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Summer 1990

Fourth Edition

I-etter from the President/2

Introduction/3 Scholars in the Life Sciences Focus on Improving Life/A Increasing CroP Production/4 New Synthetic MethodologY/4 Slowing the Spread of AIDS/5 Irukemia Cell Research/S Molecular Electronic Structure/6 Progesterone in Pregnancy/6 Restorative Dentistry/7 Body Composition Asessment/7 Science Education,/8

SIUE Scholars Address a Changing Society/g Cultural kaming Styla/9 Computer Literate Teachen/9 *Team" Approach to School Reform/9 Community Development,/IO Children and Family Services Training/I0 East St. Louis Center/l I Geographic Information/l

I

Economic Development/l I Production Process/I2 Economics of Pollution Cclr$ol/|2

Physical Sciences Research Advances the Technological Frontier/l3 Sources of Petroleum and Formation

Waters/I3

Computen and Engineering Daign/l3 Mathematical Models/I4 Radar Imaging/14 Thin Films for Lasen/I5 Minorities and Women in Science and Engineering/I5 Allocating Sub,systems of large Parallel Computen/l6 Small Power-Producing Facilities on the Premises/16

Scholars in the Arts ard Humanities Find New Ways to Communicate/l? SIUE Opera Playen and Children's Opera/|7 Preserving an Oral Tradition/17 Sociability-the Whale's Key to Survival/18 Retelling the Story of Dido/l8 A Navajo Woman's PersPective/I9 Sunken Treasure of an Ancient Civilization/19

A New Look for Porcelain/20 War Crimes/20

Diretory/21


LETTER

FROM THE PRESIDENT

esearch

&

Creative Activities

highlights the array of scholarly activity occurring daily at Southern Illinois Univenity at Edwardsville (SIUE). The public's right to know, appreciate, and understand the research and creative endeavors of SIUE faculty, students, and staff is a value inherent in our mission.

In these pages, you will find a sampling of ongoing research and creative activity at the University. While not all of the work currently under way here fits into neat categories, by dividing this year's publication into four sections-life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences,

and arts and humanities-we have attempted to bring some important contemporary themes to your attention.

You will also note that this is the fourth edition of Research & Creative Activities. We are pleased that you have shown interest in the three previous editions and hope to bring you further updates in the future.

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You, your associates, or your agency, business, or other enterprise may share interests with the University's scholars whose efforts are reported on these pages.

If so, for additional information,

please

coniact the Graduate School through the directory at the end of this publication. The SIUE community welcomes your comments or inquiries.

Earl Lazerson President

Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville


INTRODUCTION

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n examination of the contents of this fourth edition of Research & Creative Activities, together with the three editions that have preceded it, two facts become apparent about research and creative activity at Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville. Scholarly activity is constant. Scholarly activity is ever changing. These statements seem to be paradoxical, but both are true. Research and creative activity at SIUE, which is a reflection of scholarly activity nationwide, r.r constantly occurring. As part of the mission of higher education and of SIUE, SIUE's faculty and staff are engaged in conducting research and other scholarly activities in areas that affect nearly every aspect of our lives. At the same time, as each new discovery advances knowledge and opens new problems to be investigated, SIUE scholars move to the next level, ever expanding the breadth and depth of challenges they undertake.

At SIUE, the Graduate School

is the

overall agency responsible for developing and administering policies concerning research and creative activities, with the Office of Research and Projects coordinating and assisting in their implementation and in the preparation and processing of faculty and staff grant and contract proposals. We are the facilitators in the research and creative activity process for SIUE's academic community. This edition of Research & Creative Activities provides a sampling of just a few of the projects currently being conducted at SIUE, projects that range from studying the songs of the endangered humpback whale to studying ways to increase the world's food supply, from investigating Banach spaces to documenting an African

language, and from leaming more about pregnancy to helping school t6achers to identify and use optimal teaching methods.

We invite you to explore some of the interesting and vital work that occurs at Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville.

