Electrical Review May 2016

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May 2016 Volume 249 | No 5 www.electricalreview.co.uk

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Test & measurement


Failures on MV PILC cables are D VLJQLÀFDQW headache for DNOs




NEWS Challenge the dragon!

TEST & MEASUREMENT Partial discharge diagnostics for ageing MV PILC cables

08 GOSSAGE Gossage:gossip

10 TRAINING Training is a sound business decision

EDITOR: Elinore Mackay 020 8319 1807 elinorem@electricalreview.co.uk PRODUCTION MANAGER Alex Gold 020 7933 8999 alexg@sjpbusinessmedia.com

34 TEST & MEASUREMENT Solar T&M advances at centre of new ‘PV Health Check’ opportunities

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14 MARINE Testing times in shipping

38 ARC FLASH The UK/European approach to electrical flashover


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SWITCHGEAR Gearing up for smar MV switchgear

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24 COMMENT Improving occupational health

26 OPINION New prefabricated data centre solution


4 | NEWS

Challenge the Dragon The Electrical Industries Charity’s first ever Dragon Boat 2016 is fast approaching and what better way to spend some time with your family, friends and colleagues than by signing your team up for the fastest grow-

ing water activity in Britain. Dragon Boat 2016 takes place at the picturesque Peterborough rowing lake on Saturday 6 August 2016. This exciting summer event will offer great entertainment for everyone and make a perfect family day out this summer. This fun-filled event will allow industry professionals to re-ignite their team spirit and compete against their rivals while having fun with their families, friends, and colleagues. Families can also look forward to a fun day out with plenty of entertainment to choose from including a funfair

with children’s rides and stalls. Managing director, Tessa Ogle says: “We are very excited to host our first ever Dragon Boat event this summer that will bring our industry professionals and their families and friends together. We believe that spending time with family is crucial for everyone, and what better way to do this than by joining us at our fantastic summer event.” Sign your team up today for as little as £1000. For more information contact, Vicky Gray: vicky.gray@electricalcharity.org www.electricalcharity.org

High-voltage cable system to enable renewable energy supply from Hornsea Project One Offshore Wind Farm ABB has won an order worth more than $250m from Danish energy company DONG Energy to deliver a 220-kilovolt (kV) high-voltage cable system that will connect the Hornsea Project One Offshore Wind Farm in the North Sea to the UK mainland grid. This is the third project that ABB will execute for DONG Energy, following the Burbo Bank Extension and Walney Extension links in the Irish Sea. Hornsea Project One will be the world’s largest capacity offshore wind farm, capable of generating 1.2 gigawatts of renewable energy and bringing clean electricity to well over one million UK households. ABB will supply alternating current (AC) submarine cable systems for the Eastern and Western circuit, which will transmit power across a distance of around 120 kilometers from the wind farm to the east coast of the UK. The over 400-square-kilometer wind farm

will contribute to a significant increase in the production of clean power from offshore wind. This will reaffirm the UK’s position as the world’s leading offshore wind power contributor and take the country closer to its target of achieving 30 percent of its total energy production from renewable sources by 2020 and reducing carbon dioxide emissions. The wind farm connection is scheduled for commissioning in 2019. “High-voltage cable links are playing a key role in transmitting clean power to millions of people, efficiently and reliably” said Claudio Facchin, president of ABB’s Power Grids division. “This is another example of how ABB technologies enable the integration of renewable energy and lower environmental impact, a key element of the company’s Next Level strategy.” “Hornsea Project One is record-breaking in terms of scale of energy production,

physical size and its distance from shore, and we have worked together with ABB to find the best technical and commercial solutions. This joint approach has helped create the right solutions for this large and challenging project and has also enabled us to drive the lifetime costs in the right direction for the next generation of offshore wind sites” said Duncan Clark, Programme Director for Hornsea Project One at DONG Energy. “We look forward to continuing to work together with the ABB on the safe and timely execution of the project.”

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6 | NEWS

Beama welcomes government response to smart power report Beama has welcomed the government’s response to the National Infrastructure Commission’s Smart Power Report. The UK energy system faces profound challenges as it adapts to a decentralised generation mix and major new loads. Meeting this challenge, whilst keeping down costs to consumers, demands that the UK develops and adopts innovative solutions. Beama members are at the forefront of providing these innovations and welcome all government and regulatory support for making these ‘business as usual’ as quickly as possible. Beama members strongly welcome the support for interconnection, storage, demand response and the development of the distribution system operator role. It will be vital to avoid making the regulations and commercial arrangements for these overly complex and expensive to operate. Ofgem should ensure that RIIO provides an appropriate balance of pressure and reward for the network companies to adopt new approaches. Beama looks forward to contributing to the government’s summer consultation on smart power. Beama members believe the UK can take the lead in developing modern, smart networks with benefits for UK customers and the creation of large export opportunities. However, the government must understand that as well as strong encouragement for the adoption of innovative solutions, they must also address the need for a supportive framework for the UK supply chain, putting manufacturers at the core of innovation via the NIA/NIC and the responding to the need for skilled engineers to design, build and operate the network.

Electrical Review | May 2016

Safety: it’s in the standards Power resistor manufacturer Cressall has achieved the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS) 18001 certification. Cressall was issued a certificate of approval on 22 February 2016. OHSAS 18001 is an internationally applied British Standard for occupational health and safety management systems. OHSAS audits identify and control health and safety risks, reduce the potential for accidents, aid legal compliance and help to improve the overall performance of a company. In earning the accreditation, Cressall has proved to an independent and impartial certification body that its health and safety procedures are of the highest level. Cressall manufactures resistors and load banks for a variety of industries, including marine, oil and gas and energy. Many Cressall products can be found in critical or back-up power applications and so reliability is imperative. To become recommended for OHSAS 18001 approval, Cressall had to undergo a set of two audits. The initial stage focussed on the health and safety documents and arrangements Cressall created as part of its occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS). This

includes everything from maintaining a list of approved contractors to checking regulatory compliance. The independent certification body then checked Cressall’s systems against the requirements of OHSAS 18001. The second stage of the certification process looked at the activities Cressall undertakes on a daily basis, from hazard identification to fire safety. “We’ve invested a lot of time and effort when it comes to staff training and safety, and so this accreditation feels like a just reward,” explained managing director, Simone Bruckner. “However, we’ve seen benefits in other areas of the business too. The OHSAS 18001 auditing process has not only improved our health and safety procedures, but also our quality processes too. “Consequently, we’ve created a preventative maintenance schedule for key machinery and developed a detailed list of our approved contractors. This not only makes Cressall a safer place to work, but also gives our customers peace of mind when it comes to proven reliability.” Cressall adds OHSAS 18001 to the other certifications it has achieved, including ISO 9001 and ISO 14001, which relate to quality and environmental management systems.


GOSSAGE Transported with celestial delight

Flying too near to the sun

Year on year electricity sales have been falling in the UK. Those hoping to reverse the trend are pinning their hopes upon a big switch out of petroleum into electricity fuelling the cars we drive. For the past ten years, UK governments of all shades have been offering massive taxbreaks to encourage drivers to switch. But sadly very few of us have been prepared to make the leap. I have seen it suggested that this is because electric cars are untried technologies. This is plainly rubbish. Those of us who are car buffs know all too well that electric cars are not an entirely new technology, even amongst mainstream carmakers. Volkswagen offered the Golf CitySTROMer to paying customers in the 1980s, while BMW showed a number of small electric vehicles, such as the E1, in the 1990s. Peugeot made its own versions back in the 1940s, while Japanese minicar and minitruck producer Daihatsu was the word’s largest producer at one stage. Other electric vehicle niches have long existed, for instance the French and Italian quadricycle producers Aixam-Mega, Ligier, Casalini and Tazzari. These products, along with those from Reva in India, all helped kickstart the electric revolution. Electricity generators currently feeling the pinch from declining sales must be really hoping that the great publicist Elon Musk’s Tesla Motors will at last move the product out of the niche and into the mainstream.

In some respects, we are living in a bumper era for solar energy. In 2015, the world invested more in photovoltaic cells than in coal and gas fired power generation combined. Yet two of the most prominent solar-power developers are flirting with financial disaster. The American firm SunEdison, billed as the world’s largest renewable energy company, is facing a “substantial risk” of bankruptcy. Its debt exceeds $11bn. Its shares have fallen in nine months from $32 to just $1. It is under investigation by the Securities and Exchange Commission over accounting disclosures. Hawaiian Electric is trying to cancel power contract, because of SunEdison’s failure to meet financing deadlines. And in Spain, Anengoa, the country’s biggest renewable energy company, now has a declared debt of $10.6bn. Its shares have also sunk, whilst banks have pulled credit lines. Under a restructuring plan, creditors will see 70% of debt swapped for equity. Existing shareholders will be left with just 5% of the equity. Both firms have borrowed extensively. But lower oil prices and higher risk premiums have made the financial model of ever increasing expansion very dubious. Such a combination of acquisitive hubris, operational failures, murky financials and shoddy corporate governance is in danger of casting a shadow over the entire clean tech renewable energy industry.

Left at large to his own dark designs Let us generously assume finally this month the board of Electricité de France has made good on its latest promise. It has got extra assistance it requires from the French government. And given the final go ahead to construct the Hinkley Point C nuclear power stations. We shall all politely forget rash optimistic promise from its UK chief, the oleaginous Vincent de Rivaz, that we would be cooking our 2017 Christmas dinners on power generated by Hinkley. But the assumption must be, once a start is made, construction can be completed well within the decade, far faster than Sizewell B. That confidence exists largely because, as the UK government has been anxious to assure us, the company has a fully worked generic design approved in full, even before work begins. The problem is Hinkley is intended to be the first of many new nukes built using the same generic design. Such blanket approval – lasting 12 years – for all future power stations was introduced very largely in order to prevent any lengthy public inquiries getting in the way. But it does mean it will be very difficult for any significant alterations to be made to future power stations. Each will need to be built to the agreed design. Should any subsequent significant changes be required (for instance to build in extra anti-terrorist protection), by definition there will need to be a further generic review. Past experience in the USA is this is a process can last for a decade. During which everything else must stop. Particularly as the Finnish regulator, STUK, was so badly misled regarding the viability of the design for the similar reactor so long under construction there at Okilikuoto, it really would be a brave politician who predicts we will be cooking Christmas dinner on any further new nukes after Hinkley. Any bets for 2040?

Taking the biscuit Both Wallace and Gromit would be proud. From this month hundreds of homes in Cumbria will be heated by biogas from Wensleydale cheese-making waste. Whey and other residue from cheese production at the Lake Distict Creamery is being processed into biogas and fed into the gas grid. The biogas is produced by pumping liquid whey residues left over from the cheese-making, together with water that is used to clean down equipment, into a giant tank. Bacteria then feed on the fats and sugars in the cheese residues, producing the ‘biogas’ methane. According to the company that built the plant, Clearfleau, the total amount of gas that will be fed into the grid each year would meet the needs of 4000 homes. However, about 60% of that will be used for the creamery’s own use, leaving the equivalent of 1600 homes’ annual gas usage circulating to homes and businesses in rural Cumbria. Developer Lake Districts Biogas is funding the project, and will receive £2m a year in government subsidies for doing so. Electrical Review | May 2016


Training is a sound business decision In March, it was announced over 30,000 new apprenticeships were pledged by employers as SDUW RI 1DWLRQDO $SSUHQWLFHVKLS :HHN 7KLV LV D YHU\ HQFRXUDJLQJ ÀJXUH EXW WKH HOHFWULFDO VHFWRU can, and should, do more says Chris Ashworth, general manager at City Electrical Factors and a director of EDA with responsibility for apprentices


he electrical industry has long been a supporter of youth training, and apprenticeships and training schemes are seen as the lifeblood of our industry. But for many years they have not been given the recognition they deserve which is why the Government’s recent announcement, that the new digital apprenticeship vouchers will be introduced in 2017, is a step in the right direction for youth training, because it brings to an end a twoyear debate on apprenticeship funding. It is always good to see the Government supporting the training of young people. However, while the digital voucher scheme is welcome, it’s really up to business to lead the way on training because while the Government can incentivise, it is businesses that need to step up and take action.

SUPPORT THE INDUSTRY Companies do not simply sell products or services to customers. In order to survive, they must ensure that they have the right staff to do the job. Training the next generation to a level that will allow them to move the business, and the industry forward is therefore vital. Many companies in our industry already show a huge amount of support to the next generation; for example, in February Super Rod and Klein Tools distributed tool kits at CEF branches to over 1500 JTL electrical apprentices as part of a ďŹ ve-year investment, worth over ÂŁ1 million. It is this type of investment that the industry needs. But apprenticeships are just one route into this industry and as we embrace the need for training, more opportunities have opened up for young people. Embracing this need is something that CEF has taken very seriously and it is this which set into motion the launch of our Aspire Training Programme. Aspire is a two-year graduate training programme which focusses on turning talented individuals into future business Electrical Review | May 2016


leaders and throughout the programme they gain an insight and understanding into all aspects of the business from managing to manufacturing. This this is not just a theory based programme; it incorporates a significant amount of hands on training. This includes three months on site with an electrical contractor so that trainees gain an appreciation of how the businesses of our customers work. Participants in the programme are also encouraged to undertake external training such as the EDA (Electrical Distributors Association) product knowledge modules, and as a result they have achieved recognised qualifications such as City & Guilds. The skills that these young people gain are ones which will last them a lifetime and will undoubtedly help them to move the industry forward over the coming years. Some have already progressed within the business to new roles, including that of branch manager. This shows that our commitment to training is well placed because it provides

the business with great staff. But it also shows that young people are repaying our investment with real commitment to an industry that supports them.

