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Cable management Minimise vibration on high precision machines
Power quality Watt is power quality?
CONTENTS | 3
NEWS Threat or opportunity
FACTORY AUTOMATION Software for the smart factory
CABLE MANAGEMENT Minimise vibration on high precision machines
08 GOSSAGE Gossage:gossip
12 EDITOR: Elinore Mackay 020 8319 1807 email@example.com
PGTD Enhancing ﬂexibility with the latest MCB distribution board
38 POWER QUALITY Watt is power quality?
PRODUCTION MANAGER Alex Gold 020 7933 8999 firstname.lastname@example.org SENIOR SALES MANAGER Sunny Nehru 020 7933 8974 email@example.com ACCOUNT MANAGER Amanda McCreddie 020 7933 8972 Amanda@electricalreview.co.uk PUBLISHER Wayne Darroch PRINTING BY Buxton
SAFETY Four procedures to make an office more safe and secure
2nd ﬂoor, 52-54 Gracechurch Street London EC3V 0EH 020 7933 8999
18 DRIVES AND CONTROLS Control system project for UK malt producer
Any article in this journal represents the opinions of the author. This does not necessarily reﬂect the views of Electrical Review or its publisher – SJP Business Media
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4 | NEWS
Cable leader offers design support AEI Cables has added a further service to its portfolio to more closely collaborate with building designers. The electrical software provided through Amtech means designers can adapt their speciﬁcations more easily for each speciﬁc project. Stuart Dover, commercial manager at AEI Cables, said: “We wanted to further understand the needs of the building designer, and to that end we’ve committed to more sophisticated software which will help them. “It means we can work closely with them to ensure our diverse range of products are used for maximum beneﬁt for our customers worldwide.” Ashish Chaturvedy, responsible for group marketing and communications at Ducab, the parent company of AEI Cables, said: “In the electrical supply chain, your business is only as successful as the projects you work on, whether looking to design and manage a project, track the progress across job sites or manage your service projects, having the right tools to design your electrical circuits is essential.”
Electrical Review | ?????? 2016
The software allows designers − including consultants and contractors − to create and manage specification documents using a comprehensive library of the latest relevant technical guidance to provide a fully robust building construction specification. All AEI Cables’ products are supplied
with approvals from independent bodies, including BASEC and LPCB, covering design, manufacture and supply. It also holds approvals from organisations such as Lloyds, the MoD, Network Rail and LUL, and works to international standards around the world, including American and Canadian approval systems.
6 | NEWS
Power and data cabling Flexible conduit systems from Flexicon will be protecting critical power and data cabling for the ten new Elizabeth line stations. Daniel Tokoro, senior project engineer and package manager for the Electrical Installa-
tion for NG Bailey at Farringdon station said: “Power and data are vital for operational efﬁciency and critical safety systems. Cable protection is important not just from day one but for the lifetime of the installation.” Cable protection from Flexicon will be used for lighting, small power, CCTV and audio systems in both the general public and back ofﬁce areas and for the Platform Edge Screens (PES) that separates the station from the track area. Tokoro continued: “Flexicon worked with the supply chain to get the cable protection speciﬁcation correct. The cable protection for PES simply did not exist in the market, so Flexicon had to develop an all-metallic, chemically-blackened system that met all the ﬁre and IP requirements, while appearing invisible to the eye against a dark background. “They also delivered all the metallic conduit systems cut to length and assembled with ﬁttings to save installation time on site and ensure factory-controlled quality.” The main requirements for the cable protection system are to protect cabling from vandalism, provide ingress protection of up to IP68, and meet the stringent ﬁre safety standards
for sub-surface rail installations. For public-facing areas the conduit also had to meet the aesthetic requirements of the installation. Back-ofﬁce areas use FSS stainless steel corrugated conduit, which combines inherent low ﬁre hazard performance with ingress protection of IP68 and excellent corrosion resistance. Public-facing areas use either FSSBRD, which has a stainless steel over braid for added aesthetic appeal, or a specially-developed all-metallic black stainless-steel conduit called ‘FSS Black’ which is being used on the PES. The latter offers all the beneﬁts of the FSS system, but thanks to its black colouring appears invisible to the naked eye when set against a dark background. Its secret is the development of an anodised black surface treatment. Tim Creedon, sales and marketing director for Flexicon, said: “We have a wide range of metallic conduits, but there are areas on this project that required a metallic system that can be hidden, but is not coated in PVC or other material. This means it will not burn or create smoke in the event of a ﬁre and is halogen-free. FSS Black was developed for the Platform Edge Screen.”
8 | GOSSAGE
Cuddly toys for all
In my last column, castigating the ludicrous and irritating TV cartoon characters Gaz and Leccy, really struck a chord. These inventions only appear in purchased TV advertising slots, and are the creation of a rather shadowy organisation called Smart Energy GB. This outfit is funded to the tune of approaching £50m a year, by the various domestic energy suppliers – and so eventually by all consumers. The message is simple: get a so-called smart meter installed and your fuel bills will no longer be estimated. Big deal. According to its annual report, Smart Energy GB‘s largest item of expenditure is these ads. The last one I saw focused primarily on the domestic toaster and its apparent impact on the gas meter – which, given that toasters can only be powered by electricity, was presumably always nil. Promotional expenditure is not limited to ad purchases. Lots of furry toys, vaguely resembling the TV cartoon ﬁgures, have been manufactured at Smart Energy GB’s expense. You will be delighted to learn that these stuffed toys have been handed to every Member of Parliament who has ever shown any interest in the roll-out of this programme, intended to place 53 million meters into SMEs and homes throughout Britain – at an overall cost of nearly £14bn. Overseeing these absurdities is a senior management team consisting of four people, who between them were paid no less than £532,000 last year – an average of £133,000 per head. This is certainly far more than the annual remuneration received by either government ministers or civil servants who ostensibly oversee their work. I leave it to my devoted readers to decide whether such salaries are as richly deserved as their beneﬁciaries undoubtedly maintain.
Electrical Review | November 2017
The dog that isn’t barking in the night
You probably read about the National Audit Ofﬁce (NAO) report into the “fundamental failures” by the government agency, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), which led to its bungling a £6bn cleanup contract covering 10 decommissioned Magnox nuclear reactors. This has left taxpayers with a wholly unnecessary bill of at least £122m. This appalling administrative blunder was initially revealed last March, which precipitated the NAO investigation. At the same time, the government also announced an inquiry into what had gone wrong, headed by former CEO of National Grid, Steve Holliday. The report, we were told, is expected this autumn. Eight months on, there is nothing on the public record whatsoever about this. All the Department of Business is prepared to conﬁrm is that it has “commissioned an independent inquiry into the affair and strengthened governance.” No meetings, no calls for evidence, no advisory board or secretariat. And certainly no publiclyavailable conclusion. Whilst the NAO report is valuable, it is strictly only a “report to parliament”; it is not an ofﬁcial government inquiry. Since March, both the chairman and the chief executive of the NDA have departed. Meanwhile, the new management is still deciding whether to take the work in-house or launch a fresh tender. Whichever option is chosen, it will almost certainly be far more costly.
Atoms for peace? For years, informed observers have been warning about the cross-subsidisation between civil and military nuclear interests. The Government has always stoutly denied any such connection. But now, a civil service mandarin has blown the gaffe on what has long been the ofﬁcial line of a complete separation of budgets. Stephen Lovegrove is now the permanent secretary – the top ofﬁcial – at the Ministry of Defence. Signiﬁcantly, immediately prior to that, he did the same job at the now-defunct Department of Energy and Climate Change. He would therefore be in prime position to know about any crossover arrangements. Lovegrove was giving evidence to the House of Commons Public Accounts Committee, in a session that concerned the cost-effectiveness of the contracts he had signed in his previous job, to approve the £19.6bn Hinkley Point nuclear power station, Committee chair Meg Hillier asked whether “Hinkley is a great opportunity to maintain our nuclear skills base?” Lovegrove answered: “We are completing the build of the nuclear submarines which carry conventional weaponry. So, somehow there is very deﬁnitely an opportunity here for the nation to grasp in terms of building up its nuclear skills.“ Crucially he then added: “I don’t think that’s going to happen by accident. It is going to require concerted government action to make that happen.” The underlying presumption now must be that the Hinkley Point project is maintaining a large-scale national base of nuclear-speciﬁc skills, without which there is concern that the costs of UK nuclear submarine capabilities could be insupportable. And changes in the government’s policy on nuclear power in recent years are effectively allowing Britain’s military nuclear industry to be supported by payments from electricity consumers.
