Electrical Review June 2020

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June 2020 Volume 254 | No 5 www.electricalreview.co.uk

Informing the electrical industry for 140 years

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Smart Grids

Lighting

Talking Point

How digitisation could help power and protect our ‘always on’ world.

How a holistic approach to emergency lighting could help save lives.

Does the UK workforce have the skills needed to transform the way we power the country?

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Conten t s Regulars

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04 • Editor’s Comment A long hot summer, please.

06 • News The latest stories from the sector.

22 • Talking Point Does the UK workforce have the skills needed to transform the way we power the country?

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24 • Final Say Hamilton Smith of ProGarm shares nine shocking (but lesser known) Arc Flash facts worth knowing.

25 • Products Innovations worth watching.

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Features 10 • Electric Vehicles Simone Bruckner of Cressall Resistors explains where the EV market is heading and how it will meet the drive for efficiency.

14 • Smart Grids Alexandre Golisano of Schneider Electric explores how digitisation could help power and protect our ‘always on’ world.

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18 • Lighting Dave Watkins of Abtec Building Technologies explains how a holistic approach to emergency lighting could help save lives.

20 • Renewables & Sustainability

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Nigel Harvey of Recolight explores how manufacturers of lighting equipment can move towards a circular economy approach and offers sustainability suggestions for end-users.

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EDITOR

Claire Fletcher clairef@electricalreview.co.uk

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR

Kayleigh Hutchins kayleighh@electricalreview.co.uk

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR

Jordan O’Brien jordano@sjpbusinessmedia.com

DESIGN & PRODUCTION

Alex Gold alexg@sjpbusinessmedia.com

GROUP ACCOUNT DIRECTOR

Sunny Nehru

Editor’s Comment Well it turns out that last issue when I said ‘I hope this is the last issue coronavirus touches’, I was indeed being overly optimistic – I tried. Unfortunately, this virus has royally messed with every facet of our lives. People are irritable, fed up and as a result ‘rules’ are being bent more than ever. But just because vague government restrictions technically mean we ‘can’ bend the rules, doesn’t mean we should and I urge everyone to maintain their common sense, as right now that is the only thing standing in the way of a long hot summer, or extended jail time. I, and I’m sure most other people on the planet, would very much like this all to be over and for normality to resume sooner rather than later, and who knows, maybe the new normal may even be preferable to what came before. Claire Fletcher, Editor

+44 (0) 207 062 2539 sunnyn@sjpbusinessmedia.com

GROUP ACCOUNT MANAGER

Amanda McCreddie +44 (0) 207 062 2528 Amanda@electricalreview.co.uk

PUBLISHER

Wayne Darroch

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???????? NEWS

News ESF chief exec comments on Consumer Scotland Bill Lesley Rudd, chief executive of Electrical Safety First, has commented on the passage of the Consumer Scotland Bill in the Scottish Parliament. The charity warmly welcomes the new amendment to the Bill, which requires Consumer Scotland to establish and operate a central database for major product recalls aimed at consumers. Electricity is the primary cause of domestic fires in Scotland, and recent high profile recalls and electrical fires – and the historically low success rate of recalls – have highlighted concerns around electrical risk. The development of a consumer-focused, central recall database is timely.

Eaton reveals UK fire & rescue services prepare for new safety threats According to figures released by Eaton, fire and rescue services (FRS) across the UK are introducing new training in-line with the changing nature of risk today. Over a third (36%) of fire and rescue services reported an increase in the number of individuals they have rescued due to fire, flooding or any other safety risk or threat from a non-residential building compared to five years ago. The data also revealed the steps many fire and rescue services have taken to better prepare for the changing nature of risk today. The majority – 34 fire and rescue services – have gone as far as to introduce specific operational training to improve the operational response to rescuing individuals from buildings, planning for newer threats such as terrorist attacks in addition to ‘traditional’ threats, like fire and flooding. Marc Gaunt, segment lead, commercial buildings at Eaton commented, “Fire and rescue services are actively adapting processes to address the changing nature of risk today. While this is extremely positive, individuals’ safety within buildings cannot rely on fire brigades alone. Building owners and facilities managers must also understand the new risks to occupants and infrastructure in UK buildings today, as well as taking steps to mitigate these threats.”

AMP GROUP ANNOUNCES ACQUISITION OF HARLAND SIMON UPS

AMP Procurement Limited has announced it has purchased the intellectual property rights of Harland Simon UPS Limited (HSUPS) and established a new company, AMP Power Protection Limited (APPL), to run this business. APPL will provide power protection solutions to customers working in industrial applications.

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NEWS

RENEWABLE GENERATOR REVENUES FALL DUE TO COVID-19 LOCKDOWN

CICV Forum signs up to the Conflict Avoidance Pledge Research from Cornwall Insight’s Green Power Forecast has revealed there has been a sharp decline in generator revenues during the coronavirus crisis. Solar and wind technologies have been particularly impacted by low demand levels due to the Covid-19 lockdown. Solar PV captured prices were, on average, 8.4% and 14.9% below baseload levels in March and April, respectively. For wind, prices were 8.2% and 15.5% below baseload levels on average.

The CICV Forum has added its name to a growing campaign for more collaborative working by signing up to the Conflict Avoidance Pledge (CAP). A joint initiative by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, the Royal Institute of British Architects, the Institution of Civil Engineers and other major professional bodies in the built environment, the CAP aims to use early intervention techniques throughout the supply chain to try and resolve differences of opinion before they escalate into disputes. By signing up, organisations vow to work proactively to avoid conflict, facilitate early

resolution of potential disputes and promote collaborative working. Alan Wilson, forum chair and managing director of SELECT said, “We are delighted to sign the pledge and add the forum’s name to its signatories page. “Disputes in the construction industry cost billions of pounds, cause immeasurable harm to business relationships and reputations, and are extremely slow and difficult to resolve. “By joining others to encourage collaborative working and the use of early intervention techniques, we can help the construction industry perform better when restart eventually happens.”