Rosemarie Archangel Dean, Graduate Studies and Research Southern Illinois Univenity at Edwardsville

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SCHOLARS IN THE LIFE SCIENCES FOCUS ON IMPROVING LIFE a a a a a a a a a o a a a a a a a a o a a a a a a a a a a a a o a a a a a a o a a a a a a o a a a o t a a a a a a a a a a

us,life is the central focus ofthe life sciences. Southern lllinois University at Edwardsville (SIUE) scholan in s the name tells

the life sciences-biology,

chemistry, dental medicine, and nursingwork to understand and to improve various aspects of life. Reducing the spread of AIDS, increasing the food supply, and learning more about pregnancy arejus a few of the research projects to which these scholars are devoting their work, which will help to improve everyone's life.

INCREASING CROP PRODUCTION As the population of the earth grows and outstrips iS food supply, cultivation of more acres of marginal land to increase crop production is necessary. F. Marian Smith, assistant professor in the Department of Biological Sciences, is working with plants that have a potential for increasing food production without increasing the use of environmentally damaging inigation and chemical fertilizers. Professor Smith is studying the littleundentood shade tolerance of certrain types of grasses called C4 grasses, of which corn and sugar cane are two of the better known plants. By studying the shade tolerance in these grasses, she hopes to provide answers to basic questions concerning the flexibility of these plants to grow under a wide variety of environmental conditions, which will help scientists and food producers to understand their potential for high productivity. With funding from the National Science Foundation, Professor Smith has developed an environmental growth chamber that controls light level, temperature, and humidity, thus helping to support her rcearch.

NEW SYNTHETIC METHODOLOGY Organic fluorine chemistry is important in applications to medicine, in medical diagnosis, and in fundamental studies of biochemical and metabolic processes. With funding from the National Science Foundation, Timothy B. Patrick, professor in the Department of Chemistry, is developing new methodology for the regioselective synthesis of moderately complex monofluoro organic compounds. According to Professor Patrick, the increased demand for this synthesis coupled with the severe limitations on fluorocarbon unic available for general synthetic purposes requires that research efforts be concentrated on the development of new monofluoro carbon units for the construction of new fluorinated organic structures. Professor Patrick plans to expand the options of retrosynthetic plans for organofluorine synthesis and open new avenues of thought on the use of fluoro-synthons in the retrosynthetic analysis of fluorinated systems.

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LEUKEMIACETL RESEARCH Human blood cells are basic to the understanding of how to help fight diseases, such as leukemia. Paul E. Wanda, associate professor in the Department of Biological Sciences, is examining thebiochemical changes and molecular controls contributing to gene activation and expression that accompany blood cell development. Professor Wanda's systems of study are established blood cell lines that can be stimulated to difrerentiate. Two cunent thrusts in this direction involve the role the cell-cycle plays in the chemical induction of gene expression and how a signal from outside the cell is communicated to the inside of the cell during this activation at the level of mernbrane composition. A study showing that an abortive virus infection can Ganse an enhancement of differentiation in this system initiated Professor Wanda's inquiry. Funded partially by private foundations and corporations, Professor Wanda's research will provide more insight into the biology of blood cell development and lead to the identification of suitable membrane markers that can be used to analyze early differentiation events in blood cell development and leukemia.

To prevent the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the Surgeon General has urged Americans to have only one sex partner or to wear condoms for sexual intercoune. Unfortunately, many adolescents and young adults engage in potentially unsafe sexual behavior and, thus, are in a group that is at risk ofexposure to

AIDS. Margaret L. Beaman, SIUE assistant professor of Nuning, and Marlene K. Strader, of the Univenity of Misouri at St. Louis, are conducting research to decrease the spread of AIDS in this high-risk group of adolescents and young adults through the development of specific messages to convince these persons to wear condoms when they have more than one sex partner. Cunently being developed, these messages are designed to reinforce positive beliefs about condoms and to change negative belieft about their use. In addition to funding from the National Institutes of Health, this research has been funded by two national nursing organizations, Sigma Theta Tau and the American Nurses' Foundation.

