mode Share


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Public Transport A city bus service exists but is insufficiently used because it operates on a rather circuitous route system. Commuter train services are geared to existing need and are well used, but inter-city services have been reduced and are not conducive to business needs - the first train from Dublin only arrives in Sligo at 11am, which contrasts poorly with services from the capital to other cities Access by air has already been alluded to. It is difficult to conceive how multinational companies can be fully accommodated without a fully functional regional airport that includes a reasonable compliment of flights with times that suit business needs. A more direct bus route system, together with the Eastern River crossing, would go towards resolving some of the issues in terms of physical access to employment and training opportunities. In terms of other essential infrastructure, including concerns about deficits in some essential infrastructure such as communications, energy, roads and transport, these will be comprehensively covered in an analysis of constraints which will be undertaken as a separate task in preparation for Stage 2 of the Masterplan process.


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Employment & enterprise opportunities Despite some recent signs that the economy is beginning to stabilise, with employment, for example, rising in the year to the last quarter of 2012,47 Sligo as other areas around the country is continuing to experience the effects of the economic recession. Employment remains very high with consequent impact on retail sales and demand for other series in the private sector. There is a moratorium of recruitment in the public service and this is particularly problematic in an area like Sligo where over one third of those employed are employed in the public service. The concentration of employment in the Elementary Occupations is a concern in relation to the development of high value employment. Sligo’s position with regard to the knowledge intensive services sectors is also a concern. There are only four firms that employ over 250 employees and a further 22 that employ between 50 and 249 employees. The vast majority of firms employ between zero and nine employees. Tourism and food production (other than direct agricultural production) are areas of activity with potential for growth - Ireland is developing a reputation for quality food products and has a considerable number of conditions in its favour to this end. Sligo has both a cultural heritage and natural environment capable of generating a much greater number of tourist visitors. Green Tourism - i.e. activity and special interest based on the natural resources and cultural attributes of the area - is an obvious area to focus on. The outstanding issue is the need for increased foreign direct investment in the industrial sector, particularly in knowledge-based industries. In 2011 employment in the region by IDA supported companies was considerably lower than other IDA regions and there needs to be a focused effort on achieving the IDA goals of achieving FDI outside the major urban centres of Dublin, Cork and Limerick. Given the size of the SME sector in Sligo it is important that enterprises are supported to expand employment. The establishment of the LEOs to support micro and small enterprises to develop will be a significant factor over the coming years. The social economy has been used in other areas for targeted development of social enterprises and small enterprises that have a social dividend. The Community Services Programme supports community businesses to deliver local services to their communities and to create employment opportunities for people from disadvantaged groups. The programme is funded by the Department of Social Protection under the Social Inclusion section of the National Development Plan 20072016 and is managed on behalf of the Department by Pobal. It currently provides funding support for approximately 425 community companies and co-operatives and is an area worthy of exploration for the Recommended Regeneration Area.


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Conclusion Economic development and employment is a particularly important factor in the regeneration of disadvantaged areas. According to the Department of the Environment, Community and Local Government, the aim for regeneration projects is more than physical improvement. It is to build sustainable communities through a combination of social, educational and economic initiatives.48 Increased competition for scare jobs coupled with low levels of skills and education will create difficulties for some residents in the Recommended Regeneration Area without significant intervention. In the absence of a focus on employment, issues such as poverty and disadvantage cannot be addressed. Sligo as a county is economically disadvantaged by virtue of the regional underdevelopment that has resulted in very limited investment in the area and a reliance on just four large employers and the public service. Sligo also has an unemployment rate that is higher than the national average. In the existing economic situation jobs are at a premium. In that context, given the low levels of education attainment and the high rates of disadvantage, many residents in the Regeneration Area will have significant difficulty competing for jobs in what is a very competitive market. Issues of employment/unemployment are primarily determined by: (a) The availability of jobs, (b) The accessibility of available employment in terms of distance and transport; (c) The education levels and skills fit of potential applicants; (d) The ability to access and utilise employment information points and networks, including informal social networks, and; (e) The ability to take-up employment in the face of childcare availability, childcare costs, family responsibilities etc. Secondary factors may include prejudice based on social stereotyping and issues of confidence/motivation. These are the issues that will need to be addressed by a comprehensive strategic approach to unemployment and economic development in the future. Improving education and skills levels will be essential to ensuring that unemployment is addressed in a sustainable way. The provision of supports for unemployed people to take advantage of the opportunities provided by the current policy on labour market activation will also be important if further poverty and disadvantage is to be avoided. The provision of soft supports to people, particularly those that have been unemployed for some time, will be crucial to enable them to make the most of opportunities arising from the current labour market activation policy and other opportunities. In terms of addressing areas with significant unemployment, support for small scale economic development and micro enterprise may be more realistic than relying on the enterprise development agencies, important as these are in defining the macro employment context. The remits of many of the larger state development agencies make it difficult to focus their operations on smaller zones such as the Recommended Regeneration Area. There may be some potential for focusing on smaller scale areas when the Socio-Economic Committee is established as part of the reform of local government. The new Micro Enterprise and Small Business Unit in Enterprise Ireland that will work with Local Authorities to establish the LEO network will be worthy of exploration for its potential to the Recommended Regeneration Area. The work that has focused on the development of the current regeneration area has established a strong foundation for future development. The discussions that have taken place with economic


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development agencies, local organisations and agencies and education providers have indicated that there is potential for the area in relation to the establishment of employment protocols, putting in place supports for self-employment and small scale enterprise start-ups, developing social/community enterprises based on embryonic initiatives already in place such as house maintenance, market gardening ,and the possibility to develop live-and-work studios on a pilot basis to assist self-employment and micro- enterprises. The potential for enterprises with a social dividend such as a laundrette and cafĂŠ should also be explored.


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Section 5 Education, Family Supports & Youth Section 5.1 Education For the individual, educational attainment has a broad-ranging impact on many aspects of life, from personal development to civic engagement and economic well-being. For society, education is an invaluable resource in seeking to address and alleviate the causes of social exclusion, promote good citizenship, enrich culture and underpin economic development. OECD Overcoming School Failure: Policies that Work. National Report Ireland 2011

The importance of the role played by education in society is widely accepted. Educational qualifications, or the lack of them, determine to a large extent the life chances of people.49 Young people with higher levels of educational qualifications are more likely to access high quality employment and receive higher pay levels in the immediate period after leaving school, and these advantages persist into adult life. 50 It is increasingly accepted that educational disadvantage can have significant impacts on an individual throughout their life. Educational disadvantage is defined in the Education Act (1988) as “the impediments to education arising from social or economic disadvantage which prevent students from deriving appropriate benefit from education in schools.â€? Educational disadvantage may refer to children currently in the education system that are in danger of early school leaving and/or leaving school with few or no qualifications and those that have already left school that are living with the consequences of educational disadvantage.51 Early school leaving is defined in terms of age or stage at leaving school. Research52 has shown that the Leaving Certificate is the minimum threshold for the successful attainment of a range of adult outcomes. While the majority of Irish young people now stay on in education until the Leaving Certificate stage, a significant minority still leave school before the end of senior cycle, with a smaller but persistent proportion leaving during the junior cycle or even earlier.53 The background of the student is a significant indicator of the likelihood of educational disadvantage. There is a substantial volume of research that indicates that individuals from poorer socio-economic backgrounds and communities are more likely to underachieve in the education system than their peers from higher income backgrounds.54 In the Irish context, the likelihood of early school leaving is significantly influenced by parental social class background,55 with the children of parents from the lower social classes being at considerably higher risk of educational disadvantage. There is also a relationship between participation in higher education and socioeconomic background, with significantly lower participation of students from households in the lower social classes or from lower income households.56 The intergenerational nature of low education attainment is therefore an issue to be addressed. Under-achievement in school can have profound consequences for children and adults in later life, not only in terms of economic uncertainty, but also in terms of wellbeing, health, self-esteem and participation in family and community life.57 Early school leavers have poorer employment opportunities, higher rates of unemployment, lower earning potential and an increased likelihood of living in poverty.58 Some of the consequences for the individual and society include: 

Early leavers were 3 to 4 times more likely to be unemployed than those with higher qualifications, even before the current recession.


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Early leavers in employment hold less skilled jobs and earn lower wages. Young women who leave school early are more likely to become lone parents. Early school leavers have poorer health levels and are more reliant on the medical card to address their health needs. Early school leaving reinforces existing social and economic inequality since early leavers mainly come from working-class backgrounds. Early school leaving means substantial costs for society, leading to higher expenditure on welfare, health and prisons as well as lower tax revenue.59 Better reflect social investment in the allocation of resources and the general architecture of social policy. This means putting greater focus on policies such as (child)care, education, training, active labour market policies, housing support, rehabilitation and health services. Improve the sustainability of the health systems.35

Investment in early childhood education and care (ECEC) is seen as a key mechanism in breaking the cycle of disadvantage amongst children. In their recent publication on the Social Investment Package60, the European Commission suggests that member states (including Ireland) should implement the recommendation on Investing in Children: breaking the cycle of disadvantage61 by using the next round of Structural Funds to make early childhood education and care more visible and available. The National Economic and Social Council (NESC) argue that quality care and education in early childhood should be a policy priority in the recession as it is ‘a good long-term investment for the state and a sound basis for the move towards a knowledge-based economy’.62 Start Strong63 argues that high quality early care and education matters because it works: For children: First and foremost, quality care and education in the early years helps children to flourish and make the most of their lives. There is a large body of evidence that demonstrates the long-term beneficial effect of quality care and education for young children’s development. For the economy: A strong economy depends on people’s skills, creativity, motivation and knowledge. Investment in young children has high economic and social returns, because its impact on people’s skills and dispositions lasts a lifetime. For society: Quality care and education for young children helps make society fairer through reducing social and economic disadvantage and strengthening equality In the short-term, public investment in services and supports for young children creates jobs and supports parents’ participation in the labour market, boosting incomes and economic growth. In the longer term, it enhances economic productivity, increases financial returns to the Exchequer, and delivers wide social benefits including a better educated society and a lower level of crime. The effects of the recession are increasingly visible in education. A survey carried out by the Irish Primary Principals’ Association (IPPA) found that one in five principals report children arriving to school hungry. The IPPA state that food poverty is hindering some primary school pupils’ ability to learn basic literacy and numeracy and described this as a ‘worrying function of the recession’.64

National measures to address educational disadvantage In Ireland, there is free and universal access to education at primary and post-primary level, and improved access to third level education was facilitated by the abolition of university fees for undergraduate studies in 1995, though this has been reduced in recent years by the incremental increases in student registration fees.


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Pre-school Education The Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) Scheme provides a free year of early childhood care and education for children of pre-school age. In general, children are eligible for the ECCE scheme if they are aged over 3 years 2 months and less than 4 years 7 months on 1 September of the year that they will be starting. The upper age limit can be extended in some cases. The Early Start Programme is a one-year preventative intervention scheme offered in selected schools in designated disadvantaged areas. The objective of this pre-school programme, which is managed, funded and evaluated by the Department of Education and Skills, is to tackle educational disadvantage by targeting children who are at risk of not reaching their potential within the school system. Children must be aged more than 3 years 2 months and less than 4 years 7 months on the 1st day of September of the year in which they are enrolled.

Primary and Secondary Education The Department of Education and Skills initiatives to address educational disadvantage throughout the public school system include: 

The Schools Completion Programme (SCP) which aims to help students from disadvantaged areas stay in school to complete their Leaving Certificate. The programme is a support strand within the National Educational Welfare Board under the Department of Children and Youth Affairs. It forms part of the Department of Education and Skills social inclusion strategy Delivering Equality of Opportunity in Schools DEIS (see below)) to help children and young people who are at risk of or who are experiencing educational disadvantage. The SCP is a preventative programme to enhance the school experience and combat early school leaving using a ‘whole school’ approach - i.e. to prevent stigmatising - that includes in-school, after-school and holiday time interventions.

The Home School Community Liaison Scheme that aims to improve co-operation between home, schools and communities to advance the educational interests of disadvantaged children.

The Learning Support Teacher Scheme that provides extra support teaching for children experiencing learning difficulties, particularly in the core areas of literacy and numeracy. Generally this extra support is provided in the form of extra teaching in small groups or individually.

The School Meals programme that aims to supplement the diets of school-going children from disadvantaged backgrounds to help them fulfil their potential within the educational system and to reduce the risk of early school-leaving. There are two schemes. o

The Urban Scheme supports school meals for primary schools in urban areas. This programme consists of daily sandwiches or buns and milk. The scheme is not a replacement for home meals.

o

The Local Projects Scheme gives funding directly to national and secondary schools, local groups and voluntary organisations, which operate their own school meals projects (the meals may be hot or cold). It also covers nursery schools catering for disadvantaged pre-school children. These meals must be targeted at areas of disadvantage or at children with special needs. Funding is allocated on the basis of a rate per meal per child. Funding for school meals comes from the Department of Social Protection and local authorities.


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A principle mechanism for the targeting of this provision is the DEIS (Delivering Equality of Opportunity in Schools). DEIS is described as an integrated approach to the issue of educational inclusion which provides: 

A standardised system for identifying and regularly reviewing levels of disadvantage and;

A new integrated School Support Programme (SSP) to bring together and build upon the previous schemes and programmes, including the Home School Community Liaison Scheme (HSCL), the School Completion Programme (SCP) and the Visiting Teachers Service for Travellers (VTST)

DEIS designation allows schools to access the above additional programmes and schemes.

Education Provision in the Recommended Regeneration Area Education provision in the Recommended Regeneration Area can be categorised under the following headings:    

Community-based provision - Preschool and Homework Support Primary level Post primary level Post Leaving Cert/Third Level

Community-based provision Pre-school The role of early childhood education is increasingly being recognised as a key foundation for further educational outcomes, particularly for children from disadvantaged backgrounds. This was reflected in the interviews with a number of providers in the research area who emphasised the importance of providing good quality early childhood care and education in the area. This is comprised of pre-school education and crèche facilities (outlined in the Family Support Section) that are provided by the Resource House (crèche facilities), the Abbeyquarter Centre (pre-school) and Our Lady of Mercy Primary School (the Early Start Programme). There is a particular emphasis on working to co-ordinate provision and children use crèche in the Resource House until the age of three years when they access preschool in the Abbeyquarter Centre or other services outside the area. Both these services are supported by Sligo Social Services. A number of people from the research area also access the services provided by Sligo Social Services in its central building as the hours of provision are longer than the sessional provision in the Abbeyquarter Centre.

Homework Support For children whose parents have low levels of education, homework support can be crucial. Some of those interviewed noted that many parents from the research area may not have the confidence or consider themselves sufficiently competent to help their children with their homework. Homework support and afterschools is provided in the Resource House, the Avalon Centre and in the Abbeyquarter Centre. Supported by Sligo Social Services and these are considered to be vital supports to children in the area.

Primary The primary schools in the research area are Our Lady of Mercy and the Sligo Schools Project (Educate Together). Our Lady of Mercy is a DEIS school and both of these schools have been considerably affected by Department cutbacks. The Mercy has lost seven teachers and the


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Schools Project has lost one. Both of these schools have little or no capacity to generate voluntary contributions from parents, many of whom are living on low incomes. The Mercy does get some funding for complementary activities (music etc) but any additional monies is often diverted to meet urgencies such as heating failure, security etc. A number of those interviewed expressed concern about the young age of children when they begin in primary school (many are four years of age), poor levels of nutrition and the inadequacy of clothing, especially footwear in wintertime. It was also stated that absenteeism is an issue with some children and punctuality is also a problem. These are some of the indicators of educational underachievement in later years and are considered to be issues that need to be addressed in a way that acknowledges the background of the parents. The school staff interviewed expressed significant concern at the effects of educational cutbacks that are being imposed and spoke of the struggle to maintain standards, often by volunteering additional time.

Post Primary Girls from the research area transferring to post primary schools primarily go the Mercy College and boys tend to transfer to Summerhill College or the VEC’s Ballinode College. Post primary education is part of the continuous process of development of young people, as well as beginning to focus on career direction. Despite the best efforts of schools in a difficult funding context the Census figures points to a deterioration in the levels of education achieved in many of the most disadvantaged areas within the regeneration area. The School Completion Programme (SCP) is implemented in Sligo under a SCP coordinator dealing with 12 schools in County Sligo. The Schools Completion Programme works to support teachers to deal with discipline and self-management issues, providing supports for work with parents and support to address particular needs affecting attendance e.g. lunches and snacks. The Co-ordinator works closely with Home School Community Liaison teachers. The School Completion Programme has been subject to cuts in common with other sections of the education sector and because of this has been forced to focus on the most severe cases of early school leaving. It deals with an average case load of 650 plus pupils deemed to be at risk of early school leaving. This figure is an increase on previous years reflecting the cuts to other educational resources. Sixteen students dropped-out of the education system in the current academic year, many of whom were from the research area. Sligo Leitrim Home Youth Liaison Service provides a coordinated response to preventing school drop-out by giving personal support to young people and their families. (funded by the HSE, Sligo Social Services, and the School Completion Programme) The Home Youth Liaison Service has a staff of 11 and provides a range of interventions and programmes including:  Anti-bullying programmes to raise awareness within the school  Transfer programme to assist the transition from primary to secondary  Mentoring programme for 1st year students  Student Council training  Specialist programmes including anger management, reintegration to the school, bereavement and parental support  Residential and summer programmes This service provides a joined-up structure spanning a range of education providers and support agencies and linking in to other education, training and development initiatives.


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The Sligo Education Centre provides supports to teachers to address educational disadvantage. It provides courses, information and a space for training workshops.

Education and training opportunities for young early school leavers Two facilities providing education and training are located in Cleveragh, close to the Recommended Regeneration Area. Youthreach is an initiative of the Department of Education and Skills, administered through the VEC. It targets early schools leavers, male and female aged 15 to 20 years. There are approximately 40 places in the Sligo Youthreach, which is located in the Cleveragh Business Park. Youthreach provides a 1 year Junior Certificate programme and the Leaving Certificate Applied over 2 years. Formal education courses are augmented by various personal development programmes. This is provided for individual participants via a tailored plan. Youthreach no longer provide FETAC courses as previously but may return to this in the future. Youthreach only works with young people where there is no longer a relationship with a school. Most entrants are selfreferrals. Youthreach also links into Probation Service, Education and Welfare Board and Department of Social Protection. The number of Youthreach participants from the Recommended Regeneration Area is currently thought to be approximately five or six. Progression through the Post Leaving Certificate route is promoted but many also move on to the Community Training Centre availing of the training payment. The Community Training Centre (CTC) provides young people aged between 16 and 23 years with a range of skills and personal development. CTC offers a two year programme that includes placement and work experience. There are 90 places in the Centre and many of these are taken up by young people from the neighbouring Cranmore area. The participants are paid a training allowance and provided with meals. There is a staff of 14 (nine full-time and five part-time). The Centre works closely with the HSE, Probation Service, Gardaí and participates in case conferences where appropriate. At any one time 16 young people are on work experience placement and the Centre is considered to have a good relationship with employers and a good record in terms of successful placements. The approach of the CTC is to initially focus on getting people into a routine, providing structure for participants while increasing motivation. This is followed by more specific skills training and continued personal development within an agreed learning plan. The learning plan is reviewed every six weeks. Numeracy and literacy are common problems, and are often associated with learning difficulties such as dyslexia. The centre also provides career guidance and personal counselling. The majority of participants move into FAS mainstream training, directly into employment or into the Post Leaving Certificate system. Youthreach and the CTC will both move under the umbrella the amalgamated VECs (Sligo, Mayo and Leitrim) to be called the Education and Training Board.

