Electrical Review - April 2016

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Informing the electrical industry for 140 years

April 2016 Volume 249 | No 4 www.electricalreview.co.uk

Power Control A solutions based approach to UPS investment

Lighting Out of the dark and into DALI

Smart metering Delivering smart network management



CONTENTS | 3

04 NEWS 30,000 apprenticeships pledged Tickets for powerBall now on sale UK’s fastest growing WEEE scheme Charity set for London marathon

08 GOSSAGE Gossage:gossip

10 CABLE MANAGEMENT Managing and protecting the commercial sector

32 OPINION Lowering the entry barriers of additive manufacturing

EDITOR: Elinore Mackay 020 8319 1807 elinorem@electricalreview.co.uk PRODUCTION MANAGER Alex Gold 020 7933 8999 alexg@sjpbusinessmedia.com SALES MANAGER Philip Woolley 020 7933 8989 philip.wooley@electricalreview.co.uk SENIOR SALES EXECUTIVE Sunny Nehru 020 7933 8974 sunnyn@sjpbusinessmedia.com MANAGING DIRECTOR Wayne Darroch PRINTING BY Buxton Paid subscription enquiries Tel: +44 (0) 1635 879361 electricalreview@circdata.com SJP Business Media PO Box 6009, Thatcham Berkshire, RG19 4QB, UK

16 AUTOMATION The delicate balance of costs versus productivity

34 SMART METERING Delivering smart network management through smart meters

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22 LIGHTING Out of the dark and into DALI

26 PGTD Energy storage offers potential solution for maintaining grid frequency www.electricalreview.co.uk


4 | NEWS

Toolkit Thursday Winner collects prize

The winner of the #ToolkitThursday selfie competition, Jack Bowers, has collected his prize – a MM2300A Multi-Meter worth £200. Bowers, 22, collected his prize from the Blackpool branch of City Electrical Factors (CEF) last week, having visited the very same branch on Thursday 4 February 2016 - #ToolkitThursday – to collect his free Klein Toolkit worth more than £250. These kits are now being given to all JTL electrical apprentices, with Monument Tools continuing to provide kits for JTL’s plumbing apprentices. On collection of his toolkit in February, Bowers and his fellow learners collecting kits were encouraged to take a ‘selfie’ with their new tools, with the one that received the most retweets and likes being the winner, and earning the individual the Multi-Meter. Bowers, known on Twitter as Jack Sperrin, saw his photo pick up 37 retweets and 28 likes on Twitter. #ToolkitThursday saw more than 1,000 apprentices pick up their kits from their local CEF branch on the day, with another 350 collecting their toolkits in the week or two following the big day. The event was the first major distribution of Klein toolkits to new apprentices in England and Wales, following the joint partnership between JTL, Klein Tools and Super Rod announced earlier in 2015.

Electrical Review | April 2016

Tickets for powerBall now on sale Tickets for powerBall, the biggest and best party the electrical industry has to offer, are now on sale. Taking place on Friday 11 November 2016 at the Grosvenor House, Park Lane, London, this year’s event promises to be as spectacular as ever with the internationally acclaimed stage sensation Jersey Boys as the headline act. Featuring legendary top ten worldwide hits, including Beggin, Bye Bye Baby (Baby Goodbye), Can’t Take My Eyes Off You and Big Girls Don’t Cry, this spectacular performance will introduce partygoers to the history of pop music with one of the most successful bands of the era. Discover how four New Jersey boys from the wrong side of the tracks invented their own unique sound, were inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame and sold 175 million records worldwide before they turned 30. Managing director, Tessa Ogle says: “pow-

erBall is the industry’s biggest and best party of the year. This great event will bring you the best entertainment from the legendary Jersey Boys and will provide an opportunity for industry professionals to get together for a night of fun and games. “We are also delighted to welcome on board City Electrical Factors as the headline sponsor for this year’s event. Last year’s powerBall was a huge success and made a massive £236,000. We are grateful to everyone who helped us to achieve this tremendous amount and we look forward to welcoming the industry back for another unforgettable night in 2016.” For further details on tickets and sponsorship packages visit the dedicated website. www.powerball2016.com


NEWS / PEOPLE | 5

30,000 apprenticeship jobs pledged 30,084 new apprenticeships have been pledged by employers as part of National Apprenticeship Week 2016 (14 – 18 March). From Greene King committing to hiring 10,000 apprentices (up from 2,000 in 2015), Microsoft and partners announcing plans to recruit 4,500, BT pledging 1,000, Deloitte 200 and Kwik Fit 150, pledges have been made by hundreds of businesses around the country. Other companies that have pledged new apprenticeships include BMW, Virgin Media and British Airways. Traineeships, which give young people the work preparation training, English, maths and work experience needed to get an apprenticeship or other job, also got a boost during the week with employers large and small, including Halfords Ltd and Chelmsford JCP pledging 1,770 traineeship positions. Skills minister, Nick Boles, said: “This week

I’ve travelled the country meeting apprentices doing the most incredible jobs, from cooking mussels at Rick Stein’s restaurant to fixing helicopters for the Royal Navy. “Apprenticeships offer working people the jobs and training they need to build a great career. An apprenticeship really can take you anywhere. “Employers have pledged more than 30,000 new apprenticeships this week. That means over 30,000 more life changing opportunities for working people.” Now in its ninth year, National Apprenticeship Week is designed to celebrate apprenticeships and the positive impact they have on individuals, businesses and the wider economy. The overarching theme for 2016 was to show how individuals and businesses can achieve their ambitions of ‘rising to the top’ through apprenticeships.

UK Lamp recycling rate leaps ahead in 2015 Recolight, the UK’s leading lighting compliance scheme, has welcomed the publication of the UK’s 2015 national WEEE recycling data. The data, released by the Environment Agency (EA), shows a significant growth in the lamp collection rate in 2015: Commenting on the news, Nigel Harvey, Recolight CEO explains “It is particularly pleasing to see that the 2015 recycling rate bounced back up from 2014. This is probably due, in part, to the recycling of fluorescent waste resulting from major LED integrated luminaire roll outs in business premises across the UK. The lamp recycling rate from 2013 to 2014 saw a drop when, for the first time, the data included LED lamps as well as Gas Discharge Lamps. With very large quantities of LEDs being sold – but very few being returned as WEEE, the inclusion of LEDs inevitably reduced the rate.” Turning to the luminaire recycling rate, he added “The luminaire recycling rate has increased from 2014 to 2015. However, the tonnage of luminaires collected in 2015 is only 5% higher than in 2014. The rate increase is therefore primarily due to the 12.7% reduction in the tonnage of luminaires reported as put on the market. This reduction is likely to be a result of dual use classification, which

means that any luminaires that could be used by consumers are now out of scope of the WEEE Regulations.” Recolight launched its luminaire compliance service in 2013, and that has helped to double the luminaire collection rate from 2013 to 2015. Many luminaires continue to be returned as scrap, and not properly reported and recycled as WEEE, and this contributes to the low recycling rate. Note: The recycling rates above were calculated by dividing the tonnage of WEEE reported by all PCSs, by the tonnage of EEE placed on the market in the same year, for luminaires (category 5) and lamps (category 13). These calculations do not include non-obligated WEEE.

Electrical Industries Charity set for the London Marathon The Virgin Money London Marathon is one of the biggest fundraising events in Great Britain bringing thousands of people together to raise money for different charities. This year the Electrical Industries Charity is proud to announce its ten runners who are all set to take on the 26 mile long challenge and raise money to help those in our industry who need it most. The Charity’s runners who are taking part in this year’s Virgin Money London Marathon are; Joe Ellis from Edmundson Electrical Ltd; Alun Evans from Phase Electrical; Philip Woolley from Electrical Review; Scott Wildego from R&B Star; Zak Benney and Guy Powney from Edmundson Electrical’s Western Office; Daniel Mullinder, Paul Murphy, Mark Weston from Edmundson Electrical Carlisle and Juan Subira from Schneider Electric. Show your support for the charity’s runners now and help them to make a difference in people’s lives by making a donation today. Managing director, Tessa Ogle said: “We would like to wish all of our runners the best of luck. The Virgin Money London Marathon is a fantastic way to raise money for those in our industry when they need it most, and we are thrilled to have so many people running for our charity this year. Last year our runners raised a massive £33,000, and we are looking forward to raising even more this year.” To sponsor Electrical Review’s Philip Woolley visit http://www.electricalreview.co.uk/ teline-v-blog/10863-keep-on-running-for-eic and click on the sponsorship link!