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MOLECULAR ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE Molecular theorists have been challenged since the early days of quantum chemistry by the problem of calculating and understanding molecular properties, especially for other than the ground state energy and charge distribution. Thomas D. Bouman, professor in the Department of Chemistry, has helped meet

by developing state-ofthe-art theoretical methods into an effrcient computational tool for electronic structure, optical activity, and nuclear magnetic shieldings as they relate to molecular strircture. Using a sabbatical year to work at the Beckman Institute at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Profesor Bouman is continuing his research by exploring computationally efficient ways of making the methods more exact. He is supported by the National Science Foundation and has also received recent funding from G.D. Searle & Company and from The Upjohn Company to support his research as it applies to nuclear magnetic shieldings. The resuls of Professor Bouman's work will assist experimental chemists and biochemists in understanding and modifying their experiments. Professor Bouman is the recipient of SIUE's 1990 Outstanding Scholar Award and one of three SIUE Research Scholar Award recipients for 1990-91. these challenges

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PROGESTERONE IN PREGNANCY Progesterone is an essential hormone for pregnancy, preparing the uterus to receive the embryo(s) at a specific time after ovum fertilization. Embryo attachment to the inner lining of the uterus, the endometrium, is called implantation and is essential if the embryo is to continue to grow and develop into a fetus. Exactly how progesterone prepares the endometrium to receive and nourish the embryo is not completely undentood. Audrey F. Redmond, assistant professor of Biomedical Sciences in the School of Dental Medicine, is working to identify and quantitate the metabolites of progesterone formed by the endo-

metrium during implantation. These studies could also determine if the embryo affects endometrial progesterone metabolism. Dr. Redmond's data will provide important information about embryo-endometrial interaction at this critical time of pregnancy.

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RESTORATME DENTISTRY Richord D, Normon (left)ond Gregory

metal alloys. They are also investigating the effects of particle size on handling characteristics of various alloys and composite filling materials. Their work ivill improve the quality of denial restorations, such as crowns.

The materials and methods used in restorative dentistry are important to dental personnel and to dental patients. Funded by the National Institute of Dental Research for several years, Richard D. Norman, director of research and professor of Restorative Dentistry, and Gregory P. Stewart, associate professor of Restorative Dentistry, both in the School of Dental Medicine, are continuing research on their project, "Investment Burnout and Expansion as Effected by Microwave." This research centers on the use of materials that readily absorb energy from microwaves, which when added to existing dental investments produce temperature rise and expansion. Their data to date has resulted in the production of such a mixture. Drs. Norman and Stewart have also accomplished the refinement of the microwave energy level which, in the properly constructed chamber, will cause heat sufficient to allow castings to

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BODY COMPOSITION ASSESSMENT As a relatively new application, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) technology is of primary importance to the future of body composition assessment. With SIUE funding, N. Kay Covington, assistant professor in the Department of Health, Recreation, and Physical Education, is working toward this future by comparing the percentage of body fat obtained from using the bioelectrical impedance technique to the findings when using the anthropometric technique, an indirect method of assesment. She is working with a Black pediatric population. BIA is a practical method of assessment when other methods are not feasible and when large numbers of children are being evaluated. But BIA appears to lead to an overestimation of body fat percentages in Black pediatric males and females. Professor Covington's long-term goal is to collect sufticient data to establish norms for the BIA technique with a Black pediatric population' Such norms are nec.essary in order to judge eventual problems with body fat in this

be made.

Their current efforts will result in physical property measurements and analysis of the effects of such an additive on the resultant gold castings. Dn. Norman and Stewart are doing further research to determine the compositional effects on alloys to prevent sag and distortion of castings at temperatures which would allow porcelain to be applied to the

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SCIENCE EDUCATION Educating the future scientists of the world is of vital importance. For progres in the sciences to continue to improve life, our youth must develop an interest in science and mathematics and punue that interest. One successful education project is the Upward Bound/Science Awareness program coordinated by Patricia A. Harrison at SIUE s East St. Louis Center. Funded by the U.S. Department of Education, the project is designed to identify, introduce, encourage, motivate, and prepare educationally and economically disadvantaged students to explore the science, mathematics, and related educa-