NICEIC & ELECSA CANCEL APPRENTICE OF THE YEAR 2020 FINAL

J S Wright apprentice wins top training award Shaun Donaldson, who works out of JS Wright’s Aston headquarters, was named mechanical engineering services apprentice of the year for the Midlands by JTL, a building services industry training provider, on the completion of his training. One of more than 1,500 apprentices in their final year of training with JTL, Shaun received a trophy and a cheque for £100 at the Jurys Inn Hotel in Hinckley – and is now in the running for the title of JTL Apprentice of the Year at the national awards to be held in

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London in October. Having completed his NVQ Level 2 Diploma in Plumbing and Heating with the provider, Shaun is currently working in J S Wright’s prefabrication department, producing fully loaded heat interface unit backboards and other modular units for multi-million pound apartment schemes. Shaun was assessed against four key elements that make up the apprenticeship framework: practical work on-site, theoretical knowledge, key skills and industrial test scores.

NICEIC and ELECSA have confirmed that the grand final of the 2020 Apprentice of the Year competition has been cancelled. The decision is in response to the current Covid-19 pandemic and has been made in conjunction with event partners, Scolmore Group and Voltimum, to ensure the health and safety of all concerned. The eight finalists, who battled two intense rounds to make it into the final, will each receive prize bundles from the NICEIC, Scolmore Group and Voltimum to mark their achievement.


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ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Electrifying the vehicle market Simone Bruckner, managing director of power resistor manufacturer, Cressall Resistors, explains where the EV market is heading and how it will meet the drive for efficiency. y 2040, the government’s proposed ‘Road to Zero’ emissions plan will require each new car sold in the UK to have an electric driving range of at least 50 miles. With electric vehicle capabilities in the midst of switching from an environmentally kinder preference to a mandatory requirement, the industry will have to electrify more than just commercial vehicles. Electric vehicles (EVs) represent exciting opportunities for the UK and across the globe. With the potential to reduce emissions in the larg-

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est-emitting sector, international market trends suggest that electric cars and vans will reach price equivalency with internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles by the mid-2020s and that EV sales will overtake petrol and diesel engines by the late 2030s. Despite this burgeoning expected growth, there are still some important questions that need to be answered surrounding just how manufacturers can guarantee efficiency levels that can outperform those of traditional vehicles.


ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Going public Urban electric buses are surpassing the growth of every other EV segment and constitute the fastest-growing part of the EV market. In China, the once quaint city of Shenzhen has become a megalopolis. Over 40 years, Shenzhen’s population has accelerated from 30,000 citizens to over 12 million. In line with this remarkably rapid transformation, the city began introducing electric buses in 2009 in order to combat rising air pollution. Today, it has become the first city to electrify all of its public buses. Over the next decade, most of Europe’s bus fleets are predicted to reap the benefits of electrified transport. And benefits there are. The cost of maintenance for electric buses is around 25% lower than that of a diesel bus, as the electric motor doesn’t need the same level of servicing that a diesel one requires. Electric engine losses are also significantly lower than a diesel engine’s, lowering the cost per kilometre of electric bus travel. However, the e-bus phenomenon presents cities with some major challenges: namely technological uncertainty, large upfront investment and the need for new capabilities. It is therefore important that the long-term efficiency of these vehicles outshines their substantial initial expenditure and that the technology is in place to transform potential into reality. Bear the load There is also concern over how other heavier vehicles will be electrified. In late 2017, Tesla announced that its ‘Semi’ heavy electric truck would be ready for production by 2020. Enticing the industry with pledges of a 500-mile driving range and solar-powered ‘Megacharger’ stations, the company certainly has a lot to deliver if it is to act on its promises. Many people are speculating about the exact specifications of the Tesla Semi. One of the most important items in question seems to be its weight. If the electric vehicle is to require several electric motors in order to power it, this weight would be roughly comparable to that of a diesel engine. With the addition of the truck’s battery weight, the components inside EVs must be refined so that they can bear the load of this extra mass without it impacting efficiency. Despite slick marketing campaigns and captivating master plans, there is still a long way to go before we see a complete overhaul of heavy vehicles. In 2018, 97% of trucks and 100% of camper vans sold in Europe were diesel powered. To help make ambitions of electric heavy vehicles become a reality, we must assess and perfect the components going into them — and the focus shouldn’t solely be on batteries. The regeneration game Instead of internal combustion engines, electric vehicles use a braking chopper to convert the energy generated by high speed braking, typically when on the motorway. Urban drive cycles have a considerable amount of acceleration and decelerating periods due to traffic control in place around towns and cities. While braking, a car’s motor continues to spin even though the vehicle is trying to slow down, creating excess energy. Integrating a braking resistor allows this otherwise wasted energy to be dissipated as heat and recovered to warm the vehicle’s cabin in cold weather or to regenerate the kinetic energy to improve efficiency. The concept is widely implemented on electric trains, where wasted energy is dissipated back into the power line and consumed by other trains on the track. On the road, regenerative brakes can not only significantly improve energy efficiency, but can also contribute to maintaining

the overall upkeep of the vehicle. Regenerative braking means that mechanical friction brakes are only used in emergency situations, such as sudden stops, so there is far less need for maintenance. To increase a braking resistor’s dissipation capability, it’s important that the component is prevented from overheating. Water and air From our experience, the challenge of managing temperature is critical when ensuring the efficiency of electric vehicles, and standard electrical items may not always fulfil this requirement. Most brake resistors are typically encased in a frame to create a safe distance between surrounding components. These frames feature a choice of either cooling fans or liquid coolants.