Third Level/Post Leaving Cert There are two third level institutions in the Sligo City area, Sligo Institute of Technology and Saint Angela’s College (a College of the National University of Ireland, Galway). Sligo Institute of Technology provides a range of undergraduate and graduate courses and programmes in a range of science, business, marketing, engineering and computer subjects. Many of the Institute’s courses are tailored to the needs of local and developing industries. Sligo IT has developed an innovative access programme available to students attending a post-primary school or educational centre in the Northwest and Midlands Border regions. The Breaking the Mould programme is targeted towards families on lower incomes. All accepted students are offered a course at Sligo IT together with a place on a free Summer School transition programme. The


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summer school is offered to applicants to assist them with the transition to third level education to ensure that they benefit fully from higher education. A future initiative will include the development of a pre-entry initiative for post-primary students from families and communities with little or no tradition of third level education. Saint Angela’s College, which is an affiliate of NUI Galway, provides a number of undergraduate and post-graduate programmes including arts, nutrition, food & business management, theology, nursing. The Access Programme at St. Angela’s College includes an Access Foundation Studies Course, a Primary and Secondary Schools Programme and the College also participates in the Higher Education Access Route (HEAR). The Access Foundation Studies course runs for a year and is designed for school leavers and mature students who may not have the conventional educational requirements and who come from socio-economic backgrounds that are underrepresented at third level. It provides students with the opportunity to prepare personally and academically for undergraduate study. The Access Programme provides support to post-primary schools students, including students from Mercy College and Ballinode College, to make the transition to third level education, including practical advice on study skills and achieving study goals and support for Leaving Certificate oral exams. The Access Programme, Breaking the Barriers, aims to break the cycle of educational disadvantage through early intervention and to encourage pupils to remain in school and complete their education, as well as promote and increase their interest in third-level education. Integral to the initiative is a focus on the provision and promotion of educational opportunity to a student population that is marginalised specifically in terms of equality. Post-Leaving Certificate Courses are available in Mercy College and Ballinode College in areas such as business and computing, design, tourism, childcare, sport and recreation.

Literacy and other support for adult learners The County Sligo VEC Adult Learning and Education Centre implements a range of programmes in Sligo including, literacy support, one-to-one reading, writing and spelling, FETAC training in general learning, maths, etc. Funding is allocated from the Department of Education and Skills ALCES Budget (Adult Literacy, Community Education & SPIDAS) and partially through the DEIS Family Learning fund. The priority of the service is adults whose literacy and numeracy skills do not match Level 3 on the NFQ and in particular, to unemployed adults and those adults with literacy levels 1 and 2 and/or those with a primary education or less. The VEC state that the links made with the Resource House have been invaluable and referrals are made through the Resource House on a regular basis. A number of VEC programmes such as My Baby and Me and Easy Meals for Toddlers and Children have been based there.

Education Levels in the Recommended Regeneration Area As outlined above, education has a significant influence on the life chances of an individual and those from disadvantaged backgrounds are more likely to have poor educational outcomes and therefore life chances. Education is, therefore, a key issue for consideration in the regeneration area, both from the perspective of supporting and enabling individuals to reach their full potential and from an economic perspective, supporting individuals to make an economic contribution to society and to move out of poverty. Significant concerns were expressed by some of those interviewed at the number of people in the research area with relatively low levels of education and the prospect that this has to contribute to intergenerational educational disadvantage. Concern was also expressed at what is perceived to be a general issue with educational underachievement, with children leaving school as soon as they are legally entitled to do so, at the age of 16 but without what is now considered to be the


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minimum education achievement, the Leaving Certificate. Further concern was expressed at the prospect of children leaving school either with or without the Leaving Certificate but failing to progress onto any further education or training. The Census 2011 data on levels of education for the research area were analysed were examined for two aspects – low education65 and high education.66 The information shows that there are significant levels of educational disadvantage in the Recommended Regeneration Area. As Table 26, Figure 26 and Maps 20 and 21 show, in 2011, 16.0% of the population in the State aged 15 years and over67 had completed education with low education levels. The figure for Co Sligo was 16.6% and the figure for the Sligo Borough Council area was 17.7%. The figure for the recommended Regeneration Area was 29.2%, and was as high as 41.7% in one of the areas and over 30% in a number of others. In relation to high education levels, in 2011, 30.6% of the population in the State aged 15 years and over whose full-time education had ceased with third level education. The figures for Co Sligo (30.3%) and the Sligo Borough Council area (29.5%) were slightly lower. The figure for the Recommended Regeneration Area was less than half the national average at 14.1%, and was as low as 3.4% in one of the areas and 6.7% in another.

Table 26 Education Levels Total Low education % 328 1783 6740 456896

N RRA Sligo Borough Co Sligo State

N 29.2 17.7 16.6 16.0

Higher Education % 159 2970 12205 875114

RRA – Recommended Regeneration Area

Figure 26 Education Levels

Low & High Eduction Levels High Education

State Co Sligo Sligo Borough

Low education

RRA 0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

35.0

14.1 29.5 30.0 30.6


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Figure 27 Education Profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area Low & High Education Levels in the Recommended Regenertion Area

14.1 29.2

Low education High Education

Map 20 Low Education Levels

Map 21 High Education Levels


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Computer & Internet Access to a computer and internet is now considered to be an educational necessity. According to the CSO68, for households headed by persons educated to primary level, the rate of internet uptake was just 40 per cent. This contrasts with 91 per cent in cases where the householder had completed a third level qualification. As Table 26, Figure 28 and Maps 23 and 23 show, access to a computer and Internet was significantly lower in the Recommended Regeneration Area than average. In 2011, 72.7% of households in the State had access to a computer. The figure for Co Sligo was 67.6% and the figure for the Sligo Borough Council area was 62.7%.The figure for the Recommended Regeneration Area was 48.6% and was as low as 30.8% in one of the areas. A total of 25.1% of households in the State had no access to a computer. The figure for Co Sligo was 29.8% and the figure for Sligo Borough was 33.2%. The figure for the Recommended Regeneration Area was 39.6%, and was as high as 51.9% in one of the areas. In relation to Internet access, a total of 25.8% of households in the State had no access to the internet. The figure for Co Sligo was 30.3% and the figure for Sligo Borough was 30.5%. The figure for the Recommended Regeneration Area was 38.5%

Table 27 Households with and without a personal computer & Internet access With a computer N RRA Sligo Borough Co Sligo State

Without a computer

%

N

%

Internet access N

%

No Internet access N

%

383

48.6

312

39.6

394

50.0

303

38.5

4,331

62.7

2,295

33.2

4506

65.2

2,095

30.3

16,525

67.6

7,279

29.8

16276

66.6

7,461

30.5

1,199,298

72.7

414,597

25.1

1184915

71.8

426,096

25.8

RRA – Recommended Regeneration Area

Figure 28 Households with and without a personal computer & Internet access

Computer & Internet No Internet access State

Internet access

Co Sligo

Without a computer

Sligo Borough RRA

With a computer 0.0

10.0

20.0

30.0

40.0

50.0

60.0

70.0

80.0


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Map 22 Number of households without a personal computer

Map 23 Number of households without Internet access

Education - Achievements & Issues Arising The Cranmore Regeneration Project Social Plan (2007) stated that the Social Working Group supported the view that access to quality education and training is a critical component part of any strategy to overcome poverty and social exclusion (p. 34). There were a number of actions planned under Education and Training section in the Cranmore Regeneration Project Social Plan. These included: 

Promote adult literacy classes in Cranmore

Provide tailored training programmes as ‘bridge ways’ to mainstream training

Facilitate transition/integration from pre-school into primary school

Provide labour market focused employment-based training


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Provide information on training, education, employment ‘option road show’

Identify suitable accessible programmes for 18 plus

Maximise local resources for delivery of education/training

Ensure co-ordination/co-operation in the provision of education/training

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A number of achievements were made in relation to education, including the implementation of national initiatives to address educational disadvantage and community-based educational provision and supports. These include DEIS initiatives implemented in the schools and the early childhood care and education provision in the Abbeyquarter Centre, the Resource House and the services provided directly by Sligo Social Services The provision of community-based education supports such pre-school in the Abbeyquarter Centre and homework support in the Abbeyquarter Centre and the Resource House has been particularly important. The activities of the Youth services have also been very important in terms of informal education.in the area. Quite a number of people from the area have accessed the VEC learning and literacy supports. However, there is potential for an expanded service given the low levels of education in the area. A designated Resource Worker or Tutor would be beneficial so that the service is highlighted. However, educational disadvantage remains a feature of the population in the research area. Efforts to address this and to prevent educational disadvantage amongst current children and young people have been notable but are affected by the current recession. As stated in the section on Health & Wellness, a number of those interviewed indicated that they are increasingly seeing children who are hungry in the schools. This is a significant issue and, as indicated in the research carried out by the Irish Primary Principals’ Association, is likely to be impairing the child’s ability to learn. At the same time, education providers in the area have been significantly affected by the cuts to the education sector, particularly in relation to providing supports for educational disadvantage. Further, the ability of the education sector to respond to local needs is very much determined by national policy and flexibility at local level is limited.

Conclusion Education is a key determinant to life chances and one of the key areas of focus that will determine any social and economic transformation of the regeneration area. However, on the basis of the evidence presented, educational disadvantage in the area is extensive and has deteriorated between 2006 and 2011. This is an area of considerable concern. National and international research shows that low educational attainment can be an intergenerational issue and therefore interventions are required to break this cycle. The DEIS initiative, Special Needs Assistants and the Schools Completion Programme exemplified the type of required measures which, if sufficiently resourced, could begin to address poor education outcomes. However, cuts in education spending have disproportionately impacted upon schools with high numbers of children from disadvantaged families and these have had a significant impact on the ability of schools to respond to issues. Interventions outside the mainstream education provision are unlikely to succeed without the support of schools. The VEC literacy and educational support programmes, the Community Training Centre and Youthreach are important initiatives for an area with such as a high level of educational disadvantage.


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Future interventions need to be strategic and take a life-cycle approach to educational need, beginning at early childhood education level through to Third Level and adult education. Given the centralised nature of the education system, the lack of flexibility afforded schools and the limited opportunities of schools catering for disadvantaged children to access additional funding, considerable thought needs to be given to the type of strategies that are (a) capable of making a substantial impact on educational outcomes, and (b) realistic in what can be achieved, inserted or adjoined to what is a very rigid system. Intensive work, therefore, needs to be ongoing with the schools, primary and post-primary, to maximise opportunities for mutual support. Community-based interventions, such as early education, homework support and family learning support also need to maintained and developed and interventions to support parents to realise the importance of education also need to be undertaken. Initiatives such as Breaking the Mould and Third Level Access Programmes need to be encouraged to focus on the Regeneration area.


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Section 5.2 Family Support National Policy Family Support refers to the provision of services to families and children, particularly to families and children at risk. Family supports are defined as community-based services to promote the wellbeing of children and families. According to the UNESCO Child and Family Research Centre in the National University of Ireland Galway, Family Support practice aims to:       

Integrate programmes combining statutory, voluntary, community and private sectors. Positively reinforce informal social networks. Target the hard to reach and the most vulnerable that are at risk. Intervene early across a range of levels and needs. Promote and protect health, well-being and the rights of all children, young people, their families and communities. Undertake a style of work that is based on operational and practice principles. Encompass a wide range of activities and types of services.

The National Children’s Strategy (2000) sets out a series of objectives to guide children’s policy over the ten year period up to 201069. It seeks to establish a ‘whole child’ perspective at the centre of all relevant policy development and service deliver, and to improve the quality of children’s lives through integrated delivery of services in partnership with children, young people, their families and their communities. The whole child perspective draws on research and knowledge about children’s development and the relationship
between children and family, community and the wider society. It identifies the capacity of children to shape their lives as they grow, while also being shaped and supported by the world around them. The nine dimensions identified are: physical and mental well‐being; emotional
 and behavioural well‐being; intellectual capacity; spiritual and moral well‐being; identity; self-care; family relationships; social and peer relationships; and social presentation. The National Children’s Strategy identifies three national
goals: Goal 1

Children will have a voice in matters which affect them and their views will be given due weight in accordance with their age and maturity.

Goal 2

Children's lives will be better understood; their lives will benefit from evaluation, research and information on their needs, rights and the effectiveness of services.


Goal 3 Children will receive quality supports and services to promote all aspects of their development.
 The design and delivery of Family Support policy is currently in the process of substantial change. The establishment of the new Child and Family Support Agency will focus on child protection and family support and will include services that: (i) (ii) (iii)

may prevent problems arising for a family in the first instance identify problems and provide supports at an early stage and assist children and families in managing serious problems requiring specialised interventions beyond their own resources.


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A number of services currently implemented and/or funded by the HSE will transfer to the Agency. Three agencies are relevant in the current family support provision, HSE, Family Support Agency (FSA) and Early Years Education Policy Unit (Department of Education).

Delivery of Family Support: National Agencies The HSE currently provides or funds a range of family support services, including social work services and protection of children, parent education programmes, home-based parent and family support, crisis pregnancy, domestic violence interventions, child health services, child development and education interventions, youth work and community development initiatives, services for migrant children separated from their family. Adoption, fostering and residential care are other specialist areas presently within the HSE remit. Many of these services are provided by voluntary organisations and locally-based projects and organisations. The Family Support Agency (FSA) provides the Scheme of Grants to Voluntary Organisations providing Marriage, Child and Bereavement Counselling Services and the Family and Community Services Resource Centre Programme more commonly known as Family Resource Centres (FRCs). The aim of the Family Resource Centre Programme is to combat disadvantage and improve the functioning of the family unit. The Programme emphasises involving local communities in tackling the problems they face, and creating successful partnerships between voluntary and statutory agencies at community level. FRCs involve people from marginalised groups and areas of disadvantage at all levels of the organisation, including the voluntary management committees. The childcare aspect of the Early Childhood Care and Education is also relevant here. The Early Years Education Policy Unit in the Department of Education and Skills is co-located with the Department of Children and Youth Affairs (DCYA) to ensure that policy developments in the early childhood sector are developed within an overall strategic policy framework for children. The Early Years Education Policy Unit is responsible for targeted ‘early years’ interventions for children who experience disadvantage, including the Early Start Programme, a preventative measure targeting children at risk falling below their potential in school. In terms of categorising need in providing family support, many agencies use the Hardiker model as a way to determine the level of intervention that might be needed. The Hardiker model refers to a model of family support and outlines four levels of intervention ranging from mainstream services that are available to all children, with the potential for targeting resources through community initiative, to services for children with additional needs, to providing support to families or children and young people where there are chronic or serious problems, to support for families where the family structure has broken down temporarily or permanently.

Family Support Provision in Sligo Funded and supported by the HSE Children and Families Services, a number of agencies are involved in the provision of family support in Sligo: Sligo Social Services Council, Springboard Resource House Project, Life Start Sligo, Family Resource Centre, ForĂłige, the Home Youth Liaison Service, Sligo County Childcare Committee, St. Michael's Family Centre and the Avalon Centre. The Children and Family Service has moved to a separate directorate in the HSE and will move again to the Child and Family Support Agency in 2014. Sligo Social Service Council Ltd was founded in 1969 with the aim of responding to the emerging and unmet needs of the people of Sligo. Local social services councils were a policy response to disadvantage and marginalisation and many continue to be the vehicle for the delivery of statutory services and supports in many locations.


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Sligo Social Services has a two-fold purpose, to co-ordinate the various voluntary bodies providing services within the local community and to mobilise all available resources, both statutory and voluntary, to meet the emerging needs within the community. Sligo Social Service Council provides a wide range of services, including:  Social work service including walk in duty service, counselling and support;  Women Awake group work programme and the Helping Hands for Children programme;  Home management advice;  Community Development;  Pre-school provision at Charles Street and Cranmore;  Afterschool Service;  Family Support Service (ABC ABout Children) ;  Meals-on-Wheels service;  Homeless services – including an Advice & Information Service, emergency and transitional accommodation options and resettlement service Sligo Social Services also coordinates the ION (Identification of Need) Project, a multi-agency, early intervention process for children, young people and families. The ION model enables parents and children, assisted by practitioners, to identify their own needs. ION seeks to build on and formalise current practice. Practitioners in any agency are capable of undertaking an ION. ION is seen as a pre-social work way of engaging families in a respectful relationship, providing a vital element in the continuum of support available to children and families. Established in 1996 as a Community Initiative, Sligo SPRINGBOARD ( more commonly known as Resource House Project) is based in Cranmore and offers family support programmes and interventions to families, individuals and children throughout Sligo town and environs where needs exist at all four levels of the Hardiker Model of Intervention. Services and interventions evolve to meet changing need, and currently include intensive family initiatives, out- of-hours family support, Individual supports to children, mediation & access supports, two crèches, homework & afterschool support, drop-in services, holiday programmes, advocacy. SPRINGBOARD was mainstreamed in 2001. Lifestart Sligo is located in the grounds of Our Lady of Mercy Primary School. The core service is an educational programme on child development from birth to the age of seven delivered to parents in the home. It consists of age-appropriate information supported by art, story, music and movement resources that are tailored to suit each individual child and family. The programme is a universal service operated primarily, though not exclusively, with families in the east ward of Sligo. The Project delivers the Lifestart ‘Growing Child’ programme to approximately 320 families in the Sligo urban area, including 40 families in Cranmore. Lifestart also provides parenting courses, including accredited training courses as required, and Play Days - a structured play programme for children. The Family Resource Centre (FRC) in The Mall provides family supports using Community Employment (CE) and trained staff that link in with providers in the area. The families they work with are mainly from referrals through social workers and the public health nurse. The Centre has three family support workers working with about 25 families. The CE workers focus on level 1 and 2 interventions, which are preventative, while the trained staff work with level 3 families (level 4 requires social work intervention). It is considered that there is good progression opportunities for the supported parents through FETAC accredited courses.


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The FRC also provides a drop-in childcare service which is widely used. Most users are welfare recipients (85%) and many are parenting alone. Group activities in the FRC include participants from migrants in direct provision in Globe House. A mentoring programme is also provided in Globe House, which houses approximately 180 people. The Avalon Centre provides a comprehensive youth activity centre including a homework support programme and programmes for children with special needs. It also provides day care for older people in the East City, including meals provision

Family Profile in the Recommended Regeneration Area According to Census 2011, there are a total of 570 families70 in the Recommended Regeneration Area. The CSO classifies families according to family cycle71 to assess what stage they are at. It is a useful indicator of the current and future needs of families within a community. There is a significantly higher than average number of families with adult children living at home in the Recommended Regeneration Area. While the reasons for this are unknown, it is likely that it is a result of a combination of factor including adult children unable to move out of home for financial reasons and/or adult children living at home as they continue to study. There are slightly lower than average numbers of families that are Pre-family, Retired and Early School. Proportionately the remainder reflect the national average.

