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July / August 2020 Volume 254 | No 6

Informing the electrical industry for 140 years


Transport Infrastructure

Energy Efficiency

Electrifying the UK heavy vehicle market.

Building management in a post pandemic world.


Final Say Are electric vehicles more dangerous than we think?


Conten t s Regulars


04 • Leader New world, new website.

06 • News Stories from the sector.

32 • Talking Point Economic recovery post Covid-19.

34 • Final Say


We explore the lesser known risks associated with electric and hybrid EV’s.

35 • Products Innovations worth watching.



10 • Transport Infrastructure Mark Templeman of Cressall explores the potential of electrifying the UK heavy vehicle market.

16 • Energy Efficiency Graeme Rees of the BCIA discusses the efficient management of buildings post-lockdown.

22 • Legal & Compliance


ECA directors Rob Driscoll and Mike Smith give us an insight into how Covid-19 has impacted contractors.

28 • Professional Development & Training Jon Graham of JTL highlights why training the next generation of apprentices is crucial in ensuring the pipeline of skilled electricians continues during these challenging times.





Claire Fletcher


Kayleigh Hutchins


Jordan O’Brien


Alex Gold


Sunny Nehru

Editor’s Comment So, as it stands it would appear the ‘new normal’ is basically masks, masks for all, and if you’re not wearing one, rest assured some masked individual will have already uploaded your photo to a local group on social media labelling you a disgrace. And yes, wearing a mask is a pain, a minor inconvenience at best. But for anyone that thinks this perfectly reasonable request during a global pandemic is some sort of violation of their human rights – it isn’t, so just put one on and don’t be that guy. I promise your oxygen levels will be just fine. In other news, we’ve spent lockdown being pretty productive here at Electrical Review HQ. As promised, we’ve built you a shiny new website, so, if you haven’t already, check out what’s new and as always, we’d love your feedback. So, if you have anything to say please don’t hesitate to get in touch. Claire Fletcher, Editor

+44 (0) 207 062 2539


Amanda McCreddie +44 (0) 207 062 2528


Wayne Darroch

Printing by Buxton Paid subscription enquiries: SJP Business Media 2nd Floor, 123 Cannon Street London, EC4N 5AU Subscription rates: UK £221 per year, Overseas £262 Electrical Review is a controlled circulation monthly magazine available free to selected personnel at the publisher’s discretion. If you wish to apply for regular free copies then please visit: Electrical Review is published by

2nd floor,123 Cannon Street London, EC4N 5AU Any article in this journal represents the opinions of the author. This does not necessarily reflect the views of Electrical Review or its publisher – SJP Business Media ISSN 0013-4384 – All editorial contents © SJP Business Media Average net circulation Jan-Dec 2018 6,501

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News UK electrical waste hits 1.45 million tonnes a year, although change could be coming The amount of electrical waste produced annually has been growing in recent years, with it now one of the fastest growing waste streams in the UK and in the world. Thankfully, the vast majority of electrical waste goes on to be recycled or re-used, although there’s still a significant portion that simply gets thrown away. Despite other waste streams getting well promoted recycling schemes, such as plastic and paper having roadside pickup, many consumers and businesses neglect to recycle their electronics. This results in a significant loss of valuable raw materials, such as gold, copper, aluminium and steel, which Material Focus has estimated costs the UK economy over £370 million a year. Scott Butler, executive director, Material Focus, commented, “The focus of our recently launched ‘Recycle Your Electricals’ campaign is to encourage more UK householders to stop throwing away and instead recycle or reuse their small unwanted electricals. “In addition, we will continue to invest in research to help the industry and policy makers understand more about where and how these household and business electricals are being lost, and we hope that the research can inform future actions to prevent this loss.”

Apprentice 121 scheme earns NAPIT support to get young people into work Apprentice 121, a scheme started by Mark Allison of Power Sonic Ltd to get young people into apprenticeships, has earned the support of NAPIT. The scheme provides a support system to help apprentices that have lost work placements due to the impact of Covid-19, with the aim of helping electrical apprentices complete qualifications with opportunities for site-based work to demonstrate their skills as part of the NVQ training program. NAPIT’s support of the scheme is coupled with the industry body’s backing of the UK Government’s £2 billion Kickstart Scheme, which aims to create jobs for young people aged 16-24, claiming Universal Credit and at risk of long-term unemployment. That scheme will have the Government cover 100% of the relevant National Minimum Wage for 25 hours a week, plus the associated employer National Insurance contributions and employer minimum automatic enrolment contributions.


Apple has become the latest major tech firm to commit to carbon neutrality, with the firm noting that it wants to be 100% carbon neutral across its entire supply chain by 2030. The carbon neutrality commitment will be significant for reducing emissions globally, as it will mean all Apple devices purchased will be completely carbon neutral. Of course, that will require Apple to work with its suppliers to ensure they’re cutting their carbon emissions to zero.

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Transport for London has confirmed that in order to achieve net zero for London Underground, it will have to transition to 100% renewable energy. That will be quite a feat, as the organisation is London’s biggest electricity consumer, requiring 1.6TWh of electricity every year to power its operations – the equivalent of powering 437,000 homes.

ABB begins construction on $30 million EV charger factory ABB is expanding its manufacturing capabilities with a new facility in San Giovanni Valdarno, Italy. The 16,000 square metre facility is located in Tuscany, just 30 miles outside Florence, and will be dedicated to producing electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The new plant will produce ABB’s entire

portfolio of direct current (DC) electric vehicle battery chargers, from domestic systems to systems for installation in public areas and those dedicated to urban public transport. Set to be operational by the end of 2021, the new facility in Italy comes at a cost of $30 million.


Majority of homeowners plan to take advantage of Green Homes Grant scheme According to research by comparison website Moneysupermarket, 51% of English homeowners are already planning on applying for the Green Homes Grant scheme, when it goes live in September. A further 26% of households said they are considering it. The scheme has the potential of saving homeowners up to £300 a year on bills by making key energy efficiency upgrades to their home. The average household in England will be able to apply for a voucher to

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cover two thirds of the cost of energy efficiency upgrades to their homes, up to a maximum of £5,000. Poorer households will see an even greater benefit, as they’ll receive 100% coverage, up to a maximum of £10,000. Of course, these upgrades could include any number of energy efficiency upgrades, from more efficient lighting (one of the best ways to save energy) to the installation of heat pumps. Unfortunately, the scheme isn’t available to households in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

Research from RenewableUK has found that the UK is still the number one country in the world for offshore wind projects, although China is quickly catching up. Previously, China was in fourth place, although it has since increased its position by 7.3GW, or 60%, to 19.3GW. That still lags far behind the UK’s 38.9GW, however, which represents a quarter of the global total.


Electrifying the UK heavy vehicle market The Department for Transport Statistics reports that there were 501,500 heavy goods vehicles licensed in the UK in 2019, but only 400 of these were battery electric powered. With heavy goods vehicles being a significant contributor of carbon emissions, will we see an increase in electric power? Here, Mark Templeman, sales engineer at power resistor manufacturer Cressall, explores the potential of electrifying the UK heavy vehicle market. eavy goods vehicles account for around 17% of greenhouse gas emissions and 21% of nitrogen oxide emissions from the road transport sector, while contributing to just 5% of vehicle miles. Switching from diesel or petrol to electric power reduces the tailpipe emissions of vehicles, while also providing performance benefits. However, the introduction of electric power into the heavy vehicle market remains in its early stages. For electric heavy vehicles to become commonplace, there is a need for further development of the technology and accommodating changes to infrastructure.


Battery electric versus hydrogen fuel cell A challenge of electrifying heavy vehicles is finding an energy storage solution that doesn’t add too much weight, which would increase energy consumption. Batteries must also possess a long range, allowing long distance freight. The main contenders for reducing vehicle emissions are battery electric and hydrogen fuel cell electric. Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) use chemical energy that is stored in rechargeable battery packs, and use electric motors for propulsion. Their impact on the environment is significantly lower than that of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles, as the electricity needed to charge the battery can come from renewable energy sources, such as wind power.

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However, the range between charges is limited, making it not so suitable for heavy goods vehicles travelling a few hundred miles a day. This is exacerbated by the lengthy charge time of BEVs, extending to many hours for heavy vehicles depending on the type of charger. Electric batteries are heavy, require rare earth metals and are expensive to recycle. However, these issues can be overcome by the development of solid state batteries, chemical developments on the cathode and advanced recycling techniques. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) also use an electric motor for propulsion but with a much smaller battery pack, with the fuel cell constantly converting the hydrogen to electricity, which in turn charges the battery and only emits water from the tailpipe. FCEVs typically have a longer range and shorter fill time than BEVs, making them a stronger candidate for long-distance vehicles. Furthermore, the fuel cells can be stacked together to scale up power for a heavy vehicle. Fuel cells are more compact and lightweight than electric batteries, and most of the fuel cell can be recycled at end of life. However, the majority of hydrogen currently being produced is made using fossil fuels through steam reforming, meaning hydrogen power is not emission free when its whole lifecycle is considered. If developments are made that allow more hydrogen to be produced from renewable resources, then FCEVs can become a more environmentally-friendly option.


Performance, reliability and safety Electric vehicles (EVs) are generally more reliable than ICE vehicles as they consist of fewer moving parts, reducing the risk of breakdowns and the need for frequent servicing. Electric motors can deliver torque quickly with almost instant acceleration, making vehicles quicker to start. This is particularly beneficial for heavy vehicles that are carrying large loads on fast motorways or on an inclined gradient. In addition, electric power has a higher efficiency, so the cost per mile is reduced. It’s also worth noting that electric vehicles are significantly quieter than ICE vehicles. While this may benefit a reduction in noise pollution in urban areas, consideration needs to be taken to account for the potential risk to pedestrians and cyclists who rely on their hearing to sense an approaching vehicle. The lower risk of breakdowns increases the safety of the vehicle, but some people are concerned about the safety of the battery packs used to supply power to the vehicle. Battery packs can be up to 800 Volts DC, and this high voltage carries risks. An impact or crash could cause a fault in the cell, which could lead to the system overheating, resulting in complete failure of the battery pack or even a fire. However, battery cooling systems are constantly improving through intelligent battery management systems and the implementation of better fire calming chemicals within the battery components. For example, external intumescent barriers can resist thermal runaway and isolate the batteries from each other.