“Bumbling, small-brained idiots” At last month’s party conference, the Conservatives proved willing to sell any space to corporate lobbyists – even on their delegates’ own chests. Hence each of the passes that hung on the identiﬁcation lanyards advertised two US nuclear ﬁrms, Fluor and NuScale Power. The sponsorship will have netted the Tories a handy £15,000. These two companies want to build some of a new wave of (as yet non-existent) “small modular reactors“ – mini nuclear power stations, which they promise will be cheaper than the wildly overpriced Hinkley Point reactor.
10 | FACTORY AUTOMATION
Software for the smart factory According to the Smart Factories and the Modern Manufacturer report, investments in smart PDQXIDFWXULQJ DUH VHW WR GULYH D LQFUHDVH LQ HIÃ&#x20AC;FLHQF\ RYHU WKH QH[W Ã&#x20AC;YH \HDUV ERRVWLQJ WKH JOREDO HFRQRP\ E\ D FRORVVDO ELOOLRQ +HUH /HH 6XOOLYDQ UHJLRQDO PDQDJHU IRU LQGXVWULDO DXWRPDWLRQ VRIWZDUH H[SHUW &23$ '$7$ 8. H[DPLQHV RQH RI WKH NH\ FKRLFHV PDQXIDFWXUHUV ZLOO PDNH GXULQJ WKHLU GLJLWDO WUDQVIRUPDWLRQ Â³ FKRRVLQJ WKH ULJKW VRIWZDUH Electrical Review | November 2017
FACTORY AUTOMATION | 11
EASY INTEGRATION Typically, a manufacturing facility will comprise an array of equipment. Usually, these machines will differ in terms of vendor, age and the communication standard used. These environments mean that, to collect the necessary data for smart manufacturing, the hardware within the facility, like programmable logic controllers (PLCs), human machine interface (HMIs) panels, consumption devices or PCs need to be communicated with at the same time – a difﬁcult task for machinery and facilities designed on varying communication standards. Successful integration of these devices does not require a complete equipment overhaul for the manufacturer. Instead, organisations should consider choosing software that is platform independent. In an industrial environment, ‘hardware-independent software’ describes software that can be implemented into any industrial automation system, regardless of the hardware used in the facility. Truly independent software can be integrated seamlessly into any device within the facility — irrespective of the age or manufacturer of the equipment. COPADATA’s zenon, for example, provides over 300 native communication protocols. With this ﬂexibility and versatility, manufacturers have the freedom to quickly integrate new or existing shop ﬂoor machines, new buildings or production areas into the data system, regardless of the communication standard used. COPA-DATA’s zenon also supports all common standards, including OPC UA, Modbus RTU, TCP, Open Modbus and more.
he term ‘smart factory’ describes an industrial facility that leverages internet-connected technology to improve manufacturing processes. Central to the success of a Smart factory is the technology that makes data collection possible, the sensors embedded in industrial equipment and, importantly, the industrial software to collect and analyse the data to ensure that the correct decisions are made to improve the factories KPIs.
Choosing industrial software that runs on a variety of different communication protocols means that manufacturers can reap the beneﬁts of a smart factory, for example, they can scale the system to visualise the full value stream map over time. However, the beneﬁts of scalability go beyond improved ﬂexibility. Production downtime is a costly inconvenience for any manufacturer. In the food processing industry, unexpected production stoppages can create a signiﬁcant drain on budgets and logistical resources. Usually, if an HMI panel is damaged or fails during production, the machine cannot be operated and the entire production line must stop.
Waiting on the delivery of a new HMI panel that can run the same software and projects is not always a viable option. However, using automation software that is truly independent means that any generic HMI panel can be used as a replacement. Hardware-independent software can run on different hardware platforms, regardless of the screen resolution. For manufacturers, this means that in the event of a HMI failure, any generic HMI panel can be used as an interim solution. Furthermore, the lifecycle of the zenon project within the damaged HMI is also easily maintained as the project can then be upgraded and installed onto a newer operating system. This is a huge beneﬁt because it not only minimises the risk of obsolescence but importantly ensures a safer facility with improved cyber security.
FUTURE FLEXIBILITY Extensibility is also a key requirement of the SMART factory. The ability to internally optimise factories to provide growth through the open platform of zenon ensures that improvements can be added at any time, using speciﬁc modules. From the perspective of a systems integrator or an original equipment manufacturer (OEM), choosing hardwareindependent software can remove future limitations for both themselves and for their customers — and potentially grow their business into new industry sectors. Systems integrators are often faced with the challenge of searching the marketplace for industrial software for each of its separate projects. Choosing software that is platform independent gives customers a more ﬂexible approach to automation architecture. This way, systems crtan be designed in a way that best ﬁts the facility and can be changed quickly and costeffectively. This method can also reduce the time and costs associated with internal training for different systems. 76 per cent of manufacturers either have a smart factory initiative in place, or they are currently working on formulating it. However, 39% of manufacturers admit that they are struggling to successfully implement their smh manufacturing initiatives. As a key enabler for the digital transformation of manufacturing facilities, choosing the right software should not be an afterthought. www.electricalreview.co.uk
12 | PGTD
Enhancing ﬂexibility with the latest MCB distribution board Kevin Lenton, ABB’s product manager for distribution enclosures in the UK explains the thinking behind the new Protecta Plus MCB distribution board that has been launched to enable electrical consultants, panel builders and electrical contractors to squeeze more performance out of the their MCB distribution boards or add new functionality over time of the building industry. Contractors can add options to meet customer speciﬁcations or order a fully customized solution from ABB’s Low Voltage assembly workshop. The new board brings together ABB’s signiﬁcant recent advances in low-voltage technology and offers greater ﬂexibility.
FUNCTIONALITY, FLEXIBILITY AND SAFETY
he big trend in electrical distribution is ever-growing levels of sophistication and performance. Whereas building owners and facility managers were once content with relatively straightforward arrangements, expectations have moved on. Today’s building owners want to do more with less, at the same time as complying with ever-tightening legislation. They are often keen to optimise their facility’s performance, minimise energy bills or earn new revenues. One priority inside buildings is to use intelligent energy management systems to save energy by controlling loads like air conditioning or heating. In addition, building automation and management Electrical Review | November 2017
systems have created a need for power distribution systems with more capabilities. Looking outwards, there are now opportunities to earn revenues and reduce costs by participating in demand side response schemes or generating power with CHP (combined heat and power) systems, solar photovoltaic panels or wind turbines, or adopting energy storage to sell energy back to the grid. Furthermore, the high priority of safety means that many owners and managers of public, leisure and commercial buildings want to ensure a reliable and uninterrupted supply of power. Protecta Plus gives installers and designers ﬂexibility. It is available as a kit for standard applications for all segments
ABB has developed the new Protecta Plus series of distribution boards. It has been designed to give electrical installers and designers the ﬂexibility to cover all types of application from standard to complex sites. Once in operation, the boards give operators the ﬂexibility to extend functionality and simplify maintenance operations. This is achieved by clever design that ensures straightforward physical access to components and plenty of space for wiring. The new distribution boards have been developed to incorporate the latest lowvoltage technology. Over recent years, there have been signiﬁcant advances in low voltage technology as the demands on it have grown. For example, it has been designed for the latest miniature circuit breakers (MCBs). These are rated at up to 25 kA and 100 A in a standard 18 mm format and are labelled clearly with certiﬁcations and the markets they’re designed for. Another trend is improved performance of components like RCBOs (residual current breakers with overcurrent protection). The latest models such as the DSE201 M include a visual indication of `Actual contact position` and `earth leakage trip display` to reduce time fault ﬁnding. Also, their reduced height, makes them ideal when space is limited and to allow space for cabling. Safety is also central to the board’s design. Both MCBs and RCBOs are lockable in the ON or OFF position and the board
14 | PGTD
has been designed to accommodate the latest surge protection devices. These include features such as an end-of-life indicator so that operators can tell at a glance when SPDs (surge protection devices) need to be replaced. For critical installations such as hospitals, data centres and automated process control systems, electronic systems need to be protected from frequent lightning or switching transients. In this case, the new boards can integrate the latest electronic systems protection devices. Protecta Plus boards also meet the latest market requirements for vertical / horizontal power, lighting and services monitoring This allows building solutions providers to give greater ﬂexibility to meet customer needs while complying with the latest industry standards.