New laboratory The Lighting Industry Association (The LIA) will opened its new laboratories facility on 8 March 2016. The facility is the culmination of many years’ of planning with lighting manufacturers, suppliers, retailers and wholesalers and will provide the industry with a cutting edge testing and certification service helping grow exports and improve product compliance.

www.electricalreview.co.uk


6 | NEWS

Electrical Review Smart Lighting Summit Logic Certification approves top UK smart metering academy

Logic Certification has joined forces with the provider of metering services, CH4 Services, helping the firm to become fully accredited to deliver its QCF Level 2 Diploma in Smart Metering Power. The qualification was first launched in response to an industry need to meet the demand for the installation of 50 million smart gas and electricity meters in 27 million homes by 2020, and is designed to equip learners with all they need to install and exchange gas and/or power smart meters in domestic properties; it is also suitable for existing installers looking to up-skill. Mark Krull, director at Logic Certification, added: “We are delighted to have assisted CH4 Services in developing their business into the smart metering sector; a move that will help directly address the gap within the sector for trained smart meter operatives. “Smart meter technology is to play a huge part in the future of our homes, giving consumers the means to better control, and understand, their consumption of energy. What’s important right now is that training facilities are geared up and ready to offer the appropriate smart metering qualifications to support the industry and develop a workforce of highly competent operatives.” David Burke, business development manager for CH4 Services, added: “We were looking to partner with an awarding body that had the same ethos and culture that mirrored our own, in terms of valuing best practice with a view to producing excellent results from all learners that pass through the academy. After we met the Logic Certification team, we knew they were the kind of people we could, and wanted to, work with. “Logic Certification’s qualifications fit our strategy moving forward; we’ve had our first batch of learners through who successfully passed, which is a great achievement to learners, trainers and assessors, who have all had to go through a period of learning to become qualified.” Electrical Review | April 2016

On 19 April 2016 Electrical Review, in response to consistent reader feedback, is hosting its first Smart Lighting Summit. In the same way LED lighting has taken energy efficiency to a new level smart lighting is now allowing a more sustainable approached to how this lighting is controlled. The huge rise in the number of connected devices has helped raise awareness to the ‘Internet of Things’, but how will the lighting industry deal with the electrical infrastructure behind. Electrical Review has been covering the latest developments in smart lighting controls over recent years, but our readers are now demanding more understanding of how they can deliver smart lighting and the challenges they need to overcome in a face-to-face environment. This event will be an opportunity to meet and network with senior people in the electrical space who will be meeting to learn and gain insights. The Smart Lighting Summit will be held in one of the world’s most sustainable buildings, The Crystal, London (https://www.thecrystal. org/). The Crystal is home to the world’s largest exhibition on the future of cities and is the world’s most sustainable events venue. Technologies throughout the building ensure the highest energy efficiency, which makes it

an ideal backdrop to this summit. The summit will specifically focus on the controls aspects of lighting with the following subject areas: • LED lighting control – covering the latest control systems, wired/non-wired and being part of a larger automation offering including integrations with HVAC systems and appliances. • Energy efficiency – this session will look at the controls that eliminate over-lighting and creating huge energy savings in the face of needs to reduce energy usage. • Electrical compliance and protocol – with the rapid growth in lighting controls available protocols are in place to standardise and meet compliance requirements. • Emergency lighting – emergency lighting systems are intrinsic to every commercial/ industrial building and smart lighting controls are helping create more efficient testing procedures and allow for more integration with the rest of the buildings systems. This session covers the latest techniques and developments. To discuss sponsorship opportunities please contact Phillip.Woolley@electricalreview. co.uk or call on +44(0)20 7933 8989

ECA urges government to address payment problems to boost investment As a government consultation on skills in the construction industry closed recently, the Electrical Contractors’ Association (ECA) has said the review “unfortunately fails to tackle the main reason for low investment and productivity – which is fair and prompt payment.” The government recently urged the construction industry, through the Construction Leadership Council, to ‘develop an ambitious action plan to address the skills pressures and other constraints that are limiting house building and infrastructure development’. However, ECA director of business Paul Reeve said: “It’s widely known that engineering is inherently innovative, but while there are innovation hotspots in the wider construction industry, it is hardly endemic. This is mainly due to the prevailing industry approach to payment, which works against

investment. This problem affects building services engineering, and many of the other sectors it works with. “Skilled staff is definitely one way to achieve better productivity and innovation, but in a business environment where the priority for contractors is to be paid what they are owed, the investment tap is almost entirely turned off. “Unfortunately, the review does not focus on the main reason for low industry investment and productivity – which is fair and prompt payment. Ending the practice of ‘cash retentions’ would be an important next step. This would help to boost the balance sheets of smaller businesses in particular, allowing them to invest in the skilled workforce that this consultation is looking for.”



8 | GOSSAGE

GOSSAGE Less Means More

Physician, heal thyself

Britain’s electricity industry thinks official Government policy is completely overestimating likely demand growth between now and 2030. Following a large membership survey, the electricity trade group Energy UK has established that almost everybody in its industry reckons that demand for electricity will continue to decline overall, or at most remain constant. Sales have fallen regularly over the past decade. Nobody seems to be expecting any serious increases in consumption levels. In contrast, official Department of Energy forecasts are still assuming a 17% growth in consumption levels to 2030. Energy UK has concluded that official policy “overestimates the amount of new large-scale plant to 2030.” Its members are apparently “sceptical” whether all this is “affordable, achievable or even necessary.” Instead, the next decade “should be all about energy efficiency”, supported by “new policy frameworks to unlock the benefits.” Demand side management has the “key role.” Even as the price of Hinkley C, the first of the so-called new generation of nuclear power stations continues to rise, and even as its official completion date vanishes further and further into the future, this survey - one of the most extensive ever undertaken of existing electricity industry opinion – ought to serve as a wake-up call to Energy Secretary “Forever” Amber Rudd. Ought to. But given past experience of her dogged determination to defy the facts before her, still in all probability won’t.

Dr Joanna Haigh is a very distinguished professor of atmospheric physics. She is the head of the Grantham Institute for Climate Change and the Environment at Imperial College, London. This makes her one of the great gurus in the science behind runaway climate change. And very vocal she is too, regarding what needs to be done. So important is her voice that the Financial Times devoted two-thirds of a page to an interview with her. Global warming, she is quoted as saying, is like a runaway train. Unless we all put the brakes on, it will keep on rolling. “If you ever want the global temperature to plateau, you’ve got to get to zero carbon emissions.” The interview took place in Haigh’s large south-west London house. Which she agreed had a traditional fossil fuel-based heating system, draughty Victorian sash windows, and “we don’t have much insulation”. Nonetheless she ended the interview with a flourish: “To think that we rich people in the west are so profligate that we cause all this harm and do nothing about it… it makes me feel a bit sick.” Yet another case of “do what I say, now what I do?” In the immortal words of the great Sunday Express editor, Sir John Junor: pass the sick bag, Alice.

Let loose the Dogs of War In January the electricity network in southern and western Ukraine suddenly went haywire. This was not due to incompetence at the grid. But to something far more ominous: an outright cyber attack. Ukraine’s energy ministry has now announced that they have established that cyber hackers operating from Russian soil, who apparently targeted three different utilities over the course of several days, caused the blackouts. The Ministry statement said: “According to one of the power companies, the connection by the attackers to its IT network occurred from a subnetwork, belonging to an internet service provider in the Russian Federation.” US security forces have broadly corroborated this claim. For several years, there has been much speculation in the western security world that cyber hackers would eventually try to attack our utilities. I have in the past had reason to alert my devoted readers to such concerns myself. Last year, there were several rumours of rummaging around other European electricity systems, with malicious intent. Now for the first time a cyber group has actually turned the lights out. We have reached a new and alarming position, whereby our electricity infrastructure is coming under threat from criminals, terrorists or even nation states. Effectively, a new face of war. Do you therefore wonder at the horror that the UK military establishment feel, at the cavalier way in which Chancellor George Osborne is actively encouraging the Chinese government to build and run our future nuclear power stations? No need for any mysterious cyber hacking there. Metaphors about lunatics and nuclear asylums seem all too appropriate.

“What advancement may I hope from thee?” I have just received an invitation to attend a Central London conference on UK energy security. Amongst the speakers is one Simon Virley. Mr. Virley is billed as being the UK chair of energy and natural resources at KPMG. Which is indeed the role that Mr. Virley is currently undertaking. KPMG is not however Mr. Virley’s full-time employer. He has taken “leave of absence” for three years from the Department of Energy and Climate Change, where he was the director in charge of energy supply. During this period his salary is being paid by KPMG – believed to be some three times higher than that paid by the Government. Whilst undertaking his civil service role, Mr. Virley had to place a significant number of lucrative contracts. Sadly, the Department of Energy and Climate Change have been unable to tell me just how many of these contracts were let to KPMG before he left. But I am confident each one will have been awarded judiciously, and without any concern as to prospective personal significance. Electrical Review | April 2016


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10 | CABLE MANAGEMENT

Managing and protecting the commercial sector 2QH RI WKH PDLQ SULRULWLHV IRU EXVLQHVV RZQHUV LV VHFXULQJ SURWHFWLQJ DQG IXWXUH SURRĂ€QJ DVVHWV Effective cable management and the use of ATEX-approved enclosures are just a few of the measures that can add value to businesses and protect them from unnecessary expenditure FDXVHG E\ GRZQWLPH 6WHYH 6ODWHU SURGXFW PDQDJHU DW +HOOHUPDQQ7\WRQ H[SODLQV KRZ LQVWDOOHUV DQG VSHFLĂ€HUV FDQ KHOS SURWHFW WKH FRPPHUFLDO VHFWRU WKURXJK HIIHFWLYH FDEOH PDQDJHPHQW while complying with the latest legislation