For electric heavy vehicles to become commonplace, there is a need for further development of the technology and accommodating changes to infrastructure Heavy vehicles brake differently to cars, as they do not purely rely on their service brakes to slow down. Instead, they also use auxiliary and endurance braking systems, which don’t overheat as quickly on long declines and reduce the risk of brake fade or failure of the service brakes. In electric heavy vehicles, this braking is regenerative, which minimises wear on the service brakes and adds charge and range to the battery packs. However, if there is a failure in the system, or the battery pack’s state of charge is unable to accept the charge, this could become dangerous. Using a dynamic braking resistor will dissipate the excess energy as heat to improve the safety of the braking system. Regenerative braking aided by braking resistors can also boost heating efficiency by feeding the dissipated energy back into the vehicle to heat the internal cabin. The resistor needs to be compact and meet the current ECE R13 Type–IIA endurance braking performance test. To pass this test, the resistor must allow the heavy vehicle to travel 6km at 30kph on a 7% decline with the endurance braking system active and without the service brakes overheating and failing.

Effect on infrastructure With electric vehicles requiring regular charging, it’s important to consider the impact this will have on the grid. The grid is a smart infrastructure that incorporates microgrids, renewable energy supplies and storage schemes to balance demand. To minimise strain, heavy vehicle distribution hubs and vehicle operators could invest in on-site renewable energy sources, such as wind or solar, and have an energy storage system from second life batteries. Vehicle to grid (V2G) technology can enable EV batteries to store energy and return it back to the grid when it’s most needed, such as in peak times. In regard to transport infrastructure, the reduced range of EVs could require more charging stations to fulfil the same delivery requirements. We could see a dedicated lane on roads for EVs that incorporates a pantograph, which supplies and charges the vehicles while operating. This could be combined with autonomous vehicle technology so the EVs can communicate with each other and run in convoy. We could also see a change in the delivery system, with heavy vehicles travelling across motorways to distribution centres, where the load is transferred onto smaller vehicles, such as electric vans, which then take the load into urban areas. Future uptake Currently, the UK has banned the sale of petrol, diesel and hybrid cars from 2035 onwards. However, there have been talks on proposing a ban on diesel heavy goods vehicles by 2040 in order to remove all carbon emissions from freight transportation by 2050. The race for electrifying heavy vehicles is on, and there could be penalties in the future for those who do not use electric. With only 400 battery electric heavy vehicles in the UK in 2019, electrifying the heavy vehicle market is in its early stages. However, with potential diesel bans looming, we must progress further to electric heavy vehicles becoming commonplace. By improving the technology and making changes to infrastructure, we can power ahead into an electric future. 11


Safety first Eitan Grosbard, VP of Business Development and Marketing at Tactile Mobility, explores why tactile technology is essential for road safety. very 46 seconds, authorities in England are hit with a new request to fix a pothole, with the country’s drivers reporting nearly 700,000 potholes and other road defects over the course of a year. Along with inclement weather and driver error, these infrastructure problems cause thousands of road accidents per year. Connected and autonomous vehicle technology can help make the roads safer, with KPMG forecasting that it could save up to 2,500 lives and prevent over 25,000 serious accidents in the UK by 2030. But for connected and autonomous cars to fulfil their potential, they must have robust tactile technology capabilities. Not only will tactile technology enable cars to better ‘feel’ the roads and adjust performance accordingly, but by gathering data on problem spots, it can help authorities triage urgent repairs and improve safety for millions of drivers.


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While the need for safer roads is clear, how problematic are current road conditions – and how can tactile technology help? Roadblocks to safety UK roads are plagued by a backlog of maintenance needs. In 2019, the Asphalt Industry Alliance stated that meeting those needs would require £9.79 billion over 10 years. Many drivers are already paying the price: while UK drivers pay more than £4 billion annually for repairs to cars damaged by poor roads, road maintenance budgets actually plunged by 36% from 2009-10 to 2017-18. The cost extends well beyond preventable fatalities, injuries, and repair costs. To navigate rough roads, drivers overcompensate by pressing harder on the accelerator. This burns more fuel, with drivers’ pockets and the planet’s health both taking a hit. The toll exacted by inclement weather is no less formidable. In fact,


bad weather is responsible for nearly a quarter of all UK road accidents. Poor car maintenance – such as deflated tyres or tyres which don’t provide a sufficiently deep grip – makes it even more difficult for cars to safely manoeuvre through rain, ice, and snow. Autonomous vehicles as we’ve known them are no cure-all. Indeed, inclement weather conditions have been some of the biggest roadblocks to AV development. Relying primarily on visual sensors to navigate the roads, AVs are easily blinded by snow, rain, and fog, and they fail to detect other hazards like slippery road surfaces. Visual data is essential to the cars of the future – but unless it’s paired with tactile data, smart and autonomous vehicles won’t cross the finish line. Mitigating hazards with tactile technology To understand the importance of tactile data in autonomous and connected vehicles, it helps to envision the human driving experience. A driver must take notice of other vehicles, road signs, crosswalks, curves, and numerous other visual elements. But they must also adjust their driving according to the state of the road itself: is it riddled with potholes? Might there be black ice? Is there a risk of hydroplaning? Tactile data – which encompasses factors like road quality, tyre health, grip level estimation, RPM, and additional attributes – is vital to making truly smart cars a reality. Tactile capabilities won’t just make cars smarter; they’ll make the entire mobility ecosystem smarter. AV-generated data on potholes and other road hazards can help officials prioritise fixes. Correlating surface data with insurance claims can help planners better understand where the need for repairs is most severe. Analysing data on road conditions alongside accident statistics can generate a better understanding of the root causes of those accidents. In short, tactile data isn’t just about delivering a safer driving experience on a single trip in a connected or autonomous car. It’s a crucial asset that will enable real-time quantification and prediction of vehicle-road dynamics, equipping municipalities and road authorities with the

insights they need to better manage road hazards. Grip-level estimation technology, for instance, makes it possible to adjust a vehicle’s speed and braking to reduce the risk of hydroplaning in rainy conditions. With real-time access to this tactile data, authorities won’t have to wait for residents to report poor road conditions; they can proactively warn drivers and make smarter, data-driven decisions about which maintenance projects to prioritise.

Connected and autonomous vehicle technology can help make the roads safer, with KPMG forecasting that it could save up to 2,500 lives and prevent over 25,000 serious accidents in the UK by 2030

Driving safe innovation The great promise of connected and autonomous vehicles is that they’ll make the roads safer. Fulfilling that promise will only be possible through tactile data. To win wider public acceptance, AVs must be able to demonstrate capabilities that are head and shoulders above those of human drivers. The value of the autonomous driving experience must be irrefutable. Accordingly, manufacturers must bring to bear the best, most advanced technology to ensure safety at every junction. Recent years have seen immense progress in AV development, but actual deployments remain very limited. Tactile sensing technology and data is the missing piece necessary to complete the puzzle. When smart and autonomous vehicles can both see and feel the roads, the driving experience – and the roads themselves – will be safer for all. 13


If you build it, they will come Justin Meyer, general manager of SWARCO eMobility, looks at the opportunities ahead to build a rapid charging network fit for UK’s full electrification plans, and asks what more can be done to persuade drivers and fleet operators to jump on board.

he UK government is accelerating its ambition for full electrification of the UK’s transport sector by 2035. Its announcement in February to shave five years off the previous target date of 2040 and to exclude hybrids was met with some scepticism. But the route is set, and we are heading in the right direction. Automotive manufacturers are fully invested in a zero emissions future; the energy sector is on board; and the importance of a robust, fast-charging network has the eye of policy makers with industry consultation on big budget decisions indicating that it is taking its commitment to electrification seriously. What is perhaps missing, is the imagination of drivers and their readiness to trust that the infrastructure is there for them. It is fair to say, however, that Covid-19 and the UK lockdown has put a spotlight on what it could be like without so many internal combustion engines on our roads causing air pollution. The lockdown has meant fewer car journeys but, of course, this will only be temporary. Before long the 39 million cars in the UK will emerge and higher levels of emissions will resume. But could the clearer air that we’ve all experienced be enough to persuade more people that they can play a part on the long-term improvement to air quality and stop putting off the purchase of an EV?