require building operators to account for different types of load separately, so it is important to have conﬁdence in the consumption ﬁgures for lighting, elevators, heating and ventilation, etc. Because of this, accurate and MIDcompliant sub-metering is extremely valuable as it gives building operators conﬁdence when reporting their performance. As well as supporting the legal requirements for reporting, accurate metering highlights ways to increase the building efﬁciency as it helps them to identify potential energy savings. Only with accurate sub-metering and analysis of consumption is it possible to maintain energy management standards such as ISO50001, L2 building regulations, BREEAM and others.
ACCURATE SUB-METERING The latest metering technology can also be integrated into Protecta Plus. It enables operators of commercial buildings such as shopping centres, ofﬁces, hotels and airports to access more accurate and reliable consumption data than ever before, with the ultimate goal of identifying ways to enhance energy efﬁciency, improve the billing of tenants and create detailed reports on energy consumption. Meters that are approved by the European Measurement Instruments Directive (MID) have the advantage of being certiﬁed to meet minimum standards for accuracy. This is essential so that the building owner can demonstrate the fairness when allocating energy costs to building users. Although many commercial properties were not originally designed for submetering, MID-compliant sub-metering solutions such as ABB’s EQ meters can monitor consumption by individual tenants in a building, such as retail outlets or boutiques, businesses in ofﬁce blocks or different functions such as airline lounges or baggage handling at airports. Being compact, such meters can be retroﬁtted wherever they are needed. Operators of commercial properties must declare the energy performance of their buildings as part of the Government’s drive to reduce carbon emissions and increase the efﬁcient use of energy. Energy declarations Electrical Review | November 2017
Flexibility and safety are important considerations Another beneﬁt of accurate metering is that measuring the average power during a set time interval conﬁrms the maximum demand value. This knowledge enables electrical consultants to dimension a building’s electrical installation to best ﬁt the building’s occupiers.
FLEXIBILITY AND SAFETY From the perspective of installers and operators, ﬂexibility and safety of distribution boards are important considerations. That’s why the Protecta Plus has robust mechanical construction with wide internal accessibility that ensures fast and easy access to install, inspect and maintain the electrical components. In addition, because of the doors’ particularly wide opening angle and the option for doors to open either to the right or left, the boards have been built so that technicians can gain optimal access during maintenance. The new board design integrates many details that combine to make a signiﬁcant
difference to performance compared with previous generations of distribution boards. As standard, the boards come with 250A main bars, giving users a full range from 125A 3P to 250A 4P incomers. And the incoming shroud can be easily modiﬁed with clear identiﬁed intervals that users can break easily to modify the shroud to suit. Another example is that the board width of 450 mm and reduced height of RCBOs give installers have ample room for cabling on either side of the board. In addition, the board has extended the space available for 100A MCBs, meaning that more can be installed and there is less need to move up to high-performance boards or panel boards.
IOT-CONNECTED Another feature of the Protecta Plus is the circuit monitoring system (CMS) that connects up to 96 metering sensors through a control unit that evaluates data picked up by the sensors and enables monitoring via the Internet of Things. The control unit is compatible with protocols such as RS485, Modbus RTU and LAN (TCP/ IP and Modbus TCP). As with the other components, the CMS has been designed for straightforward connection of sensors, with conﬁguration taking just a few minutes.
INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS Lastly, the Protecta Plus can also integrate KNX where required. Many operators are turning to KNX as their preferred way to implement intelligent control. As the world’s ﬁrst open standard for intelligent buildings, KNX can be applied to industrial, commercial and residential buildings. Because it is based on a bus system, it can be implemented and extended efﬁciently – and ABB’s KNX solution can be integrated into the new distribution board. Beneﬁts can include enhanced control of lighting, shutters and blinds, temperature and ventilation. In spite of having higher performance, such distribution boards must be compact. During refurbishment contracts, boards must ﬁt in a space that has the same dimensions as the equipment it’s replacing – and designers of new buildings have always been under pressure to minimise the room available for plant and equipment.
LIGHTNING AND SURGE PROTECTION | 16
Lightning and surge protection Surge protection has always been covered in-depth within BSEN62305-4, the current UK lightning protection standard. Now, recent and forthcoming amendments of BS7671 are increasing awareness of surge protection devices
ere we take a look at some of the important criteria when selecting Surge Protection Devices (SPDs), such as ensuring their correct type and kA rating are selected in accordance with the standards.
SPD TYPE SELECTION There are three types of SPDs deﬁned in BSEN62305 and EN61643-11. Additionally, combined SPDs have the distinct advantage of offering both lightning protection and surge protection in one device. Type-1 SPDs are designed to carry partial lightning currents and are deﬁned as being tested with high-energy 10/350μs (Iimp) wave shape. These Type-1 SPDs must be installed on incoming services (e.g. mains power and data ) when an external Lightning Protection System (LPS) is installed on a building. Where partial lightning currents can also ﬂow due to a direct lightning strike on overhead supplies or externally-mounted equipment, Type-1 SPDs should also be used. Type-2 and Type-3 SPDs are designed to discharge induced surges created by lightning electromagnetic ﬁelds and also other transient events such as switching surges, supply faults, and so on. These devices are deﬁned as being tested with a speciﬁc energy wave shape of 8/20μs (In) for Type-2 SPDs or a combination wave shape for Type 3. For many applications where the requirement is to provide surge protection only, Type-2 and Type-3 SPDs play a critical role in protecting sensitive electronic equipment.
important when dealing with Type-1 SPDs that have to handle lightning currents. When an external lightning protection system is installed on a structure, it must as a minimum also have Type 1 Lightning Current Arrestors installed on the incoming services for lightning equipotential bonding purposes. If a risk assessment has been carried out to BSEN62305 the corresponding Lightning Protection Level (LPL) of the structure will be known and, from this, the required kA rating and Iimp values can be found. However, in many cases risk assessment may not have been carried out on the structure and these values will not be known. According to BS7671, “Where Type-1 SPDs are required, the value of Iimp shall not be less than 12.5kA for each mode of protection, if limp cannot be calculated.” Selecting a Type-1 SPD with a total kA rating (Itotal) of 100kA such as the DEHNventil will ensure protection to all LPLs even without risk assessment or Iimp
calculation. For lightning protection levels III and IV, the DEHNshield is ideally suited with a total kA rating of 50kA.
WAVE BREAKER FUNCTION Experience and testing have shown that even small amplitudes of 10/350μs lightning impulse currents can overload or even destroy downstream SPDs and equipment, if varistor-based Type-1 lightning current arresters are used. Varistor-based Type 1 SPDs limit the energy rather than switching it to ground. As a result, a larger amount of the initial energy ﬂows to downstream SPDs and equipment. In spark-gap-based arresters, the energy is switched to ground, and virtually the whole current ﬂows through the Type 1 arrester, thus reducing the energy ﬂowing to downstream SPDs and equipment to an acceptable level. All Type-1 arresters from the DEHN Red/ Line family are energy co-ordinated and are based on spark gap technology featuring the Wave Breaker Function.