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s with all installations, protection against possible ďŹ re outbreaks is at the top of business owners’ priorities with insurance fees and downtime impacting businesses. Understanding how to protect customers assets are key for any installer and one way to ensure the commercial sector is secure is through the use of products that comply with relevant legislation and of the correct speciďŹ cation and quality. Enclosures are one of the ways businesses can protect themselves as they provide a secure place to house potentially dangerous cabling and equipment. However, businesses must comply with important legislation to ensure their wiring is operating in the safest environment to defend against the risk of ďŹ re and explosions.

weight of internal equipment, operating temperatures, safety and security requirements highlight that all enclosure requirements are different. In most general-purpose indoor and outdoor installations mild steel is usually a suitable solution. Mild steel offers a cost-effective solution for many applications and, when used with protective powder coatings, offers ingress and impact protection to provide resistance to corrosion when used in damp or wet environments. For

Mild steel offers a cost-effective solution for many applications

ENCLOSURES When companies perform risk assessments, they should identify what hazards exist and the next steps in managing these conditions. The European directive ATEX 94/9/CE states that it is compulsory to use ATEX-certiďŹ ed enclosures and equipment in potentially explosive, gaseous or dusty areas to reduce the likelihood of ignition and the danger of an explosion. Use of the correctly speciďŹ ed enclosures and accessories therefore offers a crucial solution to protecting electrical installations in high risk installations. In deciding which enclosure is the best solution, there are many features to consider. Factors such as the location and the environment in which it will be installed, internal accessibility, the Electrical Review | April 2016

continually wet and harsh environments, stainless steel enclosures have much better resistance to corrosion, while Glass Reinforced Polyester (GRP) does not corrode, has good UV resistance and offers ingress and impact protection equivalent to mild and stainless steel. One important factor when considering ATEX enclosures is that although they comply with all of the IEC directives, each requires a certiďŹ cate of conformity once a modiďŹ cation has been made. This must be supplied by the company or person making the modiďŹ cation and any installation needs to be assessed to meet the requirements of the atmosphere.

Enclosures are also secure and lockable meaning access can be controlled to a select group of people within a business. As some installations can often be dangerous and difďŹ cult to manage, having a secure enclosure means commercial buildings are protected against potential ďŹ re risks and costly downtime, as well as any tampering or misuse. The correct design and selection of cable management products is vitally important, not only for safety reasons, but for the longer term maintenance and reliability of an electrical installation. Ensuring that components are durable, have the correct ingress protection (IP) rating, resistance to corrosion, vibration and physical damage all lead to an installation that offers long term reliability, be it in a factory, hospital, ofďŹ ce, shopping centre or school.

COMPLIANCE In addition to ATEX-approved enclosures, businesses must also adhere to amendment three to the BS7671:2008 Requirements for Electrical Installations. The changes to the IET Electrical Regulations last year were widely reported and it is vital that installers are aware and communicate the updates to customers to ensure they are complying with legislation. The regulation BS7671 applies to all types of all electrical installations systems in a building, including those of distribution circuits and ďŹ nal circuits, safety services and data and communications services. Installers and speciďŹ ers therefore have a duty of care in all sectors to ensure cabling and people are not exposed to preventable risks, especially if their customers are not aware


CABLE MANAGEMENT | 11

Cable requirements for commercial installations vary from business to business

of the regulation changes. The updated requirements outline the need for cabling near escape routes to be supported by non-combustible fasteners and fixings which are not liable to premature collapse in extreme heat. These changes mean that non-metallic cable ties, plastic wall plug fixings, plastic trunking and plastic cable clips are no

longer compliant with the new regulations. Fastenings need to be tested and certificated to the recognised standards, and while installers and specifiers will now be well aware of these updates, business owners also need to understand and potentially change their existing systems. Cable requirements for commercial installations vary from business to

business and while all installations are different, installers need to ensure that they are providing the most secure solution that adheres to all relevant legislation. Not only does this provide businesses with peace of mind that their building is compliant with regulations, but it also protects them against potential fire and explosions. www.electricalreview.co.uk


12 | CABLE MANAGEMENT

A measured and colourful approach to cable marking

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ne of the most popular types of low voltage cable is the U-1000 R2V category that covers a range of products used by professional electrical installers inside office and industrial buildings for the wiring of outlets and lighting equipment, powering of machinery and distribution of electricity from power meters. In fact, the U-1000 R2V product category accounts for nearly 40 percent of the overall building market, with annual sales of Euro 500 million in France alone. However, discussions with installers show that there are some particular practical issues they experience when using U-1000 R2V cable: the possibility for errors in identifying the appropriate cross-section; and cutting to the correct length. Measurement marked cables are able to mitigate safety related issues by providing installers with a clear and defined measurement solution. By being able to measure their lengths of cable accurately, installers can make predictive calculations to establish safe cable lengths for the project at hand. This can help reduce damage from cables being pulled too taught, which can

Colour coding and measurement markers can help project managers save money

Electrical Review | April 2016

degrade the outer sheathing, exposing the internal copper cabling. Bending cables too tightly can also be problematic. Bends in a cable must have an inside radius of at least five times the cable diameter to ensure that insulation is not damaged. The colour coding signaling the size of cable cross section of cables allows for engineers to take this into account and make a decision easily, selecting the correctly sized cable in order to avoid damage. Nexans has addressed these issues with the Distingo range of cables that features two major enhancements that will highly benefit users: length marking and colour marking. In order to make installers’ everyday work easier, Nexans has designed a new length marking system called Metrium and patented at the French INPI (National Institute of Industrial Property). It includes two main features, i.e. the double marking with both the length value which makes it possible to cut precise lengths but also to keep the number visible at both ends of cable and the incrementation direction indicated by – and + signs. The system is available on all packaging types (including coils and drums) so that the

remaining cable length can be easily and quickly read at all times. As a result, professional electrical installers will have better control of their inventory before and after working on site, as well as complete records of the amount of cable used so that accurate invoices can be raised as soon as the installation is completed. In addition, valuable time can be saved during stock taking. Distingo also features colour marking for the specific cross-section. The outer sheath for each of the six available cross-sections including 1.5, 2.5, 4, 6, 10, and 16mm? is marked with a unique colour stripe. The instant visual identification of cross-section eliminates mistakes during installation. For added visibility, the coil wrappings have also been redesigned. Installers will thus save time both at their own storage facilities and at their distributors’ as they will be able to check the accuracy of orders at a glance.

COST Colour coding and measurement markings on cable can help project managers save money. For example, the cables are available on all packaging types (including coils and drums) where they enable the remaining cable length to be easily and quickly read at all times. As a result, professional electrical installers will have better control of their inventory before and after working on site, as well as complete records of the amount of cable used so that accurate invoices can be raised as soon as the installation is completed. In addition, valuable time will be saved during stock taking. Colour coded and measurement marked cables have the ability to save installers time and money, providing safety related benefits along the way. By allowing electrical engineers to be more precise in putting in orders for cabling projects, colour coded cables can reduce waste from installations like the offcuts, which often end up in land fill sites. This can secure a more sustainable, efficient future for electrical installations.



14 | ADVERTISEMENT FEATURE

A brighter way forward for Marco Jeff Kerridge, Sales Manager at Marco Cable Management

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s part of the wider construction industry, the electrical contracting sector continues to steam ahead, embracing continued change and adapting its way of working to meet an increasingly technology based sector. Jeff Kerridge, Sales Manager at Marco Cable Management talks about the future of electrical contracting, the impact of merging technology, and the many changes ahead for the sector: “At Marco, we have fully embraced BIM and are able to offer customers complete compliance and compatibility. For us this is vital. We work with contractors ranging from small independents to large national and international businesses and, it is with these larger customers, that we are now seeing the change. Put simply, BIM is the means by which everyone can understand a building through the use of a digital model. Through BIM, the UK construction industry is undergoing its very own digital revolution. BIM is a way of working that includes all team members who are working to the same standards as one another, and can only be successful if all members are using the same processes and technology. Jeff continued: “This really is a sophisticated piece of software that will revolutionise the construction process, if all parties are committed to it. A government-driven initiative, there is a general feeling that those who don’t move towards it could be left behind. UK construction has been notoriously slow to change but pressures to improve and work more efficiently, more sustainably and more effectively will force further transformations. I believe that processes such as BIM will steer the industry ahead and make radical improvements across the supply chain.” He concluded: “A balance is needed whereby change is embraced, including new and emerging technology. It’s an exciting time for UK construction as we stride out of recession and take on a changing landscape and environment – let’s grasp the opportunities that lie ahead and ensure the cable containment sector remains a buoyant and healthy one.

Oxford Department of statistics, University of Oxford

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Electrical Review | Arpil 2016



16 | AUTOMATION

The delicate balance of costs versus productivity European manufacturers are estimated to spend over ₏400bn every year on maintenance DFWLYLWLHV 6WXGLHV VKRZ WKDW DERXW SHU FHQW RI IDLOHG PDFKLQHU\ FDQ EH UHSDLUHG DW KDOI WKH FRVW RI EX\LQJ UHSODFHPHQWV ZKLFK VXJJHVWV D SRWHQWLDO VDYLQJ -RKQ 0LWFKHOO EXVLQHVV development manager at CP Automation, discusses the issues that stop manufacturers cutting costs and improving productivity – the essence of lean manufacturing

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erhaps the ďŹ rst thing manufacturers should consider when addressing efďŹ ciency is keeping assets low. Manufacturers can easily eliminate excess inventory from their books, and thus get better return on net assets, simply by not purchasing the inventory until it’s needed. Methods of achieving this include Just in Time (JIT) inventory management, which is also sometimes called the Toyota Production System. Figures suggest this could result in a 60 billion saving in plants across Europe.