POSITIVE IMPACT For many businesses the thought of taking on an apprentice or a young trainee can be daunting due to concerns regarding the time and resources that the process could involve. Despite these obstacles it is important for businesses to realise that a training scheme would not only benefit their own business; it could also have a positive impact on their local economy. In short it is an investment in the future of the industry, the people within it and the places in which it operates. What’s more, there is now plenty of help and advice available for employees and apprentices. Our industry Charity, the Electrical Industries Charity for example is actively supporting young people by launching an Apprenticeship Support Programme and Bursary Scheme for which

CEF is providing financial support. As the world of work has changed over the last twenty years, so has the world of education. Many parents are expressing concerns they want education to lead to real jobs for their children. Practical, hands-on training, based in a real business is therefore becoming increasingly attractive to young people making choices about their own future. The Government is driving forward a number of initiatives to raise the quality of training for young people, including making the term ‘apprenticeship’ a protected legal term with the same standing as A-Level or Degree. As a result, apprenticeships are far less likely to be considered a second choice, behind other educational routes. Now is the time for businesses of all sizes to view apprenticeships and youth training as a sound business investment. It’s something that has paid dividends for CEF, and if bringing bright, enthusiastic young people into your company isn’t on your business agenda yet, then it definitely should be.


12 | RAIL



rom the moment trains traded in steam for electricity there have been measures invented, developed and adapted to reduce risk to rail workers, passengers and trackside installations. In particular, train operators need to be able to rest easy in the knowledge that the electricity powering their locomotives is reliable and consistent. Voltage stability is particularly vital, as voltage uctuations or short-circuits have the potential to cause harm to passengers and station-side businesses. Given the possible risks, it’s vital that any potential electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) issues are handled efďŹ ciently and safely. Taking measures to eliminate EMC problems at source ensures trains are safer, meaning things like voltage changes and short circuits cannot present a hazard to passengers. One such measure is the use of air chokes, such as REO UK’s Air Choke Type NTT LD. Designed for use in vehicles in direct current (DC) voltage systems, including underground and commuter trains as well

It is vital to get ahead of the issues that could arise from unstable power as trolley buses, an air choke is a complete operation unit that comprises an inductor, cooled air ow, suspension and connections. This inductive component stores magnetic energy while ďŹ ltering voltage peaks and preventing voltage dips. In doing so, the air choke keeps deviations from the ideal converter input as low as possible as well as reducing circuit disturbances caused by parasitic Electrical Review | May 2016

components and switching operations. Another major beneďŹ t of employing components such as air chokes on passenger trains is their ability to reduce harmonics. High levels of harmonic output increases electromagnetic interference (EMI), which can have an adverse effect not only on physical components on the train, but communications and other electronic devices. There is also a risk that harmonic build up could have negative consequences for vital rail-side functions, such as signalling and track circuits. Modern digital technology is particularly susceptible to EMI’s disruptive nature and early in 2015 the roll-out of an upgraded, hi-tech, signalling system for the UK’s railway network was announced. This upgrade will see the control of signal lights given over to computers and while this made headlines for the associated cyber security threat this could pose, there is also the increased potential for harmonic levels to cause problems. The disruption, should levels peak too high, could include anything from the suspension of train operation on a line, to a much more serious incident that could involve harm to passengers.

It’s for these reasons REO UK has developed a full power quality solution for trains, including chokes, resistors, transformers and inductors. All of which, like the robust and aerodynamic air chokes designed to be mounted on top of or beneath the train, are type tested and validated in accordance with EN60310 and meet European ďŹ re protection standard EN 45545. As we rely increasingly heavily on electricity to both power our trains and manage our railways the importance of stable, reliable power quality is only going to increase. With planned high speed rail networks and an increase in the number of trains on our existing tracks it’s vital to get ahead of the possible issues that could arise from unstable power.

Steve Hughes, managing director of REO UK

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Testing times in shipping In this article Paul Brickman, of Crestchic, a global manufacturer of loadbanks used for power testing in the marine sector, looks at how the market and its needs are changing


eeting the power needs of ‘super vessels’ In recent times we have witnessed a massive growth in the size of seagoing vessels for transportation of products, leisure and oil & gas exploration & production. As these vessels continue to grow in size, their power needs grow too, as does the complexity of on-board systems. Modern sea vessels often contain complex propulsion, production and environmental support systems which must operate reliably for long periods of time, often hundreds, if not thousands of miles offshore. Ensuring the availability of power for these systems is a critical function to guarantee vital services can run uninterrupted, making pre-launch reliable testing of power supplies of particular importance. This is an area of increased focus for ship owners and offshore classification agencies as they

At the system’s heart is the generator or gen-set seek to optimise safety and ensure power availability, driving continued growth in the use of specialist equipment for the robust testing of onboard power systems. In the 1940s the world moved on from colonialism to globalisation. This movement was accompanied by rapidly growing trade and the need for effective means of transport which was the first drivingforce in the development of sea vessels. Fast forward 70 years and we now have different driving-forces in the growth and development of these vessels. For example the reason behind the recent increase of the size of container ships is economy of scale. Fitting more products on container ships Electrical Review | May 2016

and making less journeys will inevitably save money. One of the world’s largest container ships, the MSC Zoe, is 1,297ft (396m) long and can carry over 19,000 20ft equivalent units “TEU” or shipping containers as most people know them. Simply put, it is a lot cheaper to transport cargo if you move large quantities at a time. As ships continue to grow in size and complexity, the power systems will continue to develop and the need for testing will remain an absolute necessity. Any offshore power generation unit is a complex system, or series of systems, working together to perform several functions at once, and at the system’s heart is the generator or gen-set. This could consist of several gas turbines and/or diesel generators. However, various discrete systems and components complete the total package, such as alternators, regulators, transformers and switchgear. These additional components typically come from various manufacturers, and are usually designed to interface with a number of makes, models, and sizes of generators. As with any other mechanical or electrical components, all are potentially subject to failure, and have varying maintenance needs, at the very least requiring regular testing and servicing.

SHIP CATEGORIES AND THEIR POWER NEEDS Ships can fall into a number of categories, all with different uses and power needs. Cruise ships, for example, require massive electrical installations in order to power the shopping malls, entertainment centres, bars and restaurants on-board. One of the largest cruise ships in the world, the Allure of the Seas by Royal Caribbean, is 1,187ft (362m) long. Setting a new world record for the most passengers able to be accommodated, the ship can hold 6,360 passengers, 2,200 crew members and features 25 restaurants and 24 passenger lifts. Military vessels, in comparison, also

have high power needs in order to run complex propulsion, life support and weapon systems. Failure of these systems in operation may have a devastating impact so it is extremely important to perform rigorous testing. Other types of ships include car and passenger ferries, oil tankers, nuclear ships and fishing vessels, all with specific power requirements. These systems must be able to operate at full power even in the harshest conditions, with all components working together to do their individual jobs.

THE ISSUES CREATED BY INCREASED VESSEL SIZE Operating these huge vessels requires complex electrical systems which need to be correctly and thoroughly tested. However, the stresses introduced by this level of operation cannot be simulated by discrete tests of a system’s numerous individual components: automatic transfer switches, switchgear, load-sharing centres, voltage regulators, alternators, electrical cabling and connectors, ventilation, cooling systems and fuel systems. While the generators may have been tested at the factory, the variables of their interaction with other parallelconnected power generation units, load profile, ambient temperature, humidity, fuel, exhaust and cooling systems can be significantly affected by the installation. A system-wide test is therefore the only way to ensure the individual components of any power generation system will work together harmoniously, whether for continuous production demands, or in emergency power outage situations. Main engines and generators on board these vessels require a constant and reliable electricity supply to keep them going. Pumps driven electrically take in cold water from the ocean to cool engines, and also convey fuel from fuel tanks to the engine. Electrical power is vital for many operational functions – without it, ships literally come to a halt.

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Comprehensive testing is vital to ensure trouble-free propulsion and efficient power generation

Large equipment such as propulsion motors and bow thrusters, requires electricity of high voltage. As for smaller machinery (cabin lights, galley equipment), the electricity goes through transformer and is thus stepped down into lower voltage. Large cables snake through the whole ship to distribute electrical power. They carry power from generators to switchboards, through passageways, public rooms, and crew and passenger cabins. The correct and comprehensive testing of these systems at the commissioning stage is vital to ensure trouble-free propulsion, production, efficient power generation and the safety of personnel.

R+R – THE ROLE OF RESISTIVE AND REACTIVE TESTING A resistive-reactive load test of an installation’s power system can accurately simulate the system’s response to a changing load pattern and power factor (pf) demands, such as would be encountered during real world running conditions or in the event of standby genset having to operate. Resistive-reactive load banks are used to test the engine/turbine generator set at its rated pf. In most cases this is 0.8 pf. The reactive component of the load will have a Electrical Review | May 2016

current that ‘lags’ the voltage. The resulting power is described in two terms, the kW, or real power, and the kVA or apparent power. The combination of resistive and reactive current in the load will allow for the full kVA rating of the generator windings to be tested. Even though the genset is producing more kVA, it is actually not producing more kW. The “real” power (kW) required from the engine/turbine is essentially the same. The inductive loads developed during reactive testing illustrate how any given system will handle the voltage drop in its regulator, paramount when paralleling generators. The test will also verify that this regulator is working properly. If not, its magnetic field could collapse, rendering the generator useless and preventing other generators in the system from operating efficiently in parallel. Resistive-reactive testing can also reveal additional stresses (and help predict pending failures) of a system’s switchgear, alternators, and other systems that resistive-only testing cannot. It is clear that a procedure involving reactive as well as resistive testing is far more comprehensive and thorough than a resistive-only test, more accurately replicating the conditions likely to be

faced in a real conditions, and so more readily identifying any potential source of a problem. Carefully managed reactiveresistive testing is therefore the only way to guarantee the operation of full-time or emergency power systems. Commissioning aside, which is invariably performed onshore, loadbanks have other uses on large vessels. Permanently installed loadbanks allow for comprehensive testing to be integrated into the maintenance procedures of emergency systems in particular. Oversized generators can be cleared of any carbon build-up with regular sessions of full load application, ensuring reliable performance when called upon for particular production cycles or an emergency.

WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD? All major ship classification companies will have a close eye on competent testing more so then ever before with the recent growth in the industry. Through all levels of the shipbuilding journey from the ship owner, the ship builder and the ship insurer all parties should ensure power on the ship has been tested adequately to guarantee efficient, reliable operation and security of investment.


Requirements to be met by professional switchgear test systems


witchgear devices are situated at the key points of electrical energy transmission and distribution systems. Their reliability has a decisive influence on the availability, safety and economic efficiency of electricity supply systems. Only regular, on-site tests can ensure that switchgear devices function perfectly throughout their operational life. Professional switchgear test systems provide precise information as to the condition of the chamber and drive unit without requiring them to be opened. The sheer number of parameters to be determined, the wide variety of different types of switchgear equipment in use and the harsh environmental conditions encountered during on-site tests place extreme demands on test equipment.

CONTACT TRAVEL VISUALIZATION Unlike evaluation based on a simple binary signal, as is used in high-frequency measuring methods, the use of switchgear test systems in combination with ohm meters enables a sound diagnosis of interrupter units throughout the whole switching operation. The result of the measurement is displayed in the form of a curve which visualizes in detail all the events of a switching operation. This allows an accurate assessment of the start of travel and the final position of the contacts and even reveals time differences between the movements of the main and resistive contact.

ASSESSING THE INTERRUPTER UNIT BY ANALYSING CONTACT RESISTANCE Regular measurements of the static and dynamic contact

resistance allow an accurate assessment of the condition of the entire contact system. This ensures that maintenance requirements can be identified at an early stage and down times kept to a minimum. Contact resistance measurements can be carried out on up to 6 main contact chambers with the KoCoS PROMET SE ohm meter and can be incorporated within the overall test procedure. The test current can be set to a maximum of 200 A. Even very low resistance values in the single-digit micro-ohm range can be measured extremely accurately. The measured values are used in the evaluation of tests and are included in the test report.

STATIC AND DYNAMIC MEASUREMENT A high contact resistance within a switchgear device leads to high power loss coupled with thermal stress which can potentially cause serious damage to the switchgear device. Problems, such as high transfer resistance resulting from poor connections, can be identified by measuring static contact resistance. Dynamic contact resistance measurements can be used to determine the resistance characteristic during a freely definable switching operation. Measurements of this type give an indication of the length and state of the arcing contacts of high-voltage breakers, for example.

