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AR6702 HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PLANNING Lecture and compiling by Ar.A. Purushothaman, M.Arch(CPM),(PhD), MCA, AIIA.


AR6702

HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PLANNING Syllabus

UNIT I INTRODUCTION 9 Elements of Human Settlements – human beings and settlements – nature shells& Net work – their functions and Linkages – Anatomy & classification of Human settlements – Locational, Resource based, Population size & Occupational structure. UNIT II FORMS OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS 9 Structure and form of Human settlements – Linear, non-linear and circular – Combinations – reasons for development – advantages and disadvantages – case studies – factors influencing the growth and decay of human settlements. UNIT III PLANNING CONCEPTS 9 Planning concepts and their relevance to Indian Planning practice in respect of Ebenezer Howard – Garden city concepts and contents – Patrick Geddes – Conservative surgery – case study – C.A. Perry – Neighborhood concept Le Corbusier – concept and case studies. UNIT IV URBAN PLANNING AND URBAN RENEWAL 9 Scope and Content of Master plan – planning area, land use plan and Zoning regulations – zonal plan – need, linkage to master plan and land use plan – planned unit development (PUD) – need, applicability and development regulations - Urban Renewal Plan – Meaning,Redevelopment, Rehabilitation and Conservation – JNNURM – case studies. UNIT V ISSUES IN CONTEMPORARY URBAN PLANNING IN INDIA 9 Globalization and its impact on cities – Urbanisation, emergence of new forms of developments – self sustained communities – SEZ – transit development – integrated townships – case studies.


AR6702

HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PLANNING TERMS

BOULEVARD: a wide road in a city, usually with trees on each side or along the centre


STRUCTURE

Planning concept

Patrick geddies

Ebenezer howard

1.Ebenezer howard Garden city 2.Patrick geddies Conservative surgery concept 3.C.A.Perry Neighbourhood concept

Le Corbusier

C.A.Perry

4.Le Corbusier . Grid concept

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GARDEN CITY

Ebenezer howard • Garden city most potent(strong) planning in western urban planning • Created by Ebenezer howard in 1898 to solve urban and rural problems • Source of many key planning ideas during 20th century.

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AR6702

HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PLANNING TERMS

Garden city : The garden city is part of urban movement and is a method of urban planning that was initiated in 1898 by Sir Ebenezer Howard in the United Kingdom. Garden cities were intended to be planned, self-contained communities surrounded by "greenbelts", containing proportionate areas of residences, industry, and agriculture.


GARDEN CITY

• Redirecting the urban growth into new towns that would surround existing cities. These towns were called

Garden Cities.

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GARDEN CITY

IMPORTANT YEARS • 1899 published garden city of tomorrow • 1903 •

Garden city association was formed LETCHWORTH was designed for 35000 person

• 1920 • 1947 •

UK– Europe– US– rest of the world

Welwyn was designed for 40000 persons LETCHWORTH had 16000 population & 100 factories Welwyn was designed for 18000 population & 75 factories

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GARDEN CITY THE CONCEPT

‘Garden City’– an impressive diagram of THE THREE MAGNETS namely the town magnet, country magnet with their advantages and disadvantages and the third magnet with attractive features of both town and country life. • Natural people preferred the third one namely garden city.

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GARDEN CITY

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THE CONCEPT

Core garden city principles Strong community ordered development environmental quality

These were to be achieved by: Unified owner ship of land to prevent individual land speculation and maximize community benefit.

Careful planning to provide generous living and working space while maintaining natural qualities

Social mix and good community facilities

Limits to growth of each garden city

Local participation in decisions about development.


GARDEN CITY

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AFFORDABILITY : •Howard wanted garden city of all incomes •Most originally for those of modest incomes •Their attractiveness as living environments has often made them become more popular with better off people. EXAMPLES OF MODEST INCOME GARDEN CITYdevelopments build just after ww1 are •Kapyla ( Finland ) •Colonel light gardens (Adelaide, Australia) •Orechova (prague, Czech republic) •SOME GARDEN CITY DEVELOPMENTS ALWAYS INTENDED FOR WEALTHY COMMUTERS •Denenchofu ( Tokyo, japan ) was an example of this developed by railway company


GARDEN CITY

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GARDEN CITY APPLICATION

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GARDEN CITY APPLICATION

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GARDEN CITY APPLICATION

After 1945, the garden city model was mutated in to satellite or new towns in many countries Examples in Sweden ,UK or Hong Kong

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NEIGHBOURHOOD CONCEPT

C.A.Perry • Clarence Arthur Perry (1872-1944) was an American planner. • He formulated his early ideas about the neighborhood unit and community life which is 5-minute walk to define walking distances from residential to non-residential components. • Perry was very concerned about the walkability to and from schools. His ideas were realized in neighborhoods like Radburn through the work of Clarence Stein.