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Fresh thinking We know that car sales ground to a halt during lockdown, with new sales dropping by 97% in April and 89% in May 2020 compared to last year’s figures, but electric cars were a bright spot. Sales for battery electric vehicles (BEV) accounted for 12% of total UK car sales in May 2020 – this equates to 2,424 units sold, and a rise of 43% on the previous month. Not only that but the split between Battery EVs and Plug-in Hybrids Electric Vehicles (PHEV) is tipping further towards BEV dominance (60% BEV to 40% PHEV in 2020 so far) and this dominance is expected to continue. There are a number of factors over the coming years that influence the growth of EVs. The removal of the government’s plug-in-car grant, which ends in the 2022-23 financial year, will likely see a rush to take advantage of the scheme while it still exists. By that time, it is expected that there will be a significantly wider choice of EVs, and the cost of buying an EV is expected to be on a par with an internal combustion engine (ICE). Race for rapids The government has ploughed £1.5 billion of support, through various different schemes, to help boost the uptake of electric vehicles and make cleaner vehicles more accessible to everyone. The budget


announcement in March 2020 confirmed its ongoing commitment with £500 million worth of investment earmarked to help grow the rapid charging network. We know that rapid charging is key to EV adoption as it will allow drivers to use their car and recharge in the same fashion as refuelling their ICE. This ultimately is what is going to make EV ownership more imaginable for people who aren’t even considering it yet, and more accessible for people across the UK. The £500 million investment is most welcome. It is a really positive move for the industry, and it is encouraging to see central government committing to support the expansion of the public charging network. The first £70 million of the government’s money will go to installing 3,000 new EV rapid charging points across the country. This will mean that the total number of rapid charging points will more than double – to 5,000 – by the time work is complete by 2024. With this funding we can build a substantial network for drivers. The government has already been reviewing the provision of charging infrastructure across England’s major roads through a £2.8 million project with Highways England. We have been working with them on the southern half of the programme, which is aimed at ensuring that rapid charge points are installed every 20 miles (where possible) on 95% of the Strategic Road Network by the end of this year. It is projects like this -– and the ones that will come out of the new £500 million funding pot – which will make a real difference. And the end result, expressed by the DfT, is that drivers will be able to ‘top up’ their cars ‘whilst stopping for a coffee at a service station’. And it is this that will encourage people and businesses to swap their petrol and diesel cars in favour of electric. More to do Of course, there are still other areas that still need more attention – and funding – to help get us closer to achieving full electrification. In particular, we would still like to see more provision for the charging infrastructure serving EV taxis.

The Office for Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV) has its Ultra Low Emission Taxi Infrastructure Scheme which is aimed at supporting the installation of charge points that are accessible for taxis and private hire vehicles. Although we are working with some councils who have been granted funding, it would be good to see further investment here so that more charging points can be installed quicker to give owners/operators more confidence that they can convert their fleets.

Car sales ground to a halt during lockdown, with new sales dropping by 97% in April and 89% in May 2020 compared to last year’s figures, but electric cars were a bright spot Just as we expect EV journeys to increase, especially for commuting as people stay away from public transport (as we still face the threat of a second wave of Covid-19), we can also expect taxi and private hire journeys to increase. We expect taxis to be used more frequently for the last mile of people’s commute in preference to a crowded bus or, if in London, the tube. It would make a significant difference to air quality if these urban journeys were non-polluting. The big switch to EVs can’t come soon enough, especially with a backdrop of boomeranging emissions as we come out of lockdown. I’ll leave you to consider the longer lasting environmental benefits that also come with the reduction of emissions in busy cities. Along with healthier living from cleaner air, we should find that as more journeys are made in EVs, the increased demand for electricity will promote the continued development of green energy, and so the move away from using energy from fossil fuels will happen more quickly and make the road to net zero in 2050 easier. 15


Life after lockdown

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Graeme Rees, vice president of the Building Controls Industry Association (BCIA), discusses the efficient management of buildings post-lockdown. he world is certainly a very different place today than it was just three or four months ago, but with people beginning to return to work we are all wondering what the new normal will look like as we adapt to learn to live in whatever a normal world becomes. As we need to learn to adapt, so too do our buildings. Many have been left empty for some time and with government advice to continue working from home if you can, a good proportion of general office spaces will only be operating at a much reduced occupancy level and are likely to continue doing so for some time yet. CIBSE has issued guidance for building owners, occupiers and operators on procedures and practices to follow to ensure buildings are not only brought back online safely and efficiently, but are operated slightly differently to ensure the safest environment for occupants. For example, adjustments to the control systems on ventilation plant to operate supply and extract ventilation at higher volume flow rates and to avoid recirculation wherever possible. Also, extending operating hours to at least two hours before occupancy and two hours after should a 24 hour operation not be possible.


Safety first Of course, at first glance these measures appear to contradict any energy saving routines one may have already deployed, indeed the situation today is without doubt a matter of safety first. However, with a well-appointed, up-to-date control system, achieving adjustments of this nature are relatively simple to implement and may even be done remotely on the many premises that benefit from secure remote connectivity. The current crisis situation aside, the principles of automatic adjustment based upon demand has been at the heart of building control philosophies for years. Scaling a setpoint back or ramping a speed up based on a sensor measurement is exactly what building controls do. Doing just this to keep occupants comfortable is the goal, doing it in the most energy efficient way is the ultimate prize. Comfort and efficiency are the two key words. Where comfort once meant ‘warm’, today we consider comfort to also encompass elements of the wellbeing of the building occupant. Keeping occupants at a comfortable temperature is a given, but we also consider the amount of fresh air, the humidity, light levels (including artificial vs. natural daylight), noise, smells and the new agenda topper... occupancy level. Where once owner occupiers were concerned about people density per square metre, it is now a case of space between people per square metre. Where once building control technology was used to guide an occupant to a free hot desk, this same technology can be used to guide occupants through less dense areas of a building, avoiding crowds to clear, and cleaned, workspaces. All of this relies on the building control systems, the vast majority of which is totally hidden from sight. Doing all of the above efficiently relies on the skills and experience of the

control system design engineers. To achieve logical operation is one thing, to achieve that in a super-efficient way requires training, experience and the tools, software and equipment that deliver reliable and precise control of the mechanical and electrical systems within our buildings. Getting it right Comfort and efficiency is achievable whatever scale the building or budget, but not every building has the application for every system described, so where would you begin to understand what controls are actually needed? After all, our buildings account for over 40% of the global energy consumption with commercial premises more than half of that figure. Getting it right is clearly important from a cost perspective and importantly an environmental and sustainability perspective too. Moreover, the lack of, or simply poorly implemented, building controls have been seen to be accountable for seven of the 10 reasons our buildings do not perform as efficiently as they were designed, with energy consumption and costs being as much as twice of that intended. The European directive BS EN 15232-1:2017 Energy Performance of Buildings: Impact of Building Automation, Controls and Building Management, gives control manufacturers and design engineers criteria and methodologies to achieve significant energy savings with well designed, commissioned and maintained control systems. The BCIA has published a helpful guide which makes sense of the European directive, called The Impact of Controls on the Energy Efficiency of Buildings. Making the subject very easy to digest, it helps the stakeholders of our buildings understand what is essential, what is possible and how to get the most efficient results.

Four levels of BACS efficiency BS EN 15232-1:2017: Energy Performance of Buildings. Impact of Building Automation, Controls and Building Management, defines four levels of BACS efficiency, from A to D: A: High energy performance BACS and TBM B: Advanced BACS and TBM C: Standard BACS D: Non-energy efficient BACS To achieve the highest level of efficiency, the amount of energy delivered into a room or space should be based solely on the demand of the consumer(s), i.e., those occupying the space, effectively creating an accurate closed loop system. The energy demand signals could be derived by the interaction of the consumers themselves (e.g., adjustment of thermostats) or, more effectively – as defined within Class A system requirements – by automated measurement systems (e.g. occupancy sensors, temperature and CO2 measurement, light level sensors, etc.) which reduce or eliminate human interaction and, therefore, the potential to waste energy. BCIA member companies (manufacturers and systems integrators alike) use the BS EN 15232 Standard as a guiding light for control system design and operation. As an Association, the BCIA recommends that all modern building control systems should meet at least Class B performance rather than the baseline Class C which, it is felt, leaves too many gaps for inefficient energy performance. 17


Battle of the budgets When it comes to the efficiency of your UPS, it can be a bit of a battlefield, which is why a carefully thought out strategy is key to getting the most out of your system. Louis McGarry, sales and marketing director at Centiel UK Ltd, explains. ver the last 25 years, we have seen significant advances in the efficiency of UPS systems across the industry. Moving from around 85% efficiency to the >97% range that we commonly see today, this has been a big step change in the march towards reducing the overall total cost of ownership (TCO) of power protection options. Battles are decided by various factors including the number and quality of those involved in combat (you could say this is the manufacturer, the challenge, the client and, of course, the budget), the skill of the commanders (the experience of the engineers and system designers), the terrain (the type of facility) and the weapon of choice (the UPS itself). Historically, the focus to improve efficiency has been on the kit – the UPS equipment itself. However, in recent years, the margin in possible efficiency gains has become smaller and there are now only a few percentage differences between manufacturers. Even so, many manufacturers remain on this well-trodden path, continuing to try and make tiny improvements to the levels of efficiency


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of their kit. But to make major gains in efficiency these days, UPS suppliers really need to look at different battle strategies for further major advances. This can be achieved by working closely with those involved, presenting how different scenarios and configurations can generate longterm cost savings. In this way, using highly skilled system engineers to devise the best solution for the facility can pay the most dividends. By this I mean a carefully planned approach is where the big savings on efficiency and therefore budget can be achieved now and in the future. Re-planning, re-sizing, right-sizing and introducing ‘pay as you grow’ configurations will be the best way to make the most improvements to overall efficiency and reduce the TCO of installations moving forwards. As UPS efficiencies differentiate less, manufacturers need to work more closely with the customer to scrutinise the design and plan of the UPS installation from the outset to see how savings can be made over time. Think of it as a 10-year strategic campaign. However efficient it is, an oversized UPS installed from day one, will cost more to buy, over the whole period it will cost more to run, more to maintain, need more batteries (which after say seven years will cost more to replace) etc. These costs soon mount up. A right-sized truly modular UPS will address all these issues and also offer the benefits of increased flexibility and reduced footprint. When it comes to replacing legacy UPS with a true modular system the efficiency calculations are surprising. We recently replaced a legacy UPS in a financial institution. Two 12-year-old 400kVA monolithic blocks running at 85% efficiency at best, in an N+1 configuration was due for an upgrade. The load had never reached its potential, so we reviewed the load profile over