Electrical Review | April 2016

As a service and commissioning engineer, I’ve often turned up on site to help a customer with a breakdown, only to ďŹ nd a host of spares out of their antistatic packaging and a confused client, not knowing whether or not the spares were functional. The best way to prevent that from happening is to correctly test and label working equipment as it goes into the stores. Knowing that the part is ready to go into your application when needed is crucial for both maintenance and production teams.

John Mitchell


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SPEC Ltd has recently expanded its services to meet the individual needs and demands of the customer to become a national company with regional presence. Communication and a customer-focused approach are at the heart of our service, with staff that are able to talk your language and help you achieve your requirements effectively and safely to your timescales and specifications. With a proven track record of successfully working with many service users from small businesses to large Blue chip multinationals both UK and overseas. Established as a total substation service provider, in the role of control, installation, cabling operation and maintenance of mains 415/11000/33000 & now 66000 and 132,000 v power networks. To date SPEC Ltd operate and maintain over 1,600 HV connected sites nationwide.

Oxford office: Unit 15 Tower Road Industrial Estate Tower Road, Berinsfield, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 7LN Tel: +44 (0)1865 343564 Fax: +44 (0)1865 341902 Lancaster Office Riverway House Lancaster LA1 2RX Tel: 01524 597075 Washington Office The Hub New Century House Crowther Road Washington Tyne & Wear NE38 JAQ Tel: 0191 5166306

www.spec-ltd.com


18 | AUTOMATION

Is energy reduction still a key initiative withn your business plan

The savings made this way can be significant. No matter how good your inventory management, unnecessary downtime costs coupled with the price of the support engineer’s visit, may not be factored in when it comes to actual losses. Engineers must be the first ones to understand how important it is to keep plant downtime to a minimum. Research shows that manufacturers spend 40% of their time on reactive maintenance with little left to get to the root cause of the problem. The irony is that 60% of all preventative maintenance activities are actually unnecessary, so getting the right plan in place is a prerequisite. Another question plant managers need to ask at this stage is whether energy

efficient motors and variable speed drives to pumps and fans,. Yet with paybacks becoming harder to achieve in less than two years, many plant managers seem to have put the issue to one side. Perhaps this needs to be reconsidered? I believe that energy efficiency should remain an integral part of the long term business

reduction is still a key initiative within their business plan. The majority of enterprises have already implemented the quick wins. Throughout the years we have seen many government schemes meant to support reductions in carbon emissions come and go, from replacing lighting or fixing leaks in air supplies through to fitting energy

plan of every engineering company. For instance dynamic breaking resistors are often used in applications where companies could save significant amounts of energy over the years by fitting regeneration units, such as CP Automation’s own RevCon, to their variable speed drives. Let’s take an electric bar heater as an

Electrical Review | April 2016

Energy savings even with energy prices going up

example. The first thing that comes to mind is that it’s expensive to use if you leave it on 24/7. If the heater is needed to work throughout the day; logic indicates that radiators would be a more suitable choice. The same concept applies for drive applications, where instead of radiators you have regenerative units. The payback for this kind of system can be achieved well within two years. An additional perk comes in the form of savings even with energy prices going up; because all the energy returned to the grid is reflected financially in the bottom line. Despite everything we have discussed, the increased need for budget cuts can put even the best manufacturing efficiency plans under pressure. However, if you place inventory management, energy management and knowledge management at the heart of your strategy, it is possible to both decrease expenditure and improve efficiency. And if every manufacturer did this, the €400bn spent on maintenance activities across Europe could very soon be reduced to a more tolerable figure.


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20 | ADVERTISEMENT FEATURE

A Solutions Based Approach to UPS Investment

D

espite the positive announcements of various planned corporation tax cuts made by George Osborne in his latest budget, businesses must remain vigilant when it comes to capital investment. With the Brexit referendum now imminent, the global stock markets are ever more volatile and big questions are still looming over the state of the UK economy, causing a rise in financial uncertainty among some business stake holders. Recent UK withdrawals of renewable energy subsidies will also impact the economic landscape, with knock on effects of higher energy bills. Critics have described the UK energy policy as ‘drifting aimlessly’, which is of particular concern to businesses wanting to map out long term strategies. These uncertainties make it inherently difficult to clearly

establish true values, especially in the case of total cost of ownership (TCO). Defining the TCO for a capital investment must take into consideration all environmental market factors but with very few reassurances from the government on the energy climate, it is unsurprising that considerable caution is being taken where any type of investment is concerned. As a prominent and highly influential power protection specialist, Power Control Ltd (PCL) knows only too well about how the cloudy outlook of the country’s energy future can impact businesses. Commenting on this subject, PCL’s managing director Mark Trolley said: “We have noticed a significant shift in client’s buying behaviours over recent years. As providers of critical power equipment for all types of business, it has become very apparent that not only are owner/operators having to

This is being presented in more intelligent approaches to initial spending and a shrewd attitude when it comes to forecasting TCO

Huawei UPS5000E

Electrical Review | April 2016

account for more complex physical environments in terms of sophisticated data storage but they must also consider much longer term financial impacts of their investments. “This is being presented in more intelligent approaches to initial spending and a shrewd attitude when it comes to forecasting TCO.” Using data centres as an example; these have become multifaceted facilities, where Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) form the foundation of their physical infrastructure – providing critical power protection against any load disturbances. With the evident increase in number of power cuts, businesses cannot afford to be flippant when it comes to protecting their data. Losses of data have been known to cost companies £millions. That being said, when it comes to selecting the right UPS it is essential that resilience remains a top priority. However, the industry cannot and has not shied away from its responsibilities when it comes to operating efficiency. After all, this efficiency does have a visible impact on TCO. Forward thinking UPS manufacturers pre-empted the industry’s latest demands for ultimate resilience without compromising efficiency and have presented technologies that resonate with both. Choosing which technology is the best for a business can be a bit of headache though. It is easy to argue the pros and cons of technologies but this does not make the selection process any more straight forward. Take solid state UPS for example – these systems have been the root of power protection for many years and where once their efficiencies were poor, advances in technology now mean these models boast ultra-high efficiencies combined with unfailing power protection. For instance, the Borri three phase range of solid state UPS,


ADVERTISEMENT FEATURE | 21

which are internationally renowned for their power resilience are able to achieve over 98% efficiency. The Italian manufacturer has also recently released its new 30kVA -160kVA Ingenio UPS series, which has been listed on the highly coveted ETL (Energy Technology List). This latest achievement is a true testament to the dedication and focus that Borri has towards pushing the boundaries of efficiency, whilst also maintaining performance. The combined reliability and resilience of solid state UPS leaves many with the opinion that they have absolute power protection against data loss with these systems in operation. One of the major drawbacks to their modular rivals however, is their slightly more complex installation process, which is unavoidable due to the size of the equipment and sophisticated network of cables. General maintenance on solid state UPS systems can also be more convoluted. Despite these somewhat minor shortcomings, which can be easily managed with a highly experienced solutions partner such as PCL, solids state UPS are a proven technology and some of the most desirable on the market. It is the evolution of modular UPS that has muddied the waters further when it comes to power protection selection. In recent years the term modular has been making big waves in the UPS industry and offer a flexible and scalable approach when it comes to UPS investment. Modular UPS systems also present reduced operating costs and easier overall maintenance. Engineering works can be quickly undertaken, especially with solutions such as the Huawei UPS5000-E series, which integrates hot swappable power, bypass, control and monitor modules, allowing them to be removed or replaced without disturbance to the load. This in turn can mean a more reliable power supply. In addition, the modular approach offers a smaller footprint, greater flexibility, easy manageability, inherently greater availability, and scalability throughout its operational life. A glowing outlook for modular UPS so far but this would not be a fair evaluation without considering resilience. A subject that is very often over simplified to the detriment of the end user. Modular UPS allow for redundancy with spare modules, therefore it is important to ensure that the system is prudently monitored to make sure that there are spare modules at all times, because if all modules are in use, the redundancy will be lost and this would leave no capacity for backup modules. This simplistic view of the protective nature of modular UPS would make many question how resilient a modular solution can be and if it is worth the risk. It is important to remember that UPS manufacturers such as Huawei and Borri design, develop and manufacture power protection solutions to do exactly that – deliver reliable resilience. Other features such as industry leading efficiency, operational performance and flexibility are all additional benefits that come with investing in leading edge technology. Specialists in the industry like PCL are urging businesses to approach UPS investment judiciously, by looking at the complete power protection landscape, environmental factors and physical infrastructure. This will deliver a solution that is exactly what a business needs not just now but in the future