KA RATING Once the correct type SPD has been determined, the next critical consideration is its kA rating, which is the maximum amount of lightning current the SPD is designed to discharge. This kA rating is extremely www.electricalreview.co.uk
18 | DRIVES AND CONTOLS
Control system project for UK malt producer In March 2016, leading UK malt producer Bairds Malt asked Gibbons Engineering Group to modernise an agitator system at its Witham plant. The project was so successful that Bairds soon commissioned Gibbons to repeat the trick at its facility in Pencaitland, Scotland OVERVIEW The project concerns an agitator system consisting of a trolley weighing approximately two tonnes mounted with 13 screws which moves along a germination tank containing bulk malted barley. As the trolley progresses along the tank, the malted barley is continuously turned by the screws in order to allow the germination process to occur at the optimum rate. An elevator and conveyor system then removes the product ready for the kilning process. Our client recognised that the existing equipment was outdated, unreliable and inefﬁcient, awarding Gibbons a full turnkey package of design and manufacture of the control system along with installation, programming and commissioning.
DESIGN The system consists of: One 1.1 kW progression motor to move the trolley controlled by one of two ABB ACS580 variable-speed drives depending on duty or standby mode. Toothed wheels enable a sensor to register the position of the trolley at any given moment, stopping the system immediately if an irregularity is ﬂagged. 13 screws driven by 0.75 kW Gibbons stainless steel motors and connected to individual DOL starters. Gibbons’ stainless steel motors were speciﬁed due to their dust-tight IP69K casing which enables safe exposure to washdowns with high-pressure water jets. One 7.5 kW elevator motor controlled by an ABB ACS880 drive. One 11 kW overhead conveyor motor controlled by an ABB ACS880 drive. Three touchscreens – one each on the machine, control panel and in the control room. A new conveyor containing 15 slides complete with open or closed feedback signals. Electrical Review | November 2017
During the normal (turning) process, the load on the progression motor is monitored. Above a pre-set level, the speed is reduced to lessen the load for a set period at which time normal speed is resumed. If the load does not reduce during the reduced speed mode, the machine is reversed for a pre-set time and then resumes normal operation. Similarly, during the emptying (stripping) mode, the load on both the progression and discharge elevators is monitored utilising
the same control philosophy. In addition, the system includes: • Stainless steel enclosures throughout for extended longevity • Stainless steel cable support structure • OLFLEX ROBUST FD cables with halogenfree TPE sheath for superior ﬂexibility, with a power chain to allow movement alongside the conveyor • Ethernet communications for touch screen and PLC interconnection • Switchable LAN connection to enable programming changes and fault diagnosis to be made remotely from our Essex base Gibbons had a two-week window while the plant was closed in which to complete the project and despite this tight timeframe, the project was delivered to schedule. The system continues to perform as designed, helping Bairds Malt to increase the productivity, reliability and energy efﬁciency of the process.
20 | ADVERTISEMENT FEATURE
Unistrut and Marco’s one stop solution
hrough an ongoing drive to innovate and stay one step ahead of market demand, Marco has developed and today manufactures a complete and comprehensive product range. Customers are now able to meet all of their cable containment needs through Marco including supporting accessories. Marco’s core ranges of steel wire cable tray and uPVC trunking, alongside poles and bench and the new underﬂoor range, have been developed to cater for the diverse needs of the various sectors in which the business operates namely healthcare, education, industrial and commercial. Steel wire cable tray is available in a range of ﬁnishes to suit any environment whilst the quick ﬁt accessories support a simple installation providing a safe ﬁx within seconds. Enhancing the user experience, simplifying the process and ultimately reducing time on site have been key factors in the development process for the Quik-Clik range and contractors are embracing these new and innovative tools on site. uPVC trunking is available in a number of speciﬁcations to support a range of containment needs. Marco’s ﬂagship trunking, Elite, made from the highest quality uPVC compound, is able to accommodate CAT6, CAT6A and CAT7 structured cabling. John Heaton, Sales Director EMEA Unistrut – Marco, commented: “Marco has driven its product range ever forward until we have ultimately met our one-stop-shop aspiration. We now offer a comprehensive set of products through our two core ranges supported by bench and poles and our new underﬂoor range, marking the ﬁnal piece in the jigsaw. By being able to deliver a complete package, and to have these complimented by our wide range of the Unistrut International Raceway portfolio we are presented with new opportunities that will ultimately help take our business to the next level.”
Electrical Review | November 2017
INDUSTRIAL CONVERSION BENEFITS FROM FULL MARCO RANGE The conversion of a vast 15,000 sq. ft. industrial unit in Camberley for a pharmaceutical manufacturing business has seen contractor Jonathan Jones Electrical Services utilise a complete range of Marco’s cable containment products. Marco Area Sales Manager, Luke Kellaher has worked closely alongside JJES Director, Jon Jones, during design and installation to ensure the exact speciﬁcation was met and supplied. Jon Jones led the contracting team. He commented: “There are several beneﬁts of working with Marco ranging from delivery – all products arrive on site within two days – to the standard and quality of the products themselves. “During this project, the products have been delivered onsite in phases, which helps us in terms of cash-ﬂow, whilst also ensuring the site team are able to work in a clean environment, without unnecessary obstacles in their way. We’re also able to source all of our cable containment needs from under one roof with Marco, guaranteeing a full speciﬁcation in terms of both steel wire cable tray and uPVC trunking. “Both myself and the guys on-site undoubtedly prefer working with the Marco products. We particularly like the Elite 3 which offers greater data capacity and deeper bends than competitor products, which is particularly useful when walls aren’t ﬂush. Having been a user of Marco products for some time, it’s great to see their product range grow as they continue to adapt to a changing market. The use of ancillary products and accessories speeds up the installation process through time efﬁciency and ease of use. I also believe their products to be great value and are cost-effective. The conversion of an industrial unit in Camberley has seen contractor Jonathan Jones Electrical Services utilise a complete range of Marco’s cable containment products
22 | CABLE MANAGEMENT
Minimise vibration on high precision machines In a wide range of applications machine builders are demanding increased accuracy and precision from their production equipment. Simultaneously, increasingly complex automation has created an additional challenge, as the vibration of dynamic machine FRPSRQHQWV FDQ VLJQLÀFDQWO\ LQFUHDVH YLEUDWLRQ RI WKH FRPSOHWH system. Justin Leonard, the-chain director, igus, explains
n a number of industries, including printer design, semiconductor manufacturing and machine tools, cable management systems can be a possible source of vibration. This vibration can be transferred to supporting structure of the energy chain, as well as the moving end or tow arm of the machine. Once it reaches a certain level, the overall performance of the machine can be affected. For machine builders, as well as their customers, factors that limit the capabilities of precision systems must be tackled using cable management systems that minimise vibrations and maximise smooth and precise operation. In printing, milling, or other highprecision processes, dynamic loads are the Electrical Review | November 2017
typical source of vibration, or ‘chatter’, which corresponds to the relative movement between the workpiece and tool. This chatter not only decreases the quality of the print, product, etc., but can also cause increased wear on the components of the machine itself, leading to product defects, system malfunctions and downtime. Because of this, the dependence on low-vibration materials and machine components is on the rise in an effort to limit self-generated machine vibration.