Market trends suggest that electric cars and vans will reach price equivalency with internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles by the mid-2020s Air cooling has traditionally been the most common cooling method, as its fan technology is robust and able to withstand a significant amount of wear and tear without malfunctioning. If, for example, a single fin broke on the fan, it would still function safely. This method of dissipating heat does, however, come with its limitations. Air fans create an additional source of noise, which interferes with the quiet running that is typically one of an EV’s benefits. Using a fan also means that its enclosures are generally bulkier, which limits the range of vehicles that can use it. Air-cooling fans are further limited by their reliance on ambient temperatures to cool down heating components, which impacts the consistency of their efficiency. On the other hand, water-cooled resistors can be easily integrated into existing cooling systems and are able to deliver cooling to areas where fans often fall short. Pipes containing a liquid coolant circulate around an enclosure and out of the device to help keep components cool using the principal of heat exchange. Excess heat is thermally conducted by the water in the pipes, which is transferred out of the device and regenerated for other purposes. As the water can be stored in pipes at temperatures below the application’s ambient level, cooling can happen faster and with greater reliability. The new norm With the electric vehicle market continuing to flourish, EVs are no longer a new concept. While there is still a way to go before our entire transport system is electrified, manufacturers need to work to make sure that vehicles meet efficiency targets. We’re no longer only electrifying commercial vehicles. If the planet is to truly feel the impact of the move away from petrol and diesel, all vehicles on our roads need to undergo an upgrade. For this to happen, vehicle technology needs to keep pace. It isn’t all about batteries. Other components, such as braking resistors, must also be perfected in order to maximise the drive for greener roads.

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ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Crazy, Stupid, Gov

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ELECTRIC VEHICLES

As we move towards a fossil fuel-free future, incentives on electric vehicles should be getting better, not more erratic. Electrical Review’s Jordan O’Brien explains. lectric vehicles are a key factor in the planet’s fight against climate change, with many governments around the world pinning their decarbonisation hopes on the widespread adoption of EVs. Here in the UK, the Government wants to ban the sale of new diesel and petrol cars by 2035, which is five years earlier than its previous target. In order to ban traditional ICE vehicles however, it’s imperative that we get people into electric vehicles sooner rather than later – and the key way to do that is through incentives.

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Incentive care The UK has far from been the most generous country when it comes to incentives for new electric vehicles. In China, for example, until recently consumers received 55,000 CNY (£6,200) towards the cost of a new electric car. That has since been reduced to 25,000 CNY (£2,860), but Chinese consumers still get the added benefit of paying no sales tax on top of the vehicle’s purchase price. That’s in addition to other advantages such as the ability to drive on days where traditional vehicles are banned due to curb emissions.

When incentives began in the UK, they were hardly generous, offering just £5,000 off the cost of a brand-new electric vehicle Closer to home, Norway has even better incentives for consumers. That includes no annual road tax, up to 50% off parking and ferry fees, access to bus lanes, company car tax reduction to 40%, the absence of import taxes and exemption from paying 25% VAT. In the UK, the goalposts continue to shift. While the Government has just axed premium car tax for electric vehicles above £40,000 and those buying EVs from April 2020 will pay nothing in Benefit in Kind tax, there have been cuts in other areas which make little sense. When incentives began in the UK, they were hardly generous, offering just £5,000 off the cost of a brand-new electric vehicle. That was then cut to £3,500 in 2018, at the same time the Government excluded vehicles that offered less than 70 miles of fossil fuel-free range, and now that incentive stands at just £3,000. What’s more, electric vehicles above £50,000, of which there are plenty, won’t be eligible for the grant at all. When you compare the UK’s lacklustre incentives to other nations around the world, it’s clear to see why UK consumers are less keen on switching to EVs. In China, EVs made up 4.7% of all new car sales in 2019, equating to around 1.21 million cars. That figure is even more impressive in Norway, where 55.9% of all cars sold in 2019 were EVs. How does the UK fare? Just 3.15% of car sales in 2019 were electric – which equates to just 72,834 vehicles.

Low charge The problem with the UK’s approach to EVs isn’t restricted to incentives on the car purchase itself, the Government has also announced reductions to incentives for those wanting to install an electric vehicle chargepoint either at home or at the office. When the Electric Vehicle Homecharge Scheme (EVHS) and Workplace Charging Scheme (WCS) first began, the UK Government covered up to 75% of the cost towards installing an EV charger. Like the other incentives, that was subsequently reduced to £500, before hitting £350 in 2020.

When you compare the UK’s lacklustre incentives to other nations around the world, it’s clear to see why UK consumers are less keen on switching to EVs Unlike the incentives towards buying a brand-new electric vehicle, this reduction could have a greater effect on EV adoption. One of the key selling points of EVs is the fact that the cost of charging is negligible, leading to a lower total cost of ownership. That’s typically only the case if owners decide to charge at home, as public chargers can often cost more than the price of petrol when comparing cost per mile. In order for UK consumers to bother with installing a charger at home, they need confidence that their electric vehicle is going to be cost efficient. With the purchase price of the vehicle already higher than one with an internal combustion engine, consumers are relying on the fact that the running costs are lower. However, once you factor in the cost of installing a charger, the maths can quickly be undone. That’s why it’s important that the UK Government continues to incentivise people to install chargers at home, not least because it will open up public chargers for those who simply have no other option. However, this is where the Government’s strategy is actually positive. In May 2020, the Government finally stumped up some extra cash for on-street chargepoints in residential areas. In fact, it doubled the money available to local authorities who want to expand their charging footprint. Can the Government do better? For all the faults of the UK Government’s strategy towards electric vehicles, at least it offers some form of incentive. While the market share of EVs in the UK is still low, there are some positive signs on the horizon. According to the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT), plug-in electric vehicles command a 6.8% share of vehicles sold in the UK so far in 2020. Of course, sales of all vehicle types have dropped off a cliff edge thanks to the coronavirus lockdown, but demand in EVs is clearly on the up. However, there are warning signs in the rest of the world that if you cut incentives too far, consumers will turn their back on EVs. When China announced its incentive reduction last year, sales plummeted 16%. I’m hopeful that the UK Government won’t go too far and kill demand for EVs at a time we need them more than ever.

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SMART GRIDS

Switched on Alexandre Golisano, strategy director, Power Systems UK & Ireland at Schneider Electric, explores how digitisation can help power and protect our ‘always on’ world. he energy sector of the future will be driven by three concepts that, when interlinked, are central to explaining today’s energy challenges; decarbonisation, decentralisation, and digitisation. As the UK works towards reaching its net-zero goal by 2050, it has become imperative to decarbonise the grid, incorporating a large proportion of low carbon sources into the energy mix. This is transforming our system of energy generation to a more decentralised model, comprised of small pockets of generation from wind farms, solar panels and even electric vehicle batteries. To incorporate these changes, the grid is becoming more digitised – moving towards a two-way flow of energy where ‘prosumers’ play an active part in grid balancing and energy management. These new solutions are enabling a cleaner and more efficient global power system. To protect the digital assets of this new, omnidirectional grid, distributed services operators (DSOs) and distributed network operators (DNOs) must improve and modernise their protection relay solutions. This will save operators money by making maintenance easier, protecting staff from arc flashes and safeguarding the other equipment in their networks.