TESTING WITH EARTHING ON BOTH SIDES Switchgear equipment is earthed on both sides when people are in the vicinity in order to prevent danger caused by capacitively coupled voltages from neighbouring components. However, when switchgear equipment is tested using conventional measuring methods, earthing must be removed on at least one side. When tests are carried out in combination with PROMET SE, measurements can be carried out with earthing on both sides. Not only does this make tests much safer, it also makes them simpler and quicker because all the steps which need to be taken in order to remove the earth lead are no longer required.


Actas P360

The ability to connect a powerful AC/DC source makes it possible to test the correct functioning of the additional components of switchgear devices directly and independently of the station voltage. When tests are carried out in combination with the KoCoS motor and coil test system, EPOS MC3, sources are controlled via the test system. Analyses of motor and coil operation, through the determination of the minimum operating voltage and through testing undervoltage releases for coils, for example, are reproducible and can be carried out within a single test plan always under identical conditions.

INTEGRATED OPERATING AND EVALUATION UNIT An integrated control panel with touch screen, a streamlined operating concept and powerful hardware guarantee simple operation with optimum display of all information. The user interface is clear, well structured, self-explanatory and user-intuitive. All test parameters are displayed clearly Electrical Review | May 2016


and can be set directly. The measurement results are shown on the display together with the associated signatures enabling conclusions to be drawn directly as to the state of the switchgear device. Test reports can be produced in PDF format to document the test.

REMOTE CONTROL OVER WI-FI The ability to control the test system using a smart phone, tablet etc. also includes remote control for the test instrument. This allows the stipulated minimum distance to be observed when carrying out first trip measurements, for example.

TESTING SOFTWARE Tests can, of course, be configured and analysed directly on the test system itself, but using a PC and specialist testing software it is also possible to prepare and evaluate tests in the office, for example. Test data and parameters can be imported or exported as required using a USB flash drive or network connection. The KoCoS ACTAS testing software is the product of many years of practical experience and close cooperation with network operators and switchgear manufacturers. A graph of all measured signal characteristics, featuring zoom functions and measurement cursors, offers additional options for detailed analysis. It is easy for tests to be called up, edited or used as templates. Switchgear data and measurement results can be compressed and sent by e-mail, for example. Archiving the data in databases is child’s play too.

TEST PLANS FOR EFFICIENT TEST PREPARATION AND EVALUATION Test plans containing all the necessary switchgear and test parameters can be prepared in full. No further settings need to be made on site and the desired test can be carried out without delay. Once the device under test has been connected up to the test system, the test plan prepared in advance can be started and run immediately. Measurement results are assessed directly on the display of the test instrument or on the PC.

RESULT HELP The testing software features a comprehensive help function to support users in the selection of the measurement results they require and the subsequent evaluation of those results. Descriptions and graphs facilitate the correct interpretation of the results obtained.

AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF TEST REPORTS The software includes an option for automatically creating test reports to document test results. As well as the results themselves, these comprehensive reports can also include the curve characteristics of recorded signals, switchgear data and test parameters.

COMPACT AND ROBUST Direct integration in a rugged hard-top case make a test system able to withstand dust and water. Compact, lightweight test systems are ideal for on-site use.



Unique approach for testing protection systems 5HOD\6LP7HVW VLPSOLÀHV IXQFWLRQDO WHVWV RI SURWHFWLRQ UHOD\V


any of the electrical power networks have seen significant changes over the last few years. Due to the change in energy policy, today’s power is fed into these grids at many different points while the consumption can be far distant. This is making power grids increasingly complex and requires them to be operated very close to their limits. As a consequence, this results in completely new challenges for the protection system design and detailed testing of the protection system that handles these more complex protective duties is vital. Current, well established, testing solutions mainly verify the correct operation with the given relay settings. These so called functional tests generally cover steps such as commissioning or parameterization of the respective relays. The rising demands include a multifaceted procedure that starts with investigating the fault and operation scenarios followed by choosing the appropriate protection concept. One of the greatest challenges of this process is calculating the settings of each component and eliminating disturbing interactions before commissioning the system. This inherent complexity raises the likelihood of errors during protection system development. These errors that crept in during the complete design process cannot be found with the functional testing methods.

APPLICATION ORIENTED TESTING Continuously observing energy supply trends, advancements and demands worldwide, OMICRON, as a leading manufacturer of test solutions for protection and measurement technologies, recognizes and takes up new evolutions as a driver for its new developments and products. The current and future challenges facing the energy industry led OMICRON to a new approach for testing protection systems which is now available with the unique and recent testing solution, RelaySimTest, that controls testing hardware like the OMICRON CMC test sets. This software addresses the above mentioned challenges by empowering the test engineers with a novel testing approach and brings a new quality to testing by covering all steps of the protection system development. The software takes the application of the protection system and feeds it to a power system simulation. Many state of the art technologies and new approaches were required to build this major innovation and make it usable for the day-to-day business of protection testing. To be able to map the different power systems for each protection system, RelaySimTest offers a fast and easy to use single-line editor. Based on the mapped power system, sequences of fault and breaker events can be defined. These sequences, or test steps, can simulate every scenario that the protection system is required to handle. The calculated process values are based on a highly realistic power system simulation which simulates transient and nontransient effects such as DC-offset current during fault inception, capacitive load current of long lines, mutual coupling, etc.

Electrical Review | May 2016

SIMPLIFYING DISTRIBUTED TESTS Because the protection system and its logic and coordination are usually distributed over several relays, it is necessary to inject currents and voltages synchronously to all relays on the system. This can even imply the synchronous injection to relays which are distributed over long distances. In the past, this required a coordination of the injection via phone over all ends. The analysis of the protection system behavior was only possible after the test when all the results were merged. RelaySimTest simplifies distributed tests by controlling multiple test sets simultaneously, either by direct connection or via an ordinary internet connection. To control test sets over the internet, all remote relays grant remote access over a cloud infrastructure secured via a password. The main application finds the remote device via their ID and takes control. The cloud infrastructure is offered by OMICRON worldwide, free of charge. This way the test is started by one application. All results are immediately present after execution so that further investigations can be started in case of a failed test, for example, by moving the fault position and re-executing straight away. Using the CMGPS 588 brings a mobile and very flexible but highly accurate time reference to the test configuration and synchronizes the complete test procedure. This PTP grandmaster clock acts as a time reference and is a plug-and-play device connected to the test system (for example, a CMC test set) via Ethernet cable, from which it also gets its power supply (PoE). Either each test system is connected to its own CMGPS 588 or a one-time reference is connected via a PTP-transparent switch to several test systems. Possible time delays generated by the Ethernet cable are eliminated using a time stamp that is labeled to the time signal when sent from the time reference and received at the test system. When the test sets are switched on they notify RelaySimTest about their activity and time synchronicity so that it takes over the control of the whole test procedure. As soon as the test is initiated, RelaySimTest sends the test transients and the test start time to the test sets. Using the CMGPS 588 time reference all test sets will start the test at exactly the same time by sending the transient signals to the relays and then recording their reaction. These reactions are automatically transferred from the test systems to RelaySimTest where the data will be analyzed and displayed. All results are immediately available for evaluation and assessment in one application (for example, measuring delay times of teleprotection signals). This makes the execution of distributed test steps as easy as a single-end injection because no manual coordination of the start of the respective test steps is necessary. Even multiple test steps can be executed automatically in a row without any manual interaction.

ITERATIVE CLOSED LOOP SIMULATION Modern protection relays require realistic current and voltage signals to proceed with more complex sequences. If, for example, the current doesn’t interrupt although


Figure 1: The steps during the development of a protection system become more and more complex

the trip signal was issued by the relay, the circuit breaker failure function will prevent an auto-reclose. To test the auto-reclose sequence without specifying every breaker event manually, a closed loop simulation is required. Realtime closed loop simulations are already established in laboratories and at manufacturers, but they require an expensive and heavy hardware that is not usable in the field. Neither is it possible to run these real-time simulators over distance for distributed relays. RelaySimTest utilizes a unique solution called Iterative Closed Loop simulation. Instead of running the closed loop in real-time, the simulation runs in iterations. With every iteration a new event gets added automatically to the sequence until the sequence is complete. This enables RelaySimTest to test every protection concept just by placing a fault and observing the reactions of the protection system, even when the relays are distributed.

Figure 2: RelaySimTest simplifies the test preparation procedure, for example, by using an intuitive grid editor, realistic simulated waveforms and automatic calculated test values.

RELAYSIMTEST ADDRESSES COUNTLESS USE CASES RelaySimTest has already proven its usefulness in many realworld field tests. Just to name a few applications that are possible or have already worked particularly well: • Busbar protection. Because RelaySimTest can control multiple test sets, it is possible to inject to all bay units simultaneously. • Three terminal lines. The possibility to run the test sets over a mobile internet connection reduced the field test time significantly. Also the preparation time was heavily reduced because no separate calculation was required, as it was taken care of by the power system simulation integrated into RelaySimTest. • Power-swing blocking. • Series compensated lines. • Distribution networks with non-fault interrupting sectionalizers. In such ring-networks a main breaker interrupts the fault current. The sectionalizers isolate the fault and the system gets restored. • New testing procedures for modern protective relays with complex algorithms.

SUMMARY With RelaySimTest, distributed tests can be performed in the same way as single-end shots. The required injection signals are calculated for all ends automatically, making troubleshooting of the network very efficient. Comprehensive reports can be generated in a single place over the whole test, covering all relays. Furthermore, the software simulates relay-controlled breaker operations. With Iterative Closed Loop simulation, the testing of auto-recloser functions is possible even in distributed protection systems. RelaySimTest is also an effective solution for challenging testing tasks including power swings, transient ground faults, capacitive line phenomena as well as complex teleprotection and adaptive protection schemes. The software is capable of simulating steady-state values and transient signals even without a CMC test set connected.

Figure 3: RelaySimTest enables time synchronized distributed testing of line differential protection including failure creation using one test set at each end.



Higher throughput with accurate repeatability Rockwell Automation OEM Partner, AGR Automation, has recently developed a pacemaker electrode wire-guide fabrication machine for a customer that offers comparable precision to the manual process it replaces, but with a VLJQLÀFDQWO\ KLJKHU WKURXJKSXW


GR Automation offers a complete in house mechanical, electrical and software design capability, including advanced robotics and industrial vision to develop automation and motion solutions designed to meet the increasing demands of optimised production. Its services, which work to the highest standards through ISO9001 and GAMP, encompass the development of all manner of automated systems. These include highspeed linear, rotary and flexible conveyor assembly systems, vibratory bowls and vibratory tracks, cannula insertion systems, centrifugal feed systems, robotic assembly and handling systems, multilane feed systems, hoppers and elevators. Pacemakers have revolutionised the lives of many people. Since their original development the technology inside them has significantly improved, in terms of size, power and capability. Their method of operation though has remained relatively unchanged and they still require the implantation of pacing leads via an artery in the groin or armpit. During the implant process the pacing wires are fed to the heart and electrodes are put into the heart muscles. Once the electrodes have been established the guide wires are then withdrawn leaving just the pacing wires behind. Like the pacemaker itself, these pacing wire assemblies have to be fabricated to extreme exacting standards and this precision manufacturing must also encompass the ancillary components that are used to implant the wires, even though they are eventually disposed of. In many instances, such as this one, the wire assemblies are fabricated by hand in multiple stages and using multiple

Electrical Review | May 2016

personnel. After final assembly the manual process continues with QA inspection by another group of operators. However, manual labour is not as fast as an automated solution and there is nowhere near the same levels of repeatability, even for what is essentially a highly repetitive operation. There is also a lot of product differentiation. Wires can be different lengths and can have different forms on the end depending on the insertion method and location. They can also be straight or