Ingenio Plus

with a clear tco outlook. Mr Trolley said: “With so many technologies available, it is important for clients to embrace solution providers like PCL – who not only deliver power protection equipment and maintain it but unlike many other providers, we offer a total solutions approach. This assess the short, medium and long term objectives of a business to ensure that the chosen solution is 100% fit for purpose.” “Our product portfolio has been meticulously selected to encapsulate a broad spectrum of power protection technologies, which are supported by dedicated project implementation and technical engineering maintenance.” The company’s product portfolio includes single phase, three phase solid state, and modular UPS solutions, the technologies PCL supplies are of the highest calibre. PCL provides complete peace of mind, bringing together the very best components to achieve industry leading performance and superior efficiency. For further information please visit www.pcl-ups.com, email info@pcl-ups.com or call 0800 136993 or for more information on becoming a PCL partner please contact Rob Mather – rmather@pcl-ups.com

www.electricalreview.co.uk


22 | LIGHTING

Out of the dark and in to DALI $V IRUHFDVWHUV SUHGLFW WKH Ă€UVW 8. EODFNRXW RQ UHFRUG WKLV FRPLQJ ZLQWHU LW¡V PRUH LPSRUWDQW WKDQ HYHU WR ZDNH XS WR WKH ZD\V ZH FDQ FXW HQHUJ\ FRQVXPSWLRQ DQG PRUH FUXFLDOO\ ² HQHUJ\ ZDVWDJH 'HVSLWH KXJH DGYDQFHV LQ '$/, OLJKWLQJ FRQWUROV LQ UHFHQW \HDUV UHQGHULQJ LW RQH RI WKH PRVW VXFFHVVIXO ZD\V WR UHGXFH HQHUJ\ XVDJH LW¡V DQ DUHD WKDW LV VWLOO ZLGHO\ RYHUORRNHG ,Q OLJKW RI WKLV .HYLQ 1RUPDQ VHQLRU SURGXFW PDUNHWLQJ PDQDJHU DW 1HZH\ (\UH H[SORUHV ZKDW '$/, UHDOO\ KDV WR RIIHU

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igures released by National Grid earlier this year show Britain’s power supplies are worryingly moving ‘into the red’, suggesting the ďŹ rst ever UK-wide blackout by December 20161. If things remain the same in terms of our power stations’ abilities to meet with rising demand for energy, it has been suggested that, by winter, there will not be enough electricity to power all UK buildings for three months1.

Electrical Review | April 2016

While a great deal can change in the course of a year, and the likelihood of a country-wide blackout is indeed slim, this does highlight just how crucial it is to start reconsidering electricity consumption and the ways in which efďŹ ciency can be increased. Added to this urgency is the ever-growing green agenda, and the pressures put upon the government to reduce the UK’s carbon emissions. As we are tasked to cut our emissions, it is


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24 | LIGHTING

crucial that we start to reassess our energy usage and find out where the biggest drain on resources is. With lighting taking up 20% of the electricity generated in the UK, and non-domestic lighting alone accounting for around 24 million tonnes of CO2 each year2, it’s clear that the lighting sector is an area we could really be making a difference. According to the Carbon Trust, a single office’s lights left on overnight uses enough energy in a year to heat the average home for almost five months3. However, it’s an issue which can easily be fixed – the addition of lighting controls can reportedly eliminate 60% or more of the wasted lighting energy in buildings while enhancing occupant comfort and productivity4. Surprisingly then, lighting control products remain a relatively untapped method of reducing energy consumption in comparison to other green technologies. The consensus is that this is down to common misconceptions around the complexity of installing and using the technology, as well as confusion around the true potential for savings and payback on investment. Yet, this is changing – and quickly. Attitudes towards lighting controls have started to shift in recent years with the 2014 revisions to Part L of the Building Regulations – Conservation of Fuel and Power. This has increased the stringency of the existing legislation, and has meant that efficiency is no longer calculated solely on light fittings, but the efficiency of the entire lighting system – including its controls. Lighting controls are no longer just a ‘nice addition’ or afterthought, but crucial to ensuring the overall efficiency compliance of a building. And the good news is that today’s lighting control offering isn’t as difficult as one might think – in fact it really couldn’t be simpler. This can be found by looking at the newest generation of DALI solutions which offer the ultimate in ease of installation and commissioning when intelligent lighting control is required. For ease of integration, the new Newlec DALI occupancy detector, for example, can automatically detect DALI lighting ballasts already in place. The installer then simply wires the Part L compliant DALI luminaires, the Newlec power supply unit and occupancy detector together. A DALI lighting control system can be used to cover a single luminaire or can be connected to other DALI devices to create

a much larger system. Newey & Eyre’s Newlec DALI network solution can be used to configure up to 64 ballasts or used as part of a much wider overall lighting strategy, connecting many hundreds of separate DALI systems on different floors of a building for example, forming them into a coherent building lighting control system. Typically, many commercial buildings already have DALI compliant ballasts in place, which are not used to their full potential, instead being employed on more traditional on-off control systems. As such, for the building owner or occupier, utilising these ballasts for a DALI-controlled system can offer a much more preferable solution to installing an entirely new lighting control system. Programming is simple for both the installer or systems integrator and the end user. The Newlec DALI Occupancy Detector has default settings for broadcast mode, timing and daylight harvesting with only the single handheld remote control required to both operate and programme the system. The system is designed to make it easy for end users to configure lighting that covers both personal preferences, while being energy efficient. This removes the need for a certified Integrator and, in turn, project costs and overheads can be reduced. The remote can also be used by the installer or systems integrator to programme the system, with specific installer modes for the discovery of ballasts, programming of luminaires and room timing options for example. The DALI standard has the potential to make significant energy savings for end-users. The combination of daylight harvesting, presence detection, corridor modes and room timing options have delivered savings of up to 80% on energy consumption just from lighting. As concerns for Britain’s electricity supplies mount alongside an ever-growing green agenda, and with lighting accounting for one of the biggest uses of energy, it is crucial that installers get to grips with all of the ways that energy efficiency can be increased. With its ability to significantly reduce energy consumption and indeed the financial savings attached to it, now is the time to rethink your approach to lighting controls and delve straight into DALI.

A DALI lighting control system can be used to cover a single luminaire or connected to other DALI devices

Electrical Review | April 2016



26 | PGTD

Energy storage offers potential solution for maintaining grid frequency 7KH 8.¡V HQHUJ\ PL[ LV FXUUHQWO\ XQGHUJRLQJ VLJQLĂ€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aintaining the UK’s grid frequency within the tight limits required for stability (50 Hz plus or minus one percent) requires a balance between generation and demand. Should the frequency stray outside those limits the consequences are severe: should it drop to 47 Hz then the grid will shutdown, while at 52 Hz generators start tripping. The speed of the change in frequency is dependent on system inertia, which resists movement of the frequency. Traditionally, inertia has been provided mainly by the UK’s synchronous thermal generation plant, as they have a lot of rotating mass and are locked to the grid frequency.

Electrical Review | April 2016

The UK is now entering a challenging situation for grid frequency, as by 2020 there will be profound changes in our energy mix, with a reduction of some 7 gigawatts (GW) in coalďŹ red plant while the penetration of wind power will increase by 28 GW according to National Grid. While this switch to new renewable power sources is vital to our plans for carbon reduction, crucially they do not offer the spinning inertia of the kind provided by traditional turbine-based power generation. This means as traditional electricity generation capacity is taken out of the UK power network, there is a growing risk of frequency instability. Paradoxically, the greatest challenge could



28 | PGTD

come during a warm summer night - when demand is low and therefore the system base load generation is low – so that a small system disturbance, resulting typically from something such as a severe summer lighting storm, could cause a catastrophic and very rapid drop in frequency. National Grid predicts that the requirements for services such as frequency response could increase by up to 300-400 percent by 2030. Grid-connected Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) are one of a range of potential solutions that could address the growing challenges of maintaining grid stability – among the other services are voltage regulation and automated demand response mechanisms. The particular advantage of a BESS is that it can deliver the required very fast sub-second response to support grid frequency until additional generation assets, short term operating reserves and/or more hydroelectric power can be brought on stream and synchronised to the grid.

MINDING THE GAP The performance and cost of large-scale battery systems have improved to the extent that they can be used to provide grid support at anything from megawatt level upwards, with response times within a fraction of a second. BESS installations are particularly suitable to support newer frequency response services that could typically require 100 percent power output within 1 second of registering a ±0.1 hz frequency deviation from 50Hz. ABB has specific expertise in integrating grid-scale BESS solutions. Large-scale batteries of the right capacity are available from several suppliers, based on a number of different technologies. But to meet the performance and reliability ABB has more than 10 years’ experience in the deployment of battery-based storage systems

Electrical Review | April 2016

needs of grid operators – especially in frequency response services – these batteries need to be successfully integrated with the right power control systems, power converters, switchgear, transformers and overall management system. ABB has experience of delivering BESS solutions for grid stabilisation around the world, whether in standard containerised form or fully customised to the application. ABB’s approach to the batteries themselves is technology agnostic, ABB work with a portfolio of selected battery manufacturers to deliver the optimum battery for each application One of the most important aspects of the solution is the management of the state of charge of the BESS to fulfil the frequency response service requirements 24/7 for a period of several years with high (≥95%) availability. This is no easy task and ABB has developed proprietary control algorithms to make this possible under various parameters. While frequency response services are the most significant UK application currently, ABB has delivered other BESS solutions such as time-shifting of wind and solar power, capacity firming, load levelling, peak shaving, power quality control and stabilisation.