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NEIGHBOURHOOD CONCEPT Vision of Neighbourhood

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NEIGHBOURHOOD CONCEPT concept of Neighbourhood

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NEIGHBOURHOOD CONCEPT Vision of Neighbourhood

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NEIGHBOURHOOD CONCEPT The Neighbourhood is the planning unit for a Town

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NEIGHBOURHOOD CONCEPT The Neighbourhood is the planning unit for a Town

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NEIGHBOURHOOD CONCEPT

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SIX BASIC PRINCIPLES OF NEIGHBOURHOOD THEORY • [1] Traffic routes should not pass through residential neighbourhood. • [2] Interior street pattern should be designed and constructed through use of cul-de-sacs, curve layout and light duty surfacing. • [3] The population of the neighbourhood should be that which is necessary to support its elementary school. • [4] The neighbourhood focal point should be the elementary school centrally located on a common or green along with other institutions that have services area coincident with the neighbourhood boundaries. • [5] The radius of the neighbourhood should be a maximum of 1/4 mile • [6] Shopping districts should be sited at the edge of the neighbourhood.


NEIGHBOURHOOD CONCEPT Principles of Neighbourhood

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NEIGHBOURHOOD CONCEPT Updated Neighbourhood unit

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AR6702

HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PLANNING TERMS

CONURBATION: an extended urban area, typically consisting of several towns merging with the suburbs of a central city.


CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT

Patrick geddies • Father of modern town planning. • First to link sociological concepts into town planning • “Survey before plan”………………………………………. i.e. Diagnosis before treatment

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CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT GEDDISIAN TRIAD

IMPORTANT YEARS • 1854- 1932 • 1886 • 1892 • 1911 • 1915 • 1920 -23 • 1924

PATRICK GEDDES Settled in EDINBERGH outlook tower – world’s first sociological observatory exhibition on CITIES AND TOWN PLANNING published cities in evolution | visited India professor of civics and sociology in university of Bombay settled in Montpellier, France

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CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT

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GEDDISIAN TRIAD

Geddes was concerned with the relationship between people and cities and how they affect one another.

He emphasized that people do not merely needed shelter, but also food and work, the recreation and social life. This makes the house an inseparable part of the neighbourhood, the city and the surrounding open country and the region.

CITY

=

work

Food

Shelter

+

+

Social life

Recreation

+

+


CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT GEDDISIAN TRIAD

Organic relation ship between

Socio

Physical& Economical environment

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CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT Planning concept ï‚·

Geddes was the originator of the idea and technique of

Regional survey and city survey

Head of valley section

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CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT Planning concept

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CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT Planning concept

Highlights: 1.Old town issue ………..>>> new town issue difficulties …………….…..>>> opportunities 2. Lack of contact ……….>>> cooperation 3. Civic survey……………..>>> value to be considered

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CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT Planning concept Highlights : Removal/renewal process Slum removal Not encourage grid pattern Smooth traffic Spot study is necessity More spacies

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CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT Application

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CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT Planning concept

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CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT Planning concept

DELHI NCR

London , UK

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CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT Planning concept

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CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT OUTLOOK TOWER

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CONSERVATIVE SURGERY CONCEPT OUTLOOK TOWER

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GRID CONCEPT

Le Corbusier 1887-1965 • He was a French architect whose ideas have greatly influenced the modern town planning • Corbusier wanted man to live in urban life in truth with security and ease collectively and individually. • The meaning and idea of visual order and relationship and the city as a synthesis of form embracing verities of structures and systems is the theme repeatedly proclaimed by him.

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GRID CONCEPT

• He tried to create totally different world from the exiting ones . He wanted to grow with the machine and take full advantage of its potential for speed and verticality . • He depended on pure forms. • eg. 1.Contemporary city

2. Radiant city

1.5 million population

3 million population

3. Linear city

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GRID CONCEPT

Background city development th the early 20 century of

in

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GRID CONCEPT

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Background of city development in the early 20th century

Its impact and influence can be seen mainly in the following aspects: 1) The growth of industry in city attracted a large number of people flowing into the city causing the increase of the density of urban population. 2) The traditional urban pattern has been broken by the industrialization needs, and a new structure with the commercial and industrial centers, transport hub centers has been formed. 3) The industrial development as well as population expansion has led to the traffic congestions. 4) The city has been polluted because of the industrial production and the living condition was very poor.