DESIGNING VIBRATION-REDUCING COMPONENTS Most cable management systems have a pin-and-bore type connection between
the individual links of the energy chain in order to guarantee a secure connection under high dynamic loads. This type of connection also gives the system protection against external inﬂuences, resistance to high torsional forces, high tensile strength, and high mechanical durability. However, a disadvantage of the pin-and-bore design is the resulting relative motion between the links, which over time can cause wear on moving parts. In addition, the rolling motion of a cable management system exhibits the so-called ‘polygon effect’, where the chain does not form a smooth rolling motion, resulting in an angular, or polygonal, transition between links. In addition to increased wear, this also results
24 | CABLE MANAGEMENT
The spring-link connection design reduces vibrations.
in a “stepping” motion, which can create system vibrations. This can – in a worst-case scenario – result in material failure due to catastrophic resonance. Even in less extreme cases, the vibration caused by the polygon effect results in material wear and decreased accuracy on the workpiece. To reduce vibration, many energy chain manufacturers have modiﬁed the design by reducing the link pitch length. This upgraded design offers extremely smooth and nearly vibration-free operation, even under high acceleration forces. In igus low-vibration energy chains, which encompass the E3, E6, and E6-1 series, the traditional pin-and-bore design has been replaced by the combination of a short pitch length with an advanced plastic spring element. The ﬂexible connection element reduces the polygon effect due to its alternative geometry. The advantages of this new design were tested for effectiveness in a 220 million cycle test conducted in the igus test lab. The endurance test was conducted with the E629 energy chain system, with focus on the system’s spring link connection. Throughout the test, the connection was subjected to more than 440 million bending cycles, and based on the results issued from the University of Applied Sciences in Cologne, Germany, no measurable wear or damage of any kind was recorded.
MATERIAL SELECTION AND ITS IMPACT ON VIBRATION No matter how specialised the design of a cable management system may be, without materials that are properly able to dampen vibration, damage and eventual failure can still occur. Compared to their metal counterparts, plastic materials are much better at damping vibration forces, due to their viscoelastic behaviours. With this in mind, igus developed a material speciﬁcally for use in energy chains called, igumid G. This materials a proprietary blend, made up of a reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6) base. Polymer blends such as this are also able to dampen vibrations by using the interface between the material’s components (ie: Electrical Review | November 2017
ﬁbres and other structures blended throughout the base polymer) as a mechanism for reducing vibratory forces. When compared to metal and other plastic energy chain options, igumid G offers a much higher ability to dampen vibration forces. Vibration testing was conducted by the IPA Fraunhofer Institute on the material, which makes up both the energy chains and the spring link connection elements. These tests found that the specialist plastic material offers sound pressure levels of only 37 dB (A), signiﬁcantly below the values of other material options, which has also been conﬁrmed by experts at TÜV Rheinland. In addition to sound pressure testing, these tests showed a range of other material beneﬁts of igumid G, including high levels of corrosion and wear resistance, and compatibility with the maximum quality standards for cleanrooms, ISO Class 1. ESD versions of the material are also available.
COMPARISON OF VIBRATION PROPERTIES A study was conducted by the Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering at the RWTH University in Aachen, Germany to determine and
compare the vibration properties of a range of ﬁve cable management systems of the same size category. Tested energy chains included an igus E6 and 380 series, along with three from other manufacturers. The test used a base frame and a highly dynamic linear motor drive, with a force of 14,000 N. The linear motor moved a carriage attached to the moving ends of the energy chain at four different speeds (25, 50, 100, and 200 m/min), and two accelerations (10 and 20 m/s²) over a travel length of 800 mm. Impact of the energy chain’s vibrations were measured with two accelerometers with sampling frequency of 6000 Hz, that were installed on the moving end and the support trough. Data was measured separately for the two directions of travel. Sensor generated signals were analysed in the time and frequency domains. For the time domain, the root mean square (rms) value indicated the vibration energy at the measurement location. For all the energy chains included in the test, the highest levels of vibration were evident on the supporting trough in the direction of the application axis (z-axis), however, the differences in accelerations had no signiﬁcant inﬂuence on the vibration values. According to the test data, of the ﬁve energy chains tested, the vibration values were lowest for the two igus ones. The results from these tests demonstrate that the E6 and 380 energy chains offer
26 | CABLE MANAGEMENT
As the chain moves around the curve, from position 1 to 2, the individual links (AB, BC, CD, DE) create an angular motion, changing the height of the system from d/2 to (d/2)cos(Y/2). This height ﬂuctuation creates vibration and a rough “stepping “motion.
ideal performance with respect to vibration characteristics and smooth operation at all travel speeds and accelerations. On average, the measured vibration was 28 percent lower than that of energy chains from other manufacturers. The igus E6 and 380 demonstrated an effective maximum value of approximately 4 m/s². In contrast, the energy chain with the highest levels of vibration exhibited a value of 5.6 m/s², or approximately 40 percent higher than the vibration exhibited by the tested igus options.
TECHNOLOGY OUTLOOK The new E6-1 series from igus is the next generation of the E6 series, which on testing has shown to have the lowest levels of noise and vibration in cable management applications due to its material makeup and design. This new generation offers a weight reduction of approximately 30 percent, when compared to the E6 series, and exhibits even lower noise and vibration levels. A shortened pitch and ‘brake’ in the stop dog system reduce the sound pressure levels by an additional 2 dB(A). Optimised geometry makes operation of the E6-1 system very smooth, eliminating the polygon effect almost entirely, even at higher speeds and accelerations. Another option for reducing vibration on machine tools can be provided via special energy chain design. An example of this would be creating a nested arrangement, which can dramatically increase milling accuracy in certain cases. These nested systems, like the example shown above, can change the system properties of the machine, and can be combined with additional systems to help minimise or Electrical Review | November 2017
eliminate damaging vibrations. These
these types of adaptive solutions is not
systems apply external forces to minimise or completely eliminate damaging vibrations via damping or cancelling solutions, differentiated into passive and active systems. Passive systems attain their vibration damping effect by converting the vibration energy to another form. In this situation, an additional mass transforms the kinematic energy from the vibration into thermal energy or a relative motion between two other bodies. Active systems, on the other hand, employ an external energy supply to create a phase-cancelling vibration. Both passive and active systems can effectively compensate for vibration, but also have a cost impact, as these types of systems are typically only available as a customised one-off solution and cannot be transferred to other machinery. The economic use of
always viable for the price-sensitive machine tool market; therefore, the primary effort in research and development for vibrationreducing systems going forward should focus on identifying and reducing the component sources of vibration. As the demands for process accuracy for a range of applications increases, the need for technical advances to reduce vibrations also grows. An important element of a successful strategy is to improve the operational smoothness of energy chain systems in dynamic applications. New solutions, such as the polymer spring link connection for igus energy chain, can signiﬁcantly contribute towards realising this objective. While other solutions are available, the lowest cost option to create a low-vibration system is to integrate low-vibration machine components.
30 | ADVERTISEMENT FEATURE
ARCO 400 New universal test set revolutionizes recloser control testing worldwide
ll utilities (including municipalities and cooperatives), service providers and manufacturers will now beneﬁt from the smart plug-and-play recloser control test set ARCO 400. With this ground-breaking solution, users will easily master the challenge of testing all settings to ensure correct functionality in less than 15 minutes (including the test setup) and in any weather condition. Furthermore, GPS synchronized injections to test distribution automation schemes are also possible. At 22 lbs (10kg), the lightweight but rugged ARCO 400 is equipped with 3-phase 12.5 A and up to 6-phase 150 V ampliﬁers. It is designed for outdoor usage and by using smart recloser-speciﬁc test adapters it is an ideal universal tool for testing controllers of any brand in the ﬁeld. It covers all recloser and sectionalizer control functions and provides maximum testing ﬂexibility, without any additional boxes or accessories. Operated by the ARCO Control software (available for Windows PCs and Android tablets), the test set makes commissioning and maintenance testing of recloser and sectionalizer controls easier than ever before. Dedicated test tools ensure that all functions of the controller can be tested quickly and easily, and test results can
be saved to a report. To standardize testing procedures, test plans can be created using the PC-based ReCoPlan software.