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Implementing the smarter, safer solution Protection relays are designed to trip a circuit breaker when a fault is detected, preventing damage to expensive electrical equipment and harm

to nearby personnel. But, why is it important to implement smart protection relays, and what are the drawbacks of legacy solutions? Power security is critical for consumers relying on utilities for their energy supply. Faults and issues at substations can cause blackouts and major disruption. To make energy supply more resilient and reliable, problems need to be identified, located and resolved rapidly. Digital relays have been the industry norm for several years, but are often inaccurate, unable to pinpoint the location of the fault, making it more difficult to find and resolve.

Protection relays are designed to trip a circuit breaker when a fault is detected, preventing damage to expensive electrical equipment and harm to nearby personnel Safety is an area that will be better developed with a smart solution. Detecting a problem early contributes to keeping your employees and equipment safe. The longer a fault or problem persists the worse it will get, increasing the chances of a dangerous arc fault or flash (dangerous explosions that result from circuit damage). A more efficient solution network will be able to detect faults before they become problematic. With cybersecurity as a new consideration for energy operators, it’s clear that equipment damage is no longer the only danger facing utilities. The energy network is now a target for a wide range of cybercriminals and state actors. Having digital relay solutions is no longer enough – they also need to be cybersecure. Taking into consideration modern energy usage and requirements for reliable supply, it’s important to be mindful that one weak link could have a calamitous effect – compromising stability, and the optimum delivery and storage of energy. It is abundantly clear that we are at a stage where traditional relay solutions are no longer enough. Today a more connected offering is required if energy operators are to deliver on the next level of service expected by consumers, such as cheaper energy prices for variable-voltage overnight EV charging, which allows operators to reduce grid load. Getting ahead of the game with predictive, not preventative It has quickly become apparent that as the energy mix becomes more diverse, maintaining the integrity of these next-gen network grids will require upgrading to protection relays that work to minimise downtime by automating processes.

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SMART GRIDS

Smart protection relays offer a major benefit of providing a connected solution, allowing utilities to exploit a system of ‘predictive maintenance’. Most utilities follow a ‘preventative maintenance’ approach where equipment is checked by technicians/engineers on a regular but strictly scheduled basis. The problem with this approach is that you can’t respond to issues in real-time, you simply hope a technician finds the problem the next time they perform routine maintenance. In the meantime, that minor fault could snowball into a business-interrupting crisis. This could be anything from a power cut that leaves millions without power, to an arc flash which risks personnel safety and the integrity of equipment in a whole facility. Let’s not forget the cost of the repairs after the crisis. These are likely going to be more expensive than having routine maintenance due to the amount of work involved and the potential of replacing damaged sections of your facility’s energy grid. Choosing the connected approach By choosing a connected solution – like a connected protection relay – utilities can monitor equipment condition in real-time. Any issues, software problems or faults will be flagged immediately and

sensors within the cabinet can shut down operations within milliseconds. This allows operators to be proactive and schedule maintenance when equipment actually needs it, resulting in less frequent but more effective maintenance. This approach avoids unnecessary and dangerous crises and creates cost efficiencies, both in terms of maintenance and repairs.

To make energy supply more resilient and reliable, problems need to be identified, located and resolved rapidly Reducing costs and boosting efficiency through hastening the fault detection and resolution processes, are critical to optimising energy networks by doing more with less. This is where smart protection relays play their part, enabling DSOs to deliver a more reliable supply to end-users. Those that are embracing this digitally-enabled approach to provide an enhanced service to end-users, are well on the way to improving grid resilience and meet the future of a connected, carbon neutral grid.

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SMART GRIDS

From good to great When it comes to making clean energy a practical reality, it’s safe to say we still have a fair way to go. Mandana White, CEO at Smart Grid Forums, highlights why a combination of collaboration and robust leadership could be the key to driving pace and progress in this crucial area. 16 Electrical Review | June 2020


SMART GRIDS

or almost two decades power grid engineers have been working hard to integrate new digital technologies into old electrical infrastructures to deliver the smart grid. Often working to excruciatingly tight deadlines, with severely limited budgets, and the constant pressure to deliver ‘transformation without disruption’, these teams have had their work cut out deploying the future grid at the speed of light whilst simultaneously ‘keeping the lights on’. Supporting their efforts is the work of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Bringing together 15,000 expert volunteers from industry, government and end-user groups across 166 countries, there is an IEC working group defining and refining a new standard for just about every section of the grid. These standards address the many needs of the energy transition; ageing infrastructure, intermittent energy sources, lowering energy prices, ensuring security of supply, meeting decarbonisation targets, and much more. Whilst all working groups are focused on the common goal of delivering the future grid, there is clear disparity between the pace and progress being achieved between them. Why is this? The simple answer boils down to the nature of the group’s leadership.