GRID CONCEPT

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Le Corbusier’s principles of reconstruction and development of cities

• Corbusier advocated urban centralism and believed that this form can bring energy to the city. • By centralization of the space and transformation of function the new urban environment can be created to meet the requirement of modern society. Le Corbusier considered that the main problems in city were the greatly increasing density of population in city center, the conflict between the growth of the number and speed of transportation and the existing road system and the lack of enough green land and public space to provide enough sunshine, good ventilation and outdoor activities.


GRID CONCEPT LE CORBUSIER'S FOUR PRINCIPLE IN CITY PLANNING

1) Decrease the congestion in the city center 2) Increase the density of population in city center 3) Diversify ways of transportation 4) Expand the green area

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GRID CONCEPT

Le Corbusier

1.Contemporary city

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GRID CONCEPT

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Le Corbusier's City for Three Million


GRID CONCEPT

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GRID CONCEPT

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GRID CONCEPT

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Le Corbusier's City for Three Million


GRID CONCEPT

Le Corbusier

2.Radial city

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GRID CONCEPT

Dwelling area

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GRID CONCEPT

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GRID CONCEPT

Le Corbusier

3.Linear city

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GRID CONCEPT

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GRID CONCEPT

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GRID CONCEPT

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Le Corbusier

Chandigarh planning


GRID CONCEPT

Chandigarh planning

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Genesis of the city CHANDIGARH was the first planned city after independence from British rule in 1947. It is the capital city of the states of Punjab and Haryana. The city is located at the picturesque junction of foothills of the Himalayas Mountain range and the Ganges plains. It houses a population of 1 ,054,600 inhabitants (2001 ) and is one of the richest cities of the nation. American architects Albert Mayer and Mathew Novicki were the first architects to be appointed for the project. After the death of Novicki in 1950, Le Corbusier was commissioned.


GRID CONCEPT

Chandigarh planning

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GRID CONCEPT

Chandigarh planning

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Le Corbusier conceived the master plan of Chandigarh as analogous to human body, with a clearly Head (the Capitol Codified mplex, Sector 1 ), Heart (the City Centre Sector-17), Lungs (the leisure valley, innumerable open spaces and sector greens), Intellect (the cultural and educational institutions), Circulatory system (the network of roads,the 7Vs) and Viscera (the Industrial Area).


GRID CONCEPT

Chandigarh planning

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•In 1951 It Was Given To Le Corbusier •In Chandigarh Le Corbusier System Of Self Supporting Neighborhood Unit Known as a Sector Has Worked Very Well •Sector Which Is Introverted In Character Communicates Only At 4 Junctions With The Adjoining Neighbourhood Units •All The Houses Open Up Inside •Grid Planning Is Done •Chandigarh Planning Was Done In An Manner That Everything Was Easily Clear About The Routes And Sectors •7 V’s Road System Is Used •The Roads Are Classified As V1 ,V2 ,V3………v7 Corbusier's conceptual sketch showing the v-road system


GRID CONCEPT

Chandigarh planning

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The basic planning of the city is a sector:     

To accommodate 3,000 to 25,000 persons. 30 sectors in Chandigarh 24 are residential. The sectors surrounded by high speed roads bus stops every 400m.

 The main principle of the sector is that never a door will open on the surrounding of fast vehicular road.  The size of the sector is based on the concept of no pedestrian need to walk for more than 10min .


GRID CONCEPT

Chandigarh planning

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The primary module of city’s design is a Sector, a neighborhood unit of size 800 meters x 1200 meters. Each SECTOR is a self-sufficient unit having shops, school, health centers and places of recreations and worship. The population of a sector varies between 3000 and 20000 depending upon the sizes of plots and the topography of the area.


GRID CONCEPT

Chandigarh planning

A Hierarchy of Green Spaces can be observed in the layout ranging from Public Greens at City Level to Semi-Private to Private Green Areas

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GRID CONCEPT

Chandigarh planning

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The Leisure Valley is a green sprawling space extending North-East to South-West along a seasonal river let gradient and was conceived by Le Corbusier as the lungs of the city. Apart from large Public Parks and special Botanical Gardens, it houses series of Fitness Trails, amphitheaters and spaces for open-air exhibitions.


GRID CONCEPT

Chandigarh planning

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Profile for Siva Raman

human settlement and planning  

le-corbusier,patrick geddes,c a perry

human settlement and planning  

le-corbusier,patrick geddes,c a perry

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