the years and replaced the system with one 300kW modular UPS delivering 240kW N+1. The new configuration offered the same resilience but with a footprint which was five times smaller. The running costs for the legacy UPS including cooling were around £70k/year (calculated at 15p/kW hour). Now the client is looking at just £12k/year. The right-sized new modular UPS will pay for itself within 18-24 months and at that time it will still be within warranty. The ongoing savings over ten years will be significant. The smaller system will have lower maintenance costs, need less replacement parts and battery replacements will cost less too. It’s what we call a win-win-win. This is a typical example where in the past, facilities have tended to install large standalone monolithic UPS blocks from day one. However, we live in changing times. The challenge with a large standalone UPS of say 500kW, is that it is always oversized unless the facility is at capacity. A modular UPS offers much more flexibility and therefore efficiency gains can be made. When deploying a modular UPS, you have the ability to install the fully rated frame or empty carcass. This gives the option to add the required number of modules to suit the actual load and further UPS modules can be added only when needed. All the individual modules are a UPS in their own right, all containing a rectifier, inverter, and static switch and all operating online in parallel with each other. This offers much more flexibility. In this way, ‘a modular approach’ helps minimise the need for a large initial investment in a standalone solution: facilities can literally pay as they grow. It means facilities can scale as their load changes and they need more (or less) power protection. Maintenance is also far easier with a modular UPS solution. Compare a fault with a standalone UPS which needs to be switched off to fix on-site. The call out time for an engineer is at best usually four hours, then it could take them six to eight hours to fix the system. The paralleled UPS (N+1) will support the load but this is a risk as there is no backup during this time. On the other hand, if there is a problem with a true modular UPS, modules can be swapped in moments and repairs completed later offsite. There is no need to revert to external maintenance bypass and raw mains, the UPS can remain live while the module is changed over, as the other modules support the load. We have also provided first level response training to some of our

clients so if they hold a spare module on-site, they can easily ‘hot swap’ themselves if necessary. This means modular UPS offer much greater levels of availability than standalone systems. Of course, when implementing a brand-new UPS, it’s more challenging to demonstrate cost savings than with replacement of a legacy UPS where there is an easy comparison. However, careful planning executed with military precision will certainly minimise running costs and maximise efficiency over time.

A ‘modular approach’ helps minimise the need for a large initial investment in a standalone solution: facilities can literally pay as they grow I think the key to remember is that once a client has bought a UPS, they have to live with it. We recently quoted for a new UPS to protect the load for a flight simulator. An 800kVA was specified but the load was only 300kW. By an analysis of the actual load profile we estimated we could save the client around £70K upfront on CAPEX savings plus all the ongoing efficiency savings for running a right-sized system over ten years. It’s this joined-up thinking at the outset that ensures a flexible system which can be adapted to the changing requirements of the facility, maximising efficiency and minimising TCO whatever the future holds. So, who will win the battle of the budgets? Clients who work with manufactures like Centiel where our mission is to provide a safe and secure environment which protects the critical load in the most efficient and therefore, cost-effective way possible. Yes, we have efficient kit, but by working together with our technical advisors who know how much energy a rack really burns, clients will be armed with the correct information and can make well-rounded decisions about their load profile from day one, and be ready to adjust for whatever may or may not happen in the future. The war on efficiency has now become less about making tiny improvements to the kit, but removing waste in the processes and deploying better battle strategies. 19


Navigating a new normal Lindsay Ventress, service line lead, Energy at EcoAct, explores how Covid-19 is impacting energy use, carbon reporting and the climate crisis.

n an effort to combat Covid-19, parts of the world’s industry and many commercial businesses have been under lockdown. As a consequence, we have witnessed a significant global drop in CO2 emissions – April figures report a reduction by as much as 17% and it is estimated that 2020 global emissions overall will be down by between 5-7%. While this may appear good news in the midst of so much fall out from an unprecedented and deadly 21st century pandemic, such a reduction is tempered by two major factors. Firstly, we need to be reducing emissions much more aggressively. Only 18 months ago, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported that to avoid the most destructive impacts of climate change it was imperative to limit global warming to the 1.5°C temperature goal set by the Paris Agreement by 2050. In order to do this, global greenhouse gas emissions must fall by 7.6% each year between now and 2030. Therefore, even with large scale economic shutdowns, we could still be missing the mark in 2020. Secondly, in terms of a business and its operations, it is not quite so simple as reduced operational capacity equals reduced energy usage and


20 Electrical Review | July / August 2020

therefore emissions. Corporates are also starting to grapple with the reporting implications of large proportions of their workforce shifting very suddenly to home working. What does this mean for energy usage today and post-pandemic, how could this impact our carbon footprints and will it affect our ability to adequately respond to the climate emergency? The impacts to energy management Reduced capacity buildings may still be consuming sizeable amounts of energy as businesses now face a new challenge when it comes to energy management: incorporating more extensive health and safety requirements, whilst maintaining energy efficiency. As Covid-19 is an airborne disease, the Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) have released guidelines on how buildings should be operated at present to maintain clean air. This includes continuously running air handling units on full fresh air supply, with a reduced speed for when the building is unoccupied, running toilet extracts continuously and disabling heat recovery devices which are normally installed to reduce a site’s energy consumption.


All this means that buildings can see their energy consumption increase even if a building is unoccupied or running at reduced staffing capacity, as large energy-using equipment (also referred to as plant) is required longer than usual. In addition to this, a significant proportion of energy usage will have moved scopes during lockdown and, depending on the outlook for returning to workplaces permanently, organisations may have to consider how to adapt energy monitoring and reporting, and potentially, their energy efficiency programmes. In June this year, Bulb released the results of research it undertook with EcoAct on UK energy usage. It warned that home electricity consumption had increased by 25% during lockdown and predicted a 470,000 tonne ‘carbon black hole’ in 2020 due to the move to home working, unless businesses fully account for the shift in boundary. Even as we emerge from lockdown, it could be a long time, if ever, that we return to a pre-Covid world. Many companies and their employees are anticipating continued homeworking, certainly in the short-term but potentially long-term. Therefore, we face a new challenge in calculating the true energy and carbon cost of businesses, and if we fail to rise to it, it could seriously jeopardise our ability to meet our global net zero targets. Preparing for a new normal Through EcoAct’s experience of working closely with organisations across multiple sectors, we anticipate that a new normal will emerge with more homeworking and an emphasis on more flexible and collaborative spaces for working. This could mean potentially a significant restructuring of portfolios and real estate. What does this mean for energy and carbon accounting and what does an organisation need to do to stay on top of the shifting boundaries of energy consumption and the growing expectations to take responsibility for its full energy and climate impact? Take this unique opportunity to identify improvements to your system Covid-19 has provided a unique opportunity to re-think our ways of working, as well as demonstrating our ability to rapidly adapt. We should also re-evaluate our energy systems to increase their usefulness and efficiency, particularly considering the new health and safety demands and changing patterns of working. Energy audits commonly find ageing Building Management Systems (BMS) that are not providing adequate control to the systems. Poor control of systems wastes energy (and money). Ensure you have quality data Businesses will need reliable, granular data to inform management teams of accurate energy usage. For example, finance teams often assume that an unoccupied building is fully switched off and bank on a significant energy (and financial) saving. This is often not the case, so clear reporting of building consumption can help keep everybody better informed to avoid difficult discussions further down the line. Half-hourly consumption data is essential to enable full reactivity and maximise efficiency. One of our clients completed their half-hourly gas AMR (automatic meter reading) programme shortly before lockdown began. This enabled them to see how effectively their stores had been locked down and where adjustments needed to be made to remain efficient.

Understand the changes to reporting boundaries While Scope 2 emissions may have reduced through building closures, there will be an increase in homeworking energy consumption and this falls into, and should be reported under, Scope 3. Specifically, this homeworking energy usage resides in Category 7 of the Greenhouse Gas Protocol – ‘employee commuting’, but you need to be mindful that guidance could change in light of wide-spread changes to many organisations. It is likely that companies will be expected to be transparent about the shift in impacts, so it is better to be prepared.

We could be facing a new normal for business operations, certainly in the shortterm but potentially also longer-term Start calculating and assessing the implications of Covid-19 It will be important to understand where you have achieved savings in energy and emissions, as well as how these might be counterbalanced, or even exceeded by, an increase in energy consumed by employees’ homeworking. There will also be emissions and cost savings from reduced commuting and business travel so it will be important to have a holistic view of how Covid-19 has impacted your unique organisation. Consider your business strategy moving forward, do you anticipate changes to working being long-term or short-term and how might this impact your progress towards any existing energy and climate targets? It will be important to understand this so that you can be prepared for the challenges, the new areas of focus and protect against any potential reputational implications. We could be facing a new normal for business operations, certainly in the short-term but potentially also longer-term. It is important that we use our proven capacity to adapt and the opportunity we have been given to take stock, to ensure we are best placed to remain energy efficient, as well as able to respond to a change in reporting expectations, without derailing our urgent need for progress on climate. We have been facing an unprecedented and tragic crisis today, but let’s also keep in mind that we now have a unique opportunity to be better prepared, and hopefully avoid, the crisis of tomorrow. 21


Bouncing back In this Q&A, ECA directors Rob Driscoll (legal and business) and Mike Smith (technical), grant us an insight into how Covid-19 has impacted contractors and highlight the incredible resilience shown by our industry during this unprecedented time. 1. How have the majority of contractors been weathering the economic storm during the pandemic? The majority have shown enormous resilience, having continued to trade where clients will allow them to do so, ensuring the built environment continues to operate during this period. Construction and engineering firms were essential to the operation of the wider economy and their ability to continue to operate in a safe and secure way has been appreciated. On a practical level, many contractors were already digitally enabled for remote working and have quickly adapted to the Site Operating Procedures to ensure they can work safely and securely during the Covid-19 pandemic.