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Great leadership is dependent upon and must facilitate great collaboration There are working groups that prioritise leadership and those that prioritise collaboration. However, leadership and collaboration need not be mutually exclusive. In fact, great leadership is dependent upon and must facilitate great collaboration. But without the single-minded vision of an all-in leader, someone who pulls out all the stops to ensure the pace and progress of the group, those ambitious deadlines cannot be met, significant year-on-year progress cannot be achieved, and full decarbonisation objectives cannot be actualised. So, what are the ingredients of great leadership and how can IEC working groups ensure that they are reinforcing their great collaboration efforts with robust leadership to drive pace and progress and help grid operators all over the world make clean energy a practical reality? Here are some of the most essential ingredients that we have identified, through our experience of working with standardisation groups across our smart grid technical conferences: Clarity of vision A good leader will communicate the objectives of the working group and allow volunteer members to contribute at their level of convenience. A great leader will crystallise the objectives of the working group, ensuring that all members are on the same page about its goals and outcomes, reinforcing the message consistently and continually, and ensuring that there is no time lost to diversions in support of individual member’s’ commercial interests over global ecosystem objectives. Membership demographics A good working group leader will attract participants of all backgrounds but allow these volunteers to dip in and out of meetings as required. A great working group leader is a magnet to the brightest and most committed engineering minds in the industry. They assemble a group

that is representative of the commercial ecosystem, ensuring the right balance of utilities and suppliers from day one. They gain the respect and commitment of their members. They compel members to be all-in for the long haul, to see projects through to completion, and to be open to supporting the wider ecosystem on a 1:1 basis. End-user voice A good leader will encourage more utilities to join their working group. A great leader will personally headhunt the right engineers from the right utilities to ensure their standardisation activity is conducted with the buyer’s needs in mind and placed on the path to commercial success from day one. They ensure that every utility voice is heard, understood, appreciated, kept front of mind, as they move from one activity area to another. Prioritisation of activity A good leader allows the members to prioritise the activity that is of greatest engineering interest. A great leader takes the bull by the horns and ensures that they prioritise the activity that is of greatest market benefit. They will set an ambitious timeline with clear milestones. They will clearly articulate the reason for the prioritisation. They will gain the group’s buy-in and ensure their pace and progress. They will take charge and make things happen. They are single-minded, altruistic, results oriented. Market focus A good leader will ensure the standard is technically robust. A great leader will ensure that the standard is market proof. They will ensure that the group don’t just build a great concept, but that they thoroughly stress-test, critique, improve and refine the standard on an ongoing basis. They create an effective feedback loop with the market and ensure that they are available to problem solve as implementation activity takes off. There is no protectionism of the standard in its own right, there is only protectionism of what the standard will do for the grid, the ecosystem, the environment, consumers, and society as a whole.

Leadership and collaboration need not be mutually exclusive At Smart Grid Forums, we have been working with TC57 WG10 to drive engagement with the IEC 61850 standard for substation communication for over seven years. Our IEC 61850 global conference, exhibition and networking forum has played a key role in facilitating constructive critique of the standard, in order to identify its gaps, and hold space for crucial conversations that will lead to its improvement. In this time, we have witnessed the IEC 61850 community go from implementation frustration to ecosystem collaboration followed by rapid increase in utility investment and global deployment. This year we launched our first Common Information Model conference, exhibition and networking forum, focused on data integration within TSO, DSO and energy markets. Feedback from this first meeting has been outstanding and we are now planning the second edition for January 2021, where we will be facilitating crucial conversations around: working group leadership, applying CIM across the wider smart utility and extending CIM to all market players.

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LIGHTING

Seeing the light Several major incidents have recently placed fresh emphasis on the importance of having fully integrated emergency systems with robust reporting, writes Abtec Building Technologies director, Dave Watkins. Here, he explains how a holistic approach to emergency lighting can help save lives. n the starkest, most brutal ways possible, the last few years have encouraged all of us to think more carefully about the safety of buildings in which large numbers of people live or work. The tragedy at Grenfell Tower has, perhaps more than any other single event, highlighted the dangers of not having a coherent approach to escape, with the ongoing independent public inquiry suggesting that there were many other steps that should have been taken to ensure the wellbeing of residents. In this context, it is only right that people have become more aware of emergency building systems – and more demanding that the necessary preventative measures have been put in place. For instance, in January, a

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Despite the size and scale of some installations, emergency lighting is actually one of the more straightforward aspects to get right number of serious hazards – including the use of a type of combustible cladding, as well as issues relating to the emergency lighting and fire alarm systems – were discovered at a high-rise student block in Bournemouth. As a result, students were given the option to leave the premises while the leaseholders have been given six months from the end of April to complete the necessary changes. These and other incidents underline the need for an approach to safety that, ideally, begins at the very start of the building development or refurbishment process. From our own experience, we know it is often the case that building services consultants and contractors are called in after a lot of the primary design work has taken place. As a result, emergency systems can sometimes be compromised by the building design – by then largely set in stone – as well as cost concerns that tend to grow as projects look more likely to go over time and budget. Despite the size and scale of some installations, emergency lighting is actually one of the more straightforward aspects to get right – providing you are willing to make the investment expected of a durable, high-quality system. Like most areas of installation technology, emergency lighting has not been immune to the ‘race to the bottom’ trend, with some companies persisting in making decisions largely informed by cost – and a few vendors proving rather too willing to satisfy this demand. A system that is robust and fully compliant with regulations such as BS 5266 – which gives detailed guidance on the application and practice

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of emergency escape lighting – is essential. But so too is a configuration that allows end-users to make regular checks and ensure that it remains ‘fit for purpose’. Increasingly, the view is that this can only be achieved by having a unified network infrastructure that allows all devices to be monitored continuously, and any potential failures to be reported at the earliest possible opportunity. Open protocol approach It is for precisely these reasons that KNX has become so integral to many major construction projects today. Designed for a wide variety of commercial and domestic building automation applications, KNX allows systems including lighting, HVAC, security, AV and displays to be controlled and managed using the same open standard communications protocol. Technology manufacturers across the spectrum have adopted KNX since it began to become more widespread in the late 1990s, and as of 2019 it is estimated that more than 300 million KNX-certified products are in use worldwide. At a time when even major names in the lighting world are withdrawing support for their propriety systems – leaving thousands of customers with useless, unsupported technology – the case for an open, future-proofed system such as KNX has never been stronger. A consistent baseline of capabilities means that KNX can bring a welcome new level of reassurance to a project. Moreover, for lighting specifically, it can provide users with greater flexibility and control over their emergency lighting systems – both viewed individually and within

A system that is robust and fully compliant with regulations such as BS 5266 – which gives detailed guidance on the application and practice of emergency escape lighting – is essential the context of overall building safety. For instance, individual groups can be monitored and controlled via the DALI (Digital Addressable Lighting Interface), while KNX/IP routers allow the lighting systems to be hooked up to the overall building lighting system in different operational ‘lines’. As well as enabling more highly detailed fault reporting, this approach also makes it considerably easier to expand or amend existing systems as requirements evolve.