COMPANY PROFILE OMICRON is an international company serving the electrical power industry with innovative testing and diagnostic solutions. The application of OMICRON products allows users to assess the condition of the primary and secondary equipment on their systems with complete conﬁdence. Services offered in the area of consulting, commissioning, testing, diagnosis and training make the product range complete. Customers in more than 140 countries rely on the company’s ability to supply leading edge technology of excellent quality. Service centers on all continents provide a broad base of knowledge and extraordinary customer support. All of this together with our strong network of sales partners is what has made our company a market leader in the electrical power industry. OMICRON electronics UK email@example.com www.omicronenergy.com
ARCO 400: Universal test set for recloser controls
Electrical Review | November 2017
32 | ADVERTISEMENT FEATURE
Rittal Offers Users Free Cooling Equipment Survey
sers of Rittal enclosure cooling technology are being offered free on-site inspection surveys to ensure that their production and process critical equipment is being adequately protected. The offer is available for a limited period and extends to any business with Rittal climate control installations, ranging from top therm, roof mounted fans, to Blue e or Blue e+ cooling units, all of which manage the temperature inside their enclosures. The user does not have to have previously registered with Rittal for their cooling units to qualify. Excessive temperature or overheating in an electrical enclosure means that enclosure cooling is very important for a number of reasons: • Unplanned interruptions to production due to tripping or failing control components are costly • Excessive temperature affects the correct operation and service life of electrical equipment • High temperatures that lead to tripping or failing control components are avoidable • 80 per cent of control component failures may be addressed with a suitable cooling solution Marketing Director Simon Kelemen says, “The costs of downtime, loss of production and system shut-down due to equipment running over temperature can easily exceed £10,000 per hour. I don’t know any businesses that would be happy to right that off, particularly as it’s entirely avoidable.”
INSPECTION BY RITTAL EXPERTS For businesses with Rittal enclosure cooling equipment installed
Electrical Review | November 2017
the process will involve an engineer conducting the review which will provide: • Conﬁrmation as to the condition of the devices • An assessment of their cleanliness, function and serviceability • An asset list documenting status of each enclosure • A quotation (if required) based on the most appropriate solution for moving forward • On-going service suggestions and offers, tailored to the site itself To book a survey, users can contact the Rittal team via firstname.lastname@example.org or call 01709 704105 to book their survey. Further information on climate control solutions at www.rittal.co.uk and www.friedhelm-loh-group.com or on twitter @rittal_ltd.
ADVERTISEMENT FEATURE | 33
Contacts in No Time Wires and cables routinely have to be connected to copper busbars when manufacturing control gear and switchgear systems. The conventional approach is time-consuming and uses screw clamps or ﬁxed conductor connection clamps. But help is at hand, thanks to the launch of a new range of maintenance-free conductor connection clamps from Rittal. The clamps utilize push-in technology, providing users with a fast, easy and secure method for connecting conductors to busbars. Rittal’s push-in clamps also have a whole host of other advantages as well as extremely quick and easy cable connection. They are maintenance-free and can be used for many different types of conductors. Rittal has developed a new generation of conductor connection clamps enabling panel builders and switchgear manufacturers to connect cables and wires directly to busbars. The new push-in conductor connection clamps are available in two clamping ranges, 0.5–4 mm2 and 1.5–16 mm2, and for copper busbars, 5 and 10 mm thick in each clamping range. The push-in conductor connection clamps enable quick and easy attachment to the busbar. The stripped end of the conductor is connected to the busbar simply by pushing them together, and the connection is held securely in place with a separate spring mechanism. The spring optimises conductivity by removing oxide layers that have formed on the busbar. And optimal contact is maintained by the integral contact block with its deﬁned and raised contact points. You can achieve quick and easy connections with solid, multi-wire and ultrasonic welding conductors and also ﬁne wire conductors with wire end ferrules and twin wire end ferrules. The clamp can reduce issues such as incorrect compression/
torques and loosening while its maintenance-free design improves reliability and keeps running costs down. The conductor connection clamp can be used for numerous applications, such as connecting protective and neutral conductors to busbars or as short circuit-resistant voltage taps on the copper bars of a main busbar system. It is also possible to make string distributors or distributor blocks with a large number of connector clamps for outgoing cables. Thanks to its numerous UL and IEC certiﬁcations, the new conductor connection clamp is suitable for use worldwide including in maritime and offshore applications. It is currently tested by ABS, DNV-GL and LR, and approvals are planned to be completed by September. Further information at www.rittal.co.uk and www.friedhelm-loh-group.com or on twitter @rittal_ltd.
ELECTRIC VEHICLES | 35
Rise of electric vehicles could halve UK oil imports The government’s plan to end the sale of new petrol and diesel vehicles by 2040 is a step in the right direction to reduce the UK’s reliance on energy imports. But a stronger target for electric vehicles could reduce UK foreign oil imports by more than 50% in 2035, concludes a new study from leading environment and development organisations
ew analysis by Green Alliance, supported by CAFOD, Christian Aid, Greenpeace, RSPB and WWF , has found that an ambition for all new cars and vans to be zero emission by 2030 would reduce oil imports by 51% in 2035 compared to current projections.  The report, ‘Why the UK needs an ambitious clean growth plan now’, comes before the launch of the government’s clean growth plan this September, which will outline how the UK will cut its carbon emissions and set a course for developing low carbon industries. In 2016, transport accounted for 40% of energy consumption, with road transport accounting for just under three quarters of this. The report highlights that other countries are way ahead of the UK on the rollout of electric vehicles. Norway has nearly ten times more charging points per head of the population than the UK and 29 % of new cars and vans sold there in 2016 were electric, compared to 1.4% in the UK. A growing electric vehicle market in the UK would also bring additional beneﬁts to reducing oil imports. On current trends, investment in electric vehicle charging points is estimated to be £18 billion by 2030.  And cutting nitrogen oxide and particulate emissions in urban areas will help to reduce the incidents of respiratory and heart conditions caused by poor air quality, reducing costs to the NHS. As well as stronger targets for electric vehicles, the group is calling on the government to be more ambitious in other areas of the green economy such as renewable energy and housing energy efﬁciency. The clean growth plan is more than a year overdue and any further delay
will hold back business investment in the low carbon sector. Commenting on the ﬁndings, Gareth Redmond-King, head of climate and energy at WWF, said: “The UK government’s commitment to end petrol and diesel vehicles sales in 2040 is too little, too late. We can and must go faster. Other countries, such as India and Norway, are way ahead in the scale of their ambitions. To ensure the UK doesn’t miss out on the jobs and investment opportunity in clean, modern vehicles, the UK should up its ambition. Cleaning up transport and boosting home energy efﬁciency must be priorities for the UK government in the forthcoming clean growth plan. Both measures will create jobs for UK businesses and reduce costs to
the NHS caused by noxious air pollution and cold leaky homes.” Laura Taylor, head of advocacy at Christian Aid, said: “The UK’s position of leadership on the green economy is far from guaranteed. The US administration is squandering its opportunity by stepping back from global agreements on climate change, while many other countries are seizing the initiative. The UK government’s long-overdue clean growth plan needs to prove that this government is serious about speeding up the low carbon transition, not slackening the pace. The benefits to citizens are enormous but areas like home energy efficiency and heating are lagging behind and need urgent political attention.” www.electricalreview.co.uk
38 | POWER QUALITY
Watt is power quality? When we start to look at what power quality is, it can quite quickly seem to get very complicated. Rob Barker, of Power Quality Expert, explains
o try and start to remove some of this complexity and act as an introduction to what can be referred to as ‘power quality’ we’ll begin by looking at some fundamental parameters when planning a basic power quality survey. As with all live electrical measurements, we’ll be taking a reference from the installation’s supply of the voltage and current into the power quality meter (PQM). From these measurements all subsequent readings you’ll see and that are recorded will be derived through live or post processing mathematical calculations, done by the meter. The typical measurements we’ll consider are: V (voltage), A (current), VA (apparent power), W (active power), VAR (reactive power), PF (power factor), THD( Electrical Review | November 2017
total harmonic distortion measured as a percentage), harmonics (measured as an absolute RMS value).