Whilst there may have been some anxiety among individual workers, overall the industry had established clear guidance on how to work safely within a Covid-19 environment 2. What sort of financial help has been available to the industry so far? Could things have been handled better? Government support has been agile and responsive with regard to the lending systems put in place for business of all sizes, the job retention scheme and the self-employment support scheme, as well as a number of other key grants, lending and compliance changes designed to reduce the burden of trading in a pandemic. All teams within Government have been extremely responsive and even when challenged, provided suggestions that have been supported by evidence and modelling. These have been quickly fed into the support mechanisms and improvements have been made accordingly. 3. On May 10, Boris Johnson actively encouraged tradespeople to return to work. What was the general feeling about this among industry? Were people desperate to return to work, or generally a lot more reluctant due to the health risk still posed? Bearing in mind the construction industry was never closed and could continue to work through the pandemic, whilst there may have been some anxiety among individual workers, overall the industry had established clear guidance on how to work safely within a Covid-19 environment.

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There was also anxiety about the continuing impact on business survival where contractors had seen either suspension or reduction of work. Generally, there was relief at the prospect of being able to return the business to a level of productive working to secure business continuity and jobs. 4. There have recently been changes made to electrical safety standards for landlords in the PRS with the deadline (1 July 2020 for new tenancies) remaining unchanged. Firstly, do you think it is overzealous for the government to be pushing ahead with the original deadline given the current climate? There already exists a requirement for Electrical Installation Condition Reports (EICR) to be produced following periodic inspection and testing on all installations where required and detailed within BS7671 Requirements for Electrical Installations (Chapter 65). Many landlords and letting agencies already insist on these being done for the protection of tenants and property. These new requirements now make it a statutory obligation to do so and provide for local authority powers to enforce. A staged approach is helpful with the requirement for new tenancies coming into force from 1 July and existing tenancies next year. Safety must be the primary concern and implementation should be done as quickly as practicable. During the current Covid-19 situation and restrictions, it should still be possible to undertake these works safely (ECA have published guidance on working in homes) before a new tenancy begins. 5. Will we even have enough willing/ready workers to meet this new demand for electrical inspections? The question will not be about enough willing/ready workers to meet the demand but how to ensure only those suitably qualified and skilled undertake this safety-critical activity. We would urge landlords to carefully read the guidance produced by MHCLG on selecting someone to undertake an EICR. There is likely to be a high demand for Electrical Inspection and Testing courses such as the City and Guilds 2391-52 or EAL 603/2625/6, and until such time as training providers get up and running to anything like full capacity or develop online platforms there may be a short term issue. 6. Has Covid-19 caused many (or any) organisations to change their legal practices? Are these changes likely to be permanent? It is too early to tell the extent or how permanent any changes might be, but the pandemic has caused contractors to re-focus their minds on the guidance, policies and procedures they deploy for securing the safety of those for whom they are responsible. Equally, it has brought into sharp focus for many what contractual risks are not within their control and knowledge, such that they cannot accept the risk of these items. 7. Finally, do you think our industry will experience a ‘new normal’, if so, what might that look like? As productivity levels in the medium- to long-term accommodate the Covid-19 safe working practices, and safe working procedures are adopted in homes, offices, factories/workshops and on sites, the ‘new normal’ under Covid-19 secure working will almost certainly yield a more flexible workforce and working practices, which typically also leads to a more agile, responsive industry. However, if productivity is impaired, this may also increase the cost of supply within the industry.

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Up to standard NAPIT gives us the lowdown on the new changes to the Electrical Safety Standards in the Private Rented Sector 2020. rom June 1 under ‘The Electrical Safety Standards in the Private Rented Sector (England) Regulations 2020’, landlords in England, are required to have the electrical installations in their properties inspected and tested, at least every five years, by a person who is qualified and competent. This applies to new specified tenancies from July 1, 2020, and to all other tenancies from April 1, 2021. A new specified tenancy is a tenancy which was ‘granted’ (signed) on or after the 1 June 2020, when the regulations came into force. If a tenancy agreement was signed after June 1, 2020, the landlord must have a satisfactory electrical safety report in place before July 1, 2020. The Housing Act 2004 has been amended by these regulations to require a new mandatory condition in HMO licences ensuring that every electrical installation in the HMO is in proper working order and safe for continued use. The regulations refer to an electrical safety report being obtained by the person conducting the electrical installation inspection and test. Typically, an Electrical Installation Condition Report (EICR) is used within the industry for this purpose. An EICR is a report carried out to assess the safety of the existing electrical installation within a property and is used to describe its condition. Its purpose is to confirm as far as possible whether or not the electrical installation is in a safe condition for continued service. The EICR will show whether the electrical installation is in a satis-


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factory or unsatisfactory condition and will detail a list of observations affecting the safety or requiring improvements. If the EICR is unsatisfactory, the landlord has a responsibility to carry out any remedial or further investigative work within 28 days of the unsatisfactory report being issued, or any shorter period if specified as necessary in the report. The landlord then must provide evidence to both the tenant and local housing authority that any rectification work has been completed and the electrical installation is now in a satisfactory condition. The regulations require landlords to have the electrical installations in their properties inspected and tested by a person who is qualified and competent. To determine those who are qualified and competent to undertake the electrical inspection, landlords can either: • Check if the inspector is a member of a competent person scheme for inspection and testing; or • Require the inspector to sign a checklist certifying their competence, including their experience, whether they have adequate insurance and hold a qualification covering the current version of the Wiring Regulations and the periodic inspection, testing and certification of electrical installations. Registered Competent Person Electrical ( is a single mark and register set up in 2014 following an agreement between all Government-approved electrical Competent Person Scheme Operators to raise awareness of electrical safety in the home by simplifying the task of finding and checking a competent, registered electrician. It has recently been updated to assist landlords in finding an electrical inspector and tester who is registered with an Electrical Competent Person Scheme and deemed to be competent to undertake EICR’s in private rented properties and has a search option specifically


for finding competent and qualified electrical inspectors locally. Analysis on the level of demand vs supply of electrical inspectors was considered by the Government during the consultation period of these regulations, which showed the estimated ratio of available qualified and competent electrical inspectors and testers to rented properties in England was around 1:100. This was compared to the ratio in Scotland, where regulations were already in force, which was estimated at one qualified electrician to 165 properties. Despite the challenges posed by the Covid-19 pandemic, these regulations came in as planned on June 1 and guidance has been issued for landlords by the Ministry for Housing Communities and Local Government (MHCLG) on how to deal with their legal obligations during this uncertain time. The guidance confirms that the safety of privately rented homes is of upmost importance and landlords should make every effort to comply with the regulations which apply to them. The Government have issued detailed guidance on how to work safely within people’s homes, including considerations around social distancing, hygiene, personal protective equipment and travelling to work. However, the Government understands the unease some tenants may have around letting an electrical inspector into their house to undertake an Electrical Installation Condition Report. The Government guidance explicitly notes that, “If households are shielding, landlords should balance the risk presented, considering factors such as age and type of system, previous maintenance history alongside considerations about the household. For example, whether the shielded person can reside in a separate room for the duration of the visit. In some situations, this might indicate that the inspection should still go ahead.” However, if ultimately access to the property is denied by the tenant or the landlord cannot find a suitably qualified, competent electrical installer then a

landlord would not be in breach of the duty to comply with a remedial notice if the landlord can show they have taken all reasonable steps to comply. Reasonable steps can be demonstrated by keeping copies of communications with both tenants and electrical inspectors, as well as records and certificates of any previous electrical work carried out in the property.

If the EICR is unsatisfactory, the landlord has a responsibility to carry out any remedial or further investigative work within 28 days of the unsatisfactory report being issued Although the Electrical Safety Standards in the Private Rented Sector (England) Regulations 2020 just apply in England, mandatory electrical safety checks in the private rented sector have been required in Scotland from December 1, 2015, under the Housing (Scotland) Act 2006. In Wales, landlords’ responsibilities are covered under the Landlord and Tenant Act 1985, which states, “Landlords are required to keep in repair and proper working order the installations in the dwelling-house for the supply of water, gas and electricity.” The Housing (Wales) Act 2014 requires landlords or their letting agents to be registered with RentSmart Wales by November 2016. Best practice guidance in the RentSmart Code of Practice states, “A check on the electrical installation should be carried out at least once every five years by a competent electrician, and the results should be recorded in the form of an EICR.” 25


A long road ahead

First Brexit, then Covid-19, and now proposed changes to product marking. This triple threat of challenges could add significant cost to manufacturing. Here, BEAMA outlines the potential pitfalls and what they are doing to help. he Covid-19 crisis has had a severe effect on the electrical and energy-related manufacturing industry, just as with almost every aspect of business and life. For many sectors, business was almost wiped out during April and May and has started to recover from June onwards, but with varying depth and speed. What has enabled the manufacturing side of our industry to keep going and continue to supply customers has been: • The close working relationships with both suppliers and customers, meaning that all parts of the end-to-end supply chain have communi-