Table 28 Family Profile in the Recommended Regeneration Area RRA N Pre-family Empty nest Retired Pre-school Early school Pre-Adolescent Adolescent Adult Total

32 62 37 73 54 64 59 189 570

% 5.6 10.9 6.5 12.8 9.5 11.2 10.4 33.2

RRA – Recommended Regeneration Area

Sligo Borough N % 430 11.4 431 11.4 357 9.4 478 12.6 367 9.7 373 9.8 410 10.8 942 24.9 3,788

Co Sligo N 1,492 2,058 1,509 1,718 1,674 1,808 1,935 4,122 16,316

State % 9.1 12.6 9.2 10.5 10.3 11.1 11.9 25.3

N 131,877 118,939 94,128 141,320 133,003 131,263 135,218 293,462 1,179,210

% 11.2 10.1 8.0 12.0 11.3 11.1 11.5 24.9


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Figure 29 Comparison of the stages in the Lifecycle

Family Profile Adult Adolescent Pre-Adolescent

State

Early school

Co Sligo

Pre-school

Sligo Borough

Retired

Research Area

Empty nest Pre-family 0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

35.0

Figure 30 Family Profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area

Family Profile of the RRA 33.2 10.4

5.6 10.9

11.2

6.5 12.8

9.5

Pre-family Empty nest Retired Pre-school Early school Pre-Adolescent Adolescent Adult

Family Support - Achievements & Issues Arising According to the Cranmore Regeneration Project Social Plan (2007) a combination of agencies and organisations provide a range of services aimed at increasing the capacity of all families to support children and young people in achieving their full potential in terms of physical, emotional and social well-being. These are crucial in an area like Cranmore and environs where the needs of disadvantaged communities frequently require Family Support services. A number of strategies were planned, including:    

Develop an effective information strategy in relation to Family Support Services Existing Family Support Services be maintained and developed where necessary Service Providers will listen and respond to the Community Follow established procedures where supported evidence exists of a childcare service need in the area


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Facilitate the transition and integration from pre-school into primary school e.g. ’Ready for School Programme’ Build on skills base in the local community to enhance and further develop family support initiatives

Family Support services are crucial in areas of disadvantage such as a number of the areas researched. Working collaboratively, agencies in the current Regeneration Area have managed to provide crucial services for families, both from prevention and intervention perspectives. The Abbeyquarter Centre and the Resource House have been central to the delivery of services and the achievements of successful outcomes for families and individuals. These services are supported by the HSE and Sligo Social Services and would not be possible without their ongoing support. A number of Family Support services cater for the Sligo area and these are open to people living in the research areas to use or to be referred into. A number of services are based in the area and work from the Abbeyquarter Centre and the Resource House. There has been a significant involvement by Sligo Social Services in the Cranmore area since the early 1970s and Sligo Social Services fund many of the services in the area. The Abbeyquarter Centre is a significantly important centre to Cranmore and environs. It provides the base from which many Family Support services are run, including pre-school and afterschool support, supports for older people, women’s groups, children’s activities, and the men’s project, all of which contribute substantially to family and community well-being. The Resource House Project (Sligo SPRINGBOARD Co. Ltd) works in partnership with serviceusers and with statutory, community and voluntary agencies to facilitate families, individuals and children in achieving their full potential. Professionally trained staff offer both generic and targeted support programmes and interventions developed to promote family strength and prioritise child welfare. In 2011, 195 families (comprised of 463 individuals) availed of the services of the Resource House. Whilst most were self- or family- referred (illustrating the community development ethos of the project) many individuals were referred by HSE services, Sligo Borough Council (including Regeneration Team), schools and other family support providers. Evaluations have shown that parents and children experienced considerable improvements in wellbeing while participating in Springboard. The Resource House, the Abbeyquarter Centre and Sligo Social Services work closely with the Cranmore Co-op and the Regeneration Project in Cranmore on a range of issues including community safety and youth provision. They also work closely with the Tenancy Support and Sustainment Service to ensure that people at risk of losing their tenancy for a variety of reasons including a history of homelessness, rent arrears, addiction, domestic violence or anti-social behaviour are supported to remain in their homes.

Conclusion Levels of family support in the current regeneration area are a considerable achievement. It is crucial that they are maintained as the Regeneration Project moves to the next phase. Family Support will be crucial to supporting the social and economic development of the area. The collaborative nature of Family Support service provision is important in ensuring that there is no duplication of services and it is important that this is facilitated to continue. There is potential for the development of further collaboration with social and economic initiatives that will emerge as part of the next phase of the Regeneration Project. The Family Support


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services will be an important referral source for initiatives targeted at those who are unemployed, lone parents, older people etc. and will be an important partner in future community development initiatives to address poverty, social exclusion and disadvantage. The Children and Family Service has moved to a separate directorate in the HSE and will move again to the Child and Family Support Agency in 2014. Ensuring that the services are embedded in the future development of the Regeneration project will be critical.


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Section 5.3 Youth Work National Policy and Delivery in Ireland Youth Work is ‘a planned programme of education designed for the purpose of aiding and enhancing the personal and social development of young persons through their voluntary participation, and which is complementary to their formal, academic or vocational education and training and provided primarily by voluntary youth work services’.72 It is above all an educational and developmental process, based on young people’s active and voluntary participation and commitment. It is often defined as ‘non-formal education’. Youth work is for all young people, with particular focus on those aged 10 to 25 from all aspects of Irish life, urban, rural, all nationalities and social classes. 73 Youth work is predicated on the voluntary participation of young people. Flexibility of approach and emphasis on the interpersonal, enables it to offer an educational process complementary to that provided through formal education. In addition, Youth work often acts as the point of contact and referral in the interface with other youth- related issues spanning the realms of care, health, and welfare. Youth work is primarily the responsibility of the Department for Children & Youth Affairs but many other initiatives and programmes are funded by the Department of Justice Equality & Defence, the Department of Health and the Department of Education and Skills. The overall aim of the Youth Affairs Unit (YAU) within the Department of Children and Youth Affairs is to support and promote non-formal education and developmental opportunities for young people through which they can enhance their personal and social skills and competencies. Particular regard is given to the youth work needs of young people between the ages of 10 and 21, and to those who are socially or economically disadvantaged. Youth work in Ireland is delivered directly through national and regional voluntary and churchbased organisations and implemented by local youth clubs, groups and initiatives. Funding for the support of this work is made available on an annual basis through the Youth Service Grant Scheme. The continued funding of voluntary youth organisations through the Scheme is intended to ensure the emergence, promotion, growth and development of youth organisations with distinctive philosophies and programmes aimed at the social education of young people. There are a number of recognised national youth work bodies, including the National Youth Council of Ireland, an umbrella of national youth organisations and affiliates. Youthwork Ireland is a national coordination body for a number of regional and local youth services. Foróige is a national voluntary youth organisation engaged in youth education and out-of-school education. Foróige takes a strong focus on active citizenship and promotes this concept through its clubs and projects. There are a number of church based organisations including the Catholic Youth Council and the Church of Ireland Youth Department. In general these bodies support regional services, while the National Youth Council of Ireland also plays a research and policy shaping role. In addition, a scheme of grants is made available in respect of special out-of-school projects for disadvantaged young people. Priority is given to projects in the spheres of special youth work initiatives, young homeless people, young substance abusers and young Travellers. Grants are allocated to organisations and groups for specific projects which seek to address the needs of young people who are disadvantaged, due to a combination of factors. This Scheme is operated by the Vocational Education Committees74 on behalf of the Youth Affairs Unit of the Department of


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Children and Youth Affairs. The HSE also funds a number of Neighbourhood Youth Projects in areas of disadvantage and youth-focused projects identified by Local Drugs Task Forces. Garda Youth Diversion Projects are community-based, multi-agency crime prevention initiatives which seek to divert young people from becoming involved (or further involved) in anti-social and/or criminal behaviour by providing suitable activities to facilitate personal development and promote civic responsibility. The Garda Youth Diversion Projects are funded by the Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform and administered through Garda Community Relations Section. There are about 100 of these projects nationwide.

Youth work provision in Sligo Youth service provision in Sligo is delivered by a range of organisations and groups, as outlined below. Most provision caters for the developmental needs of young people generally, while some initiatives and activities takes a particular focus on issues such as health or avoidance of crime. North Connaught Youth and Community Services (NCYCS) provide:     

A youth information service Youth club development Training and workshops A teenage confidential support service Community support and advice

The Youth Action Project (YAPS) was established in 1999 as a partnership between An Garda Síochána and North Connaught Youth and Community Services. It is funded by the Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform and co-funded by the Irish Government and European Social Fund. The YAPS-Garda Youth Diversion Programme works with young people aged between 12 and 18 years in the Sligo Borough area that are involved in criminal or anti-social behaviour or at risk of becoming involved in this behaviour. Referrals are made by the Garda Juvenile Liaison Officer (JLO), Community Gardaí, HSE, Home Youth Liaison Service, and Young Persons Probation Service or through contacting the service directly. The CRIB (Choices, Responsibility, Ideas and Belonging) is a multi-faceted Foróige service centred on a youth health cafe. It is located in the centre of Sligo and provides a range of developmental programmes and activities for young people aged 12 -18 years including a music rehearsal space under the Music Generation Sligo in partnership with the VEC. A particularly important service provided is the Mind-Full of Health Doctor @ the CRIB which is focused on mental health and well-being. This service is operated in collaboration with the HSE and Comhairle na nÓg. A number of other services and programmes also operate out of or in parallel to the CRIB, including the Big Brother Big Sister individual mentoring programme and a county-wide Youth Drug and Alcohol Education & Prevention Project which is funded by the North West Regional Drugs Task Force. In line with the commitment to promote active citizenship, the Comhairle na nÓg Shiligh initiative strives to increase the participation of young people in decision-making. The Network for Teaching Entrepreneurships (NFTE) is based in the CRIB. Foróige also implements a PEACE III Education Programme based in the CRIB the aim of which is to challenge racism and promote positive attitudes to cultural diversity. The CRIB houses a regional youth officer to support the development of Foróige clubs through the provision of training, consultancy and programme development. During 2012, over 568 young people were involved in the CRIB. Participation of from


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young people from the regeneration area was similar to participation levels from other areas of the city. The Avalon Centre, formerly St Anne’s, is located in a large customised building that also houses a day care centre for older people and is a location for other community activities. The Centre has a number of spaces for specialist and social activities for people aged from 3 to 96 years, including a dance studio that is very well used. Avalon currently provides on a regular basis for 313 children and young people between the ages of 10 and 18 years, with participation reflecting an even gender balance.

Young Age Profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area An analysis of the information on age from Census 2011 shows that the young age profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area is generally in line with that of the Sligo Borough Council area, County Sligo and the State, with proportionately slightly fewer in the age categories 5-9 years, 1014 years, 15-19 years and slightly more in the 0-4 years.

Table 29 Young Age Profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area Total

0-4 years N

RRA Sligo Borough Co Sligo State

5-9 years

%

N

10-14 years

%

N

%

15-19 years N

%

Total 0-19 years N

%

1,904

154

8.1

95

5.0

105

5.5

106

5.6

460

24.2

17,568

1,071

6.1

794

4.5

898

5.1

1,400

8.0

4,163

23.7

65,393

4,594

7.0

4,196

6.4

4,319

6.6

4,379

6.7

17,488

26.7

4,588,252

356,329

7.8

320,770

7.0

302,491

6.6

283,019

6.2

1,262,609

27.5

RRA – Recommended Regeneration Area

Figure 31 Young Age Profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area

Young Age Profile Total 10-19 years Total 0-19 years State 15-19 years

Co Sligo

10-14 years

Sligo Borough RRA

5-9 years 0-4 years 0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

30.0


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Youthwork – Achievements & Issues Arising The Cranmore Regeneration Project Social Plan (2007) highlighted a number of issues raised by young people themselves about life in Cranmore. A safe place to play, sports facilities, a drop-in centre and organised trips were typical responses. The Plan had a number of activities under the Developing Opportunities for Young People section: • • •

Improve co-ordination & access to information on youth services Promote and support active citizenship amongst young people Develop opportunities for young people in the 14 – 18 age group

Youth has been a particular focus of regeneration work to date. Those interviewed indicated that they believe that working with young people is key to breaking the cycle of disadvantage in the area. They spoke of youth work in terms of opening up horizons for young people and in encouraging them to develop long-term goals. Activities in the area have been focused on the development of the young people in the area and in developing a pride of place in relation to the area. Though there are specific youth work activities, the work of the Sligo Sports and Recreation Partnership, the work in Arts and Culture and the work of the Community Gardaí and the Community Wardens also have a focus on young people. Youth provision in the current regeneration area is delivered through the Avalon Centre, the Community Cooperative, the Springboard Resource House and the Abbeyquarter Centre. In addition, a number of young people also avail of services outside the area, including those at the Mail Coach Road (MCR) Community Centre. The Youth Active Citizenship project was funded under the Sustainable Communities Fund Grant 2007-2010. It aimed to provide developmental opportunities for young people in Cranmore through the direct provision of youth work activities and services in the community. This work included structured group work, one-to-one interventions, referrals to other services, outreach / street work and club support through activities such as volunteer recruitment, programme development, etc. The project provided funding for a youth worker and a number of models were tested. This project commenced with an invitation to the main youth work service providers to prepare a programme for the delivery of a Youth active Citizenship programme in Cranmore. North Connaught Youth Services were selected as best placed to deliver the project in June 2008. The project was initially delivered in conjunction with North Connaught Youth and Community Services and later with the Cranmore Community Co-operative as it was agreed after the initial phase that the project needed to be more embedded within the local community group in order to develop local capacity to engage with youth people and deliver successful youth projects. A local review of the project deemed that the focus should be on community youth activities rather than counselling or one to one supports, which were already being delivered by other organizations. Over the past three years the North Connaught Youth and the Cranmore Community C-op have worked very closely with the Community Wardens, the local Family Resource House, the Sport and Recreation Partnership, the Abbeyquarter Centre and the Regeneration Project to deliver several projects including sporting events, family fun days, Community Celebrations, Junior Wardens Scheme, Drop in etc. One of the main achievements of this project has been the establishment and development of a Youth Drop-in Service at the Cranmore Co-op premises, which has recently undergone significant refurbishment. It provides local young people with a safe place to hang out and organize and participate in social, recreational and education activities such as angling trips, golf projects, basketball, arts and crafts, computer training, cooking, barbeques, etc. it connects the young


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people to their area and provides a sense of ownership and identity. The project was established under the Youth Citizenship Project and is now operated almost exclusively by Volunteers. Young people from the surrounding area now also attend the Drop-in Service enhancing the outside perception of Cranmore as a positive place to grow up. It also provides a focus point for the dissemination of information on opportunities for young people as well as health and personal wellbeing. The Volunteers Recruitment Programme has been successful in putting in place a comprehensive system for the recruitment and training of volunteers to run programme and develop the drop in facilities and other projects. A comprehensive child protection policy for the local community cooperative and a system for vetting volunteers were developed together with North Connaught Youth and Community Centre The Cranmore Community Co-operative continues to provide a range of programmes and activities for children and young people in their premises beside the Regeneration Office. Approximately 130 children aged 7 to 12 years use these services and the average number of children using the centre on either of the two nights that services are provided is 30. The enhanced level of youth activity is also beneficial to families and the wider community and has played an important role in the success of regeneration strategies to date. A positive feature is the level of formal and informal coordination between agencies, organisations, staff and voluntary activists regarding the needs of young people, including the youth work services, the community wardens, the Community GardaĂ­, Sligo Sorts and Recreation Partnership and others. Those interviewed stated that this is an important feature of the work. Those interviewed also stated that there is a cohort of young people, particularly young men, between the ages of approximately 15 and 20 years that are difficult to engage. Efforts by the Community Wardens and the Community GardaĂ­ to engage teenagers have been successful to a degree but a more sustained effort needs to be implemented. A second issue identified was the reluctance by a number of people in the community to engage in activities outside the immediate area, even if they were relatively close in distance. This reluctance was attributed to a number of issues including the lack of self-confidence and consequent reluctance to engage with young people from other communities and the reluctance of some parents to accompany their children to activities outside the area. Affordability is also an issue for parents in relation to paid classes and activities.


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Conclusion There has been a concerted effort to engage young people in a range of activities during the Regeneration Project to date. One of the key features has been the interagency co-operation in the focus on young people. A number of activities and initiatives are based in the current Regeneration area and a wide range of others are available to the community in areas adjacent or just outside the area. There are a range of providers offering services and access to interests that are attractive to young people. In addition, there are some very good targeted programmes running at present focused on health, drugs and those regarded as ‘at risk’. Not all of this provision is neighbourhood provided, but most is at least adjacent to the Recommended Regeneration Area. Parents and young people need to be continued to be encouraged to access youth activities that are outside the area as it is neither practical nor appropriate for all youth work to be provided in the area. Mixing with young people from other areas is key to the development of young people and this should be continued to be encouraged as much as possible. The targeted universal approach is one that would be useful as an underpinning model where activities and initiatives are open to all young people but some are particularly targeted or referred for a variety of reasons including levels of poverty and disadvantage, being at risk of early school leaving, anti-social behaviour etc. The gaps that have been identified in relation to ‘hard to reach’ young people will require a professional developmental approach that is more targeted and sustained and will require an element of outreach work to equalise the opportunities for young people in areas such as Cranmore with high levels of disadvantage. As with all youth work activities, this needs to be complemented by the development of a volunteer base that will contribute to work being sustained and ‘owned’ by the community. The collaboration between sports and youth work providers is a positive element and could be further built on.


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Section 6 Community Safety, Housing Management and Support Importance of Community Safety, Housing Management and Support Inadequate housing and estate management, and issues of community safety, anti-social behaviour and stigma, as well as economic factors, are considered to be major contributors to estate decline.75 Research into regeneration initiatives in six local authority estates in Ireland (including Cranmore) highlighted the role of anti-social behaviour in destabilising a community.76 Community safety, and addressing the reasons why people did not feel safe in the community, was one of the primary motivations for the Cranmore Regeneration Project. In the past, anti-social and criminal activity was widespread within the Cranmore Area. A number of murders have occurred on the estate that remain unsolved. Drug dealing was very visible. There was a significant problem with illegal dumping, cars being burnt out and stray dogs roaming the area. Inadequate resourcing for housing and estate management were problems for the Cranmore Estate before the current Regeneration Project began. The Forkan report77 documents the poor image of the estate because of:     

The repetition of houses Points of congregation and antisocial behaviour (unsupervised and areas of poor natural surveillance) Back alleyways Poor estate design Lack of recreation areas for young people

 The number of derelict houses  A brutal hard concrete environment.  Rat runs for motorcyclists  Inadequate car parking spaces  Litter

The community survey carried out found that there were significant issues of mistrust between residents and Sligo Borough Council at the time the survey was carried out in 2006. Residents felt that they received no support from SBC and many expressed dissatisfaction with the Borough Council Housing Service. Reports from services and organisations active in the area were critical of Sligo Borough Council at the time for their poor maintenance of the estate and their poor response to the needs of residents. Those interviewed for this stage of the process highlighted the very poor image that the area had and the stigma associated with the area. The Regeneration project has developed a targeted series of initiatives to improve community safety and housing/estate management and support in Cranmore, in close collaboration with other agencies, to address the significant issues faced by the community before the Regeneration Project began.