Pacemakers have revolutionised the lives of many people

curved, with the curved wires using a sleeve to keep them straight, until the sleeve is retracted and the wire’s natural curve takes the implant around corners. AGR Automation was asked by the customer to automate this whole process into one system, requiring accurate assembly of the units to the correct length (±0.5 mm), and handling all the product variations (plastic handles, aluminium handles, wire forms and different lengths) via a user-inputted recipe number. According to Derek Beattie, electrical design manager at AGR Automation: “Our new machine can assemble 33 different variants of guide wires, primarily straight ones, but with different ends, diameters, lengths and end forms.” In operation the guide wire ‘blanks’ are

fed into the machine six at a time on a pallet secured to a pneumatic gantry, which is indexed and mapped using laser sensor. A servo walking-beam conveyor is then used to transport pallets between machine stations. On the input side the plastic components – finger tab and inserts – are fed by bowl feeders before being picked and visually inspected by robots. Depending on pass/fail criteria these are then placed into the assembly position or rejected. With an Allen-Bradley GuardLogix programmable automation controller (PAC) at its heart, connected to the various stages using Allen-Bradley POINT Guard I/ O™, the machine’s first operation is to cut the guide wire length. This operation is defined by the desired final product format and is selected via a ‘recipe’ on a 15” Allen-Bradley PanelView™ HMI. The length of the cut is defined and controlled using two Allen-Bradley Kinetix 350 servo drives and Allen-Bradley TLY servo motors, to accurately the position camera systems for precise length measurement and the type verification of wires. The next station is the assembly station. As soon as machine detects a good product, robots preload the assembly stations. The machine has been designed in such a way that the overall cycle time is not affected by the robot’s traversing, as the robots are looking ahead to the next product. When the sixth wire has been processed the robot is already looking at the first product on the next pallet. There are no pauses. A kink is put into each wire to match up with the type of insert required. The insert is then applied using an interference fit. This process is handled by two robots. The plastic inserts, which are the handle or hand grip of the device, comprise two plastic parts that latch together. These are loaded into a pneumatic rotary cylinder and therobots then feed these onto the kinked end of the 0.3 mm wire, with the kink locking the wire into the insert. There are two nests on the rotary cylinder, one is for building the other is for preloading ready for next assembly operation. The next station is the test station, used for all batches. In the test station, the wire assemblies are gripped at each end and a displacement sensor measures how far the parts can move. This station also checks for all components being present. 15N destructive pull tests are also undertaken


on the first product of every batch and then every 1,000 after that. In this test, a Kinetix servo motor is used to pull the wire against a fixed load cell. The final operation is the unload cycle, which is achieved using a choice of three servo controlled belts – good, reject or QA. AGR also defines the motion and control parameters for products that deploy an aluminium handle. These products are similar to the plastic-handled models, with eight or nine variants, but it only requires one robot to operate as the handles are single pieces. Communication between the GuardLogix Programmable Automation Controller, the Kinetix 350 servo drives, the TLY servo motors and the POINT Guard I/O is via EtherNet/ IP™ using a Stratix 5000 managed switch. One of the primary advantages of using this servo-based approach is the larger throughput, with minimum batch quantities in the thousands being manufactured far quicker than a manual process. Repeatability and historic data capture are also enhanced as the process manufacturing recipe can be entered via the HMI. This data comprises all of the important information such as the batch number, the length the components required, etc. This can then all be logged for traceability purposes. Beattie concludes: “It is a relatively simple machine in operation, but it has a lot of complexity. With two six-axis robots, four vision systems, six servos axes and safety devices controlled by the GuardLogix safety system, there is a lot going on and hence a lot to control. However, with the GuardLogix PAC, we can achieve extremely tight tolerances and excellent repeatability, which is vital for medical industry components.” The inclusion of GuardLogix also allows the machine to have zoned control in a single programming environment with information-rich diagnostics – previously this would have required a separate safety controller, software and training and the information would have had to be programmed – this is not now required with significant savings in engineering effort. The machine’s footprint is also very small, meaning that is also has less of an impact on valuable factory real estate, which can be especially restrictive and at a very high premium in cleanroom environments. www.electricalreview.co.uk




lthough there are legal requirements to manage occupational health and a series of business-related beneďŹ ts (such as productivity, staff retention and meeting tendering requirements) occurring as a result, too many ďŹ rms still regard occupational health as something that can be left to chance, and to be addressed only if it becomes a ‘clear and present’ problem. By this time, the cost, both for the workers and the company, can be enormous. It is worth pointing out deaths from occupational disease in construction are 100 times more prevalent than death due to workplace accidents. While the biggest cause of cancer in the industry is exposure to asbestos (70%) and silica (17%), two airborne hazards of particular signiďŹ cance to building services contractors. To ďŹ nd out more about the situation in

Electrical Review | May 2016

our sector, the ECA, alongside the Building Engineering Services Association (BESA) and Constructing Better Health recently held a major occupational health survey. The survey has attracted strong support from the sector, and it highlights the amount of work still to be done. For instance, respondents, the majority of which were directors and managers within building services, highlighted a number of reported barriers to effective occupational health planning. These included a perceived lack of management time, the apparent cost burden, and the delay between exposure and the apparent health effects. Furthermore, the survey suggests many ďŹ rms do not fully understand the scope of occupational health (OH), with a signiďŹ cant proportion not including ‘occupational stress’ within their OH management. Encouragingly, however, respondents

recognised the growing signiďŹ cance of occupational stress, and the vast majority said they were up-to-speed generally with existing legislation which seeks to protect the health of workers on-site. In any case, steps are already being taken to increase awareness of occupational health. Many ECA members (through the JIB) have free access to Constructing Better Health’s ‘Construction Health Action Toolkit’, which is an interactive system for managing occupational health. In addition, the ECA’s e-RAMS software allows ECA contractors to identify onsite health hazards, such as asbestos or manual handing, and then undertake a risk assessment to effectively mitigate risks to occupational health at work. To ďŹ nd out more about the ECA’s occupational health survey, please visit www.eca.co.uk


Resilience key Electrical Review spoke to Scott Neal from Schneider Electric about the launch of the company’s new prefabricated data centre solution which aims to address scalability requirements of enterprise, large service/cloud providers and edge computing applications


chneider Electric, a global specialist in energy management and automation, has announced the introduction of its new prefabricated data centre solution the SmartShelter Data Hall, which is ideally suited for service providers, cloud operators, and large enterprises where scalability, efficiency, and capital preservation are the key business drivers. Utilising a standardised approach to design, operation and management, the SmartShelter Data Hall is a multimodule, prefabricated solution that enables customers to quickly add capacity in increments of 50-100+ racks. This dramatically simplifies the initial development and on-site installation, whilst providing a resilient data centre solution that is more predictable in cost and performance, when compared to a traditionally built facility. “The SmartShelter Data Hall allows our larger customers to take advantage of the speed and predictability of our smaller prefabricated solutions with the added flexibility of a system designed for growth and rapid expansion,” said Andrew Bradner, vice president, Prefabricated Data Centers for Schneider Electric. “This represents a significant evolution in modular data centre infrastructure, which meets the scalability, reliability and service demands our customers require.” The spacious, solutions are factory assembled and tested with Schneider Electric’s data centre racks, power, precision cooling, and integrated with Struxureware Data Center Expert DCIM software, to ensure optimal monitoring and management for maximum energy efficiency. Key benefits include: • Simplified installation with minimised construction complexity. • Increased speed of deployment, allowing businesses to match capacity close to demand. Electrical Review | May 2016


• Maximise capital investment by removing the need to construct a new space or building. • Decreased risk with a pre-engineered, fully managed system. To provide choice in design, Schneider Electric offers two base designs for the SmartShelter Data Hall; one with indirect Air Economizer cooling and the other as a chilled water system. Both systems contain approximately 100 racks with a total power and cooling capacity of 500kW. Each design can be customised to meet specific project capacity and configuration requirements.

In addition to the SmartShelter Data Hall, Schneider Electric has expanded its line of prefabricated Power Skids to provide customers with a quick deployment of low voltage switchboards, UPS, and batteries in 1MW increments, which enables customers to easily add capacity in large data centre applications. The new 1MW Power Skids have been specifically designed to meet European IEC standards and are available in two variations offering value and performance. The Power Skids complement the company’s 250kw and 500kW power modules to meet a range of prefabricated power solution sizes for any

type of data centre or edge computing installation. Neal commented: “In the past we have introduced the SmartShelter solutions, now we have the SmartShelter data hall. In the past we have launched our SmartShelter containers, our SmartShelter modules, then we now reach an evolution in our prefabricated IT module offer, going from the very small to a multi module configuration, perhaps 100-150 racks, maybe more. “We are targeting different customers with different challenges, service providers, big enterprises, different customers who would have used the smaller container product.” www.electricalreview.co.uk


Choosing the Right Enclosure to Protect Railway Instrumentation Equipment By Paul Metcalf Rittal product manager for Industrial & Outdoor Enclosures


f there is one defining trend of the world we live in, it’s probably the evolution of technology into ever smaller, and yet ever faster and more powerful electronic solutions. This extraordinary shift is reflected, not surprisingly in the instrumentation market with the obvious result that equipment has shrunk significantly, reducing its power demand while also increasing its portability and reliability. What has also evolved - again not surprisingly - are the enclosures to house this equipment. Rail engineers now have a large choice of enclosures from weatherproof outdoor cabinets through custom and proprietary desktop and portable cases, to relatively simple plastic and metal boxes, frequently customised to fit the application. The decision as to which to choose depends both on application and the environment in which it is to be used. For example an enclosure for rail applications may need to withstand shock, vibration, moisture and/or dust ingress. What’s more, any sensitive electronics which is placed beside a busy railway line or road is vulnerable to damage from vehicles, vandalism/graffiti, as well as external temperature variations, wind, rain, ice and snow.

IP RATINGS AND THE ENVIRONMENT There is a universal performance measure which many will probably be thinking of right now – an enclosure’s IP rating, which provides an indication of how effective it will be in preventing dust and water ingress. However, we would always advocate using enclosures specifically designed for outdoor use rather than just ‘the highest IP rating’, because the seals may not

Electrical Review | May 2016

be designed to withstand freezing in winter, or days of non-stop rain. That said, we do have a range of IP69K enclosures which were originally designed for vehicle use, so they are likely to be suitable for outdoor applications. Protecting the equipment from temperature fluctuations is another concern but here a double-skinned design is a good investment, not least because it can save on cooling bills in the long-term.

TEMPERATURE CONTROLS Cooling, of course, provides us with a number of potential problems. If enclosures need to keep dirt, moisture and EMC out, how do we get cooling air both in and out? It’s an ever more pressing problem - as processing power and system power increases, so does the need to remove the additional heat it generates. Even the equipment in small, portable, units will contribute to the heat generation and could be determined as ‘too hot to handle’ under certain circumstances.

POWER AND DATA INPUT/OUTPUT We also need to consider the power requirements – if for example the unit is portable, it will need space for either equipment, or mains conversion, or both. If it’s not portable, how will the power be supplied and distributed? Does the PSU need to be plug-in for easy exchange? Or even N+1 redundant to ensure continuity of supply following a unit failure? How will the unit send data and in turn, is the same means available for response and control? Is an ‘industry standard’ cabling structure involved? Can wireless or infrared be used


to keep the unit remote from what it is controlling, or are fibre optic links present? Copper connections will require different space and handling, both up to and inside the enclosure and wireless/infrared options may need additional circuitry (with accompanying space), as well as suitable sites for antennae or target windows.

ACCESSIBILITY Accessibility and service or exchange are additional important issues over the lifetime of the instrumentation, as even a simple box becomes ‘unfriendly’ when it takes a disproportionate amount of time to replace equipment. Having to remove a dozen screws to access a compartment may prevent unauthorised access, but what about the effect on the user who is in a hurry? Both the box and system design needs to allow access where necessary and to restrict it elsewhere. In a 482.6mm (19”) environment, there may be a lockable door, while inside the sub-racks could have easily exchanged ‘Hot-Swap’ circuit boards, power supplies and fan systems. These are partly enabled by utilising the sub-rack rear for input/output cabling to leave the front clear for service exchange.

IN SUMMARY So, those are some of the conditions which need consideration when choosing an enclosure. It is a complex area and given the cost and sensitivity of the equipment that is being protected, it makes sense to involve a company with the relevant competence and widest range available.





efore discussing the role of partial discharge (PD) analysis in assessing the condition of MV cables, it’s useful to review exactly what PD is. The concept is, in fact, very simple: partial discharge is a small electric spark or discharge that occurs at an insulation defect, but does not completely bridge the insulation. The defect may take the form of a cavity within the insulation, it may be along the interface between insulating materials (typically within accessories) or it may be along surfaces, for example in terminations or potheads. The characteristics of the PD depend on many factors, including the type, size and location of the defect, the type of insulating material, the applied voltage and the temperature. The characteristics also vary with time. The damage caused by PD can range from negligible to severe, the latter causing complete insulation failure over a time period anywhere between a few days and a few years. A common example of PD is corona on overhead HV transmission lines in damp weather, which is the source of the buzzing noise often heard under HV transmission towers. PD within solid insulation typically occurs when a spark jumps a gas-ďŹ lled void in the insulation, producing a small current within the conductors. By using time-domain reectometry (TDR)

techniques and taking into account the cable characteristics that affect pulse propagation, a PD analysis test set can determine the location of the discharges and produce a PD map that plots discharge intensity against location. Two major sources of PD problems in PILC cables are dry insulation, typically as a result of high thermal loading or bad impregnation, and water ingress due to deterioration of the lead sheath. Both issues lead to the formation of carbonised tracks in the paper insulation, and these can be present over long lengths of cable – examples covering a few metres or more are by no means uncommon. PD problems are also found in the accessories used in PILC cable systems, often resulting from sharp edges being left on the conductor connector. While on-line PD analysis of MV power cables is possible, this approach inevitably has limitations and is necessarily a far less sensitive way of detecting defects than off-line testing. The remainder of this article will, therefore, focus on off-line PD analysis, for which several techniques are available. The most important of these are: * Testing at 50/60 Hz power frequency Although this could be considered to be the most desirable and revealing technique, as it accurately analyses the behaviour

Figure 2: PD results without ďŹ ltering Figure 1: Cable investigated with two voltage sources