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cated and worked together to keep UK infrastructure and construction going during the worst of the crisis; • Resilience built-in to company practices, including judicious building up of product stocks in anticipation of previous Brexit ‘no-deal’ outcomes; • Rapid communication with Government through trade bodies to clarify the sometimes confusing guidance and messaging received; • Government support, mainly through the use of furlough and flexible job retention practices to allow staff to be kept on despite cash-flow being brought to near-zero in some cases. Clearly we hope that the worst of the crisis is over and that now we are embarking on the recovery phase, progress will be steady to get back towards previous activity levels by the end of 2020. In some sectors, of course, the recovery may be much slower and more fragile. The one thing all industry sectors must avoid is that the challenge of the reduction and removal of financial Government support is then compounded immediately after by the addition of unnecessary burdens,


arising from the choices made at the end of the UK’s transition period from its EU exit. Some of these burdens will be an inevitable consequence and any company exporting to or importing from the EU will need to be prepared regardless of whether it is ‘deal’ or ‘no-deal’. These will include having to make customs declarations for any products traded between the UK and EU so, if you’re not used to dealing with those, talk to your freight people about the requirements and the registrations you may be able to make now. If there is a zero-tariff Free Trade Agreement struck between the UK and EU, as everyone wants, then to take advantage of tariff-free trade all products exported will need declarations of the national origin of the product to prove that what’s called a UK product actually qualifies. Depending on the rules of origin chosen, manufacturers will need to know the source, national origin and exact value of every component and raw material used in manufacturing. Also, if the FTA agreed between the UK and EU includes a structure for close regulatory cooperation, it should be possible for manufacturers to continue to make products for both the UK and European markets to the same design, the same standard and with the same testing. If there is no cooperation on regulatory and standards issues, we run the risk of having to make UK-only products with the consequential loss of competitiveness in export markets with much reduced choice for UK customers. There are, however, other issues which are not dependent on FTA negotiations and are not an inevitable result of Brexit, but where the implementation could be made easier for UK business, avoid severe additional costs and avoid disruption of supply for UK customers. This includes the proposed UKCA product marking. UKCA is the intended replacement for CE marking in the UK market to indicate regulatory compliance of products. Although manufacturing industry fully supports clear regulation that is subject to strong market surveillance, having a separate UK product marking is not essential and it is certainly not required to be in place from day one in January 2021. This, however, is what the Government are currently proposing, having previously indicated that any UKCA marking would be introduced only after full consultation and subject to a reasonable time period for implementation. For trade from, to or through Northern Ireland the position is even more complicated, and some manufacturers will need to apply a special UK(NI) marking from January 2021, alongside CE and UKCA. In the future, if UK and EU regulatory demands diverge, products that meet UK regulations may not be compliant for sale in Northern Ireland, where EU regulations will still need to be followed. BEAMA has surveyed members on the costs and timescales that would be involved in implementing a new product marking system. Remember that this is not simply a question of putting a new sticker on a box or packaging: the rules for product marking would require the marking to be on the product itself, not to be able to be removed, and subject to an array of paperwork, technical testing and legally enforceable commitments subject to criminal penalties. The clear message from manufacturers is that 12-18 months would be required to implement UKCA marking, with many products requiring it to be embossed using product moulding, requiring significant changes to production lines. Costs involved, including for most companies the

assignment of dedicated staff to the adjustment, were assessed at £440 million in the next six months alone, and would involve a significant proportion of product costs over the first period of implementation. Bear in mind too that these timescales are from when clear rules and guidance is received from Government and these have not yet been made available. Clearly then, if this new marking is made mandatory from

UKCA is the intended replacement for CE marking in the UK market to indicate regulatory compliance of products 1 January 2021, it could render a large proportion of products on the UK market non-compliant due to lack of time to implement. For many products due to be placed on the market in January 2021 the orders have already been placed, of course. BEAMA and GAMBICA have written to Boris Johnson, Michael Gove and Alok Sharma warning of escalating regulatory compliance costs at the end of the transition period for the UK exit from the EU and calling for derogations and transitional arrangements for specific regulations to allow manufacturers in the UK time to prepare and to limit the financial burden this will incur. This letter was co-signed by the CEOs and senior officers of over 90 major manufacturers. As well as UKCA, the UK replacement for the EU chemical regulatory system REACH will need to be created from scratch but no guidance is yet available and other changes are in the pipeline such as a UK plastic packaging tax. All of these proposed changes will add cost to manufacturing, in most cases very significant costs, and many are entirely avoidable. We are hopeful of a positive response from the Prime Minister and Cabinet to allow for some derogation period and transitional arrangements for these new UK systems, but in their absence, UK manufacturers will need to work in the dark to prepare for uncertain burdens to be placed on them at the very time they are hoping to reach for recovery from the Covid crisis. 27


Generation-E Jon Graham, chief executive of JTL, discusses why the development and training of the next generation of apprentices is crucial in ensuring the pipeline of skilled electricians continues during these challenging times.


he pivotal role electricians have played during the Covid-19 pandemic has not only highlighted the growing need for quality electricians, but also demonstrated how the role is a viable employment route for any aspiring tradesperson.

A UK shortage As the building services engineering sector returns to some sort of normality, the importance of encouraging professional development and training in the electrical sector has never been greater. From July 1, new regulations require landlords to have the electrical installations in their properties inspected and tested by a person who is qualified and

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competent, at least every five years. Landlords now also have to provide a copy of the electrical safety report to their tenants, and to their local authority if requested. This regulation is a major step towards ‘levelling up’ the private rented sector, making sure it will offer high-quality, safe and secure housing. To cope with the UK construction demand, the potential impact of Brexit and an ageing workforce, the number of electrical engineering professionals will need to grow, which signifies an increased demand for the provision of professional development and training within the sector. A 2019 Labour Market Report estimated that an additional 15,000 qualified electricians will be required in the next five years as a result of


the predicted growth in the construction industry. The research also indicates that even with a 33% increase in the number of new apprentices (approximately 5,000 more than currently qualify) there would still be a shortage of up to 10,000 electricians. However, in light of the current Covid-19 situation, some employers may be questioning whether it is worthwhile taking on an apprentice at this present time. A new wave of skilled workers Ultimately, apprenticeships give aspiring tradespeople a skill for life and an increased chance of job security in their chosen industry, which is a welcome reassurance to many following such an uncertain time. Not to mention, apprentices have the chance to earn while they learn, as well as the opportunity to progress through the apprenticeship levels as the learner’s skillset widens.

A 2019 Labour Market Report estimated that an additional 15,000 qualified electricians will be required in the next five years as a result of the predicted growth in the construction industry There are still a number of misconceptions surrounding apprenticeships which could deter businesses from taking them on. For instance, some people believe that apprentices will lack motivation and may not be serious about learning a trade. However, providing appropriate training to apprentices who have already had to undertake entry assessments, is likely to contribute to high pass rates, shaping the dedicated tradespeople of the future, whilst allowing businesses to grow from the bottom up. Furthermore, employing and training apprentices can also improve the productivity of businesses. Research conducted for the Centre for Economics and Business Research (Cebr) found that, on average, each apprentice brings an increase in productivity of more than £10,000 per year for their employer, with figures for some sectors being even higher. In addition to boosting productivity, apprenticeships can also help businesses to compete in the modern marketplace. Industry research revealed that 77% of employers agreed that taking on apprentices helped to make their organisations more competitive. Recruiting apprentices is also a way to combat the UK’s current skills shortage. It is recognised that through on-the-job training and professional qualifications, apprentices become highly skilled and useful members of the team as they progress through their apprenticeship. As a result, apprentices can address the particular skills gaps an individual company may be facing by providing additional resources to overstretched teams, and to employers who are currently operating in an environment with changing work practices. Combatting an ageing workforce with investment in apprentices can have a positive impact on company culture too. With valuable training, apprentices are able to support busier members of staff

and learn from their experience, bringing fresh ideas to companies which may have dated practices as a result of a lack of training provision for its current workforce. Equally, hiring apprentices gives supervising staff opportunities for additional responsibility and personal development. The importance of CPD With the pace of technological change faster than it has ever been, it is increasingly important that industry professionals can stay ahead of the curve through Continuing Professional Development (CPD). To ensure these individuals are not ‘left behind’, CPD gives electricians the knowledge and confidence to deal with new technologies coming into the sector. It ensures that they maintain and enhance the knowledge and skills they need to deliver a professional service to their customers and the wider community. Many people now also acknowledge that CPD helps employees, both new and old, to feel more driven to succeed, resulting in a more motivated workforce and an increase in staff retention.

Even with a 33% increase in the number of new apprentices (approximately 5,000 more than currently qualify) there would still be a shortage of up to 10,000 electricians When it comes to employee development or future proofing your business, CPD is certainly critical. CPD will allow staff to focus on important areas of development and reduce any shortfalls in knowledge they may have. With regulations getting tighter, and health and safety measures more important than ever, investing in CPD is a great way for trade professionals to demonstrate their competency and confidence in required areas. 29


The apprentice Fiona Harper, director of employment and skills at SELECT, and The Secretary of the Scottish Joint Industry Board (SJIB), outlines why the humble apprentice is now a necessity. ver these past five months, I’ve lost count of the number of times I’ve read that we are living in ‘unprecedented times’. But it’s the stark truth. As we begin to emerge from this devastating pandemic, helping the construction industry to recover and preparing the next wave of electricians has never been more important. Part of the recovery process will involve equipping this next generation with the relevant skills they need to rebuild Scotland, with a pathway


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from school to college and full-time employment more vital than ever. Without apprentices coming through the ranks and being comprehensively trained, there will be no electrical industry in the future, with all the implications that would have for our wider society as Scotland becomes an electric-based economy. Therefore, we need professionally-minded people dedicated to the highest possible standards in the electrotechnical sector who will, in turn, help to bring on the skill base of the future.


As I write, employers are facing huge uncertainty, with apprenticeships perhaps not being the priority they were before lockdown. But once they are ready to take on trainees again, those with a head start in electrical knowledge will make extremely attractive candidates. The benefits of pre-apprenticeships A pre-apprenticeship programme is one invaluable way for would-be electricians to get a flavour of the industry, preparing them for the time when employers will contemplate taking on apprentices and adult trainees again. Delivered at colleges across Scotland, these programmes offer basic training in hand skills, health and safety and an understanding of the college system. Pre-apprentices are also provided with personal protective clothing and, once they have completed the health and safety requirements, are awarded an SJIB ECS health & safety card to allow them on site. The advantages of the programme are three-fold, with pre-apprentices gaining an invaluable insight into the role of an electrician, helping them to make an informed career choice. Employers gain a ‘job ready’ candidate who has shown a good attitude and understanding of what’s required. And when the pre-apprentices return for a Modern Apprenticeship, colleges gain students who are motivated and understand the college system. Pre-apprenticeships are extremely flexible and are designed to suit the needs of today’s candidates, helping them develop a greater understanding of the electrical industry and making them attractive to potential employers. Employers are now actively asking for people who’ve taken part as it helps them identify people who are obviously ready to take the next step on their electrical career path. A challenging time ahead Of course, apprenticeships themselves will not be without their own challenges in the months and years ahead. The return to college has already been a challenging one, with class numbers reduced and workshop times being at a premium. But it’s vital that we all play our part and give the next generation of electricians access to a world of exciting technology that we’re only just

starting to see dawning. Renewables, electric vehicles, smart homes and the Internet of Things will revolutionise the way we live, so it’s vital we have a working population that understands them. Training and workplace apprenticeships are a vital part of ensuring we produce this excellence in skills, both in Scotland and beyond – but, as ever, attracting suitable candidates remains a challenge. Being an electrician is a fantastic career, with ever-expanding opportunities, but we need to educate the electricians of tomorrow that it’s more than the cliched image of a man in a boiler suit fitting a socket.