DRAWING FROM A DECADE OF EXPERIENCE ABB has more than 10 years’ experience in the deployment of battery-based storage systems and comprehensive knowhow in the substations domain around the world. One recent installation was for power utility Enel Distribuzione at its Contrada Dirillo distribution substation in Sicily, Italy. This BESS solution can deliver 2 MW of power for up 30 minutes and is housed in three factory-tested containers: two containing lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, and a third accommodating power conversion and energy management systems. The facility helps maintain grid stability through frequency regulation, as well as enhancing power quality and providing power to meet peak demand. As far back as 2003, ABB installed a BESS for Golden Valley Electric Association in Alaska, USA. At the time it was the world’s most powerful battery, capable of providing 27 MW of back-up power for 15 minutes or 46 MW for 5 minutes during systems disturbances. Over the years it has proved its capability to provide continuous voltage support during normal operation, as well as energy back-up - minimising customer interruptions for the utility. In 2015 the BESS responded to 752 events, preventing a total of 320,446 customer outages (the second highest number since the BESS has been online). Similarly, Switzerland’s EKZ chose ABB to supply a pioneering battery energy storage system; the largest of its kind in Switzerland and the first in Europe. ABB’s BESS solution can provide 1 MW of power to the grid for 15 minutes on demand. The storage facility has been integrated into EKZ’s power distribution network, and is being used for frequency regulation, peak load balancing, renewables integration and grid optimisation. It seems clear energy storage is set to play an increasingly significant role in the evolution of more flexible and smarter grids that will smooth the way to accommodate growing amounts of distributed-generation plant and renewable energy projects.



30 | ADVERTISEMENT FEATURE

EV Charging RCD Selection – Is Type A good enough! EV charging equipment in the event of certain faults relies on automatic supply disconnection to protect the user and other members of the public. To reduce the chances of receiving a fatal shock, RCDs must operate before the residual current reaches a dangerous level and within the defined disconnection time. Understanding the basic operating principles of RCD’s helps with regard to the specification of the correct Type of RCD, based on the characteristics of the EV charger connected to the charge point.

EV CHARGERS The regulations place the responsibility on the Specifier / Designer to verify the dc residual current content when selecting RCDs, and EVCPs may contain as a minimum requirement Type A RCD’s – Reg. 722.531.2.101, provided it can be determined that the smooth dc residual current does not exceed 6mA. Some charger will not work with Type A RCDs. The various stages of an EV charger produce common mode leakage currents mainly as a result of the capacitors used in the PFC section and residual currents with modified wave forms incorporating dc components which could exceed 6mA. Values of leakage current at 50Hz can be relatively low in the order of 2.5-3.5 mA per charger. The switching frequency of the converter stage and the associated harmonics can generate leakage currents

Fig. 1

Electrical Review | April 2016

20x that of the 50Hz value at higher frequencies. Transients at moment of switch-on could result in unwanted tripping of the RCD unless it is specifically designed to withstand the associated transient. Installing Type A’s under these conditions could result in problems for the installation and users.

TYPE A RCD OPERATING PRINCIPLES In Fig.1 the Hysteresis curve 0 to B3 represents the +ve half of RDC toroid magnetic characteristic, the green area represents optimum operational area, yellow represents the area of increasing magnetic saturation. A 50Hz residual current IRac, (I) equal to the tripping value sensitivity, produces a magnetic field 0 to B1 for the +ve ½ cycle. The resultant change in this field as IRac passes through zero for –ve ½ cycle induces a proportional voltage (II) in the trip circuit winding and would result in the RCD tripping. A residual current with +ve biased dc component IRdc > 6mA, passing through the toroid will shift the operating point of the magnetic material on the H axis to the right. Now if a residual current IRac with the same value as (I) flows the combined current IRdc+ IRac (III) produces a magnetic field B2 to B3. Although the amplitude of (III) is similar to (I) the resultant voltage (IV) induced in the trip circuit winding is lower and not sufficient to trip the RCD due to the effect of the smooth dc content. This phenomenon

Fig. 2

is commonly referred to as “Blinding”.

RCD “BLINDING” Electrical engineers selecting RCDs for EV Charge Point applications should not think purely in terms of smooth d.c. residual current. The standards relating to EV installations actually refer to “d.c. component”; i.e. any current with a permanent +ve or –ve bias that does not pass through zero on every ½ cycle. The level and characteristics of these currents in normal operation and under certain fault conditions can result in reduced sensitivity or “Blinding” due to magnetic saturation of the RCD sensing circuit, and therefore reduced protection for the public. The design characteristics of EV chargers vary and consequently EV manufactures specify the type of RCD that can be used safely when charging from mode 1, 2 or 3 installations.

EV INFRASTRUCTURE- RCDS In installations containing RCDs in series, the residual currents flow through both the EVCP RCD and the upstream RCD as can been seen in the following examples. In figure 2 the feeder pillar distributes power to 1 EVCP, the leakage currents and residual currents flow through both upstream and downstream RCDS, monitoring the level of dc leakage current at the EVCP and switching off the CP if the current exceeds 6mA d.c. there by protects the upstream RCD as well.

Fig. 3


ADVERTISEMENT FEATURE | 31

In figure 3, the upstream RCD mounted in the feeder pillar will be subjected to combined leakage currents of the connected EVCPs and must be selected accordingly. In this case a Type B is required upstream; as the combined d.c. leakage current may exceed the safe limit required for the specification of Type A. In this example the individual CP’s monitor the d.c. leakage content.

SPECIFY THE CORRECT RCD The level of d.c. residual current, common mode leakage currents and transient currents are determined by the EV battery charging circuit design characteristics and therefore dependent on the EV make/ model connected to the EVCP. Local authorities and private companies offering public charging facilities have no control over the EVs that will be connected to their EV infrastructure, and therefore need to cater for the worse case. Options to monitor dc residual currents within the EVCP improve the safety performance of installations containing Type A RCDs, where different manufactures vehicles are connected to the EVCP. Some chargers may require specific RCD features such as; transient resistance to prevent nuisance tripping, operation with mixed frequency leakage and residual currents.

For complete safety requirements refer to the IET Wiring Regulations BS7671 2008 Amendment 3:2015 Section 722 and the IET Code of Practice for Electric Vehicle Charging Equipment Installation 2nd Ed. Special note should be taken of the EV Manufacture’s RCD recommendations, as the Type of RCD required varies from model to model, even for the same manufacturer. Chaz Andrews Technical Manager, Doepke UK Ltd sales@doepke.co.uk or www.doepke.co.uk

The key points related to “SAFE” EV charge point RCD selection: • On-Board EV charger design impacts on the RCD selection – check with EV manufacture • Some EV charger characteristics can cause nuisance tripping or worse RCD blinding • Type A: Operate in the presence of 50Hz pulsed wave form with <6mA smooth dc content • Type KV: Similar to A, but withstand <10mA dc and higher transient currents <3kA • Type F : Similar to KV, but designed for use with mixed frequency leakage/ residual currents • Type EV: Similar to F , but designed to monitor d.c. content and switch off if > 6mA • Type B: For applications where the above parameters are exceeded www.electricalreview.co.uk


32 | OPINION

Lowering the entry barriers of additive manufacturing $ IDPRXV TXRWH DWWULEXWHG WR %HQMDPLQ )UDQNOLQ VD\V ´7HOO PH DQG , IRUJHW 7HDFK PH DQG , UHPHPEHU ,QYROYH PH DQG , OHDUQ ¾ $OWKRXJK LQ UHDOLW\ )UDQNOLQ QHYHU VDLG WKHVH ZRUGV WKH TXRWH KDV EHFRPH H[WUHPHO\ SRSXODU EHFDXVH LWV PHVVDJH UHVRQDWHV ZLWK DQ\RQH ZKR KDV HYHU WULHG WR PDNH VHQVH RI QHZ WHFKQRORJ\ 7R D ODUJH H[WHQW WKH TXRWH DOVR DSSOLHV SHUIHFWO\ WR DGGLWLYH PDQXIDFWXULQJ $0 +HUH 0DUF 6DXQGHUV GLUHFWRU RI 5HQLVKDZ¡V *OREDO 6ROXWLRQV &HQWUH H[SODLQV KRZ DGGLWLYH PDQXIDFWXULQJ LV PRYLQJ IURP WKH ZRUOG RI UDSLG SURWRW\SLQJ LQWR VHULHV SURGXFWLRQ

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any companies ďŹ rst use metal additive manufacturing (AM) for rapid prototyping and tooling applications, because it enables new designs to be produced in a short lead-time. These time compression beneďŹ ts provide quick wins, de-risking product development whilst the design is still in ux. But AM also offers companies unprecedented freedom to design innovative new products for series production. The most well-known additive manufacturing beneďŹ ts include the ability to design complex geometries with internal features like lattices and cooling channels, better strength-to-weight ratios and efďŹ cient material usage with minimal waste. As manufacturing volumes rise, these beneďŹ ts can make a substantial impact. Despite these clear advantages of AM and the obvious excitement surrounding the technology, there are still certain barriers that many companies face when considering implementing a costly new manufacturing system on the shop oor.