tion professions. These students receive academic c.ounseling and other educational and enrichment support services to assist and prepare them for sucoess in high school and postsecondary education in the sciences and mathematics. The program also sponsors an annual district-wide science fair, open to preschool through twelfth-grade students in the East St. Louis area. This fair is one of the city's largest educationally supportive activities with more than 1,000 projects having been displayed during the past six yean. Approximately 150 young people who might otherwise not consider careers in the sciences or in teaching participate in the Upward Bound/Science Awareness program each year. Funded by the National Science Foundation, another program has the goal of improving instruction to minority students by working with the teachers. "lmproving Math and Science Instruction of Black Studens in Junior High School" is directed by an SIUE team concerned with science and mathematics education-F. Marian Smith, assistant professor in the Department of Biological Sciences; Virginia B. Bryan, assistant profesor, and Emil F. Jason, professor, both in the Department of Chemistry;Marilyn L. Hasty, assistant profesor, Chung-wu Ho, professor, Paul H. Phillips, professor, and Nadine L. Verderber, asociate professor, all in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics; and Frederick W. Zurheide, associate professor in the Depart-

ment of Physics. The SIUE team will work with various area school districts and build on past successful programs in the School of Sciences. Some of the objectives of this project are the following: to update and deepen the mathematics and science content knowledge of participating teachen, to develop instructional materials that teachers can employ in the classroom, !o acquaint participants with special techniques to motivate minority students and with facton that discourage minority students'participation in math and science, and to provide a challenging, rewarding curriculum for middle school/junior high mathematics and science programs.

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SIUE's scholars in the life sciences are working to improve the quality of life and to solve societal problems that afrect this quality. By devoting their research to expanding scientific knowledge, these SIUE scholars will help enhance the lives of everyone.

Lillian O'Neal Manning, project

-By coordinator, Offrcp of Research and Projects, SIUE Graduate School.

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SIUE SCHOLARS ADDRESS

CHANGING SOC

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he last two decades of the twentieth century will be remembered as a time of Profound economic and demographic changes in American

society. "As in Past economic and social crisis [sic]," according to the Carnegie Forum on Education and the EconomY, "Americans turn to education"'The mission

of SIUE is to create and disseminate knowlto the public. A number of academic uris in the Schools of Business' Education, and Social Sciences provide programs that address the changes occurring in society

edge

today.

COMPUTER LITERATE TEACHERS Teacher training is critical as American society adjusts to economic and demographic changes. In helping SIUE prepare better teachers, tBM awarded the University a major grant for teacher training in the use of new technology. The projec! directed by Gary L' Hull, dean of the School of Education, and Donald R. Keefe, professor of Curriculum and Instruction, will provide future and current teachers with the skills needed to use computers as tools for problem solving and as an integral part of the total educational process.

CULTURAL LEARNING STYLES One of the major demographic changes occurring in American society today is the heavy influx of new immigrants' This new-^ pluralism poses problems for education' Different culturis appear to have different learning styles and cognitive processes' The western style of learning may not be the most effective for all ethnocultural groups' Addressing

of

this question, Orville D. Joyner, professor Educational Leadership, is investigating the learning style of three Southeast Asian ethnocultural grtups in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan. Profesor Joyner's work, supported in the past by the World Bank, will help educalors understand more about cognitive structures and culturally specific learning be an styles. This kind of information will new develop to helprng for means

The program will establish a curriculum at SIUE that will provide future teachers with computer literacy, knowledge of software applications, ability to choose and apply appropriate computer-aided instruction techniques, and knowledge of how to use computers for specific subject areas' As a result of the program, teachers will be able to integrate computer applications into the classroom which will allow the teachers to provide more individualized instruction, and time educate the students in the ut tht

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of Personal computers.

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APPROACH TO

SCHOOL REFORM Simultaneously with the effort to prepare future teachers, the School of Education is to engaged in providing continuing education the of Members clasiroom teachers. faculty in the School of Education have received a number of gants from area school districts for special in-service programs, particularly in the area of science and math

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education. One of the most innovative approaches to in-service training is a project directed by Donald J. Baden, profesor of Curriculum and Instruction. Supported by the Danforth Foundation, this project is part of a national effort to create "vertical teams" in local school districs to support school reform' Each team consists of teachers, principals, school board members, and the superintendent and assistant superintendent' This team iointlv devises a plan for improving the personal scttoot. A goal of the plan is to foster bttttt communication among the growth

"nI ionstituencies responsible for school improvement. The plan essentially empowers teachers as fully-involved partnen in the effort to improve schools.