Though it is recognised that the initiatives to address and improve community safety and estate management all work closely together, reinforcing an improving sense of security and stability in the area, they are considered separately below.


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Section 6.1 Community Safety National policy and Local Initiatives In their Guidelines for Sustainable Residential Development, the Department of the Environment identifies that the ability to live with a feeling of comfort and safety in the residential area is an essential component of sustainable communities.78 It is crucial to the wellbeing of a community and to the perception that others have of an area. Ensuring community safety is also one of the four goals contained in the Garda Síochána Strategy Statement 2013 to 2015. It states that An Garda Síochána acknowledges the importance of community based policing and will work in partnership with communities to tackle the behaviours that affect the quality of life in communities. Two areas of work (with underpinning strategies) are identified in relation to ensuring safe communities and ensuring a safe home: 

Enhance feelings of safety and confidence within our communities o Active community engagement to develop appropriate policing strategies that meet the needs and priorities of communities o Continue to support victims of crime and improve the services available to them

Provide a policing service that recognises the needs and priorities of our communities o Support and protect vulnerable and diverse sections of our communities through community policing and proactive engagement o Targeted local crime reduction and prevention initiatives o Working in partnership, An Garda Síochána will continue to tackle public disorder and antisocial behaviour that will affect a community’s quality of life o Provision of a visible and responsive policing service.

The Housing Miscellaneous Provisions Act 2009 requires all Local Authorities to compile policies regarding management of anti-social behaviour. The Sligo Local Authorities (Sligo Borough Council and Sligo County Council) have a policy on anti-social behaviour since 2005. The Mission Statement in relation to Anti-Social Behaviour is: “To investigate all complaints fairly, impartially and objectively, to provide a modern and professional service to those of our tenants who are victims of anti-social behaviour and to work towards the elimination of anti-social behaviour in all council estates and council tenancies.” The principal objectives of this Preventing Anti-Social Behaviour strategy include: 1. 2. 3.

4.

The prevention and reduction of anti-social behaviour; The co-ordination of services within the Council that are directed at dealing with, or preventing or reducing anti-social behaviour; The promotion of co-operation with other persons/bodies, including the Garda Síochána, in the performance of their respective functions insofar as they relate to the prevention or reduction of anti-social behaviour in order to avoid or reduce duplication of effort between the Council and the other persons/body in performing their functions and The promotion of good estate management (as defined by Section 1 of the 1997 Act).

The Council has a number of strategies to implement the objectives, including a letting policy and a complaints mechanism. Complaints are categorised and are dealt with in order of importance with drugs, violence and damage to property deemed the most serious.


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A report carried out for the Cranmore Regeneration Project in 2006, Crime Prevention Design Report, highlighted the importance of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). It highlighted a number of issues in relation to the physical design of the Cranmore estate that restricted the effectiveness of policing the area. The report made a number of recommendations in relation to community safety, many of which have been implemented.

Community Safety - Achievements & Issues Arising Social Plan (2007) refers to community safety as: …. preventing, reducing or containing the social, environmental and intimidatory factors which affect people’s right to live without fear of crime and which impact upon their quality of life. It includes preventative measures that contribute to crime reduction and tackle antisocial behaviour. A number of actions were planned under the Community Safety section in the Social Plan, including:   

Improve co-ordination and communications between relevant stakeholders in relation to AntiSocial Behaviour Ensure community safety is embedded into the plans for the regeneration of Cranmore To ensure safety of most vulnerable sectors on the community

Significant achievements were made in this area. The Community Safety Task Force was first established in Cranmore and then extended to cover the RAPID areas of Sligo Borough Council area. It is chaired by the Sergeant of Community Policing in Sligo and has undertaken a number of initiatives in relation to community safety. There are two Community Gardaí assigned to the Cranmore area. The Gardaí work closely with the Estate Management Team and the Regeneration Office. Though difficult to concretely measure, it is considered that the Gardaí provide an essential service to the community in a number of ways, for example, dealing with issues in the community before they escalate into conflict and work to prevent anti-social behaviour or criminal activity. The Community Gardaí have also worked on a number of initiatives to engage young people. The installation of CCTV cameras is considered to be a significant contributor to community safety. Some of those interviewed stated that though the funding made available through the Community CCTV Programme (implemented by Pobal) provided for the installation of CCTV, it has been more challenging to secure funding to ensure that the system is maintained. Upgrading of street lighting is also required to ensure the effective operation of the CCTV system. Assessments of potential tenancies including pre-tenancy checks are now undertaken by the Gardaí in conjunction with Sligo Borough Council. It is considered that this has improved tenancy placements considerably. There are difficulties however, with maintaining the same careful vigilance with private tenants and private rental agreements. A register of older people in the area has been compiled by the Community Wardens and the outreach workers from the Abbeyquarter Community Centre. Community Response Alarms are now provided to older people in need through an initiative managed by the Cranmore Co-operative, who work closely with the Community Gardaí in relation to this. It is difficult to isolate the work of the Community Gardaí from the work of the Estate Management Team, particularly the Community Wardens (in place since 2008). It is generally believed that the


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achievements of both working together has made a significant impact on the Cranmore estate and surrounding areas. It is generally considered that Cranmore has vastly improved in relation to issues such as anti-social behaviour, open drug dealing and litter. However, there is a concern that while these issues are managed at present, these same issues may return if there is any reduction in service or on-the-ground presence. Further, there are a number of issues that have more difficult to tackle. These include the problem of illegal money lending on the estate. While there is no data available on this, a significant amount of anecdotal evidence would suggest that this is a considerable area of concern that affects many living in the area, causing considerable hardship. A report on the work of Communities Against Illegal Lending of Money (CAILM) was produced in 2011. It sets out the scale of the problem. According to the GardaĂ­ consulted for this report, the problem has escalated over the past number of years. The use and sale of drugs is also an issue in the area. While this is no longer visible and openly done in the street, it is still considered a significant problem.

Conclusion Community Safety has vastly improved because of the work in the Cranmore area. The areas highlighted at the time of the Forkan report in 2006, such as drug dealing, anti-social behaviour, illegal dumping, cars being abandoned and/or burnt out and drug dealing have largely been addressed. The collaboration between the GardaĂ­, the Estate Management and the Regeneration Team has been one of the key successes of the project to date. This collaboration needs to continue. The concern now is, in an era of scarce resources, that resources will be withdrawn from the area. There is a significant danger that vital progress could be lost if this happens and it is crucial to maintain the level of services as it currently stands. There are issues that remain to be addressed. The issue of money lending is very problematic. Substance abuse is still widespread, though not as visible as before. Innovative measures to address these issues need to be developed. Establishing alternatives to money lenders must be given greater priority. Supports and measures to assist individuals who become involved in or targeted by illegal money lenders must also be put in place.


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Section 6.2 Housing Management and Support According to, Regenerating Local Authority Housing Estates: review of Policy and Practice, inadequate housing management such as the fragmentation of service provision, the lack of estate-based services and services that are unresponsive to the needs of residents leads to poor estate management and estate decline. Dwellings that remain vacant for long periods are open to vandalism and anti-social behaviour. These issues are cumulative, and the longer this remains the case the more difficult it becomes to address.79 These issues are compounded by social and economic factors and poor design.

National Policies and Local Provision The Housing Agency was established in May 2010 to work with and support local authorities, approved housing bodies, and the Department of the Environment, Community and Local Government in the delivery of housing and housing services. The Agency seeks to make a real difference to peoples’ lives by promoting sustainable communities by promoting good practice in housing management, and supporting the delivery of quality housing in well-designed neighbourhoods. The Sligo Local Authorities provide a range of housing services, including:    

Assisting people who are in need of housing and who cannot afford it from their own resources. Management and provision of local authority housing. Provision and management of traveller accommodation. Liaison with approved Voluntary Housing Organisations and other agencies in the provision of accommodation.  Encouragement of home ownership through the Tenant Purchase Scheme.  Assessment and allocation of specific grants e.g. Housing Adaptation grant for people with a disability, Housing Aid for Older People, Mobility Aid Housing Grant. As mentioned above, the Sligo Local Authorities Anti-Social Behaviour Strategy is a framework for dealing with anti-social behaviour in the area and Sligo Borough Council also implement a Housing Allocation policy for determining the priority to be given in the allocation of dwellings that are publically available.


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The Recommended Regeneration Area Housing Tenure A profile of the housing tenure of the area was produced on the basis of the information from the Census in 2011.There are 788 households80 in the Recommended Regeneration Area. There are significantly lower levels of owner occupation than the average for the State and significantly higher levels of households rented from the local authority. One area, area 04, had a significantly higher rate of households rented from a Voluntary Housing Association. Table 30 and Figures 32 and 33 show the tenure profile of the area. Approximately 45% of houses are owner occupied and 27% are rented from the Local Authority, with the remainder rented from a private landlord or rented from a Voluntary Housing Association.

Table 30 Tenure profile RRA N

Sligo Borough N %

%

Co. Sligo N %

State N

%

Owner occupied with mortgage Owner occupied no mortgage Rented from Private Landlord Rented from Local Authority

141

17.9

1,504

21.8

7,671

31.4

583,148

35.4

217

27.5

1,969

28.5

9,500

38.9

566,776

34.4

82

10.4

2,011

29.1

4,061

16.6

305,377

18.5

211

26.8

942

13.6

1,952

8.0

129,033

7.8

Rented from Voluntary Body

22

2.8

145

2.1

252

1.0

14,942

0.9

Occupied free of rent

30

3.8

119

1.7

472

1.9

25,436

1.5

Not stated

85

10.8

220

3.2

520

2.1

24,696

1.5

788

100.0

6,910

100.0

24,428

100.0

1,649,408

100.0

Total

Figure 32 Tenure profile

Housing Tenure Occupied free of rent Rented from Voluntary Body State

Rented from Local Authority

Co. Sligo Sligo Borough

Rented from Private Landlord

RRA Owner occupied no mortgage Owner occupied with mortgage 0.0

5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0


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Figure 33 Tenure profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area

Tenure Profile of the RRA Owner occupied with mortgage 2.83.8

17.9

26.8

Owner occupied no mortgage Rented from Private Landlord

10.4

27.5

Rented from Local Authority Rented from Voluntary Body Occupied free of rent

Map 24 Rented from Local Authority

Map 25 Rented from a Voluntary Body


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Central Heating Figure 34 and Map 26 shows the concentration of households that do not have central heating. In relation to central heating, in 2011, a total of 1.6% of private households had no central heating. The figure for Co Sligo was the same and the figure for the Sligo Borough Council area was slightly higher at 1.8%. The rate for the Recommended Regeneration Area was significantly higher at 2.9% with a number of the areas notably higher, such as 04 (5.7%), 03 (5.6%), 17 (5.5%), 22 (5.1%) and 13 (4.0%). In terms of how this influences housing quality, this is an area to be explored in more detail in the next stage of the process.

Figure 34 No Central Heating

Central Heating

State Co. Sligo

No central heating

Sligo Borough RRA

0.0

0.5

Map 26 No Central Heating

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0


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Housing Demand for Local Authority Housing in the Recommended Regeneration Area According to information from Sligo Housing, there are currently 359 applications approved for housing that have requested to be housed in the Recommended Regeneration Area. Of these 83 (23%) are under the age of 25 years, 263 (73.3%) are between 25 and 64 years and 13 (3.6%) are over the ages of 65. The largest proportion (168 or 47%) are approved for a one bedroomed property, 134 or 37%, are approved for a two bedroomed property, 45 or 12.5% are approved for a three bedroomed property, 10 or 2.8% are approved for a four bedroomed property and two are approved for Housing Units. A further 38 people/families have been approved for transfer to the area (i.e. they are currently living in SBC rental properties). It should be noted that the social housing stock, a combination of SBC housing stock and that of the voluntary housing associations, in the Recommended Regeneration Area is 232 units. The housing stock is dominated by three bedroom units, 154 or 66% with 35 one bedroom units, 24 two bedroom units and 18 four bedroom units. Housing Need will be explored in more detail in the next stage of the Masterplan process.

Table 31 Housing List – Age Age Under 25 25-64 Over 65 Total

Housing List N % 83 23.1 263 73.3 13 3.6 359 100.0

Transfer List N % 0 0.0 37 97.4 1 2.6 38 100.0

Total N

% 83 300 14 397

20.9 75.6 3.5 100.0

Source: Derived from information provided by Sligo Borough Council

Table 32 Housing List – Property Size

One bedroomed property Two bedroomed property 3 bedroomed property 4 bedroomed property Housing Unit Total

Housing List N % 168 46.8 134 37.3 45 12.5 10 2.8 2 0.6 359 100.0

Transfer List N % 7 18.4 20 52.6 6 15.8 5 13.2 0 0.0 38 100.0

Source: Derived from information provided by Sligo Borough Council

Total N 175 154 51 15 2 397

% 44.1 38.8 12.8 3.8 0.5 100.0


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Housing Management and Support - Achievements & Issues Arising There were a significant number of actions planned under the Housing and Estate Management section in the Cranmore Regeneration Project Social Plan (2007), including:         

To develop an inter-agency approach to anti-social behaviour To develop an inter-agency approach for supporting vulnerable residents in Cranmore Increase awareness of role of tenants in maintaining/managing their tenancy agreements and outline the role of SBC in this relationship Implement policy for enforcing tenancy agreement To extend pre-tenancy and tenancy courses to include other aspects of home management (including environmental element) and family supports To develop and maintain greater communication and co-operation between HSE, Gardaí and SBC Housing Dept. in assessing applications for housing allocation cases and supporting vulnerable tenants To improve Estate Management and Housing Management within the estate To provide Tenancy Sustainment Support Improved quality of life for the local community through greater enforcement of legislation in relation to litter, control of animals and traffic.

Regeneration Office based on the Estate, dealing with resident issues Estate Management has been one of the key elements of work of the Regeneration Project to date and is seen as one of most successful achievements. The Regeneration Office is located in Cranmore and deals with queries in relation to housing and requests for housing repairs etc. A significant aspect of the work of the Regeneration Office has been in building up the trust between Sligo Borough Council and the residents in the area, and it is considered that this has largely been achieved with good relations and communications between the Regeneration Office and residents.

Community Warden Scheme based in Cranmore Funded initially by the Sustainable Communities Fund Grant, there are two Community Wardens that are located in the Regeneration Office. Their role is to liaise with the community and to address any anti-social behaviour and other issues. The Wardens are very visible in the area and are considered to be very approachable. The original problems in the area, such as major antisocial behaviour, major litter problems and the original problem with stray dogs, have largely been addressed and this has allowed the Wardens to begin to engage in more developmental activities. These have included initiatives with children, such as the Junior Warden Programme, the organisation of a safe celebration of Halloween, summer camps and Family Days, supporting the revival of the boxing club, supporting residents to provide sports training for children, providing supports to teenagers, bicycle safety training and a range of other initiatives. They have also been active in supporting initiatives for residents in need to work related training. The role played by the Community Wardens is perceived to be a key achievement in the regeneration of the area and one that other areas of Sligo would benefit from.


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Tenancy Sustainment Officer, based in the Regeneration Office in Cranmore Also funded initially by the Sustainable Communities Fund Grant, the Tenancy Sustainment Project is one of the most effective projects to be delivered in the current regeneration area. The initiative is a partnership between the Cranmore Regeneration Programme and Focus Ireland. Focus Ireland contribute 30% of salary costs, the remainder is funded by the Cranmore regeneration Project and Sligo Borough Council and the Regeneration Project also provide office space, overheads, IT support etc. There are two primary elements to the Tenancy Support service: support for housing settlement and preventative work. Settlement support includes supporting families and individuals moving out of homelessness into long-term accommodation in sustaining their tenancy and settling in their home and community, supporting households in identifying & building skills to assist them to live independently in their community and assisting households to maintain a safe and functional home environment while sustaining their tenancy. Preventative work includes supporting households to resolve difficulties and works to enhance the life skills of households to enable them to make positive decisions and change their behaviour in order to sustain their home so that, ultimately, the level of evictions are reduced. The service is delivered in the homes of the client and clients are monitored to ensure that their progress is maintained and the service is responsive to their needs. It works collaboratively with a wide range of other services such as Citizen Information Centres, Counselling Services, Youthreach, Mental Health Services, and Money Advice Bureau Service etc. as well as the organisations and agencies in the area such as the Cranmore Co-operative, Resource House and Sligo Social Services. According to Sligo Borough Council tenancy breakdowns have been significantly reduced and levels of arrears have also been reduced. This has significant impacts for the stability of the area.

A change in perception in regards to the Regeneration Area The Cranmore Regeneration Project Social Plan (2007) outlined that Cranmore was an unpopular choice of residential area, reflected in the fact that Sligo Borough Council was, at the time, encountering difficulty getting prospective applications to accept house allocation in Cranmore. It also outlined a number of the issues that were prevalent at the time, including anti-social behaviour. These issues have been largely transformed. As was demonstrated earlier, significant number of applications have now expressed an interest in being housed in the Recommended Regeneration Area and anti-social behaviour has been significantly reduced. The appearance of the estate has improved considerably and many of those interviewed stated that the problem of stigma has largely disappeared both from the perspective of the residents and from those outside the area.

Issues arising However, significant issues remain in relation to illegal money lending and substance misuse and it is important that the Estate Management Team continue to work with the GardaĂ­ on these issues. It is also critically important that the work required to maintain the many achievements made in the last few years is not underestimated, and that Sligo Borough Council maintains the level of resource investment in the area needed in order to sustain and build on the success to date.

Conclusion Community Safety and Estate Management have been two of the key successes of the Regeneration Project to date. The interagency collaboration in this area is an indication of the


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potential success that can be achieved when resources are focused on an area of disadvantage such as Cranmore. The work of the Tenancy Sustainment Officer and the Community Wardens goes beyond Estate Management and are active in enhancing Family Support and Community Development initiatives. It is important, now not to get complacent and to maintain the resource levels in the area. It is important also to begin to develop strategies: (a) for addressing the less visible crime in the area and (b) to focus further on crime prevention such as strategies to engage young people. The profile of the area from the analysis of the Census data shows the area continues to have a higher proportion of households that are renting, either from the Local Authority, from a private Landlord or a Voluntary Housing Association. Research has shown that estate decline is more prevalent in areas where there is a high concentration of rented households. Efforts to develop a sense of ownership of the community have been extremely successful and must be encouraged to continue.