TYPICAL POWER MEASUREMENTS Voltage – In 1995 legislation was introduced to harmonise the voltage across the EU. Today’s operating voltages in Europe are 220v – 230v with the UK typically being between 238v – 248v, with the national average of 242v. The quality of the voltage can be measured using the EN50160 standard. Current – Current monitored is what is being used by the installation and measurements made will be inﬂuenced and directly related to the speciﬁc loads on the network. Hz – Fundamental mains frequency in the UK is 50hz. Knowing the networks’
frequency will be of interest when we start to consider the individual harmonic components of an AC supply as they’ll all be based on this frequency. Because of this it can be useful to be aware of the other standard frequencies that you may encountered: 60hz (American installations) and 400hz (aerospace) With the two basic measurements of voltage and current we’re then able to look at ‘power’ and also start to consider areas that would indicate what the ‘quality’ of this power is. From this point all additional measurements are derived from calculations based on RMS readings taken by the PQM. VA- Apparent power (S). This is power calculated to be supplied to the installation or load, being a product of voltages-amps. It can also be seen and shown as a vectored sum of the active
40 | POWER QUALITY
power (KW) and reactive power (VAR) as one side of the ‘power triangle’. KW – Active power (P). This is the active part of the supplied power that is actually used to operate the load. It’s also referred to as ‘real’ or ‘true’ power. VAR- Reactive power (Q). This measurement is the third part of the ‘power triangle’ and represents the power supplied to the installation and load not effectively used to operate the load and is an effect of leading or lagging current. PF- Power factor. This is shown in the ‘power triangle’ as the angle between VA and KW and is expressed as a value between 0 and 1. Perfect power factor would be ‘1’ – also referred to as unity. However, as we’re typically looking at an installation with power quality problems we may expect to see measurements down in the region of 0.7 - 0.8. At this point with these readings we’re now starting to build up a picture of the quality of power being used. For example, we could look at the voltage. We understand the tolerances it should be operating within so we could consider if this is too high based on the type of appliances and processes that could be wasting energy through over-voltage. The VA measurement we’ve taken shows how close the customer is to the limit for their incoming supply and we can also start to see how efﬁciently the installation is using that power. kW is the power that is used to operate the loads within the installation and is what people think of when considering the cost of their power – especially in a domestic setting – but when we look at industrial installations we’re also going to look at the VAR component of the ‘power triangle’. There will be ﬁnancial penalties to the customer as it represents power that has been supplied but not used efﬁciently. The ﬁnancial cost incurred can help motivate consumers to improve their power quality and is one of the areas we can start to investigate further to see if reductions can be made for the site. As VAR is caused by the phase angle of the current leading or lagging the voltage and directly relates to the angle of the power factor (PF) we can therefore start to look at power factor correction as a possible solution and rate the required system based on our measurements. Electrical Review | November 2017
HARMONICS When looking at harmonics we start to consider the ‘quality’ part of the measurements. Individually measured harmonics are multiples of the fundamental frequency. Harmonics are ordered and referred to by the multiplication factor used in the calculation. For example the third harmonic is 50Hz x 3 = 150Hz. Before we look at individual harmonics and which ones to consider for a basic analysis, we can look at the total harmonic distortion (THD). Unlike the
The ﬁnancial cost incurred can help motiviate consumers to improve their power quality standard EN50160 which is used to measure the power quality of the supply to the installation, there is no deﬁned standard to work to for harmonics. It is, however, common practice to refer to the Engineering Recommendation G5.4 which details THD limits based on the systems voltage measured at the point of common coupling. For example, a planning limit of 5% THD is recommended for a 400V system. When looking at individual harmonics our main area of interest is the current used by the loads and any harmonics produced at typically the 3rd ,5th ,7th ,9th and 11th
frequencies. For some installations we will consider up to the 13th (650hz) and 15th (750hz) and beyond into the higher frequencies produced by modern loads and applications. The higher frequencies typically have lower RMS values but will still have differing effects on the installation. The ﬁrst set of harmonics of interest are those which themselves are multiples of the 3rd harmonic – referred to as the ‘triplens’ or ‘zero-sequence’ harmonics. These can be of particular interest due to their frequencies having a cumulative effect and their currents returning down the neutral. This can lead to potential issues with overheating of cables and transformers. The 5th and 11th harmonic from our original selection belong to the negative sequence group of harmonics and can have effects such as trying to rotate three phase motors in reverse. This negative torque can cause motors to draw additional current on the fundamental which can lead to potential nuisance tripping of current protection devices.
POWER QUALITY METERS Modern power quality analysers will be certiﬁed to IEC 61000-4-30, typically as Class A or S. Class A are the most accurate, although Class S meters are also more than capable when working on power quality applications. Additional PQ parameters that we can consider with modern meters include: sags, swells, transients, ﬂuctuations and outages, all of which will help when looking at an electrical installation and its problems.
Harmonic Frequencys (Left) Power Triangle (Below)
42 | SAFETY
Four procedures to make an office more safe and secure Employee health and safety is one of the most important requirements for business owners. %RWK LQWHUQDOO\ DQG H[WHUQDOO\ WKH SURFHVVHV HVWDEOLVKHG IRU \RXU RIĂ&#x20AC;FH FDQ RIWHQ JR D ORQJ way to ensure the safety and security of the personnel.
hether you have a business that is large or small, here are four procedures you can implement to make an ofďŹ ce more safe and secure.
REVIEWS AND INSPECTIONS A logical start is to ďŹ rstly review the structural integrity of the ofďŹ ceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s building. A building diagnostics tool can detect defects that may represent an opportunity for burglars to break in and enter. Therefore, in identifying these it can be very valuable for safeguarding your business assets against theft. Reviewing internally, it is important to carry out ofďŹ ce inspections, typically on a yearly basis, on areas such as safety of electrical appliances used in the ofďŹ ce. As a business owner, it is important to consider that the electricals being used do not Electrical Review | November 2017
present any danger to employees. Although many electrical safety faults can be easily seen with visual inspection, there are still some defects that can only be detected through testing. Customarily, professionals will undertake this procedure by coming into your ofďŹ ce with PAT testing equipment to test and ensure common ofďŹ ce equipment, such as computers and kitchen appliances, are safe to use.
SECURITY CAMERAS Todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s modern ofďŹ ces now typically have very expensive equipment and technology which are often a target for thieves. The building diagnostics will identify any weaknesses in a building for opportunistic thieves trying to break in. To add an extra layer of security, cameras are commonly used
44 | SAFETY
as a measure of surveillance and to provide protection for employees. One of the main beneﬁts of security cameras is their capability to record activity. In the unfortunate situation of should a theft occur, business owners will be able to track back and view recordings to gain any evidence. Security cameras are commonly placed internally in an ofﬁce building where there is a high level of activity. Externally, they can often be found at entrances to surveillance any personnel that cannot be identiﬁed and should not be entering the ofﬁce. Cameras that are prominently visible can also be very effective in dissuading a burglar.
COMPANY SECURITY Business owners have a duty to undertake a workplace risk assessment. Carrying this out can contribute much valuable information in ascertaining what additional security processes and features can be introduced in the interest of employee health and safety. As an example of extra security that can be established following a risk assessment is that, should the ofﬁce building be shared with other businesses and is within a fairly open and public domain, the assessment may ﬁnd the ofﬁce at risk of intruders having easy access. In discovering this, at a company Electrical Review | November 2017
level, a process can be introduced whereby all employees will require formal identiﬁcation, such as a key card, for example.
PROTECTION ONLINE Although this area does not necessarily represent a physical threat, it has become ever more important in recent times for the protection of a business’ data and sensitive information. The aforementioned recommended procedures will prove to be effective in safeguarding office’s valuable physical assets, but with how businesses operate today and with much of it being online, there is also need to step up security from cyber threats. With the introduction of the cloud, so much sensitive data is now stored online, whether that be a business’ ﬁnance details, employee records or conﬁdential client information. Therefore in some respects, compared to the loss of physical assets, online theft of such details can be more damaging to a business should they fall into the wrong hands. Ensure your security software is up to date and meets all the necessary requirements to protect your business’ online information from viruses and threats. If in doubt, consult with a IT security professional who will be able to advise you on what you should have and should be doing to ensure your business operates safely online.