Electrical Review | May 2016


of the cable under conditions close to those it will experience in service, it is usually not practical because of the enormous size and cost of the power source needed to energise all but the shortest of cables. * Testing with damped AC (DAC) voltage This is the most widely used method worldwide, since it uses easily transportable and affordable test equipment, and it works at frequencies comparable to power frequency. * Testing at VLF (0.1 Hz) with a sinusoidal test voltage This technique is also widely used, but the PD results obtained with sine waves at this low frequency may be very different from those that would be obtained at power frequency. The test may not, therefore, accurately reflect the in-service behaviour of the cable. * Testing at VLF (0.1 Hz) with a cosine-rectangular (CR) test voltage This is a relatively new technique. The key feature is that the 0.1 Hz CR waveform used has rise and fall times closely comparable with the rise and fall times of a 50/60 Hz sine wave. PD measurements made during these transitions are, therefore, close to the results that would be obtained at power frequency. Table 1 summarises the test techniques available for MV cables. It is worth commenting, based on a Megger data bank holding test results reported by a wide range of cable operators since 2005, 88% of MV cables passed withstand/ hi-pot test with 0.1 Hz VLF voltage sources, where these tests were not monitored for partial discharge. However, around 5% of these cables failed within six months of apparently successful commissioning, with the most common problem being poor workmanship in relation to cable accessories such as joints and terminations. Returning to the use of DAC voltage for PD testing, the studies carried out by Megger in conjunction with Warsaw University of Technology have shown that this is an excellent method for

reliably identifying partial discharges using a non-destructive test voltage. Another important benefit is that this is a well-proven method that yields results that can be directly compared with the cable’s performance at 50/60 Hz, allowing reliable decisions to be made about whether it needs attention. With respect to the VLF CR waveform, a major benefit is PD testing can be carried out concurrently with a standard VLF withstand test in line with IEC/IEEE 400.2/3. This saves time because, if no PD is detected during the test, no separate PD analysis is needed. Direct indication of the quality of workmanship on the cable is also provided during the withstand test. Once again, the PD data is comparable with the cable’s performance at 50/60 Hz, and so supports reliable decision-making. Finally, VLF testing at 0.1 Hz satisfies the requirements of IEC 60502 – 2. It is important to note the DAC and VLF CR techniques for PD analysis both have specific advantages. Both techniques are equally good at detecting faults and revealing their locations is illustrated by Fig 1, which shows the results of tests carried out on one phase of a 240 m long PILC cable in Warsaw, using both DAC and VLF CR techniques. As the figure clearly illustrates, there is little difference between the results obtained. In reality, results are not always as clear-cut as those obtained on the Warsaw cable, as can be seen in Fig 2. However, advanced filtering and signal processing techniques can make even results like these much easier to interpret. Fig 3, which shows filtering applied to the same data used in Fig 2, shows just how effective it can be. We have seen PD characteristics such as PD magnitude, location and occurrence are similar whether the test voltage source is DAC or VLF CR. We have also seen that the latest test systems, which offer both of these voltage sources and incorporate powerful and effective filtering, make fast and reliable PD analysis a reality. This means DNOs operating networks that include old PILC cables now have a convenient and cost effective way of pre-empting cable faults and, therefore, enjoying greatly enhanced peace of mind!

Table 1 – Test methods for MV cables Figure 3: PD results with filtering





hese new testers provide, in a single instrument, functionality that would previously have required many separate devices. This signiďŹ cantly reduces costs: the up-front cost is lower than that of separate instruments, less training is needed as users only have to learn to use one instrument rather than several, and a single one is easier and cheaper to transport. Multifunction instruments also have the potential to increase the amount and value of the test data obtained, as the right test equipment is always to hand. Nevertheless, there is a potential concern – with so much functionality packed into a single instrument, there is a risk that it could become unwieldy and confusing to operate. Megger has avoided these pitfalls in its new and innovative TRAX multifunction testers, which combine exceptional versatility with compact construction and straightforward, intuitive operation. The Megger TRAX transformer and substation test instrument provides thirteen different test functions for transformers alone, as well as extensive capabilities for testing other key assets such as circuit breakers, rotating machines and tap changers. While it weighs just 32 kg in its transport case, the TRAX base unit can generate AC current up to 800 A, DC current up to 100 A, AC voltage up to 2.2 kV and DC voltage up to 300 V. With optional accessories, the AC capabilities can readily be extended to 2,000 A and 12 kV. The user interface of this groundbreaking instrument uses the latest colour touch-screen technology and presents functions in the form of ‘apps’. From the start screen, users simply select the app for the test they want to perform, and the display automatically changes to show only the elements appropriate to that function.

Electrical Review | May 2016

Additional guidance is provided in the form of connection diagrams and tables that indicate the correct test sequence. Users are guided throughout the testing process but, for experienced users with special requirements, full manual operation is also supported. For added convenience when performing three-phase tests, particularly on power transformers, an optional switchbox is now available for use with TRAX test sets. With this, all of the connections to the transformer can be made at the same time. This not only saves time during testing, as connections don’t have to be moved from phase to phase, but also increases safety by reducing the number of ladder climbs required. The three-phase switchbox supports seven different transformer diagnostic tests, and is controlled by the TRAX test set so that switching between phases is carried out automatically, safely and at the appropriate time. Megger’s innovative TRAX test set packs an astonishing amount of functionality into a single box, but this has been achieved entirely without sacriďŹ cing performance. In fact, the TRAX incorporates a plethora of advanced features to aid the accurate determination of asset condition, including true dynamic resistance measurements for on-load tap changers, adaptive demagnetisation for transformers and enhanced insulation diagnostics based on dielectric frequency response (DFR) techniques, as well as patented techniques for temperature correction of results and for voltage dependence detection during power factor tests. Megger’s new TRAX transformer and substation test set replaces a whole array of individual test instruments and, in doing so, saves time and money – a single solution for all your testing needs! uk.megger.com


Solar T&M advances at centre of new ‘PV Health Check’ opportunities Michael Middlemast of Seaward explains how specialist test instrumentation meets the O&M needs of a maturing solar PV sector


he UK solar industry has experienced turbulent times in its relatively short history. Initial consumer uncertainty, successive subsidy cuts and PV module trade disputes have at different times affected customer confidence and created uncertainty. Nevertheless, in the face of all these challenges, the UK solar sector is a huge success story – and despite the recent decline in installations as tariff cuts have continued to bite, evidence is now starting to emerge that the industry is adapting to the tougher market conditions. Central to this growing confidence and seizing the new opportunities presented will be a ‘diversify to survive’ approach. Sitting out there is over 10GW of installed solar PV capacity and when those systems were installed customers were promised they would last for 25 years. The message for the industry now is to get out there and make sure they do so by providing effective operations and maintenance (O&M) support. The installation of a solar PV system is only undertaken after careful consideration of the costs involved and the potential return on investment provided by lower energy bills and subsidy payments. As a result, the verification of system performance and energy output from the modules is essential. In many cases simple electrical faults or wiring failures can cause a serious inefficiency in the ability to produce power. Although proper metering will give an indication of system performance, periodic electrical

Electrical Review | May 2016

testing is vital to establish ongoing functional performance over extended periods. The correct operation of solar PV installations under both normal and fault conditions is an essential consideration at the system design stage to ensure that proper energy outputs and safety levels are achieved. During operation it is important that the long term performance of the system is not compromised by sub-standard installation, faults or poor maintenance. This is the potential opportunity - and for experienced PV installers, the barrier to entry into the secondary O&M market is paper thin. With a customer base already established, advances in solar PV T&M equipment now make the provision of effective O&M services more accessible and cost effective than ever before.

PV SYSTEM HEALTH CHECKS Against this background the opportunity for PV installers is to introduce ‘PV Health Checks’ for customers that could potentially include: • A full physical inspection of the PV array including roof fixings, cabling, module integrity and inverter functionality • A full electrical inspection of the PV array including an open circuit voltage test, short circuit current test, insulation resistance test and IV curve trace • An energy efficiency survey of the property and its occupant’s energy use


This information can be used to produce dedicated client reports detailing the efficiency of their array and what can be done to improve performance. This could also lead to upselling opportunities such as module cleaning, voltage optimisation, PV monitoring systems or perhaps energy efficiency measures such LED lights or heat storage batteries. The periodic testing of rooftop systems may also be required as part of product warranties and PV system component guarantees, and can also safeguard against other potential safety and fire risks. Depending on customer needs, the PV Health Checks could come in bronze, silver and gold packages with the level of detail of the inspections and reports varying accordingly.

SOLAR PV TEST EQUIPMENT There are many instruments available that are sold under the title of ‘solar testers’ so it is vital to ensure that the instruments utilised in O&M services are capable of performing all of the tests required. The international standard IEC62446 has been adopted in many European member states and has made a significant contribution to improving the quality and safety of PV systems. IEC62446 provides details for ‘Grid connected photovoltaic systems - Minimum requirements for system documentation, commissioning tests and inspection’ and compliance demonstrates that the appropriate safety precautions and tests have been undertaken prior to the handing over of a PV system to the property owner. In short the standard sets out measures to ensure that: • The PV modules and electrical supply connections have been wired up correctly • That the electrical insulation is good • The protective earth connection is as it should be • There has been no damage to cables during installation In the UK, the Microgeneration Certification Scheme (MCS) has adopted the principles of IEC62446 as the basis for its own testing and documentation regime – and as well as providing the basis for commissioning testing, its requirements also provide a useful guide to the periodic tests required during operation. In this respect, the absolute minimum testing that needs to be undertaken involves continuity measurements, open circuit voltage, short circuit current, insulation and irradiance. To meet these electrical test needs some contractors have traditionally used multiple instruments that include an earth continuity and insulation resistance tester‚ a multimeter and DC clampmeter, along with various associated connectors and leads. However, the risk with such homemade kits is that not all of the tests required by IEC 62446 will be covered and, with different PV system electrical tests potentially requiring the use of different testers, using such an array of instruments can be cumbersome and time consuming. This sort of consideration has led to the introduction of a new generation of dedicated multi-function solar PV electrical testers that are capable of carrying out all electrical tests required by IEC 62446 on grid connected PV systems.

With the push of a single button, combination testers automatically carry out the required sequence of tests in a safe and controlled manner. Testing can be conducted quickly and easily with the tester being pre-programmed to run an automatic sequence of required tests and using specially designed PV test leads which quickly connect and disconnect from the installation circuit. For a comprehensive approach, alongside electrical testing, an irradiance meter is also required to measure how much solar power is available at any particular location. The most accurate solar readings are provided by irradiance meters which utilise sensors which are similar to the technology utilised in the panels themselves and the ideal solution is to utilise an irradiance meter which uses a photovoltaic cell as its sensor rather than a pin diode. With some instruments, special wireless ‘Solarlink’ connectivity between the multi-function tester and an irradiance meters enables real-time irradiance to be displayed and measured at the same time as electrical testing is being undertaken. This means that irradiance, module and ambient temperature can be recorded in real time within the test instrument as the electrical tests are conducted. Once testing is completed, the USB download of time and date stamped test results, with irradiance and temperature measurements, provide full traceability and speeds up the completion of PV system reports and customer documentation. Although there is no mandatory requirement for a power analysis to be undertaken in the UK, a solar power analyser can also be a useful tool to ensure that an inverter and complete system is performing correctly and delivering the pay back expected by a customer. In the same way, IV curve tracers, which measure the voltage and current output performance of a module, are not a compulsory requirement during commissioning, but can be useful for O&M by helping to ensure correct performance against manufacturers’ requirements and for various other forms of diagnostic testing. Bringing all these types of testers together, as part of efforts to improve O&M productivity, special solar PV test kits are available that enable solar PV technicians to work faster and more effectively without reducing the integrity of testing. For example, Seaward Solarlink test kits include all the necessary test equipment, software and datalogging capabilities needed to identify faults and carry out PV system testing to properly assess the electrical safety and performance of all types of PV systems. With widespread acknowledgement that the solar industry can no longer rely on a subsidy to drive growth, the challenge for contractors is to work with PV operators of all sizes to ensure that their investments are properly managed and that their energy generation is maximised. The message for the solar sector should not be doom and gloom; let’s stay positive and use the T&M advances now available to provide effective O&M support to the large customer base that has been created. www.electricalreview.co.uk


How to recruit the best engineers How having the right test equipment at an affordable cost can help small and medium sized companies recruit the best young engineers. By André Vandenberk, Sales Operations Manager, Electro Rent EMEA


here is a shortage of good engineers in EMEA, and the young engineers coming out of colleges and universities know this and gravitate towards the big name companies. Smaller companies, even though they may be working on large projects, often find it hard to attract the best people. I came across this problem when dealing with a medium-sized engineering company in Europe. The firm provides small satellites, space mechanisms and structures, and instruments and facilities for micro gravity research on manned and unmanned space missions. With many young engineers dreaming about working on space projects, I assumed that the company would have no problem at all attracting engineers. But this was not the case. Because it was not widely known, it found itself fighting over the top engineers with larger organisations. As such, the bosses at the company started looking for ways to make their workplace a more attractive prospect for a new engineer. The budget was limited so they could not throw vast amounts of money at the problem, either in large salaries or expensive equipment that would tempt new recruits.

defend such large investments for a product the engineer was not going to be using all the time. This is not uncommon. Small engineering companies come up against this regularly where their new engineers are not given access to a lot of test equipment. A spectrum analyser each almost never happens.