Donold J. Boden

important

strategies for educating the diverse cultural

groups now comprising American society' Orville D, JoYnet

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CHILDREN AND FAMILY SERVICES TRAINING

COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT The changes occurring in society place a heavy demand upon local governments and non-profit agencies. The Department of Publib Administration and Policy Analysis devotes its research efforts to helping these groups meet today's challenges. For example, T.R. Canand Joan E. Pynes, assistant profesors, are helping the Community Counseling Center in the City of Alton develop and implement a personnel plan that will increase productivity and efficiency. This new procedure for organizational efrectiveness will allow the agency to operate more effectively in delivering services to the

community. The effects of changing demographics and an uncerlain economy make it difficult for non-profit organizations to maintain a consistent level ofservice and plan for future activities. The YMCA of Southwestern Illinois, consequently, contracted with Richard D. Bush and T.R. Carr, assistant professors in the Departnent of Public Administration and Policy Analysis, to help the organization evaluate its service capacity and performanoe, as well as community needs. Part of the project involved an analysis of the YMCA itself and the organizational changes it needed to make in order to ensure responsive services to the public. The strategic plan developed by this project set future goals for the YMCA and developed a plan for making those goals a reality. (left to right)

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Another project that provides services to the community involves the lllinois Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS) and SIUE's Office of Continuing Education, directed by Lynn E. Dieterich. Project Coordinator Terry L. Bast provides support and coordination for training to selected DCFS lay and professional social services providers in seven southwestern Illinois counties. The training includes sessions for individuals currently serving as foster parents in the region, as well as those who may be interested in becoming certified to act as foster parents. Training is also provided for those individuals who wish to adopt children through DCFS. Trainers present a wide range of topics including caring for sexually abused children, discipline, emotional development, stres management, therapeutic play, and caring for cocaine-addicted infang. The services provided under this contract directly benefit the East St. Louis Regional Oftice of DCFS by expanding the time available to caseworkers and other professionals to devote to their

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SIUE is instituting a rnajor program that assist community and public agencies to plan for growth and change. The Geographic Information Systems (GIS) laboratory, administered jointly by Charles F. Hess, professor of Geography and Earth Science, and Lewis G. Bender, director of Regional

One of the most outstanding examples of SIUE's service to the region is the activities of the East St. Louis Center. Almost entirely supported by federal, state, and private grants, the East St. l,ouis Center, directed by Johnetta A. Haley, conducts a variety of projects that assist the people of East St. Louis. Activities range from programs for pre-school children to asistance for collegebound youths. The Center manages 17 major grants totalling over $3.7 million for activities including the following: a Head Start program, coordinated by Willie J. Epps; a Child Development prograrq coordinated by Barbara B. Epps; an Upward Bound Project, coordinated by Patricia A. Hanison; Project Success, coordinated by George A. Mitchom; and the Katherine Dunham Center for the Performing Arts, coordinated by Ralph E.

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ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Through grants and other sources ofsupport, SIUE provides a number of initiatives designed to promote economic development in the University's service region. Many of these initiatives are directed by the Center for Advanced Manufacturing and Production (CAMP). Directed by Gerald L. Bratsch, CAMP manages various groups: the Technology Commercialization Center, the Small Business Development Center, the Procurement Assistance Center, a Small Business Incubator, and the International Trade Center. All of these activities are supported by federal, state, and private grants. Last year, the Technology Commercialization Center conducted 29 projects positively affecting 935 areajobs. It helped create two new busineses and eight new products. In all of these projects, the businesses themselves provided substantial grant support.

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Typical of the activities at the East St. Louis Center is the Child Development program. This project provides quality educational programs and day care services for low income families. The curriculum is designed to develop the children's intellectual and physical skills and to encourage their sense of self-confidence and selfdiscipline. The su@ess of this program, like that of all the activities at the Center, helps area residents meet the challenges of today's society.