PRODUCTS | 45 GAS LEAK DETECTOR REDUCES POTENTIAL DAMAGE
THERMAL IMAGING WITHIN EASY REACH
AIR CIRCUIT-BREAKER SUPPORTING SYSTEM
Identifying leaks of sulphur hexaﬂuoride (SF6), which is used as an electrical insulator in extremely high-voltage utilities applications, generally requires the purchase or rental of an expensive gas detector or hiring an outside consultant. The alternatives are shutting down the equipment and using a sniffer or soapy water. Flukeís Ti450 SF6 Gas Leak Detector combines an affordable, high-quality, infrared camera with an SF6 leak detector that visually pinpoints the location of SF6 leaks without shutting equipment down. The new Ti450 SF6 can be viewed online.
The new IRC thermal imaging cameras from Martindale Electric represent a breakthrough in affordable thermal imaging for troubleshooting of electrical and mechanical installations. The combination of real time thermal imaging with spot infrared temperature measurement, packaged in a rugged pistol design, make it the ideal tool for electricians and maintenance teams needing fast on-site diagnostics. The cameras show hot and cold spots at a glance and accurately measure spot temperatures of hot and hard to reach surfaces.
Rittal, a provider of industrial enclosures, power distribution, climate control and IT infrastructure, has developed a new busbar supporting system for air circuit-breakers. The system has been developed to enable 4 x 120 mm x 10 mm coppers to be secured safely to the top and bottom of the air circuit-breaker. It has been carefully designed to ensure ease of use, maxiumum convenience and faster ﬁtting for system integrators. The support, which is suitable for 600 and 800mm wide enclosures, is quick to install within Rittal’s Ri4Power modular switchgear systems, speeding up the time needed for installing air circuit-breakers in Ri4Power. With only part number to order it simplies the ordering process and reduces stocking levels for the panel builder.
Fluke • 01603 256606 www.ﬂuke.co.uk
Martindale Electric • 01923 441717 www.martindale-electric.co.uk
Rittal • 01709 704000 www.rittal.com
INCEPTOR DOWNLIGHTS RANGE EXTENDED
WIRELESS CCTV KITS RANGE EXPANDED
UNIVERSAL MAINS DIMMABLE DRIVER FOR 25W LED
Scolmore has added the Nano5 -- a compact, ﬁre-rated, dimmable downlight ñ to its growing collection of Inceptor integrated LED downlights. These high-performance, 4.8W LED lighting products are designed to have mass market appeal and are suitable for a variety of uses in domestic applications. They pack an array of features into their shallow proﬁles, the company claims. There are two models available - Inceptor Nano5 Fixed and Inceptor Nano5 Adjustable, which allows the luminaire to be moved and directed to where the light is needed. Each feature a compact, high-powered driver which is designed to be as small as possible whilst remaining suitable for installation in a ﬁre rated ceiling. [Optional cut] As the smaller of the two, Inceptor Nano5 Fixed is designed for a 60mm cut out and will ﬁt into a recess depth of just 45mm, while the Adjustable version is designed for a 75mm cut out, with a recess depth ﬁtting of 54mm.
ESP has added three new models to its HDView Wireless CCTV Kit aimed at the domestic market. The existing two-camera kit, which features white cameras is now also available as an option with black cameras and fourcamera kits have also been added, again offered with white or black cameras. This brings to four the total number of HDView 1080p Wireless CCTV kits now available. Designed for the domestic market and developed in response to the increasing demand from customers for Wi-Fi solutions, the new systems have ease of installation and superior quality HD image capture among their key attributes.
Fulham Europe has launched a LED 25W universal mains dimmable driver which is compatible with most dimmers from a wide range of manufacturers. The driver has been designed to auto-detect and work reliably with triac, leading edge and trailing edge dimmers, potentiometers and 0-10V dimming controls. It is fully software controlled to analyse the behaviour of all dimmers and is able to dim as low as 12mA. The driver allows ultra-smooth dimming and linear dimming supporting Dim to Warm LEDs. As part of the Fulham LumoSeries family of drivers, the new units features the lowest inrush current in the industry meaning that more drivers and luminaires can be operated on a single circuit.
Scolmore • 01827 63454 www.scolmore.com
ESP • 01527 515150 www.espuk.com
Fulham • +31 725 723000 www.fulham.com
46 | PRODUCTS BRIDGING THE GAP Wieland Electric has worked with national M&E specialist SES Engineering Services (SES), on the £1.35 billion new Queensferry Crossing spanning the Firth of Forth in Scotland for the design and supply of a cabling solution for the lighting system across the new bridge. Working closely with SES, Wieland designed and created a system to channel power and control cabling for road deck and internal access area lighting as well as the architectural lighting across the new construction. Using products from its RST range, Wieland provided its RST Classic for power to the new Thorn Lighting luminaires installed throughout the bridge deck sections and RST Mini for the DMX control of nearly 3,000 luminaires across the road deck.
Wieland • 01483 531213 www.wieland.co.uk
UK SERVICE & TRAINING CENTRE OPENS Omicron says it has opened a service centre just off junction 14 of the M6 in Stafford. With state-of-the art facilities and full-scale test equipment, expert trainers will be able to provide a range of professional courses for technical staff from electrical utilities, industrial plants, equipment manufacturers and service companies. Omicron Academy training courses are built around real testing situations, and allow delegates to gain knowledge of assets and applications, fully utilise the test equipment and apply efﬁcient test procedures to interpret test and measurement results. Different types of scheduled and customized trainings are available to meet individual requirement.
Omicron • 01785 251000 www.omicronenergy.com
ELECTRICAL SAFETY AT TWICKERS Socomec’s Sircover ATS Bypass switching technology is being used to guarantee power availability for stadium safety systems and essential broadcast equipment at the home of rugby, Twickenham sports stadium. ATS Bypass switches are manual four pole transfer switches with positive break indication, designed to isolate ATS type electrical equipment or UPS with the minimum interruption to the load supply. The complete system has been designed, manufactured and tested by the manufacturer, Socomec. Fully certiﬁed to IEC 61439, the bypass allows the system to also meet the ATS requirements of BS8519.
Socomec • 01285 863300 www.socomec.co.uk
MISSION CRITICAL SYSTEMS ENSURE HIGH EFFICIENCY
MICROSITE RESOURCE SUPPORTS DATA CENTRE PERSONNEL
MEASURING VOLTAGE AND CURRENT WITHOUT TEST LEADS
Power protection specialist, Riello has launched two systems into the power requirements market. Next Energy and Sentinel Dual, are both used in mission critical applications. The Next Energy UPS device is a high-tech solution offering efﬁciencies of up to 97% and low running cost. The system also boasts double conversion technology at VFI SS 111 classiﬁcation, integrated IGBT three-level design and an in-built energy control system as standard. The Sentinel Dual is designed for maximum power reliability and is suitable for many different applications, from IT to security. It is available in 5-6-8-10 kVA/kW models. With an easy-to-use digital display and a user-replaceable battery set, the Sentinel Dual can be installed as tower (ﬂoor standing) or rack, to suit network and server rack applications.
Fluke has developed a web microsite to support the smooth running of data centres, speciﬁcally targeting those running and maintaining the infrastructure. A range of downloadable information will be helpful to facility managers, contractor services managers, electrical engineers and UPS, HVAC, mechanical and electrical technicians. Easy contact can be made possible with an expert from Fluke who will be able to advise on the best Fluke tool to solve a problem, the company claims. More information can be found at www.ﬂuke.co.uk/datacenters
New electrical testers from Fluke let electricians troubleshoot electrical systems safer, faster, and more efﬁciently. T6 Electrical Testers with FieldSense Technology make troubleshooting safer and more efﬁcient by allowing electricians to take simultaneous voltage and current measurements, not just detection, without test leads. The new testers make it possible to take reliable true-RMS measurements in crowded junction boxes or along conductors with inaccessible end points, saving time, minimising potential errors, and greatly reducing the possibility of arc ﬂash.
Riello • 0800 269394 www.riello-ups.co.uk
Fluke • 01603 256606 www.ﬂuke.co.uk
Fluke • 01603 256606 www.ﬂuke.co.uk
Electrical Review | November 2017