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Section 7 Community Development, Arts, Culture, Sport and Recreation Section 7.1 Community Development National context Community Development refers to the process of addressing poverty, social exclusion and inequality in a way that emphasises the participation and empowerment of local communities and collective action. It is both an approach, the principles of which can be embedded into projects and programmes, and a strategy, enabling specific programme that focus on social exclusion, poverty and inequality. The Department of Environment, Community and Local Government are initiating a process of developing a national policy on Local and Community Development. Currently the policy in this area is governed by the White Paper on a Framework for Supporting Voluntary Activity and for Developing the Relationship between the State and the Community and Voluntary Sector. Implemented in the main by Local Development Companies’, the Local and Community Development Programme is the primary national programme for community and local development, though community development approaches are also used as part of a wide range of other programmes. Putting People First: Action Programme for Effective Local Government was launched by the Minister for the Environment, Community and Local Development in 2012. The proposals contained in the Programme will see closer relationships between the local authority and local and community development, with the direction of strategy to be determined by the new SocioEconomic Committee that will be established to replace the City and County Development Boards.

Community development in Sligo In Sligo, the Local and Community Development Programme is implemented by the Sligo LEADER Partnership. It provides a range of supports and services to communities in Sligo under four headings:    

Promote awareness, knowledge and uptake of a wide range of statutory, voluntary and community services; Increase access to formal and informal educational, recreational and cultural activities and resources Increase in people’s work readiness and employment prospects Promote engagement with policy, practice, and decision-making processes on matters affecting local communities

Community development has also been supported through the Social Inclusion Measures (SIM) sub-group of the County Development Board by prioritising: 

The development of the County wide Community Forum as a representative group of the community and voluntary sector;

Promoting community partnership in the development and delivery of services;


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The targeting of resources more effectively to the community development and family affairs sector;

Improvements in the quality of public and community services, focusing on the most needy;

Fostering the role of the community in the development and delivery of services by promoting volunteerism.

The RAPID programme (described in Section 3) also took a strong focus on improving and developing service delivery within the 5 designated Sligo Areas ’ through enhanced agency/community working’. RAPID has been an important catalyst in drawing residents into planning and coordination processes focused on meeting the needs of their communities. The SIM is likely to be reconstituted within the proposed Socio-Economic Committees under the Putting People First policy framework, but the RAPID programme has recently been wound up.

Community development - Achievements & Issues Arising The Cranmore Regeneration Project Social Plan recognised Community Development as underpinning every other thematic area in the strategy (p. 22). It acknowledged the community in the area as being key to the success of the Regeneration Project. There were a significant number of actions planned in the Community Development, Arts and Culture section, including: • To support a community structure in Cranmore as a representative voice for the Community and build a sense of community through a series of development activities • To facilitate a Community Co-op to participate meaningfully in the Regeneration process • To integrate Community Development into the design and delivery of the Regeneration Project • To ensure that the community is aware of the contents of the Revised Masterplan and are kept up to date on the Plans • To increase awareness and access to local services and initiatives in the area for residents • To develop targeted activity programmes engaging men in community development activities • To ensure co-ordination of community development supports There have been a number of significant achievements in this area. The involvement of the community in Cranmore and the responses developed to the needs identified by the community has been central to the work of the Regeneration project to date. There have been significant developments in relation to community development and community development approaches are considered to be central to the approach of the Regenerating Process. Initiatives are designed on the basis of addressing needs identified by the community and with the participation of the community, and resources are targeted at the most disadvantaged. There is a policy of consulting with the community on any policy or initiative that may impact on the community. The application of community development is largely implicit and is not overtly monitored. The Cranmore Community Co-operative was established in 2004 to represent the Community in the Regeneration process. It has acted as the representative structure of the Cranmore community since. The Co-op meet on a monthly basis with the Executive of the Co-op meeting more frequently. Building a sense of community and a pride of place in relation to Cranmore has been a significant outcome of the work of the Cranmore Co-op and other community-based initiatives. Cranmore Co-op has evolved into a service delivery co-operative, providing services primarily in the area of services to young people. The Co-op currently employs two workers – a Development Worker and an Information Worker – as well as hosting the work of a Drugs Worker employed by the Northside Community Centre. The Cranmore Co-op has been extremely active in relation to


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participation in co-ordinating mechanisms for projects/initiatives in the community and in relation to implementing projects and initiatives directly. There has been a significant focus on the provision of services to young people and the Cranmore Co-op provides a base from which many of the activities are organised. Information provision, too, is a key element of the work of the Co-op and it is generally considered that information provision is good. The Abbeyquarter Men’s group has been established and meets regularly. The Men’s Group have accessed support from the Community Wardens, the Cranmore Community Co-op, the VEC and by the Sligo LEADER Partnership. There is a strong tradition of local people being proactive in assisting neighbours and older people with maintenance, repairs, etc. A Community Worker Network has been developed in the area and is considered to be a significant achievement of the Social Plan. Comprising the community-based workers from all the agencies working in the area, the Network meets every two weeks to discuss emerging issues and to plan events collaboratively and collectively. It is considered to be an effective way of developing joint initiatives and to avoid duplication ensuring that service gaps are identified and addressed.

Conclusions The work in relation to building community capacity and infrastructure is one of the principal achievements of the work of the Regeneration Project to date. It is important that resources and investment are maintained so that this is not lost. It is also important to build on the capacity of community development to address poverty, social exclusion and inequalities that exist in the area. It is also important that the Regeneration Project builds on these achievements and further embeds community development in the regeneration work, not only as a means of ensuring community representation and participation, but as a key strategy to address disadvantage. Community development is a widely accepted approach in initiatives to address structural problems such as poverty, discrimination and inequality and their outcomes, in areas such as unemployment, low levels of education etc. It is the methodology underpinning the work of the Local Development Companies, such as Sligo LEADER Partnership, as well as many others. Community development would typically work collectively with people that have a common issue or common goal. It starts ‘where people are at’ and works with them to identify the underlying reasons for disadvantage and to develop strategies for overcoming these. For example, a community development approach to working with lone parents would take a comprehensive approach to the needs of the group and address issues such as self-confidence and self-esteem as well as issues to do with low levels of education and skills. The process of working with groups based on a community development approach emphasises an empowerment model and the product or outcome is one that is identified by the participant and may include progression to further education, training or employment. It may also be an improvement to their loves and the lives of their family and community. Community development would be a key methodology to begin to work with people to enable them to access other services and labour market activation measures that many may not be in a position to access currently. The work that has been taking place in Cranmore since 2004 should now be used as the foundation for a more comprehensive and sustained use of community development as a methodology for working in the wider Recommended Regeneration Area.


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Section 7.2 Arts and Culture Arts and Cultural Policy and Provision in Sligo Sligo has a rich cultural and arts heritage. Space for Art is the Sligo Arts Strategy 2007-2012, the principles of which stand for 2013. It sets out the overall strategy for the development of the arts in the city and county, in accordance with the Arts Act 2003. An important theme in the plan is the further integration of the arts and artists in local planning and development processes to maximise opportunities for the Arts, arising from Sligo’s designation as a ‘Gateway’ under the National Spatial Strategy. The Strategy states that the development of a strong urban identity and culturally engaging programmes that are accessible to Sligo’s growing and diverse population is a key focus. Access to the arts, education, culture and design are seen as key elements in the development of an environment that promotes diversity, creativity, tolerance and the exchange of ideas. The Strategy identifies eight strategic action areas, including    

Developing Arts, Culture and the Public Realm Developing Partnerships and Joint Actions Supporting Amateur, Voluntary and the Community Sector Prioritising Children and Young People

Music Generation Sligo (MGS), 2011-14, is a three-year performance music education initiative for the children and young adults in Sligo. Music Generation Sligo is part funded by Music Generation and part funded and managed by Sligo Music Education Partnership (Sligo VEC, Sligo County Council, Sligo Education Centre, the Department of Environment & Local Government and Sligo Music Sector). The overall objective of MGS is to provide choice of access to children and young adults in Sligo to performance music education services. MGS has devised six key programme elements for delivery between 2011 and 2014. MGS programmes have been designed to ensure access and social inclusion, to counter educational disadvantage and to facilitate increased choice of access to the range of music education services and activities available in County Sligo. The Arts Projects Research Report81 identified a number of projects which children from Sligo (including those from Cranmore) had engaged in since 2007. These were short term projects delivered at various times over the years and included:     

MCR Mural Project  Cranmore Pride and Peace Family Resource House Arts Project  Graff Work upon Castle Street Cranmore Media Project  The Caltragh Hoard Globe House Project  MCR Arts Based Human Rights Games without Frontiers public art project for children, focusing on play in outdoor spaces in 2011.

A key challenge to ongoing work in the Arts/Cultural area is the fact that the Arts Office in Sligo has been subject to significant reductions in resources over the past number of years and has gone from four full-time members of staff to one part-time member.


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Arts & Culture - Achievements & Issues Arising Arts and culture are seen as by the Cranmore Regeneration Project as key ways of developing a pride of place and in expanding the horizons of young people. The Cranmore Regeneration Project Social Plan planned to: • • •

Increase access to existing arts and culture facilities from Cranmore community Increase arts and cultural opportunities on the estate Utilise arts and culture as a means of bringing people together in a non-threatening way to explore community identity

There have been a number of arts and culture projects in Cranmore. In addition, groups from Cranmore have participated in events in Sligo and further afield. The Cranmore Co-op also identified a number of Arts projects with which the community has engaged, including:  

An Intergenerational and Intercultural Storytelling workshops January- March 2011 Facilitating young people on various arts projects including the Youth Media Project, Monkey shine Theatre, Model Puppet Project,

A number of the pre-schools and Parent & Toddler Groups have participated in the Music Generation Sligo project. This is viewed as a key area for development over the coming years. One criticism of the nature of the projects carried out to date, particularly in relation to Arts and Culture, is that it has been very much a short-term project based approach, (driven by availability of project based funding) where more sustained actions over longer periods of time would be more beneficial in terms of developing potential. There are also concerns that the work to build the capacity of the community will be lost if resources are removed from the community. All of the arts and cultural projects and activities have been beneficial to the area and could be built upon through a longer term arts and cultural strategy for the area. The Arts is one of the areas that has endured severe cutbacks in recent years. Notwithstanding the scarcity of funding, the development of a strategy for the development and promotion of arts and culture is an important element to be considered in any long term plan for the Regeneration of the East City Area.

Conclusion In current economic circumstances, it is relatively easy to overlook the importance of Arts and Culture in the development of a pride of place and a pride in self. However this should not be underestimated. Art can be an affective vehicle through which to build personal development and combat isolation and depression. Arts are also an area that opens up considerable possibilities to develop community projects that help to reinforce community identity and an historical and cultural sense of place. The majority of interventions utilising the Arts have been project and once-off in nature. It is thought that the Regeneration Area would benefit from an increase and more sustained focus on the Arts. A more comprehensive, holistic strategy Arts Strategy for the Regeneration Project embedding the Arts in the Regeneration project should be a feature of the project as it evolves.


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Section 7.3 Sport & Recreation National context According to the World Health Organisation, physical activity “interacts positively with strategies to improve diet, discourages the use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs, helps reduce violence, enhances functional capacity and promotes social interaction and integration.”82 The Physical Education, Physical Activity and Sport for Children and Young People: A Guiding Framework outlines the government’s commitment to the promotion of physical education, physical activity and sport in recognition of the educational, social, health and cultural benefits that can be gained through participation.83 The Framework recognises that physical activity plays an important role in the lives of children and young people: • • •

as a medium for education as a basis for healthy living as a vehicle for social inclusion

In recognition of the potential within this role, the Framework sets out to create the framework for a co-ordinated approach to physical education, physical activity and sport in school and community settings for children and young people. It draws on the National Guidelines on Physical Activity for Ireland (2009), which outline the nature, frequency and intensity of physical activity to be engaged in for health benefits. Those guidelines form the foundation for this and related documents which seek to clarify the desired outcomes, in terms of knowledge, competencies and attitudes, of quality physical education, physical activity and sport. The Framework entails a suite of three documents: •

• •

Get Active 1, agreeing a vision for all to work towards, outlines the desired outcomes of children’s and young people’s participation in physical education and physical activity, and should be considered in line with the school’s or club’s mission and vision. Get Active 2, developing a plan to achieve the vision, Get Active 3, evaluating progress.

The Framework is mentioned in Healthy Ireland as one of the Frameworks that will work together to achieve the objectives of the Framework for Improved Health and Wellbeing. The National Guidelines on Physical Activity for Ireland84 sets out the clear relationship between physical activity and health and wellbeing with strong evidence of better cardio-respiratory and muscular fitness and strengthened bone structure directly contributing to lowering the risk of contracting many diseases, better mental health and cognitive function. The Guidelines recommend at least 30 minutes a day of moderate activity on 5 days a week for adults and 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous every day, including muscle strengthening, flexibility and bone strengthening exercises 3 times a week, for children. The Irish Sports Council (ISC) plans, leads and co-ordinates the sustainable development of competitive and recreational sport in Ireland. The Irish Sports Council's vision is one where sport contributes to enhancing the quality of Irish life and everyone is encouraged and valued in sport; young people see sport participation as an integral and enjoyable part of their busy lives;


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individuals can develop their sporting abilities and enhance their enjoyment, limited only by their talent and commitment; and Irish sportsmen and women achieve consistent world-class performance, fairly. The Council’s 3 year strategy 2012 - 2014 sets out 3 priority areas:   

Advancing the Participation Strategy Developing the capacity of the National Governing Body Sector Sustaining the High Performance System

For the vast majority of people sport is both a recreational activity and an interest., Sport has a significant role to play in raising the levels of physical activity within the population and, in turn, making a major contribution to the health of the population, especially in a context where there is real concern about obesity and related health problems, particularly but not solely, in relation to children. The ISC works with National Governing Bodies of Sport, Coaching Ireland, Sport Northern Ireland and other agencies in promoting sport and improving and sustaining participation at a multiplicity of levels. The Council is committed to ongoing efforts to build a national collective effort, within and beyond sport, aimed at increasing participation in physical activity. Apart from its support to national bodies the Council focuses its operations on those interventions over which the NSC, as a small agency with resource constraints, has direct control and influence. Increasing rates of participation in sport and physical activity requires multi-sectoral efforts involving agencies from education, transport, environment, health and sporting bodies at national and local level and across schools, private and voluntary groups. The Council, since its establishment, has been active in generating support from all these sectors both directly and through the agency of its national networks of Sports Partnerships. The key target figure is to increase the percentage of the adult population participating in sport from 33% to 45% by 2020. The second target for adults is to reduce the numbers who are sedentary from 18% to 13% by 2020. Increasing children’s participation in sports and recreational activity is a key health objective and a target have been set to increase the percentage of primary children taking part at least once a week in extra-school sport from 83% to 85% by 2015 and to reduce the number of children who never take part from 11% to 10% over the same time period. For post primary children the equivalent figures are to increase regular players from 64% to 70% by 2015 and to reduce nonplayers from 34% to 20% by 2020. The Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI) study on sport and disadvantage85 explored the reasons behind poor participation in sports by those on low incomes or with low educational achievement rates. The study found there was no evidence to suggest lack of motivation or interest in sport, but identified mobility and health as contributory factors. However, by far the most significant factors were cost and length of stay in education, with participation in later levels of education being especially important in embedding sports activity in adult life as participation patterns change from team to individual involvement. Non-participation in sport further isolates individuals from the social networks that determine life chances and employment and progression opportunities. The report recommends a shift away from facilities as the key focus of sports strategies and towards reinforcing the ‘soft’ infrastructure of clubs and community organisations as a better option to engage with disadvantage.


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Local Sport Partnerships The Local Sports Partnerships (LSPs) are key mechanisms for the promotion of participation for all Irish people in sport at a level of their choosing, regardless of their ability, gender or background. There are 32 LSPs around the country86 and a national network of LSPs. In general LSPs are required to raise 50% of their funding from sources other than the Sports Council. The collaborative relationships with County and City Councils are vital in advancing the participation agenda in local communities. The LSP delivers a wide range of programmes, including coaching education and training for a host of target groups including people with a disability, women and girls, older people, those experiencing social exclusion, the unemployed and those in designated disadvantaged communities. They offer, on a very cost effective basis, services that had not previously been provided on such a comprehensive basis and would not be undertaken by other agencies or organisations due primarily to resource constraints. The LSPs implement their activities within a general framework of guidelines, and areas of priorities focus such as the Sports Inclusion Disability programme and Women in Sport Initiative.

Sligo Sport and Recreation Partnership The Sligo Sport and Recreation Partnership (SSRP) was established under the Irish Sports Council in 2002. It is committed to supporting supports increased participation in sport and active recreation throughout County Sligo, providing assistance in the areas of sports development, education and training and general information on sporting activities in Sligo in partnership with the Vocational Education Committee (VEC), Sligo County and Sligo Borough Councils and the HSE. The SSRP strategies are broadly in line with other Local Sport Partnerships and can be summarised as: 

Sports development strategies, including - club development, training volunteers and coaching key personnel, assisting schools to deliver sports activities and supporting local authorities in planning facilities and improving their usage. Active community strategies, including - delivering targeted activity programmes and health enhancing programmes, creating new relationships with the fitness sector and working to address sport and social disadvantage. Sustaining partnerships, including - providing strong and effective leadership, establishing partnerships with local agencies and communities, developing infrastructure to meet future needs and generating new investment to secure the future of the SSRP.

The Recommended Regeneration Area There are a number of sports and activities in or adjacent to the Recommended Regeneration Area. There are a number of small play spaces, including a playground beside the Abbeyquarter Centre. There is also a grass football pitch in the Cranmore estate, There are Park facilities, including an outdoor gym along, the Garvogue River that are widely used. The Regional Sports Centre is located in the area. In addition, a Regional Park is under development at Cleveragh. However, there is no sports hall in the area capable of hosting many indoor sports and the area would benefit from an all-weather multi-use floodlit pitch. Some of the hard court areas are pot holed and some of those interviewed stated that there is resident resistance to activity too close to


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houses. The Regional Sports Centre is required to be self-financing and its capacity to provide lowcost programmes is limited to groups such as schools.