LIGHTING

If anything, this need to achieve overall system monitoring is only going to intensify as we move further into the Internet of Things (IoT) and Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) eras. To put it mildly, there are many current IoT and BYOD products that do not have the security provisions one would expect of professional-grade devices. Their addition to existing building networks could well cause problems in terms of security and reliability if not managed properly, and so the ability to maintain a

complete overview of all building management systems will be vital. Customers who have made KNX the foundation of their building technology systems routinely report an increased sense of confidence among their technical staff and ‘regular’ employees. And although we all fervently hope that there will be no further building safety tragedies, these types of efficient and integrated system designs will provide the best opportunity for a positive outcome if the worst does ever happen.

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RENEWABLES & SUSTAINABILITY

Circular sustainability Nigel Harvey, CEO of Recolight, discusses options for manufacturers of lighting equipment to move towards a circular economy approach and offers suggestions for end-users to become more sustainable. ransformation to a circular economy is increasingly being seen as essential if manufacturing and all industry is to be sustainable. This will become ever more important as demand for resources rises, and energy costs increase. Circular economy strategy is intended to move us away from the linear economy, in which raw materials are made into products, which are then discarded. Instead, products, sub-assemblies, components, and

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raw materials are kept in use and reused, maximising their value, and minimising waste and environmental harm. Many organisations have deployed sustainability teams, with lighting installers sourcing low energy lighting products to meet the demands of their customers. But to be truly sustainable means moving beyond low energy products – that is now a given. It also now means moving to those products that are manufactured in a sustainable fashion, best exemplified


RENEWABLES & SUSTAINABILITY

by circular economy principles. The earlier companies start, the more likely they are to be able to meet and exceed the new requirements. Those companies that have embraced a circular approach are therefore likely to be more competitive. Circular economy standards for lighting manufacturers With new circular economy standards in preparation, lighting producers should start considering how some of the principles can be included in the products they design and manufacture. A new suite of material efficiency standards is currently being developed by CENELEC. They will capture key principles of product design for the circular economy and will apply to energy related products – including many lamps and luminaires. The new standards include requirements for durability, repairability, upgradeability, design for disassembly, and recyclability. Of particular relevance are new standards that can be used to assess the proportion of re-used components and recycled raw materials in new products. Whilst Brexit inevitably creates uncertainty around whether or not these standards will be implemented in the UK, they will be required for products sold in the EU. As a result, lighting producers should start considering how some of the principles might be included in the products they design and manufacture. In particular, some could face technical challenges on the incorporation of recycled plastic into new products.

The earlier companies start, the more likely they are to be able to meet and exceed the new requirements What can be done now by lighting manufacturers? Given that the standards are not yet finalised, two approaches are particularly relevant. The first is to move towards a modular approach when designing luminaires, incorporating an end-user replaceable LED module. This has already become mandatory for most lighting products in the EU’s Single Lighting Regulation. The benefit is quite clear. While we all expect LED technology to have a long service life, failures can happen. And taking a modular approach avoids the need to discard the entire luminaire, just because one component has failed. That reduces cost, and also ensures the luminaire is kept in service rather than being sent to waste. This approach ticks the “reduce” and “re-use” boxes – without needing to resort to recycling. The second is for producers to start investigating how to incorporate a proportion of plastic of recycled origin in the production of new products. It seems likely that standards will make this mandatory, or at least make it financially attractive, but producers may face some challenges, both in identifying recycled raw materials of the right quality and consistency, and also incorporating them in new products. It may involve building new partnerships with suppliers of recycled plastic. The benefit of such an approach is clear for environmental reasons, reducing the reliance on virgin materials, and obtaining value from recycled materials.

Sustainable options for end-users Much can be done now for those end-users who have sustainability at the heart of their organisations and for those wishing to adopt such practices. • Lighting as a service, a business model in which products are leased rather than sold, can facilitate the move towards a circular economy. This is because the original manufacturer can retain ownership of the equipment. That also means product which reaches end-of-life can be returned to the original producer for possible upgrade and repair – with recycling only a fall-back when such alternatives are not possible. • Fluorescent tubes and other mercury containing lamps such as compact fluorescents, and sodium lamps should be recycled. Re-use is not an option. • Traditional luminaires specifically designed for use with fluorescent tubes should also be recycled. In virtually all cases, it will not be possible to convert them to LED, although installing retrofit T8 LED tubes rather than replacing fittings is a way to extend life, and so reduce the amount of waste arising. • Integrated LED luminaires are not yet entering the waste stream in significant quantities but are clearly being put into service in large numbers. It goes without saying that installing LED technologies, with their lower energy consumption and greater lifetime, should support a circular economy. • LED lamps are generally not reusable. Whilst there have been a few which have been designed to be repairable, they are not widely available. Recycling therefore remains the best option when LED lamps reach end-of-life. Furthermore, some business end-users and many consumers, have difficulty in distinguishing LED lamps from mercury containing gas discharge lamps. As a result, it is best practice to place waste LED lamps in the same container as fluorescent lamps. To conclude As the demand for and cost of resources continue to rise, and new circular economy requirements become enshrined in regulations and standards, our industry needs to embrace a circular economy to ensure future sustainability.

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TALKING POINT

Have we got the skills? The Government’s commitment to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050 depends on a range of technologies, including carbon capture and hydrogen, to decarbonise our industrial and energy sectors. But does the UK workforce really have the skills needed to undertake such a massive transformation to the way we power the country?