Without apprentices coming through the ranks and being comprehensively trained, there will be no electrical industry in the future Instead, we should be inspiring and exciting the next generation with the possibilities that await them as part of a thriving global industry. As part of this recruitment drive, we should also be doing more to improve inclusion, diversity and quality. Our sector has traditionally been seen as white and male-centric, so it’s important that we’re more open to the concept of thinking differently when it comes to recruitment. After all, if our working population really is shrinking, there should be no barriers to anyone wanting to pick up the tools. At the same time, it’s also about educating those self-same groups we’re trying to attract and saying, ‘You can be an electrician – we’re a welcoming industry and you will be supported, no matter your gender, race, sexual orientation or beliefs.’ There are encouraging signs already, but if we’re to secure a positive future, we can all do more to attract the brightest young minds from right across the board. New and unexpected challenges lie around the corner for all of us. But if we equip the electricians of tomorrow with the right tools now, we can successfully tackle those challenges head-on and rebuild a strong and productive post-pandemic industry. 31


Covid-19: Economic recovery cannot come at a detriment to our planet Improving sustainability should be just as crucial as economic recovery in the wake of Covid-19. Here, Mark McManus, managing director at Stiebel Eltron, looks at why the built environment needs to take the lead in achieving net-zero carbon as part of the recovery and the heating technologies available to support this. fter a long four months, the UK is emerging from the coronavirus lockdown. Despite the rules being eased, there is no denying the impact of quarantine will have far-reaching implications on society – particularly the built environment. While construction productivity has been impacted, the lockdown has, in many ways, had a positive impact on the climate. According to the Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air, carbon dioxide levels were 40% lower in April this year compared with the same time in 2019 as a result of reduced travel.


32 Electrical Review | July / August 2020

But with shops, offices, outdoor attractions, pubs and restaurants reopening, and schools preparing to open in earnest from September, the ‘new normal’ could see emissions quickly return to previous years. Some predict that carbon emissions will even spike as industries battle to make up for lost time, meanwhile commuters are being encouraged to use cars over public transport and airlines are preparing for a surge in customers as travellers hope to flock abroad. There’s undoubtedly a need for the UK to increase productivity after Covid-19, but this can’t be at the detriment to the planet. Businesses will


have to do more to ensure that sustainability is accounted for in their day-to-day work. For the property sector, this will mean ensuring that sustainability in the development and use of buildings doesn’t fall off a cliff edge. Finding sustainable alternatives Before Covid-19 took hold of the country, it seemed like the property industry was making strong headways in improving sustainability. Up and down the supply chain, businesses were working hard to ensure their products or services could be a part of a zero-carbon future, and the sustainability tide really seemed to be turning. Now, however, the property sector’s focus has understandably shifted. The industry not only needs to recover financially from the impact of lockdown, but it needs to make up for the number of housebuilding projects and developments that have been paused or cancelled. Making sure housebuilding targets are hit will be a priority for the sector and government. But to make sure the hard work that has been done over the last five years towards achieving net zero isn’t undone, developers will need to be smart in their approach to sustainability – making small changes that have large sustainability benefits.

To make sure the hard work that has been done over the last five years towards achieving net zero isn’t undone, developers will need to be smart in their approach to sustainability – making small changes that have large sustainability benefits One of the simplest methods for developers to improve the energy efficiency of a housing scheme is through using electricity as its heating source, instead of gas. Electricity is increasingly being generated through renewable energy solutions and is a sustainable power source. When green energy is used with systems like heat pumps, for example, which convert environmental energy drawn from water, the ground, outdoor air or extract air, the system produces no carbon emissions. Heat pumps are also able to harvest heat when it’s up to -20 degrees outside, making them a highly sustainable solution. As a water heating source, technologies like instantaneous hot water (IHW) systems are set to become a more and more popular solution for developers looking for energy efficient solutions. These have previously been viewed as difficult to install in the domestic market because of the UK’s 240-volt energy supply, which has been considered too low to support the requirements. However, we’ve recently worked alongside SP Energy Networks at a residential scheme for developer Watkin Jones, where the supply was phased in an alternative way to provide 400 volts for the IHW units. Because this now proves that the units can be feasible in the UK market, we expect more developers will look to use the technology. Practically, IHW’s are also small, simple to install – a key benefit for

developers looking to build quickly – and heat water only when needed, rather than storing water for later use as in traditional unvented water tanks. As we come out of the Covid-19 pandemic, the housebuilding industry will also see a fundamental shift in what residents want and expect from their new homes. Access to private land or a garden will become a priority, as will social infrastructure nearby. Inside the homes, additional space will be key. Many are even predicting that requirements for home office space will become the norm. Developers will therefore be under pressure to maximise the space and land they already own. Electrical heating can play an important role here. Electric heating systems don’t require a boiler room, fuel store or tank. Meanwhile for electric water heating solutions like IHW’s, they are compact and mounted on internal walls. This is a huge space saver when compared to traditional water tanks, which can take up as much as 10% of space in an internal city centre flat. This is space that can accommodate a sizeable balcony or even an office. There is no denying the next 12 months will be an uphill struggle for the property sector as it battles to hit its housebuilding targets, but we mustn’t let sustainability fall off the list of priorities for future developments. The pandemic has provided us with a glimpse of what a net-zero carbon future will look like with the falling emissions, now let’s work even harder to achieve it. 33


New tech, new risks James Mountain, director at Fire Shield Systems, explores the lesser known risks associated with electric and hybrid electric vehicles. s the global transition towards sustainable solutions and renewable energy carriers continues at pace, vehicle propulsion is experiencing its greatest challenge to date – electrification. This shift in attitude is driving increased demand for electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs). With significant rises in UK fuel levies on the horizon, proposed in the government’s 2020 budget, this demand is only set to continue rising over the coming years. As we undertake this cultural shift towards a more environmentally friendly world, with transport operations primarily powered by lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, new safety risks need to be both considered and accounted for. User knowledge of the new risks associated with Li-ion batteries is currently very limited, but the consequences of malfunction can be severe – potentially causing large explosions or toxic gas emissions.


The sustained growth of the EV and HEV market has accelerated the need for new fire suppression technologies Fire protection for combustion engines vs Li-ion powered vehicles Fire prevention and suppression systems for vehicles have been available for decades, and, as a result, are used and regulated across a wide variety of industries. However, existing systems are designed and manufactured to be most effective when used on vehicles with combustion engines, and are tested to standards and regulations with this in mind. Currently, testing methods, regulations and standards to support the fire prevention and safety of EVs and HEVs are limited. The sustained growth of the EV and HEV market has accelerated the need for new fire suppression technologies. “With the rapid introduction of electric and hybrid electric vehicles in public transport, there are new challenges, because they present totally different risk scenarios,” says Anders Gulliksson, senior quality executive at Dafo Vehicle Fire Protection. So, how are the risks different for EVs and HEVs? Multiple fire hazards There are a range of fire hazards associated with EVs and HEVs, including: power electronics, drive systems, battery packs, and heaters. For HEVs, the risks associated with combustion engines are still pertinent. In order to power the vehicles, EVs and HEVs also carry a large battery –

34 Electrical Review | July / August 2020

which in itself poses a significant safety risk. Each of these risks needs to be controlled in a vehicle’s fire suppression solution. In addition to the above risks, many EVs and HEVs are used in warehouse environments, under harsh conditions, which can add to the risks. Risk of thermal runaway One of the major differences between EVs and HEVs, and vehicles with combustion engines, is the risk of a state termed ‘thermal runaway’. Thermal runaway is the result of a chemical reaction caused by a failure within the engine’s Li-ion battery cells, resulting in a rapid increase in temperature. Once a battery enters thermal runaway, the propagation process is more or less self-sustained, as it will begin to produce its own oxygen, propelling the fire. “When the commonly used Li-ion batteries fail through short circuiting, overcharging, high temperatures, mechanical damage and overheating, this might cause thermal runaway and the release of a flammable electrolyte, which makes fire extinguishing very difficult,” says Gulliksson. Potential for toxic emissions The risk of thermal runaway brings about the risk of toxic gas emissions. As a battery enters thermal runaway, a range of gases will be emitted – carbon monoxide (CO) being a particularly commonly emitted gas. How do you control EV and HEV fires? The primary aim of any fire suppression system for EVs and HEVs should be to avert thermal runaway from occurring. A failing or malfunctioning battery will vent its over-pressure, prior to entering thermal runaway. At this point, the fire suppression system should act to prompt battery cooling, preventing acceleration to thermal runaway. With efficient detection and activation, the risk can be quickly reversed, and possibly even eliminated entirely. However, preventing thermal runaway is not always possible. In these situations, the system should work to delay propagation, allowing the safe evacuation of the vehicle before the battery enters thermal runaway. This is particularly important for vehicles carrying a number of passengers, such as buses. Due to the possibility of toxic gas emissions from a failing battery, it is also essential that any EV and HEV is equipped with a heavy-vehicle specialist sensor, which can alert the operator of the presence of any dangerous emissions, enabling safe evacuation.