ALTERNATIVE All this is why having a dedicated test instrument for a young engineer can be a good investment. But for smaller enterprises, that £45,000 for a spectrum analyser is a lot of money. However, the young engineer is often just checking the basics for which he or she does not require a brand-new top end analyser. This is especially true when working in the RF domain where the latest equipment offers few advantages, yet the basics still have to be learned. The space company I mentioned took the decision to look at the used equipment market and approached Electro Rent Europe. Here, the bosses found that they could spend £13,970 on a 26GHz spectrum analyser. Using the Flex Term service, this investment could be spread over two years, resulting at just £582 per month, well within the budget for the project.

TEST EQUIPMENT However, one difficulty many young engineers face when they join a company is a shortage of dedicated test equipment. Typically, they have to share test equipment with the more experienced engineers or even have to book time on the equipment. Buying them their own equipment is often too expensive. A new 26GHz high-end spectrum analyser, for example, can easily cost in the region of £45,000, and having one of those per person is a large chunk of the budget. The space company had a policy of its capital expenditure budget being allocated per project per year and, though junior engineers were contracted to work on these projects, they found it difficult to Electrical Review | May 2016

CONCLUSION Attracting the best engineers during a shortage can be difficult for small and medium sized companies. But rather than throwing a lot of money at the problem, it is better to give them access to equipment that makes their job more enjoyable and productive. And by going to the used equipment market and spreading the payments, this can be far less expensive than many imagine. Good test equipment can be made available at just a small outlay per month. www.electrorent.eu


The European/UK approach to the electrical flashover hazard Mike Frain of Electrical Safety (UK) uses his experience to explain the European/UK DSSURDFK WR WKH PDQDJHPHQW RI DUF ÁDVK ULVN

operating at 400 V, with a prospective short circuit capacity of 25,000 amperes. This is roughly the type of output that you would get from a 1000 kVA, transformer. As you can see there is no protective device in circuit, only a switch. When I ask electrical engineers what will happen when the switch

Mike Frain


ike Frain has delivered safety courses on the subject of arc flash across Europe and North Africa and co-authored a paper: A European View of Arc Flash Hazards and Electrical Safety which was presented at the IEEE Electrical Safety Workshop in Florida in 2012. He is an author and the lead consultant for the European DuPont Arc Guide which is a risk assessment tool for arc flash based upon European Law. The purpose of the UK Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 is to prevent death or personal injury from electric shock, electric burn, fires, electric arcing and explosions caused by electricity. If we compare the electric shock and the electrical arcing hazards, it is electric shock that is responsible for most fatalities at work, but is often the only electrical hazard considered. It’s easy to measure and assess and is well-regulated and controlled. Electrical flashover or arc flash can cause death, but is frequently responsible for injury to electrical workers. It is often overlooked or even ignored by duty holders in the UK and there is a perception that it is difficult to assess or measure. There are no direct regulations governing electrical flashover, but there is a need to deal with the hazard as expressed in the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 and the Guidance note Electricity at Work Safe Working Practices HSG 85. So what causes electrical flashover to occur in the first place? Put simply, it is insulation breakdown and very often, the insulation in question on low voltage systems is simply air. Sadly, the cause of insulation breakdown is very often human intervention. In Figure 1 you can see two copper bus bars that are separated by 3 cm air gap. The bus bars are connected to an electrical source Electrical Review | May 2016

is closed they often say that a large amount of current will flow and the fuse wire will simply rupture and disconnect the circuit. What actually happens is that the fuse wire will vaporise and in doing so will ionise the air between the two conductors creating a low impedance path (see figure 2). Large amounts of current will flow creating temperatures as high as 20,000°C at the arc which will immediately vaporise any element known to man. There will be a massive expansion of air and conductors which causes an electrical explosion and copper will expand up to 67,000 times its original volume in a split second. The thermal effects can cause horrific burns, ultraviolet radiation which can cause arc eye and the ballistic effects can cause blunt force trauma to anyone stood close by. The consequences of an arc flash to such a person are clearly personal injury or even death but this can also result in fines and compensation claims to companies and individuals. A damaged brand name may also be an outcome, for instance an electrical contractor being prosecuted or served notices for a matter of core competence. If the equipment is so severely damaged that it is put out of action, then this will usually counter the reason for working live on equipment in the first place, which is to keep production flowing. In a practical situation, the distance between bus bars or conductors in low voltage switchgear can be half that stated in the example given. It is easy to imagine that the arc can be initiated not by a piece if fuse wire but by dropped tools, fasteners or by a short circuit in an electrical instrument. So once we have initiated an electrical arc, how can we extinguish it? Well, either the source of energy will collapse, or there will be such damage that an electrical arc cannot be sustained or more commonly a protective device will be used which will cut off the current preferably to limit the damage and effect of the arc. Here is where designers have a problem. We design short circuit current protective devices at low voltage based upon available prospective fault current into a zero impedance fault. Whilst the current in an arc at high voltage is almost equal to the prospective fault current, the three phase fault current at Low Voltage is likely to be less than half the prospective value. The arcing fault may in fact present itself as an overload rather than a dangerous short circuit which will result in a long disconnection time.


So what is the significance of this fact? The energy released in the arc is directly proportional to the amount of current flowing and also the amount of time that the current will flow. So if you double the disconnection time, you will double the energy released and double the amount of damage sustained. For Low Voltage circuit breakers, the difference between the device sensing a short circuit and an overload can be a factor of hundreds which will in turn create hundreds of times more energy released in the arc. Under the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999, we have a duty to carry out risk assessments in the workplace. We are guided to carry out risk assessments in a five step process, • Identify the hazards • Decide who might be harmed and how • Evaluate the risks and decide on precautions • Record your significant findings • Review your assessment and update if necessary The first step is to define the hazards. Electrical flashover is a known hazard, which will need to be taken into account when dealing with interactions with high energy electrical systems. There are means available to evaluate the risks which will include an assessment of the severity of the arc flash. We must remember though that in bullet point number three, deciding on precautions does not mean a direct link into PPE. The goal must be to prevent in the first place with PPE as a last resort. Mike was the lead consultant for the DuPont European Arc Guide which was written over a period of three years to address the lack of clear guidance for European Engineers. It stressed the need to predict the severity of the arc flash hazard and then to prevent it from causing harm. Only when prevention techniques had been exhausted should PPE be considered. He was also responsible for creating the 4 Ps model for the management of the arc flash hazard which is shown in Figure 3. This cycle matrix diagram illustrates how the important first step of predict is necessarily followed by prevent, protect and then finally publishing the risk assessment. This is described in some further detail below.

Figure 1

Figure 2

A. PREDICT In predicting the severity of the thermal effect of an arc flash in 3 phase AC networks, it is recommend that the calculation methods are taken from the IEEE 1584 Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations 2002. This is an auditable standard and widely accepted in the electrical engineering community. The calculations take into account distance to worker, conductor gap, voltage, prospective fault current and disconnection time. At present, the output relates to the amount of “incident energy” that a victim, standing at a given distance away from the arc, could receive to the skin surface. Future IEEE plans are to incorporate other outputs into the guide such as blast pressure, noise and ultra violet radiation. Computer modelling of the arc flash hazard in accordance with IEEE 1584 Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations 2002 requires; 1. A single line diagram, 2. A fault level study 3. A protection coordination study and 4. An arc flash study. The effort required for the arc flash study is less than 10% of the total of all these studies and facilities owners in the UK and Europe should have items 1, 2 and 3 in place regardless of a need to calculate arc flash severity.

Figure 3 (Reproduced with permission of DuPont)



B. PREVENT A fundamental safety principle, which is embodied in European/ UK legislation, is to design out, eliminate or remove the hazard at its source. This leads to the conclusion that the majority of electrical tasks must be carried out with the equipment made dead. To work dead the electricity supply must be isolated in such a way that it cannot be reconnected, or inadvertently become live again, for the duration of the work. As a minimum this will include the positive identification of all possible supply sources, the opening and locking of suitable isolation points by personal padlocks and for the proving dead at the point of work. Where the arc flash hazard cannot be eliminated then suitable risk controls should be in place (preventative or protective measures). The UK Management of Health And Safety Regulations specifies the general principles of prevention set out in Article 6(2) of European Council Directive 89/391/EEC EU Workplace Health and Safety Directive which state “Where an employer implements any preventative measures, he shall do so on the basis of the principles” shown below. (The author’s interpretation of each of the nine principles of prevention when applied to the arc flash hazard is shown in italics) • Avoiding the risk – which means dead working, Not energised = No

electrical danger • Evaluation the risks which cannot be avoided – by arc flash

assessment and predicting the level of harm and likelihood. • Combating the risks at source – by designing out the arc flash hazard or reducing it to an acceptable level, even as a temporary measure for the period of work • Adapting to the individual – limiting exposure to the hazard • Adapting to technical progress/information – take advantage of technological and technical progress to improve both safety and working methods. The evaluation of the hazard has progressed, as have mitigation and protection techniques in respect of arc flash. • Replacing the dangerous by the non-dangerous – Replace vulnerable legacy switchgear and control panels preferably with arc protected equipment and/or high levels of insulation and segregation of control and power circuits. Using safer equipment (e.g. test equipment) and tools (e.g. insulated) • Developing a coherent overall prevention policy – create a safe systems approach which is specific to structure environment, workforce & equipment issues and developing risk based investment to reduce exposure to the hazard. • Giving collective protective measures priority over individual protective measures – create a safe place of work approach by screening live parts and by good design. Any measure that is not dependent on the individual’s choice. • Giving appropriate instruction to employees – create a safe person approach by documenting safe systems of work and training employees in safe work practices. Highlight the arc flash hazard and provide information such as in the labelling of switchgear. These general principles of prevention should be considered against a hierarchy of risk controls with priority as given below. The top of the list should always take priority with PPE as a last resort. All these measures should be properly monitored and reviewed and this is particularly important when considering the lower order risk controls. Electrical Review | May 2016

Hierarchy of Risk Controls for Electrical Flashover

C. PROTECT Where the risk cannot be controlled by prevention or where there is a residual risk of injury then it may be necessary to consider mitigation to prevent injury to the worker. The requirement for and suitability of mitigation techniques must form an essential element of any risk assessment. Where protection against the thermal effects becomes necessary it must be emphasised that PPE does not prevent the accident happening in the first place. Non flame resistant clothing may ignite or melt at lower incident energy values and once ignited will continue to burn after the electrical arc has been extinguished. Burning material next to the flesh can result in serious third degree burns even for very short durations. This means ordinary clothing could actually become a hazard and for this reason it should be considered within the risk assessment.

D. PUBLISH Risk assessments have to be recorded and may also require field marking of equipment may be required. Safe systems of work, safety rules and procedures will be required and trained to all affected persons. Risk assessments need to document the hazard severity and the risk control measures. Wherever possible these should be dynamically produced and task based. In other words, be available to the person carrying out the work who will reassess such things as environmental conditions and equipment state.

SUMMARY In this article, I have discussed how easy it is for an arc to be initiated and that it cannot be taken for granted that the electrical protection will limit the damage caused. Risk assessments are a mandatory part of safety management which require an evaluation of risk in every case. That includes electrical flashover in the same way as any other hazard. Prevention is the key first principle. If the equipment is dead and correctly isolated then there is no hazard Never use PPE as a first line of defence against electrical flashover. It should be used as a last line of defence and any protection against residual risk using PPE is likely to be more comfortable, cheaper and easier to justify if the 4 Ps approach is used.




owers Electricals, one of the UK’s largest manufacturers of energy saving medium power transformers, is setting the pace when it comes to meeting the new Ecodesign regulations. Anthony Hall, the firm’s senior transformer design engineer, explains: “The new regulations have cost implications across the industry, however these new rules bring with them the potential to save millions of tonnes of CO2 emissions a year – and in that respect, we at Bowers welcome them. “As a company, we’ve been at the forefront of energy efficiency for much of our 67 year history. The family behind the business is passionate about the

environment and our products combine first class materials and many years’ engineering expertise in such a way that we believe they’re among the most efficient available in the world.” This November, Bowers will launch a new range of medium power transformers at Emex, where the company will be exhibiting following their success at Sustainability Live this spring. This new Bowers Ecodesign range – which will be on show on stand B18 - is fully compliant with the new directive, ensuring Bowers’ customers can be confident that the equipment they purchase will meet or exceed the performance requirements that will soon become a legal obligation. The legislation, which came into force

THE 20-20-20 GOAL European Union Member States are committed to achieving a 20% reduction in the consumption of primary energy by 2020 by meeting the following goals: • 20% reduction in CO2 emissions (compared to 1990 levels), • 20% of the energy on the basis of consumption coming from renewables • 20% increase in energy efficiency

DID YOU KNOW? Ensuring the use of more efficient transformers across the union will save the equivalent of approximately 5,000 double decker buses of CO2 emissions every year.