Sport and Recreation - Achievements &Issues Arising There were a number of actions planned under the Sport and Recreation section of the Cranmore Regeneration Project Social Plan, including:    

Secure funding for sports development officer with priority focus on Cranmore Coordinate delivery of sports and recreational programmes in Cranmore Promote increased participation in sports and active recreation for all in Cranmore Explore and develop a more long term plan which will include broader strategic areas

There have been a number of achievements in this area, with often innovative solutions being developed to issues identified. The Sligo Sports and Recreation Partnership has been very active in the current Regeneration Area. It is committed to supporting the increase in participation in sport and active recreation in disadvantaged areas with obvious benefits for both community development and community health.87 The strategy, Making Sport and Recreation a Way of Life in Sligo 2007-2012, identified ‘Community Sports Development’ as a strategic action area that included the key objective, ‘to provide quality, accessible and affordable community based activity at a level of their choice’. The SSRP Community Sports Development Office (CSDO) works with the clubs and community organisations in the Cranmore area to develop increased sports and active recreational opportunities in the area. Since 2009 this work has been facilitated by the investment of a total of €84,000 by Sligo Borough Council through the National Regeneration Programme to support the position of the CSDO to implement a number of the objectives set out in the 2007 Cranmore Social Plan. In 2012 funding also covered equipment, programming and other items. The CSDO works closely with community organisations to develop an agreed sport and recreation plan for Cranmore, including the Cranmore Regeneration Office, the Cranmore Co-op, the Abbeyquarter Centre, the Cranmore Resource House, the Men’s Group, the Women’s Group and others. A wide variety of programmes and activities have been delivered with children, teenagers and adults in the area. Those who are least active in sports and recreation are likely to be from socially excluded groups and this informed the SSRP in conjunction with Sligo Borough Council and RAPID to undertake a significant Active Communities initiative targeting specific disadvantaged communities to become more physically active. In Cranmore, 355 participant places were facilitated on 21 programmes in the area with 3 club/community links developed in the sports of Basketball, Gaelic Football and Soccer. Developing sports activity in Cranmore has required the continuous use of coaches and close support by community development staff, volunteers and the Sports Development Officer, with children having to be walked to and from activities. Money is an issue effecting non-supported sporting activity and many of those working on these initiatives raised concerns about the unavoidable dependency created. Despite such concerns the work of the Sports Development Officer has been hugely beneficial in widening participation in sport and recreation, and this in turn has enhanced the work of youth and community organisations. In addition, the SSRP has undertaken significant work in promoting sport and physical activity in schools, however, it is the provision of quality after-school programmes, club activities and community development initiatives that tend to have the greatest impact.


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The programmes are widely held to be key to the success so far of the Regeneration project. They have had an impact far wider than the sports and recreation activities alone and are thought to have had a positive impact on anti-social behaviour, the development of self-confidence, positive social skills, intergenerational interaction skills, working as a team and respecting others. In terms of sustainability it is clear that sports development needs to be placed on a better footing by investment of additional monies for a sustained period with a set of definitive strategies to build up local capacity, together with a clear exit strategy.

Conclusion It is clear from both national research and operational experience that money, mobility and engagement with education influence the level of engagement with sport. It is useful that the Framework for Physical Education, Physical Activity and Sport for Children and Young People acknowledges the role to be played in relation to education, healthy living and as a vehicle for social inclusion. The sustainability of sports and recreation activity is dependent upon the development of sports infrastructure - the formation of clubs, the emergence of voluntary leaders, the training of coaches and the support of the Recreation Partnership. Investment in these facilities and supports will require investment in the context of an overall strategy for sport and recreation in the Recommended Regeneration Area. The East City Area is well served in terms of immediate access to a wide range of sport and recreational facilities and environments. There are spaces and amenities that facilitate sports and recreational activity for all age groups within or alongside the Cranmore estate. These are augmented by the proximity of other amenities and facilities - parks, outdoor gym and Regional Leisure centre. The Garavogue River provides access to Lough Gill and the sea and is entirely suitable for the development of adventure and leisure activities. While facilities are not a major deterrent to participation, the addition of a sports hall (perhaps as part of a neighbourhood centre) and an all-weather facility would complement existing facilities. Sligo Sports and Recreation Partnership have played a vital role in promoting opportunities for children, teenagers and adults in the Cranmore area. This has shown significant benefits and it is crucial that the level of investment is maintained in an area where it is likely that parents and families will be unable to fund the cost of private activities. The collaboration between the agencies and organisations is commendable and also needs to be maintained and developed and sports and recreation can be facilitated as tools within Family Support and Community Development.


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Section 8 Health and Wellness According to the World Health Organisation, health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Health is a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living; it is a positive concept emphasising social and physical resources as well as physical and mental capacity. The figure below represents the social determinants of health. Nationally and internationally, it is accepted that health is impacted by the social, economic, environmental and cultural factors. It suggests that good physical and mental health can be promoted by improving factors in these determinants.

Figure 35 Determinants of Health

Source: Healthy Ireland 2013 (adapted from Daghren and Whitehead, 1991 and Grant and Barton 2006)


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National policy The Department of Health is the department whose statutory role is to support the Minister in the formulation and evaluation of policies for the health services. Strategic planning and implementation of health services is the responsibility of the Health Service Executive (HSE). The HSE operates through 4 Regions which is further sub-divided into HSE Areas that oversees provision of health and personal social services in hospitals and in communities. Healthy Ireland, the new government framework for action to improve the health and wellbeing of people living in Ireland over the coming generation was launched in March 2013. Healthy Ireland sets out a wide framework of actions that will be undertaken by Government Departments, public sector organisations, businesses, communities and individuals to improve health and wellbeing and reduce the risks posed to future generations. The vision is, A Healthy Ireland, where everyone can enjoy physical and mental health and wellbeing to their full potential, where wellbeing is valued and supported at every level of society and is everyone’s responsibility. The Framework describes four high-level goals and 64 actions that will work together to achieve the goals: Goal 1: Increase the proportion of people who are healthy at all stages of life Goal 2: Reduce health inequalities Goal 3: Protect the public from threats to health and wellbeing Goal 4: Create an environment where every individual and sector of society can play their part in achieving a healthy Ireland Goal 2 acknowledges that health and wellbeing are not evenly distributed across Irish society. This goal requires interventions to target particular health risks and a broad focus on addressing the wider social determinants of health – the circumstances in which people are born, grow, live, work and age – to create economic, social, cultural and physical environments that foster healthy living. This is particularly relevant to, and complements the aims of, the Regeneration Project. The Framework acknowledges that Local Authorities play a critically important role in protecting and promoting health and wellbeing at local level and proposes a necessary shift towards a broader, more inclusive approach to governance for health, moving beyond the health service, across national and local authorities, involving all sectors of society, and the people themselves. The core of the Government’s health reform programme is a single-tier health service, supported by Universal Health Insurance (UHI) that is designed in accordance with the principles of social solidarity. Future Health: A Strategic Framework for Reform of the Health Service 2012-2015 details the actions that will be taken to deliver on this. The document sets out the four pillars to bring about improved health and wellbeing as:    

Fairer access to hospital care; Free access to GP care by 2015 - the first stage will be to extend GP care to persons with chronic diseases Better management of chronic illness; More people cared for in their own homes and improved quality and safety.

This will include the further development of Primary Care Teams and Centres throughout the country. Primary Care Teams will give people access to integrated, multi-disciplinary care by GPs, nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists and others, while treating people at the lowest level of complexity that is safe, timely, efficient and as close to home as possible. Future Health


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also commits to the development of a social and continuing care system that maximises independence and achieves value for the resources invested. The measures include a reform of the Fair Deal scheme to allow many more people to continue living at home as they would wish. Disability services will be reformed in line with the findings of the recent Value for Money and Policy Review of Disability Services. Future Health also reaffirms our support for the move from the traditional institutional based model of mental health care, towards a patient-centred, flexible community based service. The HSE 2008 Guidance Document for Primary Care Developments sets out the criteria for the location of Primary Care Teams. It states that the identification of locations for Primary Care Teams should take into consideration spatial factors, general practitioner populations and community integrity including factors such as existing travel patterns, existing social, cultural and service links, availability of GPs in local areas, natural GP affiliations, existing GMS patterns, public transport system, existing and future road system, location of existing and proposed centers, the Regional Planning Guidelines / future development proposals, and areas of high deprivation including RAPID designated areas. These are elements are worthy of further exploration through the Masterplan process.

Mental health National policy direction on mental health is set out in A Vision for Change (2006)88 which lays down the pathway for Mental Health Services in Ireland. A Vision for Change aims to reduce the need for hospital admission and calls for greater participation by users and their carers at every level of service provision. It describes a framework for building and fostering positive mental health across the entire community and for providing accessible, community-based, specialist services for people with mental illness. It proposes a holistic view of mental illness and recommends an integrated multidisciplinary approach to address the biological, psychological and social factors contributing to mental illness. Mental health services are delivered through the Community Mental Health Teams (CMHTs) operating from community based health centres and serving defined populations. This is the system operating in Sligo; the East City Area is served by a dedicated team who cover a wide area beyond the Recommended Regeneration Area boundary

Health, poverty and inequality According to the Institute of Public Health in Ireland (IPH)89, health inequalities are preventable and unjust differences in health status experienced by certain population groups. The causes of these inequalities are acknowledged as generally determined by the physical, economic and social environments in which people live including the level of income, the early life experience, access to education and employment, food and nutrition, work opportunities, housing and environmental conditions, levels of stress and social support. Health inequalities are generally observed along a social gradient. This means that the better a person’s social circumstances, such as higher income or education, the better the chance of enjoying good health and a longer life. Socio-economic factors, including poverty, are key in determining health status90. People in lower socio-economic groups are more likely to experience chronic ill-health and die earlier than those who are more advantaged. People experiencing poverty become sick more frequently and die younger than those who are better off. Measures of health inequalities, including mortality rates, low birth rates and poor nutritional status, are linked to deprivation measures such as income poverty, unemployment, inadequate housing and accommodation and poor quality built and work environments.91 The results of an all-island study of health inequalities92 showed that:


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The all causes mortality (death) rate in the lowest occupational class is 100 - 200% higher than the rate in the highest occupational class. For circulatory diseases mortality is 120% higher in the lowest occupational classes, for cancers 100% higher, for respiratory disease 200% higher and for injuries and poisoning mortality is over 150% higher. Mortality rates for the island were generally higher than the rates in the (combined) EU-15 countries. The all causes mortality rate on the island was 21% higher for females and 9% higher for males.

In terms of children in the Republic, the same study found that those born in less well-off areas are more likely to die before the age of one year than those born in more advantaged areas. In 1999, the perinatal mortality rate* (based on father’s occupation) was three times higher for children of unskilled manual workers than for those born in the higher professional category. Women in the unemployed socio-economic group are more than twice as likely to give birth to low weight babies as women in the higher professional group. Finally, children from lower income groups are more prone to accidents in the home. According to the IPH, health inequalities are not only apparent between people of different socioeconomic groups – they exist between different genders and different ethnic groups. Research carried out into the health status of Travellers, for example, shows that this is the case.93 The Government Policy, Healthy Ireland, reiterates the IPH findings including an overview of literature on health and social determinants that can affect health.94

Health Care Provision in Sligo Sligo Regional Hospital is the hospital serving the inhabitants of County Sligo and County Leitrim. It is situated on the north side of the City, just off the Mall. There is a small private hospital (St Josephs) located at on the west side of the city. There is one Community and Continuing Care Centre in Sligo City based in Markievicz House and one Primary Care Centre (adjacent at Barrack Street) housing three GP practices (12 GPs). There are also a number of smaller independent GP practices serving the Sligo and Environs Area The following services are provided on site in Markievicz House or through outreach work by staff based at Markievicz House:            

Medical services; Child health immunisation services; Children and Family Services, including social work, child protection services and family support and preventative services; Childminder, Early Years and Preschool Advisory Services; Public Health Nursing; Registration of Births Marriages and Deaths; Health related Information service; Psychology; Intellectual Disability Services; Older people - home care, home helps, respite, day services, in-patient acute services, step down and convalescent care, rehabilitation and community services; Fostering - advice and support to those providing short term and long term fostering to a child; Disability services;


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Addiction services; Dental Services; Therapy Services - occupational therapy, speech and language therapy, physiotherapy and chiropody; Mental health services.

There is a second Community Care Centre in development at the Nazareth Health Campus, where the following services are currently available:   

Early Intervention Service (for children aged 0-6 years); Audiology services; A Child and Adolescent service will be in place by September 2013.

As noted in Section 5.2, the design and delivery of Family Support policy is currently in the process of substantial change. In Sligo, the Children and Family Service has now moved to a different directorate in the HSE. In 2014, the Service will move to the Child and Family Support Agency that will be independent of the HSE.

Health & Health Services in the Recommended Regeneration Area As outlined above for the City, the Recommended Regeneration Area is served by the Central Community and Continuing Care Centre in Markievicz House and the one Primary Care Centre (adjacent at Barrack Street) housing three GP practices (12 GPs). These facilities are a 30-35 minute walk from the Regeneration Area. There are also seven smaller independent GP practices in the City Area, three of which have nurses and student GPs working with them. They are between 15 and 35 minutes’ walk from the Recommended Regeneration Area. Not all the GPs have a GMS list, allowing those with medical cards to access. It was not possible to determine at the time of writing which GPs specifically serve the residents in the Recommended Regeneration Area. Some HSE services are provided directly in the area; the Public Health Nurse Service works in the area providing palliative care to older people and a child development clinic service twice a week (formally from the Abbeyquarter Centre and now from the Cranmore Community Co-op base), as well as a post-natal care to mothers and infants They also have a clinical case load of those with long-term illness. The Mental Health Service is also available on an outreach basis in the area and the HSE supports the work of a Drug Task Force Councillor who provides counselling support (at the Cranmore Community Co-Op base). There is no GP service located in the East City Area. Individuals and families use the GP services at the Primary Care Centre at Barrack Street and independent GP practices in Sligo City. There is one pharmacy in the area. A number of health issues were identified by those interviewed. Child weight, underweight and obesity arising from poor diet/nutrition among children, was cited as a particular concern by medical professionals, community workers and schools staff within the Recommended Regeneration Area. A number of those interviewed stated that they are increasingly seeing instances of food poverty and that children are often hungry. Schools, community services and clubs are providing snacks and meals to children and families.


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Drug and alcohol abuse are significant issues in the area. Some of those interviewed stated that the misuse of prescription and over the counter medication is a growing problem. Smoking and persistent social drinking were also mentioned as issues in the area. Mental health problems including depression were cited as issues for some in the community and these are compounded by unemployment, income inadequacy and social isolation. According to some, loneliness and isolation are factors within the area and these are leading to further health problems. The number of teenage pregnancies was also identified as an issue with some young mothers struggling to adapt to additional responsibilities. It was felt that this can add to stress factors within families, particularly where there is overcrowding. The take-up of health services is influenced by the availability of services locally. For example, where services are available locally, such as immunisation services, there tends to be a relatively good take up. However, attendance for hospital appointments was cited by many of those interviewed as a persistent problem. This must be seen in the context of cost and convenience – many in the area do not have access to a car and many are living on inadequate incomes – as well as the low education levels meaning that some may not be able to read the appointment letter. In addition, a number of those interviewed stated that the reduction in health services has impacted on weakened the monitoring of medication, resulting in some vulnerable people not taking their prescribed medicines. One of the key issues highlighted by many of those participating in the interviews was access to primary health care facilities, particularly in relation to access to doctors. Those interviewed believed that a health facility is necessary in the area. They point to the fact that health services in Markievicz House are approximately 25-30 minutes’ walk from the Recommended Regeneration Area, though some GP practices are slightly closer, ranging in distance from 15-35 minutes’ walk. Some of those interviewed pointed to the fact that this may not seem like long distances but they need to be seen in the context of a parent with children, an older person (in one of the areas 36% of the population is over 65 years of age, and in another 25%) and or a person with a disability. In addition, they pointed to the low rate of car ownership and to the low income levels of many of the residents stating that they may not have the money to afford a bus of taxi service, particularly to access out of hour’s services. The HSE keeps detailed data on clients and the services accessed. It was not possible for the purposes of this stage of the project to access the data but it is hoped that future data captures will enable the development of a robust baseline to be used as the starting point for the development of strategies.


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Perception of health A question was asked in the 2011 Census for the first time asking respondents to rate their health. While this is a very subjective method of assessing health, it does give some indication of levels of good and poor health. As Table 33 and Figures 36 and 37 below show the perception of health in the Recommended Regeneration Area is poor in comparison to the average for the State and those for Co Sligo and the Sligo Borough Council Area. For example, 88.3% of people rate their health as being good or very good in the State. The figure in the Recommended Regeneration Area is 75.3%. The Census showed that 1.5% of the population in the State rate their health as being bad or very bad but the figure for the Recommended Regeneration Area is twice that at 3%,

Table 33 Perception of health Health RRA Sligo Borough Co Sligo State

Very good & good N % 1,434 75.3 14,412 82.0 56,541 86.5 4,050,637 88.3

Very bad & bad N % 58 3.0 440 2.5 1087 1.7 69,661 1.5

RRA – Recommended Regeneration Area

Figure 36 Health – Very good & good

90.0

Figure 37 Health – Very bad & bad

3.5 3.0

85.0

State

2.5

State

80.0

Co Sligo

2.0

Co Sligo

75.0

Sligo Borough

1.5

Sligo Borough

RRA

1.0

RRA

70.0

0.5

65.0

0.0 Very good & good

Map 27 Health – Very Bad & Bad

Very bad & bad


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Disability & Carers The data on disability and carers was also analysed. This showed that in 2011, 13.0% of the population were classified as having a disability. The figure for Co Sligo was higher at 14.1% and higher again for the Sligo Borough Council area (18.0%). The figure for the Recommended Regeneration Area was 19.8%. The figure for the number of people caring was also the highest at 5.5%.

Table 34 Disability & Carers

RRA Sligo Borough Co Sligo State

Total with a disability N 377 19.8 3,169 18.0 9,248 14.1 595,335 13.0

Total carers N % 105 772 3,140 187,112

5.5 4.4 4.8 4.1

RRA – Recommended Regeneration Area

Figure 38 People with a Disability & Carers

Disability & Carers 20.0

15.0

RRA

10.0

Sligo Borough Co Sligo

5.0

State 0.0 People with a disability

Carers

Map 28 People with a disability

Map 29 Carers


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Conclusion Health is intrinsic to people’s life experiences and outcomes. Health service provision in the recommended Regeneration Area must be viewed in the context of the level of disadvantage in the area. Areas of high disadvantage generally have levels of health inequalities that are greater than other areas. There are no primary health care, including GP services, in the Recommended Regeneration Area. The health services operating in the area operate from community facilities. Many do not have access to a car and are living on very poor income levels. This is an issue that will need to be further explored with the HSE, Sligo Borough Council and others in future stages of the Regeneration Project. As noted in Section 5.2, the Children and Family Service has moved to a separate directorate in the HSE and will move again to the Child and Family Support Agency in 2014. Ensuring that the services are embedded in the future development of the Regeneration project will be critical. Healthy Ireland, the new government framework for action to improve the health and wellbeing of people acknowledges the role that health and wellbeing are not evenly distributed across Irish society and this is a useful starting point for health strategy development in the recommended Regeneration Area. Using the WHO definition and the social determinants of health as an underpinning principle, initiatives to promote good, positive physical and mental health will be key to the achievement of a healthy community. Equally important is ensuring that residents have appropriate access to primary physical and mental health services.