AM offers companies unprecedented freedom to design innovative new products

Electrical Review | April 2016

To understand the added value of additive manufacturing as a manufacturing tool, industry must be prepared to change the way it thinks about design for series production. Whenever such a signiďŹ cant shift in mentality is needed, the best way to convince people is to get them involved and let them try out the new technology for themselves. In fact, for some time now there has been a clear need in the world of AM to make the technology more accessible to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) from across industries including medical, aerospace, automotive, oil & gas and consumer products.

ASK THE RIGHT QUESTIONS A common question OEMs ask themselves is which parts or products could be manufactured using additive manufacturing. Although sensible, this is not always the best question to ask. Many parts can be manufactured using AM, but this doesn’t necessarily mean they should be made using AM. Instead, manufacturers should consider what additive manufacturing makes possible that was impossible before and how it could help solve the speciďŹ c design challenges they might have. Unfortunately, the answer to such a disruptive question is not always straightforward and usually requires time, effort and expertise to investigate. And, of course, access to an AM machine. With additive manufacturing, parts can beneďŹ t from topological optimisation, a design technique that optimises the strength of a structure while reducing its mass. Put simply, by topologically optimising a part you remove redundant material from it, whilst simultaneously ensuring that it is sufďŹ ciently strong and stiff to fulďŹ l its function. It’s a bit like sending a part to the gym to work out. Topological optimisation is particularly useful in applications where stiffness and light weight are important, such as aerospace or automotive applications, where lightness can lead to substantial beneďŹ ts throughout the part’s lifetime. Another question OEMs should ask themselves is what additional processes will be needed to complete the production of an additively manufactured product. AM is a near-net-shape


OPINION | 33

process, and some level of post-processing will be required such as; support removal, heat treatment, surface treatment, finish machining and inspection. One additional requirement of additive manufacturing, particularly when it comes to metal powder bed fusion, is being aware of safe material handling practices. It is important that AM facilities, equipment and operating practices are all designed to mitigate the risks associated with working with fine metal powders. Essentially, AM can offer remarkable design and production benefits, and companies should go through a rigorous assessment to understand how these benefits apply to their situation, and to prove the productivity and capability of the AM process.

WHERE DO YOU START? There is a lot to learn about additive manufacturing and luckily, in our interconnected world, useful information is readily available. However, the best way to answer the questions above, and any others you might have, is to actually experiment with the technology, get involved with it and see what it can do for a specific project or product. This is where Renishaw’s Additive Manufacturing Solutions Centres can help. They offer a cost-effective and secure development environment, equipped with ‘incubator cells’ that companies can rent out and use to build their knowledge and confidence when using AM technology. Incubator cells within the Solutions Centres contain a metal AM machine, design workstation and the ancillary equipment required to design, build and refine a product. Clients will be able to use a range of materials and will have the support of

experienced applications engineers. Access to essential finishing processes is also available. By working in an incubator cell, organisations get a chance to gain knowledge from specialised engineers who can help deploy the capabilities of AM on their project. Equally important, the latest AM technology and knowledge is also complemented by Renishaw’s extensive experience in metrology, machining and finishing, which in turn helps companies to develop integrated manufacturing solutions. The first step when trying out additive manufacturing is to understand the new design framework and capabilities, working alongside Renishaw application engineers to redesign your part or product for the additive manufacturing process. This means creating a design that embodies the benefits AM has to offer. Once the design is established, it’s time to turn the concept into metal, which means rigorous testing and objective benchmarking. It typically takes several design iterations to optimise the product design and the AM process. For any new product design, the manufacturer needs to be confident that the production process is predictable and consistent, so a period of pre-production is needed to establish AM process capability. They also need to understand the finishing and measurement processes and tools they might need to make dependable parts. These process steps will not necessarily be stages of a linear process for every project. Normally, several design iterations are needed before the ideal design is identified and often, designers will have to go back to the drawing board – or in this case, CAD software – to rethink certain aspects of the product. However, this is where the flexibility of additive manufacturing comes in, making it easy to create new design iterations should additional requirements be added.

LEADING DISRUPTION IN YOUR MARKET Additive manufacturing provides many attractive capabilities that will disrupt product markets, supply chains and business models. To take full advantage of this opportunity, however, firms will need to adapt their design thinking – something of a leap of faith is needed. However, if backed by practical experience and sound engineering practice, committing to AM need not be a leap in the dark. The first businesses to take the jump will reach the furthest and benefit the most. We can’t force people to jump. We can only tell them, teach them and involve them.

The first step when trying out additive manufacturing is to understand the new design framework and capabilities

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34 | SMART METERING

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xtracting and sharing this data with departments across the business – from those monitoring the grid to ďŹ eld workers to customer-facing teams – is key to providing power companies with the insights to deliver better network management. Access to real-time network and customer information makes asset management and troubleshooting activities more efďŹ cient, and ultimately helps utilities provide better services to customers. Dispatchers are able to deploy the right teams to the right jobs with ease, and with access to data on their phones ďŹ eld workers are better placed to resolve any issue they come across. Electrical Review | April 2016

MORE EFFICIENT NETWORKS Today’s distributors are under increasing pressure from consumers and regulators to manage issues such as increasing costs, integrating alternative energy into the grid and delivering power more efďŹ ciently. Delivering reliability and security, gaining return on capital expenditure, ensuring safety, and improving an aging infrastructure are just a few of the operational challenges they must address. Smart meters provide power companies with the insights to deliver more efďŹ cient networks and make grid reliability and outage response more effective and transparent.


Nevertheless, a more intricate, interconnected network and constantly changing load dynamics mean distributors must make more decisions more quickly. This requires a much more sophisticated analysis than has traditionally been applied when managing energy networks.

Distributors must make more decisions more quickly Modern network analytics allow companies to better visualize how voltage is being distributed throughout their networks. The ability to quickly combine and analyse historic, real-time and even predictive data helps grid operators make better-informed decisions resulting in lower energy losses and reduced operating costs. This information helps distributors predict how individual transformers may fail in different scenarios based on their type, age, and network load, so that they can adjust their operations accordingly.

ENGAGING CUSTOMERS In an increasingly competitive market, data from smart grids will provide utilities with the intelligence to develop new ways of driving positive engagement among customers and informing them on the benefits smart meters will deliver. Utilities must therefore ensure that they have technologies that enable consumers to manage both their energy usage and – just as importantly –the services they receive. As energy prices become less of a market differentiator, the range of services and payment options utilities offer will become more important factors affecting peoples’ decision to switch or stay with a provider. Technologies that allow energy retailers to build a highly detailed and up-to-date picture of individuals’ usage can deliver more accurate predictive billing. This will go a long way in engaging an increasingly energy-conscious public that is keen to consume more economically and sustainably. People today want more transparency from their energy providers and more flexibility in the way they pay for and consume energy. By analysing individual usage profiles, energy providers will also be able to offer customer-specific programmes

New opportunities are opening up for utilities to change the way they manage ernergy

that align with the unique preferences of each person they serve, which will in turn empower customers to consume intelligently on their own terms.

OBSTACLES TO OVERCOME While the goal for utilities is to use data to improve network management and offer more individualised services to customers, there remain some obstacles to making this happen. Energy companies do not have visibility into consumption patterns, nor do they have direct relationships with end customers, which puts them at a disadvantage. The seamless flow of data between customers, retailers, and grid operators remains hampered by a lack of standardisation between different businesses and industries, and by the sheer volume of information now being generated. The technology platforms used in the utilities sector will need to become open standards-based and agnostic of specific vendors if governments and utilities are to overcome this challenge. Additionally, players across the board will need to modernize their data analytics capabilities to effectively process the mountains of information at their disposal. Concerns and legislation around data privacy will also need to be addressed. Customers must agree for their data to be shared in the first place, as utilities in the UK currently do not have access to this information. Utilities therefore need to start working today to build trust with their customers if they want to foster stronger customer relationships built on an open exchange of data. The ongoing roll-out of smart meters across the UK is opening up new opportunities for utilities to change the way they manage energy. To add to this, we are now firmly in the digital age and making the most of smart meter data will be crucial to the modern utility. The country’s smart roll-out is still in its early stages, but once complete, smart meters will hold the key to better serve energy users today and in the coming years. There is no better time for providers to use the technologies available to them to realize the untapped value in their businesses, improve network management and better support energy conscious customers.