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revolutionize planning and development. The GIS staff will analyze spatially related data in map form making it easier for communities and agencies to understand the demographic and economic forces affecting their region. The GIS is the only such laboratory in this

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PRODUCTION PROCESS

ECONOMICS OF POLLUTION CONTROL

It is easy to identify a number of examples in industry of managers preempting the regular work process to allocate resources to

One of the major economic issues facing the nation involves the environment. Scholars have recognized that pollution has long-term economic consequences. The problem for industry, however, has been the cost of pollution controls. Robert E. Kohn, professor of Economics, spent many years conducting research on the economics of pollution control in the St. Louis airshed. From the kind of large-scale planning models for pollution control that he helped to develop have come designs for pollution control master plans, such as the one implemented for the Los Angeles Air Basin. Professor Kohn is the recipient of SIUE's 1989 Outstanding Scholar Award.

higher priority projects, such as special orders for preferred customers. In most cases, when only one or two projects are in process, managers can make a decision to preempt routine work without much fear of financial penalty. In an environment in which the business is involved in multiple projects, however, the decision becomes more complicated as there are a number of hidden consequences of such action. Douglas B. Bock, professor in the Department of Management Information Systems, is investigating different types of penalties that can occur when a busines preempts its regular production process. This research will enhance our understanding of commonly applied resource assignment and preemption policies practiced by businesses. The results of the research have practical implications to a wide number of businesses.

Applying the research conducted by SIUE faculty and staff to real problems helps the people of southwestern Illinois and metropolitan St. Louis adjust to the economic and demographic changes occurring in today's society. By providing research and service to the region, Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville provides communities with the assistance they want to solve their problems. Stephen Hansen, associate dean and Office of Research and Projects,

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PHYSICAL SCIENCES RESEARCH

ANCES THE TECHNOLOGICAL FRONTIER IUE scholan in the disciplines of engineering, physics, earth science, mathematics, and computer science keep pace with the rapidly chang-

ing technological innovations that our modem world. The work of researchers, ranging from very specific such as isometries and isomorphisms Banach spaces to praclical investigations the operation of small power plants, the knowledge base and enriches society in which we live.

COMPUTERS AND ENGINEERING DESIGN

SOURCES OF PETROLEUM AND

FORMATION WATERS Petroleum and mineral deposits are of

critical importance to today's high technology focus. Formation waten occur in sedimentary strala deep below the Earth's surface. Petroleum and these formation waters are produced from oil wells. Know,ledge of the ultimate source of oil-field waten is of considerable importance because thce formation waters have been intimately associated with the presencâ‚Ź of oil deposits. Funded by an American Chemical Society grant, Alan M. Stueber, associate profesor of Geography and Earth Science, applies his research to this search for the ultimate sources. The Illinois basin provides an excellent opportunity for inorganic geochemical studies of oil-field waters. The major goal of Profesor Stueber's research is the further development of the geoctremical definition of paleohydrologic systems in the Illinois basin and a comparison of interpretive data with predictions from mathematical models. Ultimately, the knowledge gained from such work is imporiant to petroleum and economic geologists and the entire energy world.

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The stereotype of a civil engineer as a Iigure wearing a hard hat and canying a slide rule and sheaf of blueprinc has been invalidated by the computer revolution. lndeed, a good deal ofpresent-day civil engineering research is concerned with the development and modification of computer programs. Such research related to computer programs is part of the domain of Mark P. Rossow, professor of Civil Engineering. Funded by the Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station, Professor Rossow is involved in modifying and extending an existing program for the design of cellular cofferdams, temporary structures built in a river to hold back water while a permanent dam is being constructed. Profesor Rossow's work includes updating design formulas and procedures in the program and adding microcomputer graphics to facilitate the preparation of data. His goal is to improve the interpretation of data necessary to build better cofferdams more efticiently, which could save time, money, and, possibly, lives.