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Section 9 Conclusion – Building on our past‌looking to our future Section 9.1 Building on our past While the preceding sections of this report focused on the presentation of a profile of the Recommended Regeneration Area, this section focuses on summarising that profile and identifying the major issues that remain to be addressed. It also focuses on the identification of broad strategies to address the issues that may become the foundation for discussion over the next stages of the Regeneration Project. The Regeneration Project to date has focused on the Cranmore Estate and the achievements have been considerable. A comprehensive estate management and community safety process has been put in place. A number of houses were demolished, opening up potential for development, landscape improvements have opened up green spaces and some homes have been refurbished. The location of the Regeneration Office in the estate close to the Abbeyquarter Centre has provided a key centre and a contact point for families within the estate. The appointment of an estate manager and community wardens has greatly improved the interfaces between residents and Sligo Borough Council and as a result issues are addressed or resolved effectively, avoiding escalation into more significant problems. Regeneration has been a catalyst for an improved level of services within the estate. Services in the area such as those based in the Abbeyquarter Centre, Avalon Centre, the Resource House and the Cranmore Co-Op are key assets for the community. Combined with the estate management, tenancy sustainment and community safety activities, the level of Family Support, Sport and Art initiatives, and Community Development have contributed to the significant reduction in the levels of anti-social behaviour. Openly visible drug dealing reported in the earlier studies has largely been addressed, although substance abuse remains a problem. The capacity of the community has been built to a stage where there is now a coherent community structure in place that has become a service delivery organisation in its own right. Addressing cumulative disadvantage, such as is the case in the Recommended Regeneration Area, takes time, investment and a collective focus. The accumulation of different forms of deprivation and exclusion such as education, unemployment, poor health etc, mean that problems become embedded and require multi-faceted inter-agency approaches. Despite the significant achievements of the Regeneration Project to date, the data and information gathered for this profile suggests that those living in the Recommended Regeneration Area are still living with a significant degree of disadvantage. Income levels of the residents of local authority housing are relatively low with some considerably below the poverty line. The impacts of the recession have exacerbated matters for many people. As unemployment increases, competition for scarce jobs becomes increasingly difficult and those with low education levels and few skills are less likely to be able to compete, making the routes out of poverty increasingly challenging. The Unemployment Rate in the Recommended Regeneration Area is significantly higher than the national average, with relatively high levels of low social class and low levels of high social class. There is little in the way of economic or enterprise development in the area. The levels of educational disadvantage are also considerable. The rates of those with low


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education levels are considerably above average and the rates of those with third level education are correspondingly low. The effects of cutbacks to education and educational supports in the Regeneration Area are also of concern. Addressing these issues will require a strategic focus that establishes a common vision for all involved in the social, economic and physical development of the Recommended Regeneration Area.

Section 9.2 Looking to our future Future phases of Regeneration need to build on the achievements made to date. A strategic approach is required to ensure a focused, multi-disciplinary, inter-agency approach to transforming the area. As outlined in the Leadership and Collaboration section of this report below, the interagency approach must be enabled and facilitated by an inter-departmental focus on regeneration areas. National and international research shows that early intervention and prevention are essential as public expenditure addressing the consequences of poverty and social exclusion tends to be greater than that needed for intervening at an early age.95 This needs to be a key underpinning principle of the strategy. However, it also needs to be acknowledged that the Regeneration Project will have to address existing embedded and cumulative disadvantage. Education, training and economic development are fundamental to making transformative and sustainable changes to people’s lives. Children and young adults need to be encouraged to stay in education. Those unemployed need to be supported to develop skills that will enable them to compete in what is a very competitive jobs market. Family supports and community development are two approaches that can help to ensure that the supports required are provided to individuals and families to support them to reach their full potential. Arts and Culture can help to develop a pride in place and a pride in self, as well as opening up horizons of young people and adults. Sports and Recreation are also key to ensuring social inclusion, as well as healthy lifestyles, of children, young people and adults.


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Lifecycle approach The framework of analysis for compilation of this report has been a modified lifecycle approach, that seeks to analyse need and identify strategies to address the needs at all levels of the lifecycle. The lifecycle stages refer to childhood/young adulthood, people of working age and older people. The addition of ‘community’ provides an important additional cross-cutting heading. Within each cycle there will be individuals, families and communities that have a diversity of needs and these will need to be taken into account. These will include, for example, specific needs of women and men, people of all ages that have a disability, low education levels, ethnicity, people who are unemployed, particularly long-term unemployed. Within the framework of the lifecycle and using a targeted universalism approach we are recommending that some supports, initiatives and projects be made available to all and targeted additional initiatives be made available to those in additional need.

Figure 39 Lifecycle Approach

Children

Communities

People of working age

Older people


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Section 9.3 Identifying issues, needs & strategies Issues have been identified in all sections of the report. At this stage of the Regeneration Project, these are presented as indicative only. Substantial work in future stages of the project will involve working with stakeholders (the community, agencies and organisations) to identify a vision and supporting strategies to achieve the social, economic and physical transformation of the area. . The aim is to tackle the inherent physical, social and economic problems in the Recommended Regeneration Area. Below is a summary of issues and potential strategies:

Figure 40 Issues and Strategies Required

Issues & Needs

Strategies Required

Deprivation & Affluence/Poverty o Proportionately high number of people living with disadvantage and deprivation o Inadequate income – significant number living below the poverty line o High levels of older people and people with a disability in some of the areas o High levels of lone parents o High levels of non-Irish nationals in a small number of areas

Employment, Economic Development o Low levels and increasing levels of unemployment o High levels of low social class and low levels of high social class o Danger of intergenerational unemployment o Little flexibility in the economic development agencies – poor match to an area such as the Regeneration Area Education o Low education levels – high levels of low education and low levels of high education o Inadequate preparation for the labour market o Danger of intergenerational low education

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Family Support o Families in need of support – general and targeted

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Initiatives aimed at improving economic situation Targeted initiatives at vulnerable groups in the regeneration area

A national focus on areas in need of regeneration Three pronged approach o Training to enable people to compete for existing jobs o Development of (micro)enterprise in the area o Soft supports for people who are long term unemployment particularly in the context of labour market activation Support for children to remain in school Community based and in-school education supports – homework clubs etc. Family learning initiatives to improve education for the whole family Particular support to break the cycle of intergenerational educational underachievement Adult education & literacy education to address the worsening situation identified by schools and social providers Maintenance and development of existing services Provision of support as the regeneration project evolves.


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Youth Work o Need for overall activities and clubs o Need for targeted developmental approach with children and teenagers in specific need Community Safety o A lot achieved but a need to maintain focus on community safety o Need to tackle the less visible issues – illegal money lending and drug abuse

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Sustained approaches to youth work Developmental approach

Housing & Estate Maintenance o A lot achieved but a need to maintain focus Community Development o Community capacity built in Cranmore but surrounding regeneration areas will need similar o Community development has not been used to its potential Arts and Culture o Need to harness potential of arts and culture to develop sense of pride in lace and pride in self o To date initiatives have been mostly project based Sport & Recreation o Significant potential and achievement to date o Need to maintain focus and innovation on the Regeneration Area Health & Wellness o Health services are outside the area o Focus on community health developed

Ensure the Community Safety Taskforce is convened regularly Strategies to address less visible work such as ‘underlying’ crime, fear of intimidation, money lending, drug dealing etc Maintain levels of Community Garda presence in the area Maintain levels of investment – Regeneration Office, Community Wardens, Tenancy Support Community development used as a strategy to address poverty, social exclusion and inequalities Support to surrounding communities to build capacity

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Need to more sustained, embedded use of arts and cultural initiatives

Maintain and develop investment and support Co-ordination maintained and developed with youth work Initiatives for all ages maintained and developed Ensure health services are accessible to residents Need to promote good health and a healthy lifestyle

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Lifecycle approach Taking a lifecycle approach as a framework for developing strategies is one that will be explored in future stages of the project. Below is an indication of broad strategies to be explored within each stage of the lifecycle.

Children, Teenagers and Young Adults Children, Teenagers and Young Adults To be supported to fulfil their full potential from birth to adulthood Education Early childhood education In school supports Family learning initiatives, beginning at toddler and pre-school Community based educational supports such as preschool, afterschool childcare, homework support, transitioning from primary to post primary to third level Third level supports Health To access health services when necessary To have healthy lifestyles promoted and supported Economic To live in households without poverty development Family Available and targeted at children and their families that need them Supports Youth Work Clubs and activities available to all Targeted developmental youth work at children in need Community All children enabled to live and contribute to their community free of fear of Safety anti-social behaviour Community Community development with children Development, Active citizenships initiatives with children and young adults Arts & Sustained Arts & Cultural initiatives to develop a sense of pride in self and Culture pride in place Sport & To be used as a medium for education, healthy lifestyles and social inclusion Recreation


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People of Working Age Men and women in employment or working in the home Requiring an adequate income to provide for themselves and their family, work fulfilment, continuing education and skills development Education Literacy, numeracy and language teaching and skills Continuing or further education up to third level Lifelong training and education Access to preparatory and accredited training programmes Health To access health services when necessary To have healthy lifestyles promoted and supported Family Family supports available where needed, including available and affordable Supports childcare Additional family supports and services as needs present Adequate and available primary and acute healthcare Employment Entry to employment services and personalised progression plan & economic Seek and secure adequate employment development Develop in-work skills and experience Follow a chosen or redirected career path Community Safety

Enjoy and participate in neighbourhood and community activities without fear or trepidation Not be bullied or intimidated Community Avail of personal development opportunities Development, Develop community leadership potential Arts & Facilitate the formation and development of community groups Culture Sustained Arts & Cultural initiatives to develop a sense of pride in self and pride in place Sport & To be used as a medium for education, healthy lifestyles and social inclusion Recreation

Older people Older people to be adequately provided for in terms of income, health, social support and safety Education Access to further education and the pursuit of subjects of interest Family Services available and targeted at older people in need Supports Organised activity to prevent isolation Social interaction with the surrounding community Health Good health monitoring service by public health nurses and GPs Adequate and balanced diet Able to maintain a warm home, encouragement to retain good room temperatures Community Adequate protection in the home, including alarms and Community Alert Safety Monitoring by neighbours Maintaining active social networks Community Community focus on older people’s activities Development, Meals on wheels and day care provided locally Arts & Able to become involved in crafts, art and heritage groups Culture Community monitors neighbourhood Sustained Arts & Cultural initiatives to develop a sense of pride in self and pride in place Sport & To be used as a medium for education, healthy lifestyles and social inclusion Recreation


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Community A coherent and mutually supportive community that can provide supports to vulnerable members, act collectively for the common good, assert its needs and pursue and achieve its objectives Education Community based educational supports such as preschool, afterschool childcare, homework support, transitioning from primary to post primary to third level Third level supports Family Pursue adequate support services for the community Supports Identify and transmit gaps in services Provide supportive projects for vulnerable families Work closely with statutory providers in fulfilling their service objectives Health Develop sports clubs and activity centres and promote the development/use of existing sorts/activities centres Encourage the development of environmental and horticultural projects Community Create and secure a safe environment for individuals, families and Safety communities Adequate policing and responses from emergency services Community Community development and leadership training Development, Form groups based on needs and interests Arts & Promote active engagement with policy makers and statutory Culture agencies/authorities Develop artistic and cultural dimensions to neighbourhood/community Sport & To be used as a medium for education, healthy lifestyles and social inclusion Recreation


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Section 9.4 Establishing the baseline & identifying indicative bench marks Stage 1 of the Masterplan Project was tasked with establishing a baseline for progress measurement, as well as the identification of, and recommendations for, draft indicative bench mark indicators. In relation to establishing a baseline for progress, this Socio Economic Profile of East Sligo City: Cranmore and Environs analysed data from Census 2011 as well as data provided by agencies. In addition, it analysed information from agency/organisation plans, reports and strategies. It also drew on primary information from the interviewing process. This combination of approaches has established the baseline situation in relation to the key themes identified against which social and economic development can be assessed. The identification of Bench Marks is restricted to those that are measurable. The starting point for the Masterplan Design Team in relation to identifying Bench Marks for the Regeneration Project is the Pobal HP Deprivation Index and a range of other socio-economic data such as:      

Age Dependency Levels of Education Principal Economic Status, Economic Dependency & Social Class Unemployment Proportion of Lone Parents Computer and Internet access

This data is measured by the Census and is reliable, regular, dependable and easily accessible on a cycle appropriate to measuring patterns of change (i.e. every five years). However, there are a number of limitations. First, high level Bench Marks such as the Unemployment Rate are largely determined by the macro economic and social context prevailing at the time and may be difficult to influence by local initiatives. Second, the Census does not cover all areas for which bench marks are required. For example, it does not track issues related to community development, arts and culture, sport and recreation etc. Thirdly, reliance on Census data also limits any interim assessment of outcome and impact. Finally, the issues of causation and correlation must be acknowledged – just because there is a correlation between the Regeneration project and a change in the socio-economic circumstances of the community does not necessarily mean that this was caused by Regeneration initiatives. Locally gathered information/data could be useful in this context but the experience of this project to date has indicated that though most organisations/agencies gather data and information that would be useful to the Regeneration project, it has not been possible to access this data in all cases because:   

The organisation/agency is unable to break the data down to the required area levels It is not possible to extrapolate the data from the information gathering systems being used Even where possible, the work involved in extrapolating data is often beyond the capacity of the organisation.

The Regeneration Project could include a primary data/information collection element in support of impact assessment to its work but this would be expensive and it is noted that the Department specified the use of data already available.


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Section 9.5 Overarching issues Leadership and Collaboration It is recognised that a Regeneration Masterplan requires an integrated social, economic and physical approach to regeneration. As the process of undertaking Stage 1 of the Masterplan project evolved, a number of overarching issues were identified. These included the fact that the combination of socio-economic factors resulting in the need for regeneration, such as low education levels, high unemployment levels, low social class, high levels of poverty and disadvantage, require an interagency, multi-dimensional response that is outside the control or direct influence of Sligo Borough Council or the Department of the Environment, Community and Local Government. Successful regeneration requires a strategic approach at political and departmental level so that agencies can be directed to assign priority to the regeneration area. To date, though interagency collaboration was significant amongst some of the agencies, this was largely as a result of local knowledge and good will towards the project, as opposed to a response to a direction from the parent Government Departments of the agencies. In order to be most effective, collaboration and prioritisation of regeneration areas is required at an inter-departmental level, perhaps through an Inter Departmental Regeneration Group providing a directive to the agencies under the auspices of the departments working at local level to prioritise the Regeneration Area. Key departments to be included would be:      

Environment, Community and Local Government Education Social Protection Jobs and Innovation Health Children and Youth Affairs

Allied to this is the fact that successful regeneration also needs a sustained focus by agencies and organisations. It is crucial that there is a commitment to the Regeneration Area over the predicted ten year period of the Regeneration Project. Many of those interviewed identified the absence of interagency strategic overview of the Cranmore Regeneration project. No meetings of the interagency Steering Group have taken place since July 2011 for a number of reasons specific to the prevailing local political context. However, it is difficult to see how the new Masterplan can be successfully implemented without such strategic overview and is something that SBC and the Department will need to address.

Strategy rather than action The Social Plan developed in 2007 was more an action plan than a strategic plan. Though there were valid reasons for this at the time - because the community wanted to see their priorities implemented - this approach makes the Social Plan difficult to review at this juncture as the actions are now irrelevant or the policy arena has changed so significantly as to make them irrelevant in the current context. It is recommended that the Social Plan element of the Regeneration Masterplan take a more strategic approach, identifying and establishing strategic priorities for the work of the Regeneration Project, to be translated into annual Implementation Action Plans (IAP). An annual review of the IAP should take place and inform the development of the next IAP. In addition, while a number of projects have taken place in the Cranmore area, a significant number of these are project-based and are not generally continued beyond the initial project


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period. Many of the interviewees have noted the often piecemeal nature of implementation or where implementation has been short-term or once-off when more sustained action is required. To sustain improvements/benefits, projects need to be embedded and take a longer-term, more programme based approach acknowledging a sustained and consistent approach is required to impact on the levels of socio-economic disadvantage in the area. This approach should be supported by taking a strategic (as opposed to action based) approach to the Masterplan and further supported by multi-annual funding for where longer term types of projects are needed.

Comprehensive approach To complement the strategic approach, all elements of the Masterplan must work together. Employment and education need to be viewed as central challenges that require holistic, comprehensive strategies with both vertical and horizontal dimensions. The vertical route is education and training, employment, experience and developed skills. Interventions at the education level will be possible for some but many may not be able to undertake educational programmes that do not have an immediate financial benefit. This vertical route is therefore best targeted at children and young people in terms of keeping them in school/re-entering schools or college, bolstering their expectations and building their confidence and motivation. The horizontal route is to enhance and develop people’s confidence and social skills through participation in community employment initiatives. such as CE, TUS and CSP, developing pathway programmes into: a. mainstream skills training b. community projects and voluntary initiatives c. social economy enterprises with the support of enterprise agencies/organisations Community Development will be an important approach in developing the capacity of residents to engage in services and opportunities such as education, training and employment, particularly those that are living in poverty and disadvantage. Family Support will be crucial in the provision of supports to all families but particularly those that are vulnerable. Youthwork, Arts, Culture, Sports and Recreation will continue to have pivotal parts to play in the development of cohesive communities, healthy lifestyles and in ensuing social inclusion. Community safety and estate management must be maintained at current levels and work to continue to create the environment in which residents can live in safety. The development of a healthy community and ensuring adequate access to health services will be central elements of the Masterplan.


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Appendix 1 References Below is a reference list of the strategies and documents used through this report. Although they have been categorized, many were used to support more than one theme.

Census 2011             

2011 Census of Population This is Ireland, Highlights from Census 2011 Part 1 Population by Area Profile 1 Town and Country - Population Distribution & Movements Profile 2 Older and Younger This is Ireland, Highlights from Census 2011 Part 2 Profile 3 At Work - Employment, Occupations & Industry in Ireland Profile 4 The Roof over our Heads - Housing in Ireland Profile 5 Household and Families - Living Arrangements in Ireland Profile 6 Migration & Diversity in Ireland - A profile of diversity in Ireland Profile 7 Religion, Ethnicity and Irish Travellers - Ethnic and Cultural background in Ireland Profile 8 Our Bill of Health - Health, Disability & Carers in Ireland Profile 9 What We Know - A Study of Education, Skills and the Irish Language Profile 10 Door to Door - Commuting in Ireland

Economic, Development, Employment, Unemployment                    

Enterprise Ireland 2012. Annual Report and Accounts 2011 Planning & Development Act 2010 Government of Ireland 2007. Transforming Ireland: A better life for all: National Development Plan 2007 - 2013 Industrial Development Authority2012. Annual Report and Accounts 2011 Forfas. Annual Employment Survey 2011 Department of Public Expenditure and Reform 2011. Infrastructure and Capital Investment 2012 – 2016: Medium Term Exchequer Framework Policy Department of Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation 2013. Action Plan for Jobs 2013 Department of the Taoiseach 2002. National Spatial Strategy 2002 - 2020 Department of Environment and Local Government 2009. Atlantic Gateways Corridor Development Frameworks Government of Ireland 2012.Pathways to Work: Government Policy Statement in Labour Market Activation CSO & ESRI 2012. Work and Poverty in Ireland: An Analysis of CSO Survey on Income and Living Conditions 2004-2010 CSO various dates. Quarterly National Household Survey Department of Environment, Community and Local Government 2012. Putting People First: Action Programme for Effective Local Government Western Development Commission 2010. Strategic Statement 2010 - 2012 Western Development Commission 2013. Overview of the Western Region’s Employment and Enterprise Profile (Draft) Border Regional Authority 2010. Regional Planning Guidelines 2010 – 2022. Sligo County Council 2009. Traveller Accommodation Programme: 2009 - 2013 Sligo County Development Board 2007. Making a Difference: An Integrated Economic, Social and Cultural Strategy for County Sligo 2007 - 2012 Sligo County Council and Borough Council 2010. Sligo City & County Joint Housing Strategy: 2010- 2017 Sligo County and Borough Council2010. Sligo and Environs Development Plan 2010 - 2016


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Sligo County Enterprise Board. City and County Enterprise Boards Action Plan under Towards 2016 Examination of Strategic Linkages and Transport Connections: Sligo Borough Council: National Building Agency for 2005 IDA Ireland 2010. Horizon 2020: IDA Ireland Strategy

Sport     

Sligo Sports and Recreation Partnership 2007. Making Sport and Recreation a Way of Life: Sligo Sports and Recreation Partnership Strategic Plan 2007 - 2012 ESRI 2007. Fair Play? Sport and Social Disadvantage in Ireland Department of Health and Children & the HSE 2009. National Guidelines on Physical Activity for Ireland: Department of Education and Skills, 2012. Physical Education, Physical Activity and Sport for Children and Young People: A Guiding Framework Sligo Sport and Recreation Partnership: Report on Supporting the Regeneration Area

Arts & Culture   

Sligo Arts Service 2007. Space for Art: Sligo Arts plan 2007 - 2012 Sligo Arts Service 2007. HE+ART: a Participatory Arts and Health Strategy for Sligo 2007 2012 Sue Mahon 2011. Arts Projects Research Report.