FREE TO ATTEN D

Smart Lighting Summit Tuesday 19 April 2016 The Crystal, London

Discussing the latest in lighting controls The huge rise in the number of connected devices has helped raise awareness to the ‘Internet of Things’, but how will the lighting industry deal with the electrical infrastructure behind it

LED lighting control Energy efficiency Electrical compliance and protocol Emergency lighting

Held in one of the world’s most sustainable buildings, The Crystal, this event will be an opportunity to meet and network with senior people in the electrical space who will be meeting to learn and gain insights

For more information and to register, visit: www.electricalreview.co.uk To discuss sponsorship opportunities please contact Phillip.Woolley@electricalreview.co.uk or call on +44(0)20 7933 8989


PRODUCTS | 37 RAPID RESIN APPLICATION 3M, the science-based technology company, has announced the UK launch of Scotchcast Easy Dispenser 250, a simple and fast dispenser for insulating electrical joints, aimed at outdoor applications, particularly wet or cold conditions. Aimed primarily at the low-voltage market, Easy Dispenser 250 is a one-step method for dispensing Scotchcast Electrical Re-enterable Resin 8882 , even when ambient moisture is high and temperatures are low. The design of the dispenser helps to prevent inadvertent contact with the resin and avoids unnecessary mess. The waterproof qualities of Scotchcast Resin 8882 have been tested according to the international IEC605529 standard; the product complies with the IP 68 rating for submersed conditions and can even be used for swimming pool and lighting connections.

3M • 08705 360036 www.3M.co.uk

MULTI-FUNCTIONAL THREE-PHASE SIGNAL GENERATOR

LED DRIVER WITH INTEGRATED HALL-EFFECT SWITCH

POWER SUPPLY ADDED TO ACCESS CONTROL RANGE

Allegro MicroSystems Europe today announced the release of the world’s first LED driver IC that features an integrated Halleffect switch. The A1569 enables compact, elegant, reliable, and fault-tolerant LED lighting with minimal electrical engineering and low component-count and cost. A single silicon chip integrates: a Hall plate, a small-signal amplifier, chopper stabilisation, a Schmitt trigger, and a LED driver with soft on/off and short circuit and thermal protection with automatic recovery. The integrated solid-state Hall-effect switch supports silent, sealed, contactless activation and offers a significant upgrade from failureprone mechanical switches. The LED driver features low-noise, adjustable, linear drive of up to 150mA into one or more LEDs. An optional external capacitor programs the turn-on/turn-off rate, adding an elegant ‘theatre’ effect. It is controlled by the Hall-effect switch and turns on and off in response to a magnet.

Security products supplier, ESP, continues to develop its range of access control products and has just added a new power supply with battery back-up for lock releases to its accessory collection. For use with its single-way and multiway door entry systems, and access control systems, the 2 amp 12vDC boxed power supply will help maintain the security of your door from intermittent and prolonged loss of power, and thus provide reassurance. It is designed to offer simple install and wiring connections, and supports 12vDC battery backup and comes with battery leads supplied. It provides output for fail safe and fail secure lock, 12vDC output control for auxiliary devices and features an adjustable 20 second timer control for lock output and power indication LED.

Allegro MicroSystems Europe +33 (0) 4 50512359 www.allegromicro.com

SIMPLE SPECIFICATION TOOL

EPOS 340 is the multi-functional three-phase signal generator which comes into its own whenever maximum power and high signal accuracy are required. EPOS 340 is the perfect choice when testing, setting and calibrating electricity meters, protection relays, fault recorders, power meters or power quality analysers. The TRANSIG-monitor included in the scope of delivery can be used for the full graphical display and output of recorded signal characteristics which are available in standard COMTRADE format. During tests these signal characteristics are then “played back” as transient signal waveforms by EPOS. The TRANSIG-Monitor also includes a signal editor which can be used to configure and calculate any signal characteristic.

Lewden has incorporated all of the items in its metal products range into a new catalogue to provide customers with a simple specification tool. It includes technical information, full product descriptions with clear colour photos, product codes, templates and bespoke solutions. The catalogue includes the PD series of watertight metal plugs and sockets with IP66 protection, the Alupres and Alumax ranges of interlocked sockets, Unibox universal boxes and Alupres junction boxes and the Rino series of industrial lighting. Suitable for heavy duty applications with high temperature fluctuations, the PD weathertight, metal clad range has been designed to withstand the most arduous conditions and the products are supplied their natural finish.

KoCoS Messtechnik • 0191 259 4730 www.kocos.com

Lewden • 01376 336200 www.lewden.com

ESP • 01527 515150 www.espuk.com

INNOVATIVE LOCATING PLUG SOCKET Scolmore’s innovative new Locating Plug Sockets and Wide Rocker Switches, both targeted at the growing assisted living sector, are now available in visually contrasting versions to meet with Part M regulations. Designed to assist people with impaired vision or poor hand to eye coordination to more easily insert a plug into a socket, the Mode Part M Locating Plug Socket features a contoured front plate which guides the earth pin into position. The product is available in one and two-gang options, with the two-gang version featuring outboard rockers to further assist with distinguishing between switches, making it less likely to switch the wrong one. The Part M Wide Rocker Switches have ease of use as their main benefit making them the ideal choice for assisted living installations and to aid with Part M compliance.

Scolmore • 01827 63454 www.scolmore.com

www.electricalreview.co.uk


38 | PRODUCTS

UNIQUE ENERGY CHAIN APPLICATIONS WANTED

POCKET SIZED TRUE RMS CLAMP METERS

MONITORING SOLUTION FOR POWER CABLE PROJECT

The possible uses of energy chain systems carrying moving cables and hoses is now vast – they withstand seawater on ships and oil rigs, prevent the permeation of dirt and dust in material handling systems, provide ISO Class 1 protection in cleanrooms, and countless other applications. To find the most innovative uses of energy chain systems, igus invites submissions in the UK for the biennial vector award via the online form: www.igus.co.uk/vector2016 “Even for us, it is sometimes still surprising and exciting to see where and how customers use our energy chains,” said Harold Nehring, head of energy chain systems at igus. “We want to use this competition to identify new ways of using our products and to recognise the innovative designs being developed by engineers around the world.”

The new range of professional clamp meters from Martindale Electric, make it easy to choose the right tool for the job every time. Whether it’s low current AC, or DC for solar PV and battery systems, the CM Series get the job done. The pocket sized clamp range includes the CM55 AC Clamp, CM57 TRMS AC Smart Clamp and the CM79 TRMS AC/DC Clamp, combining outstanding specification and measuring capabilities with reliability and ease of use. The new clamps meet the exacting requirements of electricians and service teams working on both AC and DC systems, from basic AC measurements through to min/ max monitoring of start-up and charging currents. All the clamps are auto-ranging and measure current to better than 2% accuracy.

Elia, the power transmission system operator in Belgium, has selected a permanent on-line partial discharge (PD) cable monitoring system from Omicron for its Stevin project. This project is a major undertaking by Elia to reinforce the high-voltage (HV) power grid in Belgium’s Flanders region. Installation of the Omicron cable monitoring system will start in the spring of 2016. One part of the extensive Stevin power grid renewal project consists of laying four 380 kV power cable circuits in the ground, each over a length of 10 km between the grid substations Gezelle and Van Maerlant in Flanders. The Omicron PD monitoring system will be permanently installed at each of the terminations and joints along these buried HV cable circuits to continuously assess PD activity and insulation condition in the cables. The monitoring system will also assess cable sheath currents during standard operation to detect fault conditions.

igus • 01604 677240 www.igus.co.uk

Martindale Electric • 01923 441717 www.martindale-electric.co.uk

Omicron Energy Solutions www.omicronenergy.com

VOLTAGE OPTIMISATION TOP TEN ENERGY SAVING OPTION

FLEXIBILITY AND SAFETY – GUARANTEED

IP VIDEO ENTRY AND ACCESS CONTROL

Voltage optimisation technology has been listed by Siemens as one of the top 10 energy saving solutions with Powerstar, the market leading voltage optimisation and energy storage brand, continuing to develop its relationship with the company. In the UK and in many countries across Europe, National Grids supply most buildings and facilities with an average electrical supply of 242V. Powerstar technology works by reducing this supply, whilst remaining within the operating conditions specified by equipment manufacturers, typically between 220V and 230V. The report by Siemens highlights that if the voltage supplied to a building is too high it may also reduce efficiency and lead to equipment failure alongside increased maintenance.

The latest high availability integrated power solutions from Socomec will be revealed at Data Centre World 2016. Data centre managers are challenged with constantly evolving demands on energy efficiency and availability – never before has it been so critical for those responsible for critical buildings and facilities to demonstrate flexibility when designing and updating their hard working electrical infrastructure. Socomec’s Modulys GP is a 3-phase modular UPS system designed for 19” rack integration across multiple applications. Modulys RM GP has been specifically engineered with full flexibility and fewer parts in order to simplify and optimise every step of the integration process – from sizing to installation – de-risking the entire project.

Urmet has supplied its IP video entry and access control solution to a £500m central London residential project on the north bank of the Thames. Engineering and construction company, NG Bailey, has used Urmet’s IPervoice open platform software for resident access, visitor announcement, system management by concierge staff and lift control interface. A team from GRID Architects evaluated the visual impact of all components in the buildings and a combination of Urmet’s Elekta stainless steel and Elekta glass entry panels was chosen to match the exterior of the complex which has a filigree façade and curtain walling.

EMSc (UK) • 01142 576200 www.powerstar.com

Socomec • 01285 86 33 00 www.socomec.com

Urmet • 01376 556010 www.urmet.co.uk

Electrical Review | April 2016


CLASSIFIED | 39

Contact the sales team 0207 933 8974 Lighting

UPS

UPS

UPS

UPS

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