Safer charging with the new generation CC613 electric vehicle charge controller CC613 is the latest EV charge controller from Bender, incorporating a range of upgraded features and benefits enabling the manufacture of safe, connected, compliant charge stations, actively controlling, monitoring, authorising and billing the entire charging process in accordance with IEC 61851-1. New product benefits: • Compact ‘intelligent’ charge control solution • Integrated Ethernet interface enables Modbus TCP communication and energy management connection via EEBUS • Compliance with the IEC 62955 • Integrated DLM (dynamic load management) is continuously extended, but can be overwritten by higher-level systems • The control for the plug emergency opener is integrated in the modified enclosure • Continuous PE monitoring ensures that the PE connection is connected correctly • Free software updates • Technically supported. This new, improved, more cost-effective device enhances the performance of the already proven in use CC612 EV charge controller.

Bender • +44 (0)1229 480123

PTM software version 4.60 available from Omicron Omicron’s Primary Test Manager software (PTM) helps you to perform diagnostic tests on circuit breakers, current and voltage transformers, rotating machines, earth networks, power transformers and associated equipment such as bushings and on-load changers (CPeC). The software guides you through the testing process with comprehensive test procedures and detailed wiring diagrams. Tests can be evaluated automatically in accordance with applicable international standards IEEE and IEC. General improvements and new features: • Quick test for freely configurable individual tests with the CPC 100 • Inspection test for visual inspections, including execution on mobile device with PTMate 1.80 (test with an evaluation license) • Data analysis and transfer features for DataSync web users • Device link for CPC 100, CIBANO 500 and TESTRANO 600 • Importing Doble files for additional items. Download the latest version of the PTM software for CPC 100/80, TESTRANO 600, CIBANO 500, DIRANA, FRANEO 800 or HGT1 in the registered customer area.

FLIR announces modified thermal cameras for skin temperature screening FLIR Systems has announced modified thermal cameras for fast and safe non-contact elevated skin temperature screening. The FLIR EST thermal screening solutions provide frontline screening at building entries and in high traffic areas to improve safety and help curb the spread of Covid-19. The FLIR Axxx-EST, FLIR T5xx-EST, and FLIR Exx-EST series cameras are designed to simplify the screening process, reducing the burden on screening operators and adhering to recommended social distancing guidelines. “The new FLIR EST thermal solutions represent nearly two decades of experience designing and manufacturing thermal measurement solutions for skin temperature screening,” said Jim Cannon, president and CEO at FLIR. “These cameras are our easiest cameras to set up and operate to date for skin temperature screening, requiring limited training to begin screening people more quickly and accurately.”

FLIR • +44 (0) 1494 430240

Omicron • 01785 848 100

Dependable battery testing made easier

Scolmore adds 30 new GridPro toggle switch modules

Unicrimp adds masonry screws to Q-Fire range

Test sets in the TORKEL 900 range from Megger offer a convenient and dependable way of determining the true capacity of storage battery installations of the type frequently used in critical standby power applications. Suitable for use with battery systems from 12V to 300V, the new instruments use the discharge testing method, which is universally recognised as giving results that are accurate and reliable. The TORKEL 900 range currently includes two models, the TORKEL 930, which can operate with discharge currents up to 220A, and the TORKEL 910, which has a maximum discharge current rating of 110A. Both TORKEL 900 models allow tests to be conducted without disconnecting the battery system from the load, and both support testing in constant current, constant power and constant resistance modes, or in accordance with a pre-selected load profile.

Scolmore is expanding its GridPro range of interchangeable modules and plates, with the addition of a new collection of toggle switch modules. This latest launch will provide a solution to one of the most common requests to the company’s technical support line and will allow installers to mount a modular toggle switch onto a grid plate alongside a dimmer switch and other modules. The new range of 20AX toggle switch modules are available in three different switch types – 2-way, double pole and intermediate – and in 10 distinctive quality finishes – black, antique brass, black nickel, polished brass, brushed steel, polished chrome, pearl nickel, satin brass, satin chrome and stainless steel. The new range of toggle switches will be compatible with all existing GridPro unfurnished plates and module mounting yokes, providing installers with the ability to create an even wider and more versatile selection of combination plates.

Unicrimp, part of the Scolmore Group of companies, has added masonry screws to its growing range of fixings. They will form part of Unicrimp’s Q-Fire range of fire-rated products, which also includes metal fire safe cable clips. These self tapping screws measure 4.8mm x 40mm, and they are manufactured from C-1022, which is a low carbon steel with a blue ruspert coating. Designed for concrete, brick and block, they are ideal for fixing fire collars and fire rated cable clips, to help meet the 18th Edition requirements BS7671 section 521.10.202. The use of metal fixings can help prevent some of the increased risks associated with the breakout of a fire, for example preventing the premature collapse of wiring. Construction site managers, electricians and electrical contractors can all be assured that the products they are specifying and installing are compliant with the latest 18th Edition wiring regulations.

Megger • (0)130 4502 100

Scolmore • 01827 63454

Unicrimp • 01827 300600 35


Ovia fire-rated downlights guarantee compliance in all ceiling types

Antimicrobial assistance alarm kit – helping to fight infection

Ovia Lighting’s full range of Inceptor and Flameguard fire-rated downlights have always been subject to the strictest test measures to ensure they offer full compliance and have the corresponding test certification to meet the very latest regulations. As such, they have all been tested for fire resistance compliance with all ceiling types – solid timber, I-joists and metal web joists. Ovia Lighting can confirm that it has successfully completed further fire resistance testing to demonstrate that its fire-rated downlights satisfy the new guidelines issued by the NHBC. The testing was carried out by Efectis – a major player in fire science. The new test consisted of a 30 minute I-joist construction – 220mm I-Joist; 15mm Type A Plasterboard and 22mm floor deck. All fire-rated downlights from the Ovia Inceptor and Flameguard ranges formed part of the test.

ESP’s Assistance Alarm Kit is a simple to install three-part kit designed to meet the criteria of care standards set out in Part M building regulations and British Standard BS8300. It comprises an indication module, pull cord module and reset module. Each module is manufactured from urea formaldehyde which has antimicrobial properties – making it an ideal choice for hygiene sensitive applications. When independently tested, the modules proved to be 99.99% effective in reducing Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The indication module includes an 80db distinctive tone alert sounder with clear LED alert triangle indication for when the alarm has been triggered. The pull cord module features an anti-ligature mechanism and has a distinctive red pull cord supplied with two handles. The reset module features a clear LED alert triangle indication with internal sounder to reassure the user the alarm has been raised and assistance is on the way.

Ovia • 01827 300640

Power quality instrument testing made easy The increasing number of distributed energy resources, non-conventional loads and non-linear elements in the power grid negatively impact on its power quality (PQ). Regulating standards such as EN 50160 or IEC TS 62749 force utilities to prove their PQ conformity. As a consequence, more and more power quality instruments (PQI) are installed in the electrical network and at connection points which should be tested periodically. Other than with protection relays, there are no commonly established rules or procedures for installation and routine testing or calibration. Furthermore, there is little experience and a lack of awareness for PQ especially in small utilities, industry and at end-use customers. Therefore, malfunctioning or reduced accuracy can remain unnoticed, although they may have significant monetary impact.

Omicron • 01785 848 100

ESP • 01527 515150

Safety First with C.K MightyRods Designed to combat the issues of painful splintering and snapping, the innovative C.K MightyRods PRO cable rods bring total peace of mind, by offering a 100% splinter proof solution and a safer working environment. Each cable rod is treated with the durable SplinterSHIELD coating to prevent harmful splintering, without sacrificing that all important flexibility. On top of that, these superb MightyRods PRO cable rods boast a tensile strength in excess of 275kg, thanks to their MightyFIX system, to provide additional strength and allow for hassle-free cable routing. Flexibility is also key to successful cable routing and, with that in mind, C.K introduced its super-flexible SpiraFLEX, perfect for accessing tight corners, bends and other obstacles. The C.K Gloworm cable router – adds another dimension to the range and is perfect for running cables around tight corners, through insulation filled walls, underneath flooring and across ceilings.

Carl Kammerling • 0175 870 1070

36 Electrical Review | July / August 2020

Schneider Electric introduces Easy UPS 3L 500 and 600 kVA

Wieland’s new podis power bus system – for the simple distribution of power

Schneider Electric has announced the introduction of Easy UPS 3L, the latest addition to the Easy UPS 3-phase Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) range, extending the medium range to 500 and 600 kVA (400V) for external batteries. Available in all regions that support 400V, except China and Japan, the Easy UPS 3L simplifies and streamlines configuration and service, delivering high availability and predictability to medium and large commercial buildings, data centres, and light industrial UPS applications. With its compact footprint, highly available parallel and redundant design, and robust electrical specifications, Easy UPS 3L protects critical equipment in a wide range of environments from damage due to power outages, surges, and spikes. Easy UPS 3L includes a wide battery voltage window and accommodates a variety of battery configurations including battery banks, as well as being up to 96% efficient to bring predictability to utility costs.

The new podis power bus system from Wieland Electric helps to implement the distribution of power quickly and easily. Ideal for use in airports for baggage conveyor systems, office buildings, shopping centres for the ruting of power, the podis power bus system has found popularity more recently for the installation of vehicle charging stations for electric cars in public parking garages. The podis decentralised energy distribution system allows a large number of charging stations to be connected with just one supply cable. The system saves installation time, requires less cable, and considerably reduces the size of the distribution cabinet. The connection components for the feed or power tap can be installed anywhere in the power bus, whilst the connecting modules can be positioned quickly and flexibly using the insulation-piercing contacts of the podis components.

Schneider Electric • 0870 608 8608

Wieland Electric • 01483 531213