Physical       

Davis and Associates 2005. Framework Document (Refurbishment) for Sligo Borough Council Archaeological Development Services. Archaeological Impact Assessment Cranmore Regeneration Sligo Centre for Housing Research 2006. Regenerating Local Authority Housing Estates: Review of Policy and Practice. Housing Policy Discussion Series Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government 2007. Delivering Homes: Sustaining Communities: Statement on Housing Policy. Department of the Environment 2007. Policy Framework for Regeneration of Local Authority Estates. Circular N11/2007 Department of the Environment 2008. Sustainable Residential Development in Urban Areas Guidelines for Planning Authorities Fahey, T. (ed) 1999. Social Housing in Ireland: A Study of Success, Failure and Lessons Learned, Dublin: Oak Tree Press.

Social         

Sligo Social Inclusion Measures Group 2007. County Sligo Profile of Poverty and Social Exclusion Sligo RAPID Area Implementation Team 2008. Sligo RAPID Area Plan 2008 - 2012 County Sligo LEADER Partnership Company. Local and Community Development Strategic Plan and Feedback Document 2011 - 2013 Cranmore Regeneration Project 2011. Final Report on the Sustainable Communities Fund Grant 2007- 2010: Cranmore Social Plan Report An Garda Síochana 2006. Crime prevention Design Report Cranmore Regeneration Project Cothrom Community Consultancy 2005. Audit of Services. Cranmore Regeneration Project Forkan 2006. Listening to the Voices of Residents in Cranmore: A Platform for Regeneration Cranmore Regeneration Forkan 2008. An Evaluation of the Sligo Springboard Resource House Project NESC 2009. Well-being Matters: a Social Report for Ireland


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Start Strong 2010. Children 2020 - Planning Now, for the Future: Children’s Early Care and Education in Ireland Community Workers Co-operative 2009. Towards Standards for Quality Community Work: an All-Ireland Statement of Values, Principles and Work Standards

Education  

Higher Education Authority 2012. Report on the Social and Living Conditions of Higher Education Students in Ireland 2009/2010: Eurostudent Survey IV Combat Poverty Agency 2003. Educational Disadvantage and Early School Leaving

ESRI 2009. Investing in Education: Combating Educational Disadvantage, ESRI Research Series Number 6

Educational Research Centre 2000. Characteristics of Early School Leavers Results of the Research Strand of the 8-15 Year Old Early School Leavers Initiative

Educational Research Centre 2012. Analysis of school attendance data at primary and post-primary levels for 2009/2010: Report to the National Educational Welfare Board OECD 2011. Overcoming School Failure - Policies that Work: National Report Ireland ESRI 2010. No Way Back? The Dynamics of Early School Leaving EU Commission 2013. Investing in Children: breaking the cycle of disadvantage. C(2013) 778 final Commission Recommendation 20.2.2013 EU Commission 2013. Towards Social Investment for Growth and Cohesion – including implementing the European Social Fund 2014-2020. Brussels, 20.2.2013

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Youth   

O’Toole, Kane, Scarbrough 2006. Final Report Youth Consultation in Cranmore, Sligo Cranmore Regeneration Programme North Connaught Youth and Community Services 2011. Three Year Strategic Plan 2011 – 2014 Sligo Youth Information Centre. Guide to Services in Sligo

Health        

Department of Health and Children 2007. A Vision for Change: Report of the Expert Group on Mental Health Policy. Department of Health and Children 2001. Quality and Fairness: A Health System For You Wilkinson & Pickett 2009. The Spirit Level: Why More Equal Societies Almost Always Do Better Combat Poverty Agency 2004. Poverty and Health - Poverty Briefing 15 Public Health Alliance 2007. Health Inequalities on the Island of Ireland: The Facts, The Causes, The Remedies HSE 2008. HSE Guidance Document for Primary Care Developments (In line with PCCC Transformation Programme) Department of Health 2013. Healthy Ireland – A Framework for Improved Health and Wellbeing 2013 Department of Health 2012. Future Health – A Strategic Framework for Reform of the Health Service 2012 –2015


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Appendix 2 List of contributors The following is a list of individuals, agencies and organisations that have been interviewed or have otherwise engaged in the project to date. For some of those listed, more than one individual participated and/or more than one interview took place.              

An Garda Síochána Abbeyquarter Community Centre Avalon Centre Clúid Housing Association Community Representatives Cranmore Community Co-operative Cranmore Regeneration Team Department of Social Protection Enterprise Ireland Fáilte Ireland FÁS Focus Ireland Foróige Health Service Executive - Community Services, Children & Families, Mental Health Services, Addiction Services, Older People’s Services

                        

IDA Ireland Independent Community Liaison Officer Lifestart Sligo Local Drugs Project Mercy College Sligo North Connaught Youth Services Our Lady of Mercy Primary School Probation & Welfare Services RAPID Regional Drugs Task Force Sligo Borough Council Housing Section Sligo Community Training Centre Sligo County Childcare Committee Sligo County Council Sligo County Council Arts Office Sligo County Enterprise Board Sligo Education Centre Sligo Family Resource Centre Sligo Institute of Technology Sligo Leader Partnership Company Sligo Music Project Sligo Regional Sports Centre Sligo School Project Sligo Schools Completion Programme Sligo Social Services Council


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Sligo Sport & Recreation Partnership Sligo VEC Sligo Volunteer Centre Springboard RHP St Angela’s College Western Development Commission Youthreach

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Policy Framework for Regeneration of Local Authority Estates. Department of the Environment Circular N11/2007 2 See for example, Dare/Dream/Do: the people of Fatima tell their regeneration story available at: http://www.fatimagroupsunited.com/files/pdf_files/DDD.pdf 3 Masterplan Brief to Tenders 4 Centre for housing Research 2006. Housing Policy Discussion Series Regenerating Local Authority Housing Estates: Review of Policy and Practice, p 54 5 The HP Pobal Index measures a number of indicators under each of the three dimensions based on information under the following categories: • Demographic Profile • Social Class Composition and • Labour Market Situation It is widely used by policy makers and underpins the Resource Allocation Model employed by the Department of Environment, Community and Local Government. 6 A scoring is given to the area ranging from approximately -35 (being the most disadvantaged) to +35 (being the most affluent). 7 Trutz Haase and Jonathan Pratschke 8 The equivalised disposable income is the total disposable income of a household (i.e. the sum of the income of all members) divided by the number of people living in the household, weighted to allow for the economies associated with collective consumption. 9 CSO (2013) Survey on Income and Living Conditions (SILC) 2011 & revised 2010 results 10 CSO (2011) Quarterly National Household Survey on Equality. Quarter 4 2010 11 CSO (2012) Profile At Work 12 School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Population Science, University College Dublin (2010). Our Geels: All Ireland Traveller Health Study 13 Small areas refer to clusters of between 80-100 houses on the basis of which the Central Statistics Offices provided data from the 2011 Census – the first time that data at this level was available 14 The young and old dependency rates are derived by expressing the young population (0-14 years) and the old population (aged 65 years and over) as percentages of the population of working age (15-64 years). The total age dependency rate is the sum of the young and old rates. 15 The Live Register includes those in receipt of part-time and causal employment support payments 16 The unemployment rate is calculated as the number of unemployed as a percentage of the labour force 17 The CSO Unemployment Rate is derived on the basis of Principal Economic Status. The official measure of unemployment is by the Quarterly National Household Survey but data from the QNHS is not available for local levels. 18 Population and Migration Estimates April 2012 (with revisions from April 2007 to April 2011) 19 CSO, 2011. Quarterly National Household Survey Educational Attainment Thematic Report 2011 20 ESRI 2012, Work and Poverty in Ireland: An Analysis of CSO Survey on Income and Living Conditions 2004-2010, by Dorothy Watson (ESRI), Bertrand Maître (ESRI) and Christopher Whelan (UCD), 21 Individuals who are unable to afford two or more of eleven listed basic items are considered to be experiencing enforced deprivation CSO SILC 2011 22 A Programme country is one with a current ‘bailout’ agreement 23 Pathways to Work: Government Policy Statement in Labour Market Activation, p. 7 24 Putting People First: Action Programme for Effective Local Government (2012) 25 FAS, Sligo Leader Partnership, VEC, DSFA (now DSP) and community organisations 26 Based on the census information returns, the Central Statistics Office assigns every person in the State a social class. The social class of all persons aged 15 years and over is determined by their occupation and additionally, in some cases, by their employment status. 27 Haase and Pratschke, 2005, p.14 28 The Labour Force consists of those who are at work, unemployed or seeking regular work for the first time. Those outside the Labour Force are those who are students, those looking after home/family, those who are retired, those who are unable to work and those not in the Labour Force for other unspecified reasons. 29 The Quarterly National Household Survey is the usual method used to measure the level of unemployment. However, because of the sample size used, it is only possible to disaggregate the QNHS to regional level and therefore not very useful for a socio-economic profile. The census is the only method that measures unemployment at local levels and is therefore a basic but useful indicator of unemployment at the local level. 30 National Development Plan 2007 - 2013 Transforming Ireland: A better life for all


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Infrastructure and Capital Investment 2012 - 2016 Medium Term Exchequer Framework: Department of Public Expenditure and Reform 32 Action Plan for Jobs 2013: Dept. of Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation 33 Disruptive reforms refer to changes in the competitive advantage of existing producers/providers - often through technical innovation 34 Overview of the Western Region’s Employment and Enterprise Profile (Draft) WDC 2013 35 IDA Annual Report and Accounts 2011 36 Atlantic Gateways Corridor Development Frameworks: DOE&LG (2009) 37 National Development Plan 2007 - 2013 Transforming Ireland: a better life for all 38 See for example http://www.irishtimes.com/news/environment/scrapping-the-spatial-strategy-1.1252980 39 Sligo and Environs Development Plan 2010 - 2016 40 file:///C:/Users/User/Desktop/Connect%20%26%20Invest%20Sligo,%20Setting%20Up%20Base%20in%20 Ireland,%20International%20Investment%20in%20Sligo.htm 41 IDA Annual Report and Accounts 2011 42 Western Development Commission, www.wdc.ie 43 Overview of the Western Region’s Employment and Enterprise Profile (Draft) WDC 2013 44 Western Development Commission, www.wdc.ie 45 Census 2011 - a population decrease of 1.8% since 2006 46 Forkan, C Listening to the Voices of Residents in Cranmore: A Platform for Regeneration (2006) 47 CSO 2013. Quarterly National Household Survey Quarter 4 2012 48 Policy Framework for Regeneration of Local Authority Estates. Department of the Environment Circular N11/2007 49 National Anti-Poverty Strategy, 1997, p. 9 50 Delma Byrne and Emer Smyth, No Way Back? The Dynamics of Early School Leaving, ESRI 2010 51 Boldt, S. and Devine, B., 1998. Educational Disadvantage in Ireland: Literature Review and Summary Report. In Boldt, S., Devine, B., Mac Devitt, D. and Morgan, M. (edt.) Educational Disadvantage and Early School Leaving: Discussion Papers. Dublin: Combat Poverty Agency. 52 Delma Byrne and Emer Smyth, No Way Back? The Dynamics of Early School Leaving, ESRI 2010 p. 16 53 Delma Byrne and Emer Smyth, No Way Back? The Dynamics of Early School Leaving, ESRI 2010 54 Eivers, E., Ryan, E., Brinkley, A. 2000. Characteristics of Early School Leavers Results of the Research Strand of the 8-15 Year Old Early School Leavers Initiative. Dublin: Educational Research Centre and the evidence presented in the Barnardos policy document, Written Out Written Off: Failure to invest in education 2009 as well as Morgan, M. (edt.) Educational Disadvantage and Early School Leaving: Discussion Papers. Dublin: Combat Poverty Agency. 55 Delma Byrne and Emer Smyth, No Way Back? The Dynamics of Early School Leaving, ESRI 2010 56 Eurostudent Survey IV Report on the Social and Living Conditions of Higher Education Students in Ireland 2009/2010 57 OECD Project Overcoming School Failure: Policies that Work. National Report Ireland 2011 58 Eivers, E., Ryan, E., Brinkley, A. 2000. Characteristics of Early School Leavers Results of the Research Strand of the 8-15 Year Old Early School Leavers Initiative. Dublin: Educational Research Centre 59 Emer Smyth and Selina McCoy, Investing in Education: Combating Educational Disadvantage, ESRI Research Series Number 6, May 2009 60 EU Commission 2013. Towards Social Investment for Growth and Cohesion – including implementing the European Social Fund 2014-2020. Brussels, 20.2.2013 COM(2013) 83 final. 61 EU Commission 2013. Investing in Children: breaking the cycle of disadvantage. C(2013) 778 final Commission Recommendation 20.2.2013 62 National Economic and Social Council (2009) Well-being Matters: a Social Report for Ireland, Dublin: NESC, p.160. 63 Start Strong (2010). Children 2020 - Planning Now, for the Future: Children’s Early Care and Education in Ireland 64 See http://www.ippn.ie/ 65 Low education refers to the percentage of the population aged 15 years and over whose full-time education has ceased with no formal education and primary education only taken as a percentage of the total population aged 15 years and over whose full-time education has ceased (minus the not stated category). 66 High education refers to the percentage of the population aged 15 years and over whose full-time education has ceased with third level of education (Higher Certificate, Ordinary Bachelor Degree or National Diploma, Honours Bachelor Degree, Professional qualification or both, Postgraduate Diploma or Degree,


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Doctorate (Ph.D) or higher) taken as a percentage of the total population aged 15 years and over whose fulltime education has ceased (minus the not stated category). 67 whose full-time education had ceased 68 CSO (2012) Profile 4 The Roof Over Our Heads 69 The development of a new National Children's Strategy will be led by the Department for Children and Youth Affairs, first appointed by the Government in 2011. 70 A family unit or nucleus is defined by the CSO for the purposes of the Census as: (1) a husband and wife or a cohabiting couple; or (2) a husband and wife or a cohabiting couple together with one or more usually resident never married children (of any age); or (3) one parent together with one or more usually resident never-married children (of any age). Family members have to be usual residents of the relevant household. 71 Pre-family - Family nucleus of married or cohabiting couple without children where female is under 45 years; Empty-nest - Family nucleus of married or cohabiting couple without children where female is aged between 45 and 64 years; Retired - Family nucleus of married or cohabiting couple without children where female is aged 65 years and over; Pre-school - Family nucleus where oldest child is aged 0-4 years; Earlyschool - Family nucleus where oldest child is aged 5-9 years; Pre-adolescent - Family nucleus where oldest child is aged 10-14 years; Adolescent - Family nucleus where oldest child is aged 15-19 years; Adult - Family nucleus where oldest child is aged 20 years and over. 72 Section 3 of the Youth Work Act 2001 73 National Youth Council of Ireland http://www.youth.ie/nyci/what-youth-work 74 Vocational Education Committees will be integrated with SOLAS (formerly FAS) within proposed Education and Training Boards 75

Regenerating Local Authority Housing Estates: Review of Policy and Practice. Housing Policy Discussion Series, Centre for Housing Research 2006 76 Fahey, T. (ed) (1999), Social Housing in Ireland: A Study of Success, Failure and Lessons Learned, Dublin: Oak Tree Press. 77 Listening to the Voices of Residents in Cranmore: A Platform for Social Regeneration. 7878

Department of the Environment (2008) Sustainable Residential Development in Urban Areas Guidelines for Planning Authorities 79 Research quoted in Regenerating Local Authority Housing Estates: Review of Policy and Practice. Housing Policy Discussion Series, Centre for Housing Research 2006 80

According to the CSO, A private household comprises either one person living alone or a group of people (not necessarily related) living at the same address with common housekeeping arrangements - that is, sharing at least one meal a day or sharing a living room or sitting room. A permanent private household is a private household occupying a permanent dwelling such as a dwelling house, flat or bedsitter (see question H1 on the second page of the census form). A temporary private household is a private household occupying a caravan, mobile home or other temporary dwelling and includes travelling people and homeless persons living rough on Census Night. 81

Sue Mahon 2011. Arts Projects Research Report. WHO, 2003 83 Foreword by the Taoiseach to Department of Education and Skills, 2012. Physical Education, Physical Activity and Sport for Children and Young People: A Guiding Framework 84 National Guidelines on Physical Activity for Ireland 2009 Dept of Health and Children and the HSE 85 Fair Play? Sport and Social Disadvantage in Ireland Pete Lunn ESRI 2007 86 Local Sports Partnerships (LSPs) SPEAK Report 2010 87 Sligo Sport and Recreation Partnership: Report on Supporting the Regeneration Area 88 A Vision for Change: report of the expert group on mental health policy Department of Health and Children (2007) 89 Institute of Public Health in Ireland, Social determinants & health inequalities http://www.publichealth.ie/service/social-determinants-health-inequalities 90 Wilkinson, R and Pickett, K; The Spirit Level: why more equal societies almost always do better (2009) 91 Poverty and Health - Poverty Briefing 15; Combat Poverty Agency 2004 Penguin 92 Health Inequalities on the Island of Ireland: the facts, the causes, the remedies. Public Health Alliance 2007 93 All Ireland Traveller Health Status Study, 2010 94 See pages 44,53-57 95 See for example European Commission (2013) Investing in children: breaking the cycle of disadvantage; Barnados (2009) Written Out Written Off: Failure to Invest in Education deprives children of their potential 82

Stage 1 Regeneration Masterplan: Socio Economic Profile  

The aim for regeneration projects is to build sustainable communities through a combination of social, educational and economic initiatives...

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