The engineering construction industry will play a pivotal role in decarbonising UK industry and reaching our climate change targets ew research from Element Energy on behalf of the ECITB – Toward Net Zero – says in the short term, the UK should have enough workers with the right skills to bring about the shift to net zero. And with the potential to bring over £40 billion in revenues for the engineering construction industry by 2050, decarbonisation has huge economic as well as environmental incentives. However, the report highlights this revenue growth is only possible if we are able to successfully negotiate a number of critical challenges, including skills shortages further down the road, which must be met to make the switch to low carbon technologies. Without doubt, the engineering construction industry will play a pivotal role in decarbonising UK industry and reaching our climate change targets. As the industry responsible for critical infrastructure, the shift to net zero will impact on all sectors, including the oil and gas industry, power generation through conventional, nuclear, and renewable technologies, water treatment and waste management, and the processing industries such as chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and food and drink. Chiefly, the UK’s net-zero objectives depend on the successful decarbonisation of six industrial clusters; these are carbon intensive hotspots located at Merseyside, Teesside, Humberside, Grangemouth, South Wales and Southampton. Under the Government’s plans, at least one industrial cluster must decarbonise fully by 2040,

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with the remaining five becoming carbon neutral by 2050. Analysis of the different decarbonisation technologies and the input from industry suggests that the UK’s workforce is starting from solid foundations and already has most of the fundamental skills needed to deploy these technologies. The report by Element Energy found that while the workforce does possess many of the skills needed to deploy these technologies, there are notable gaps in areas such as CO2 pipeline monitoring, production of synthetic fuels and repurposing of salt caverns for hydrogen shortage. There are also skills gaps in areas required for effective organisational behaviour, planning and design, such as project management, systems thinking and collaborative working. Additionally, the number of workers required and the timeframe for their deployment remains unclear, which could lead to skills shortages. With hundreds of millions of pounds already committed by the Government to deploy technologies like carbon capture and storage, and low-carbon hydrogen production, the skills and services of engineering construction industry workforce are already in demand. Delivery of the technologies and infrastructure required to decarbonise industrial sites and processes relies on a vibrant and skilled contracting industry. This is good news for readers of Electrical Review; the shift to net zero will require electrical engineers’ skills to retrofit industrial plants with the low-carbon power sources that are a vital


TALKING POINT

part of the UK’s plan to reach net zero over the next three decades. Technological changes expected in the short term include the early deployment of hydrogen production, carbon capture and storage, and emission mitigation measures in the oil and gas sector. The research suggests these technologies will cause limited disruption. Hydrogen production through reformation and electrolysis has already been used by UK industry albeit on small stage projects. And carbon capture technologies share some design and operational features with the oil and gas industry. So, while operatives will require industry-specific training on how to build and operate newer technologies, the underlying foundational skills are already present. While the transfer of skills from some sectors could leave skills gaps to address in the short-term, the major changes will relate to different ways of working and project delivery, which require a shift to a more collaborative approach to ensure synergies between different industries. More disruptive technologies are expected to follow in the medium and long term. Hydrogen storage in salt caverns, synthesis of fuels from captured carbon dioxide, and direct air carbon capture and storage are all technologies mooted for deployment that have not been used at scale before, and we do not yet know the full extent of the skills required. For example, hydrogen storage technologies may require additional skills that are currently not widely available within the engineering construction industry and may require skills similar to those employed by the exploration and mining industries. As the roll-out of key decarbonisation technologies accelerate in the medium and long term, policies to address any skill shortages and adoption of innovative technologies will also be required to ensure industry develops well-rounded expertise within the UK and to ensure the workforce will be readily available in vital areas.

The ECITB – skills body for the engineering construction industry – is already working to identify and address these skills challenges through a review of our training and qualifications to ensure they reflect this direction of travel. This preparation should help deliver a workforce equipped to tackle this most pressing of challenges. In addition, we are working to identify areas of the engineering workforce with transferable skills that would translate into other roles necessary for the net zero transition. For example, pipe fitters and designers, leak test technicians, and offshore barge operators who currently work in the oil and gas sector could be retrained for the needs of building and operating carbon capture and storage infrastructure. While this strategy will help mitigate against the short-term impacts, a repositioning of the engineering construction industry to make the sector more attractive will be needed in the long term. The industry should focus recruitment efforts on the younger generations that are looking for high-impact careers, including fighting climate change. There is no doubt this change is both revolutionary in terms of scope and the required rate of change to reach the net zero targets. However, the net-zero transition should lead to the development of unique expertise in the UK. As the first developed economy to declare a net-zero target, the UK will have the potential to develop skills that could be exported to decarbonise other markets and countries that follow the UK. Engineering construction is a dynamic industry, and, as demonstrated by the widespread adoption of renewable energy technologies in recent years, an industry with a successful track record of adapting. If industry and government work together to ensure we monitor and tackle skills gaps and shortages with the required training, we will see a thriving industry that is able to transform big challenges into great opportunities.

Delivery of the technologies and infrastructure required to decarbonise industrial sites and processes relies on a vibrant and skilled contracting industry

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FINAL SAY

Arc Flash: Are you at risk? Hamilton Smith, technical sales manager at specialists in Arc Flash protective wear, ProGARM, shines a spotlight on the life changing risks an Arc Flash incident can create. Here he highlights nine shocking (but lesser known) Arc Flash facts. But first, what exactly is an Arc Flash? ou may know that you’re at risk of an Arc Flash incident, but when it comes to the severity and real dangers posed by such an event, it’s rare that teams are fully in the loop. An Arc Flash happens when an electrical discharge travels through the air and releases an intense burst of energy. This occurs when an electrical discharge or short circuit moves through the air as a result of voltage spikes, worn connections, cable strikes or gaps in insulation. This flash is capable of causing serious harm to anyone caught by it, but here are some of the less known, yet shocking facts about an Arc Flash and the damage they can cause: 1. Although there are many complex reasons an Arc Flash occurs, they can also happen by simply a rodent, tool or other component being in the breaker area that compromises the distance between energised components. This means you never truly know if you’re at real risk or not. The solution – always ensure you are protected against an Arc Flash incident. 2. An Arc Flash can produce some of the highest temperatures known to occur on Earth. The heat released in the initial blast of an electrical arc can reach over 36,000F, which is four times hotter than the surface of the sun.