Electrical Review | May 2016

this summer and relates to small, medium and large power transformers, means that all new units put into service from July 2015 onwards must comply with strict minimum energy efficiency requirements. Equipment that’s already in situ is exempt, but if you are considering a replacement transformer it may be prudent to explore the options to replace it before the new rules take effect. The Ecodesign loss requirements for medium power transformers are at their most efficient between 27.130.5% loading, whereas the current Bowers BEST range is tailored to provide the most economical solution for users operating their equipment at significantly higher load. Bowers advise customers to not only take account of the effect of minimum efficiency requirements on the initial cost of the transformer but to opt for more efficient transformers than the regulation requires if these can be economically justified on a whole life cycle basis. The company offers a rigorous economic and technical justification that enables the customer to assess the total cost of ownership - and achieve the optimum balance between increased investment costs and reduced running costs. The Bowers top-selling ‘BEST’ range of transformers already offers a significant saving over the lifespan of the equipment, making it a solution worth considering by any business looking for replacement transformers before July 2015. Featuring advanced technology that works as a cost-effective alternative to voltage optimisation, and the highest grade of commercially available low-loss core steel and low-resistance copper, this super-low loss transformer offers substantial no-load and load-loss savings, efficiently reducing the carbon footprint of a business while offering a short return on investment. The fact that, over the course of its lifespan, the average unit will save in the region of £110,000-£115,000, has made this range Bowers’ biggest-selling to-date. Since its launch in 2010 BEST transformers


WHO ARE BOWERS? With its headquarters in Derbyshire, Bowers Electricals is one of the UK’s biggest manufacturers of Medium Power Transformers. Proudly designing – and crucially still manufacturing - here in Britain, where our expertise and cutting edge engineering are world renowned, the firm boasts a prestigious list of clients from across the public and private sectors. Projects include everything from small industrial developments to major infrastructure schemes including large scale power stations, government buildings, hospitals, schools and universities, wind and solar farms and throughout the heavy power engineering industry. Since its beginnings in 1947 as an electric motor and transformer rewinding business, Bowers Electricals has moved into the supply of new and refurbished power and distribution transformers, HV and LV switchgear and all manner of associated products and services. Over the years the team has built an enviable international reputation for quality, customer service and speed of delivery and it doesn’t stop at manufacturing; Bowers offers a full turnkey operation that includes the overhaul, rewind and repair of customer property,

installation, on-going service, maintenance and expert project management of all developments, regardless of size. Bowers prides itself on being able to offer total engineering solutions within the voltage management sector including first generation through to third generation voltage optimisation, Low loss transformers and the unique Bowers Intellivolt Transformer which combines the two technologies. The company will survey each site with a view to offering the best energy

saving package including considerations of power factor correction equipment and and where necessary harmonic filtration. Still managed day-to-day by the family that set it up, Bowers Electricals is now part of the Bowers Group of Companies which turns over in excess of £12m a year and employs 80 personnel. MEET THE TEAM: Join the Bowers team on stand B18 at Emex – the new Energy Management Exhibition taking place at London’s ExCel from November 19-20.

have been installed everywhere from National Trust properties to high street superstores and within the NHS. With transformers representing between 2.4-2.8% of the EU’s total electrical energy consumed, the new legislation is all part of plans to achieve a 20% reduction in the consumption of primary energy by the year 2020. Implementing the new directive will eliminate the use of high loss transformers and will result in savings of approximately 16TWh a year – or a staggering 3.7 million tonnes of CO2 emissions – by 2020. While the changes that 2015 will bring represent Tier 1 of this long-term strategy, a second tier will come into force in 2021, requiring transformers to be a further 10% more energy efficient. “By introducing legislation that defines high levels of efficiency, the Ecodesign directive will ensure transformers like the

transformer installed in the EU was a Bowers Ecodesign unit, the CO2 savings would be equivalent to taking more than half a million family cars off the road. “In order to remain at the forefront of industry standards we are already working closely with our material suppliers on the use of the best available technology.

international standards bodies responsible for producing the new harmonised Ecodesign transformer standards. To find out more about the Ecodesign directive, how it will affect your business, and to see if you could benefit from the BEST range already in production, contact Bowers Electricals on 01773-531531 or

Bowers Ecodesign range can make a real difference to the EU’s energy consumption,” adds Anthony. “Research shows that power transformers contribute significantly to the total losses of each EU member state, so even a marginal improvement in efficiency can bring about dramatic savings when you consider the equipment lifespan. If every

Our aim is not only to meet European Commission requirements for Tier 2 but to exceed our clients’ expectations offering a highly competitive and well proven British built product.” Bowers’ commitment to energy efficiency is reflected in the firm’s involvement with both the national and

email ecodesign@bowerselec.co.uk.

HOW DOES THE LEGISLATION AFFECT YOU? The Ecodesign Commission Regulation 548/2014 came into effect on June 11, 2014, following publication in the Official Journal L152 of the European Union. A one-year period of grace has been allowed and transformers failing to meet the new minimum requirements can no longer be placed on the market or commissioned. Manufacturers will be responsible for applying the law in association with a Notified Body designated by the Member State.

As the directive is a measure for implementing the Ecodesign Guideline 2009/125/EC, the CE marking and corresponding EU conformity certificate will be used to demonstrate proof of compliance. The legislation does not apply to products manufactured for export to countries outside the EU. Within the EU, transformers already in operation may remain in service.



Gearing up for smart MV switchgear These are revolutionary times for medium-voltage (MV) distribution systems as they undergo a profound change in role


n the past, MV systems were restricted to the distribution of power of consistent quality from a transmission network or conventional generation plant, as well as performing basic switching and protection duties. Now, intermittent local generators, such as wind and solar sources, present a more complex energy flow for the distribution equipment to handle. Furthermore, there are heightened quality and reliability expectations from operators and consumers. This puts the onus on utilities and operators to ensure that their often ageing grids become safer, smarter, more efficient, more reliable, and more environmentally friendly. And in addition they need to be easier to engineer, install and operate. These factors are all driving the development of ‘smarter’ MV distribution networks. On top of industry-mandated indices like the system average interruption duration index (SAIDI) and system average interruption frequency index (SAIFI), many countries are introducing a range of other grid efficiency regulations. Furthermore, the energy generation and consumer landscape is becoming more diverse and

All this is happening to an infrastructure that has changed little since the early 20th century more sophisticated with intermittent sources like solar and wind sources competing for grid access and major new consumers, like data centres, placing stringent demands on power providers. All this is happening to an infrastructure that has changed little since the early 20th century. early 1900s. This situation has led to the genesis of smarter grids. At the power distribution level, a smarter grid offers an intelligent way to approach grid efficiency and reliability, and provides a solid foundation for automation, remote monitoring and control of switching. But smart distribution needs smart products, at both the primary and secondary substation levels.

UNIGEAR ABB’s UniGear Digital is not just the next version of an established product. Rather, it is a new concept – a new way of going about MV switchgear design. The concept combines well-proven switchgear design with an innovative approach to protection, control, measurement and digital communication. It is based on an optimized integration of current and voltage sensors into MV switchgear, combined with the latest intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) and IEC 61850 communication. The concept was first Electrical Review | May 2016

embodied in the UniGear ZS1, air-insulated switchgear for primary substations and has now been rolled out across the UniGear single busbar portfolio up to 24 kV. More than 200,000 UniGear panels have already been installed in more than 100 countries. They are used in demanding locations such as offshore platforms, container or cruise ships and mines, as well as in the more usual applications, like utility substations, power plants, chemical plants, etc.

LOWER COST AND EASIER SETUP With the UniGear Digital concept, ‘one size fits all’ so there is no need to change primary MV components, for example instrument transformers, if the load changes. This saves time and money during project planning and execution. Energy losses during operation are lower with the UniGear Digital than with equivalent devices: Instrument transformer losses are eliminated and this can save around 250 MWh over the 30-year life of a typical substation. This represents a reduction of about 150 tonne in CO2 emissions. Costs are also reduced because the UniGear Digital has fewer live parts, so outages are less frequent and troubleshooting effort is reduced. UniGear Digital takes up less space in the substation – a real cost-saver where real estate is expensive or limited. Setup is easier too. The streamlined setup procedure eliminates the necessity, in many cases, to define details such as relay parameters, current transformer (CT) data and voltage transformer (VT) data. CT/VT data does not have to be calculated, checked and approved, and last-minute changes can be realized in the IED (Intelligent Electronic Device) logic. IEDs are perfectly suited to protection, control, measurement and supervision duties concerning utility and industrial power distribution – including radial, looped and meshed networks. Using the IEC 61850 standard, the international standard for electrical system automation, further simplifies things. Protection and control IEDs publish signals for interlocking, blocking and tripping between panels via horizontal GOOSE communication. GOOSE (generic object oriented substation events) – defined under the IEC 61850 standard – is a control model mechanism in which any format of data (status, value) is grouped into a data set and transmitted. GOOSE communication is becoming popular in substations as it offers simplicity, functionality, flexibility, easy scalability, improved diagnostics and faster performance. The IEC 61850-9-2 LE process bus is also used by IEDs for transmitting sampled measured values (SMVs). UniGear Digital uses it for sharing busbar voltages, for example.

SECONDARY SUBSTATION AUTOMATION PRODUCTS Two elements are essential to enable the smart grid at the secondary substation level: automation of the secondary substation switchgear itself and the ability to communicate with the remote SCADA


(supervisory control and data acquisition) system. ABB addresses these requirements with the gas-insulated SafeRing and Safe-Plus ring main units (RMUs) and UniSec air-insulated switchgear (AIS). SafeRing and SafePlus RMU gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) is designed with flexibility and compactness in mind. Each consists of a completely sealed system with a stainless steel tank containing all the live parts. This virtually maintenance free system ensures a high level of reliability and personnel safety. UniSec air-insulated switchgear is based on a highly flexible, modular concept that can be readily configured to meet the specific needs of each application. UniSec is used in secondary substations where normal environmental conditions prevail, no severe space restrictions apply and complex configurations and accessories – with, for example, MV instrument transformers or surge arresters – are required.

• Wired and/or wireless (GSM/GPRS) communication interfaces • Preconfigured IEC 60870-5-104 remote protocol signals


network of power consumers are just some of the factors that will drive future developments in smart distribution switchgear.

To enable automation, MV switchgear is equipped with an advanced grid automation (GA) controller. This device collects data available within the substation, puts it into a standard communication protocol and transfers it to the remote control centre for evaluation. This improved level of automation and communication in substations gives the remote operator the ability to adjust different operations in order to: • Provide high-quality power at all times • Reduce energy transport losses • Enhance network stability • Avoid (or shorten) outages • Avoid overloading network components • Improve maintenance planning • Enhance field crew efficiency • Optimise asset management Different levels of remote automation are available for ABB secondary switchgear and the user can select the one that best suits their needs. Each level comes with a predefined IED standard package, which, in some cases, can even be integrated into the MV switchgear, thus eliminating the need for additional mounting space. Customisation of these standard packages is also possible. All standard packages include: • Power supply backup source for IEDs (24V DC batteries)

Relion 615 series

Electrical Review | May 2016

All IEDs installed within the switchgear or kiosk are factory preconfigured based on the standard package specification. The communication system details (IP addresses, access point name, SIM card PIN, etc.) and MV network parameters (fault pickup current, fault current pickup time, etc.) are usually configured on-site. For a quick evaluation of the effectiveness of a particular GA solution, ABB uses an activity-based costing (ABC) calculation tool developed in cooperation with the National Technical University in Aachen, Germany. This allows calculation of, for example, the impact of a SafeRing installation and standard GA package on SAIDI. Smart switchgear is already making a big impression, however smarter grids are in still in their infancy. Renewable sources, distributed generation and an increasingly complex and demanding

SMART GRID IN ROME Acea Distribution, an Italian utility, is committed to making electricity distribution in its MV and LV networks more intelligent, with the aim of making Rome a smarter city. Acea started with a pilot project – one of eight Italian pilot projects approved and partially financed by the Authority for Electricity and Gas. In the experimentation phase, ABB provided UniSec switchgear, current sensors, voltage sensors and IEDs for the secondary substations. The logic employed is based on IEC 61850 protocol. Inter-substation and control system communication use GOOSE, over a private wireless network. The system is installed on a new portion of the Rome electrical distribution grid and will allow ACEA to substantially reduce the number and average duration of service interruptions, with a consequent reduction in restoration times and penalties.

NORWEGIAN SMART GRID CENTRE In 2012, the island municipality of Hvaler in Østfold, Norway, was selected to be the test laboratory for smart technology in MV and LV distribution networks. This project is called DeVID (Demonstration and Verification of Intelligent Distribution networks) and is part of the Norwegian Smart Grid Centre. The archipelago has a mix of homes that are occupied year-round, vacation condominiums, and commercial activity that provide the opportunity to study different electricity usage profiles. Hvaler has 3,000 houses and 4,300 condominiums. The population increases from 4,000 in winter to 30,000 in summer, presenting a challenge for the entire infrastructure, including the power network. ABB is one of several participants in DeVID and ABB’s contribution is a Magnum compact secondary substation (CSS) with SafeRing 24 kV switchgear that allows the local utility, Fredrikstad Energi, to locate any faults quickly and to monitor power quality and load in this part of the network. The CSS is monitored via ABB’s Network Manager SCADA, part of the company’s enterprise software portfolio; communication between SCADA and the CSS is via GSM. The two load break switches in the RMU can be controlled from the SCADA system andapproximately 200 measurement parameters are monitored.