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3. All known materials are vaporised at this temperature, which causes an open expansion of air. These blast pressure waves are so powerful they can throw a worker across a room. 4. An Arc Flash is not simply bursts of intense heat and light, it is also incredibly powerful. During an Arc Flash incident, copper expands at 67,000 times its volume. The arcs spray droplets of molten metal at speeds that exceed 700mph, which can penetrate a worker’s body standing up to 10 feet away. 5. The extreme temperature of an Arc Flash combined with the blast pressure waves can ignite a worker’s clothes who is 10 feet away from the initial blast. 6. An Arc Flash blast can have a sound magnitude of 140dB at a distance of two feet from the arc. A sound this loud can result in long-term hearing loss. 7. The light generated from an Arc Flash can cause temporary and sometimes permanent blindness. 8. Although the exact number of Arc Flash incidents is unknown, researches have concluded that around 10% of electrical injuries are caused by an Arc Flash and not just a simple electric shock. 9. Industries at most risk of Arc Flash incidents are generally those in continuous use such as rail, power generation, utilities and construction. The moral of the story is, it is absolutely vital you ensure that your workforce is protected from any potential Arc Flash incidents, and not only physically. Personal protective equipment will only do so much, and will do nothing without the correct knowledge of the risks, training and due diligence. For more information on the risks of Arc Flash and how to protect your workforce, visit the ProGARM website. Stay safe.


PRODUCTS

Introducing the Inceptor Iona from Ovia

ESP targets professional CCTV sector

Scolmore expands printed modules range

Ovia’s Inceptor Iona is a range of 20W and 30W LED professional downlights, which provide contractors with perfect low maintenance replacements for CFL and PL lighting. There are three versions available – standard non-dimmable; 1-10V dimmable and switch dimmable, and the dimmable versions also have an emergency option. The Inceptor Iona includes a three-pole flow connector on non-dimmable versions and a seven-pole flow connector on dimmable versions – allowing for quick and easy installation, as well as testing and maintenance. Iona benefits from a two-section design – the engine and bezel. With six engines and four bezels offered in this modular design, it offers a large number of options to suit a range of applications. The Inceptor Iona also includes a CTA (Colour Temperature Adjustment) switch with a range of 2,700K, 4,000K and 6,500K. A five-year warranty is offered as standard.

ESP’s IP (Internet Protocol) CCTV range has been developed to satisfy the growing demand from customers and contractors, and to meet the needs of a changing marketplace which is moving from analogue to IP. The IP POE CCTV range is designed to offer superior, reliable and straightforward installation solutions for a range of applications from domestic through to larger and more complex commercial projects. The range features POE (Power-Over-Ethernet) which enables the camera and power feed to be wired in Cat5e cable up to 100 metres without the need for additional power, which makes installation much more convenient. A single Ethernet cable provides both the power and the HD digital feed, with just one cable per camera and multiple cameras can be installed anywhere on the network that the NVR is connected to. Processing power, an abundance of features, versatility and high-resolution IP CCTV all combine to make this the superior choice over traditional analogue systems.

Scolmore has added three new printed modules to its standard range following an increased number of requests coming from its wholesale customers, who in turn have seen this demand driven from the consumer. Modules etched with ‘hot tap’, ‘wine cooler’ and ‘warming drawer’ – previously available as bespoke orders – are now part of the growing printed module range which totals 17 and includes some of the most popular – dishwasher, cooker hood, washing machine, fridge freezer. The printed modules are available in all the GridPro and MiniGrid module finishes, providing a huge selection for customers to choose from. Scolmore launched its in-house laser etching service across all of its GridPro modules in 2018, shortly after the extensive GridPro range was launched. The module etching is done using a specially acquired laser printer, which produces a precise, permanent, fine marking effect and offers flexibility to suit large volume orders or for customised jobs.

Ovia • 01827 300640 www.oviauk.com

ESP • 01527 515150 www.espuk.com

New earth testers from Chauvin Arnoux Test equipment specialist Chauvin Arnoux has launched its new 2P and 3P earth testers. Ideal for all earth measurements, the CA 6422 and CA 6424 are user-friendly, lightweight, rugged and ingress protected to IP65. The new testers are suitable for work undertaken on and off-site in 600V CAT IV environments, including soils with high resistivity. Designed with safety in mind, the moment a hazardous voltage is detected, an LED lights up and measurement is prohibited. The connections have text marking and colour coding to help prevent mistakes as an added safety feature. The test start button is backlit and perfectly visible in all circumstances, and all functions can be used even with safety gloves on. The wide backlit LCD screen has clear indicators to help use the instrument in low light levels. The CA 6424 has an input for recharging its batteries via the mains, a vehicle cigarette lighter or a USB socket for greater versatility.

Chauvin Arnoux • 01924 460494 www.chauvin-arnoux.co.uk/en

C.K Japanese pry bar 10in (T4312): The professional’s tool bag essential Designed to complete a multitude of tasks quickly and effectively, C.K’s new premium quality Japanese pry bar 10in (T4312) also conveniently slots into any tool bag for easy transportation. Hot forged from a carbon steel alloy and hardened for exceptional strength and durability, this superior Japanese pry bar features a 46mm wide tip for precise removal with minimal damage of mouldings, skirting boards, cavity wall nails and is also perfect for quickly prising apart floorboards and other materials. Precision engineered to offer maximum torque and leverage, the C.K Japanese pry bar combines optimum performance and superior durability, with a solid construction built to withstand pressure and wear. Ideal for a multitude of tasks, whether electrical, building renovations/DIY work, or for industrial applications, the C.K Japanese pry bar (T4312) is set to become an essential addition to any professional’s tool kit.

Scolmore • 01827 63454 www.scolmore.com

ADMO 5.10 with InSight 2.10 now available from Omicron ADMO with InSight is Omicron’s all-in-one, systematic, and integrated solution that helps users to keep track of, organise and get insights from all their IED pre-commissioning, commissioning and maintenance activities. The latest release adds two more InSight widgets (for a total of 16) that deliver more valuable information from ADMO data to you than ever before. ADMO’s workflow management capabilities expand by the new firmware update assistance feature. Moreover, major improvements in the settings management functionality make sure to integrate all the data where and when needed.

Omicron • 01785 848 100 www.omicronenergy.com

Carl Kammerling • 0175 870 1070 www.carlkammerling.com

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