48 | PRODUCTS TYPE 2 SURGE ARRESTER FOR ETHERNET BASED INTERFACES The DEHNpatch product series for RJ45 connections has been supplemented by another arrester. DEHNpatch Class D is a surge arrester for protecting Ethernet-based interfaces in structured cabling systems according to class D up to 100 MHz. This arrester is ideally suited for use in Telecom and data networks such as PV systems, wind turbines, IP camera systems and Ethernet / PoE applications up to 1 Gbit/s. Ideally suited for retrofit protection of all lines • For use in structured cabling systems according to class D up to 100 MHz • Power over Ethernet (PoE+ according to IEEE 802.3at) • For installation in conformity with the lightning protection zone concept at the boundaries from 0B – 2 and higher • D1 Lightning impulse current (10/350 ?s) per line (Iimp) 0.5 kA Protection of all pairs by powerful gas discharge tubes. DIN-rail-mounted device with RJ45 female sockets.

DEHN (UK) • 01484 859111 www.dehn.co.uk

EASY DOOR ENTRY SOLUTIONS Innovative security products supplier, ESP has added to its growing access control range with the launch of EZ-TAG3 – a sleek new keypad and proximity reader, designed to provide a compact, durable and vandalresistant solution for a wide variety of access control applications. EZ-TAG3 replaces the previous EZ-TAG2 version to introduce a more sophisticated model with additional benefits, which include a doorbell function, as well as new, improved easy programming to facilitate installation. EZ-TAG3 is an IP65 rated weatherproof combined access control keypad with proximity tag or pin code activation, accommodating up to 1,010 key tag holders or pin numbers. Users approach the keypad and enter a four digit code or hold a personal proximity tag within a few inches to activate one of the EZTAG3’s two on board relays which in turn activates an appropriate door release in separate controlled areas.

ESP • 01527 515150 www.espuk.com

EXPANDED TEAM TO MEET GROWING DEMAND Leading security products supplier, ESP, has made two new appointments as the company continues to grow and expand. Lynsey Gray takes up the newly created position of national key account manager, following more than seven years as area sales manager for Scolmore. The new role has been developed on the back of increasing business generated by the company’s successful training programmes and will see Lynsey provide support for the regional managers and key buying group members on a national basis. Following more than 10 years in the Kent Fire Brigade, and 10 years as regional sales manager with a leading fire detection products supplier, Darren Whitefoot brings a wealth of experience to his new role at ESP. He joins as regional projects manager, responsible for the company’s growing range of fire systems.

ESP • 01527 515150 www.espuk.com




Harting has announced the introduction of its new white coloured 2.54mm pitch SMT harflexicon PCB terminal block connectors for LED lighting applications. These new connectors support reliable long-term installation of LED Modules (assembled from LED arrays mounted on rigid and thermally conductive substrates for optimal heat dissipation) into a wide variety of applications e.g. High/Low Bay indoor lighting, street lighting, floodlighting and emergency lighting. Applying har-flexicon with surface mount reflow soldering processes greatly simplifies LED Module PCB assembly. Connecting the conductors in lighting fixtures was formerly often done using hand soldering. This is often unreliable and prone to error when using printed circuit boards with a metal core, due to the high degree of heat dissipation. The optimised design of the har-flexicon connector SMT PCB hold-down’s ensure rugged solderpad retention and supports reliable handling during equipment final integration.

Developed for the furniture industry, the ZF14 energy chain features an aesthetic design and is quick and easy to fit and fill with electrical cables found on height adjustable furniture. Once fitted, the e-chain simply clips into the mounting brackets that can be either screwed or glued onto the furniture, thanks to the large flat surface on the bottom. UL94-V2 certified, the plastic energy chain provides elegant and secure cable management of height adjustable furniture. Cables can simply be pressed into the e-chain® even when installed on the desk. To watch a short video showing just how easy the ZF14 e-chain® can be assembled, please follow this link: www.igus.co.uk/ zf14e-chain

EPPE PX is a multi-functional measurement and analysis system for monitoring electrical installations comprehensively and precisely and is specially designed for portable use. The galvanically isolated voltage inputs make it suitable for complex fault recorder measurement applications. Direct inputs for current measurement, current sensor inputs and sensor inputs for measuring properties such as temperature, light irradiation, rotational vibration, wind speed or wind direction make the device extremely flexible to use. Measurement data can be evaluated directly on the 7‘‘ graphical touch screen or with powerful analysis software on a PC. The connection capability for LTE/UMTS routers allows the transfer of measurement data via the mobile network.

Harting • 01604 827500 www.harting.co.uk

igus • 01604 677240 www.igus.co.uk

KoCoS Messtechnik • +44 191 259 4730 www.kocos.com

Electrical Review | May 2016



When a standard clamp meter just won’t fit, Martindale Electric has the solution with its new range of True RMS flexible current meters, designed to help electrical professionals get to those hard to reach conductors. Ideal for measuring conductors of different shapes and sizes including fuse holders, the latest series of meters from Martindale Electric includes the CM95 for high resolution measurement down to 1mA and the CM100 for measuring high current up to 3000A. Using advanced flexible current sensors, the most recent additions bring high performance to flexible measurement opening up new low current applications without having to break into the circuit. Furthermore, the lightweight sensor heads can accommodate conductors up to 16cm in diameter for the CM100 and can be threaded through small apertures. Also, unlike conventional current transformers there is no maximum overload to worry about.

Omicron welcomes you to experience an interesting program and network with peers and at IUK Protection & Testing Conference & Workshop, 25-27 October 2016. This unique event will offer presentations by industry specialists and the opportunity to gain hands-on experience in practical demonstrations with the latest Omicron equipment Who should attend > Protection and measurement engineers working for utilities, railway, industry > Manufacturers of protective equipment > Service providers, project companies > Regulatory authorities, consultants > Universities The attendance fee of £570 (£510 for Early Birds) includes all event sessions, the evening program, conference documents as well as break and lunch catering. Furthermore, costs for two nights’ luxury accommodation are also included.

Martindale Electric • 01923 441717 www.martindale-electric.co.uk

Omicron • 01785 251000 www.omicronenergy.com



Space is precious – especially when it comes to high packing densities in electrical engineering. Space limitations mean that panel builders and switchgear manufacturers have to accommodate more and more mechanical and electrical components in enclosures. The planning and configuration of interior installations within compact enclosures can be both time-consuming and complicated. Additional holes often have to be drilled in areas such as the side panels to fasten components outside of the mounting plate. This not only lowers the enclosure’s protection category, it is also adds significantly to the setting-up costs. In response, Rittal has developed an interior installation rail. The rail can be easily mounted to the side, floor or roof areas of the AE compact enclosure, without any need for additional drilling through the enclosure panels.

With the launch of their largest catalogue yet, LED Group Robus introduced over 30 new product ranges including a new premium garden range of outdoor bollards and wall lights, with plenty more in the pipeline for the coming months. After the successful launch of the Robus Triumph Activate 8 watt LED fire rated downlight, Robus is introducing the new 6 watt and 11 watt versions. All 3 versions of the Triumph Activate are insulation coverable and have interchangeable trim bezels with 6 colours to choose from, and are suitable with 38 or 60 degree lens accessories. With a high lumen output of 500 – 900 lumens per watt it’s easy to see why this family of fittings are the triumph of technology! Robs has launched six new premium outdoor products, including wall lights, spike lights, floodlights and bollards. Bulkheads, lanterns, ground lights, step lights and spotlights are also available and come in IP65 rated versions and a variety of sizes and styles.

Rittal www.rittal.co.uk

LED Group Robus • +353 1 709 9000 www.ledgrouprobus.com

ENERGY LANDSCAPE SEMINAR Powerstar is hosting an energy landscape seminar on 26 May at Best Western Pinewood Wilmslow Hotel in Manchester. Attendees to the event will learn about Virtue, a new innovation voted European Utility Weeks Product Innovation of the Year in 2015. Solon Mardapittas, lead virtue engineer, will provide guests with a full insight on the revolutionary energy storage system which allows businesses to store electricity generated during periods of low demand for use when required. Virtue can also be integrated with renewable generation sources which will allow sites to become a Virtual Power Station (VPS) enabling additional benefits from grid incentive schemes.

Powerstar • 01142 576200 www.powerstar.com/events

WIDE ROCKERS ADDED TO RANGE The latest addition to Scolmore’s Polar range of premium bright white wiring accessories is the new Wide Rocker Switch, which has ease of use as it main benefit. The easily visible wide rockers make them the ideal choice for assisted living installations and to aid with Part M compliance. There are three versions available – 1-gang, 2-gang and 3-gang – all offering concealed screws for improved aesthetics, and all benefiting from the standard features inherent with the Mode range - anti-microbial properties and a 20 year guarantee. The Polar range was born out of a desire to offer a bright white wiring accessory product to meet demand from installers and consumers. All white moulded Polar products are manufactured using Urea Formaldehyde, which has similar inherent properties to antimicrobial additives that inhibit the growth of infectious diseases.

Scolmore • 01827 63454 www.scolmore.com


50 | PRODUCTS GET THE RIGHT RESULT Seaward’s special end of season PAT transfer deal means that when you show your old tester the red card, you can boost the productivity, performance and profit of your PAT team in the field. Until the end of May, PAT customers can claim a generous cashback bonus when they substitute their old appliance tester with a new one from Seaward. The special trade in deal means anyone buying a new tester from the star studded Seaward Apollo or PrimeTest PAT line up, via an official distributor, automatically qualifies for a generous cashback payment when their old PAT tester of any make or model is retired and returned. The part exchange also comes with a hat trick of other benefits in the shape of a two-year manufacturer’s warranty, free 30 day software trial and calibration certificate.

Seaward • 0191 586 3511 www.seaward.co.uk



Socomec’s ATyS p automatic changeover switches have been chosen to support the critical power infrastructure at BUPA’s Cromwell Hospital. As a market leader in integrated critical power solutions for the most demanding applications, Socomec was the clear choice for the electrical contractor, Rotary Southern. Colin Dean UK managing director, Socomec explains; “Our products are ideal for medical applications where guaranteed availability is vital. Hospitals cannot tolerate critical or lifesafety systems being offline as evacuating the patients is unthinkable. Our automatic transfer switches – ATyS – offer absolute confidence as they are self-monitoring and report the health of both the primary and the backup supply.” Parameters can be easily configured from the front of the unit or via Easyconfig software and the product can be fully integrated into the overall power management system.

Stego has launched a filter fan series with new air-flap technology achieving considerably more efficient air circulation, a big plus in operational terms. The filter fan series comprises five enclosure cut-out sizes from 92 x 92 mm to 291 x 291 mm. Due to additional product variations the Filter Fan Plus system gives its buyers further freedom to choose between two principles that differ in direction of air flow. The FPI-principle (‘in’) actively imports fresh air through the filter fan and exports it as warmed up interior air passively through the exit via flaps. The FPO-principle (‘out’) brings in the air passively through the filter at the base of the enclosure. The air then is actively drawn upwards by the fan and expelled through the flaps.

Socomec • 01462 44 00 33 www.socomec.com

Stego • +49 791 95058-22 www.stego.co.uk



As a specialist for innovative lighting components and systems, Tridonic has developed the toolbox net4more which will not only connect luminaires with each other, but deliver a value that goes far beyond lighting and become the backbone of IoT. Where there are people, whether indoors or out on the streets, there is artificial light. In many of these luminaires there is still plenty of space for one or other digital sensor or microchip – after all, digital electronics is necessary for modern LEDs. What’s more, since the luminaires need electricity, the power supply is already integrated. There shouldn’t be any further concerns about cabling the individual sensors or changing batteries, which they would otherwise have to do every year or two or even more often – which in large buildings means a lot of work. Furthermore, luminaires are mostly installed on walls or ceilings and therefore in the best places for including sensors and communication with them along with connection to the access points for the internet can be either wireless or via the data cabling that is already in place.

Urmet has launched the Max IP Touch, an Android-powered touchscreen video door phone that revolutionises the world of video door phones and brings smart home technology control and video intercom into the home via a single touchscreen. The thin, state-of-the-art screen uses swipe and gesture recognition similar to that of a smartphone and integrates perfectly into any contemporary interior. Users are able to view and speak with visitors at external door entry panels using the Max IP’s 7-inch colour video screen and duplex audio function. The system also allows callforwarding to mobile phones via Urmet’s Call2U App when occupants are away from home. This simple-to-use touchscreen door entry phone demonstrates Urmet’s commitment to open integration and optimising home automation for the end-user. For large residential projects, Urmet can deliver the units to installers preloaded with the property developer’s chosen apps for third-party home automation, such as lighting, heating and window blind control.

Tridonic UK • 01256 374300 www.tridonic.com

Urmet • 01376 556 010 www.urmet.co.uk

Electrical Review | May 2016

FAST, SAFE INSTALLATION The use of automation technology continues to grow, with sensors, actuators and controllers ensuring ever more efficient machinery processes. With this in mind, Wieland’s saris M8/ M12 connector range has been expanded to form a connector system for use with sensors and actuators, with or without fieldbus and suitable for network technology. The standard components of saris make it suitable for wiring small functional units or installing entire systems and for decentralised field installation between a PLC and sensors or actuators, making saris he ideal solution. Wieland’s robust saris M8/M12 connector system makes decentralised installation child‘s play, with the installation effort significantly reduced by replacing cables laid in parallel with just one single main cable.

Wieland Electric • 01483 531213 www.wieland.co.uk


Contact the sales team 0207 933 8974 Lighting