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MATHEMAIICAL MODELS

A model is never an absolutely accurate description of the real world. Therefore, a number of models with slightly different initial properties are developed. In a "stable" situation it does not matter which model is chosen as the best to dccribe the mathematical situation, since all the models are so similar. In an "unstable" situation a very small difference in initial conditions can lead to a completely different result. This general phenomenon of stability or instability was the inspiration for a great number of results in both applied and pure mathematics. Professor Jarosz is investigating a number of open problems concerning isometries and small bound isomorphisms of Banach spaces and algebras, hoping to clarifu an aspect ofthis phenomenon of stability or instability. Funded by the National Science Foundation and the prestigious SIUE Research Scholar Award, Krzysztof M. Jarosz, associate professor of Mathematics and Statistics, is investigating certain thoretical aspects of an important problem of applied mathematics: finding an abstract model of a given physical situation. A mathematical model offen obvious advantages in relation to the expense of time and effort needed for hands-on, real

world experimentation Krzyvtof M. Jorou

14

RADAR IMAGING Radar imaging is an important technique that has application beyond the defense industry. Radar imaging can also be used in developing road surfaces and even in certain kinds of geology work. Part of the key to developing useful radar images involves mathematical investigations into how surfaces reflect and scatter radar waves. Funded by an area corporation, Alexander Pal, professor of Mathematics and Statistics, is investigating these mathematical problems. Professor Pal's goal is to obtain rapid calculation of the scattered fie( using the most appropriate analytical technique in each region and providing for smooth transitioning. Closed form analytical solutions will be developed in place of numerical integration in order to accomplish this goal.

Alexonder Pol

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MINORITIES AND WOMEN IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

THIN FILMS FOR LASERS Once the province of science fiction and comic books, lasers are now a very real part

of our modem age. Lasers are used in such diverse areas as medical surgery, air-to-air and air-to-ground communication links, and hydrogen firsion research. The research of Arthur J. Braundmeier, professor of Physics, is in this technological world of lasers. With funding assistance from private corporations and the prestigious SIUE Research Scholar Award, he is actively involved in designing and producing highquality specialty optical coatings for lasen and their peripheral components. Each laser system has its own set of stringent requirements which iS coatings must meet. These requirements involve not only the optical performance of the coating but its mechanical performance also. Many coatings must survive outer space environments where ruggedness is essential since damage and defecs cannot be repaired. Professor Braundmeier's research involves creating new coating daigns which are then produced in his laboratory. New coating designs, which often require a unique combination of materials comprised of as many as 30 dr more layers, are created and analyzed using special computer programs written by Professor Braundmeier.

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The low percentage of minorities and women in science and engineering is of continuing conoem. The integration of divene goups into American life, and their participation in the educational system and the economy, are critical to the continuing strength of the nation. Under the direction of Sandra M. English, director of the Minority Engineering Program, SIUE and two cooperating community colleges are utilizing a grant from the Illinois Board of HigherEducation (IBHE) to increase the probability of minority and female participation in science and

engineering programs. The project is designed to identig promising high school students during their junior year and to assist them in entering these fields. Hands-on experience in engineering and science laboratories, academic assistance and counseling, and peer and professional support are provided in an effort to enhance the participants'knowledge in science and mathematics and prepare them to enter undergraduate science and engineering programs. This IBHE project has provided a way for SIUE and the cooperating institutions to contribute to the momentum of increasing the number of minority group members and women in science and engineering.

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ALLOCATING SUBSYSTEMS OF LARGE

SMALL POWER.PRODUCING FACILITIES

PARALLEL COMPUTERS

ON THE PREMISES

Parallel computers that involve thousands ofprocesson capable ofcooperating to solve a single problem are becoming a reality due to recent technological advances. These large systems are extremely important in the solution of computationally-intensive problems such as weather prediction, image processing, and simulation. With large multiuser systems, the task of allocating subsystems to difierent users or different progam parts, particularly in the presence of faults, becomes a significant problem.

The installation of small power-producing facilities on the user's premises is becoming increasingly popular as electric bills increase faster than the overall inflation rate and regulatory policies permit more operational flexibility. The rnost cost-efrective way to use such a facility in parallel with a large utility is by scheduling the usage at the optimal time. Luis Youn, assistant professor in Electrical Engineering, is interested in determining a realistic and accurate method of such

Marilynn L. Livingslon, professor of Computer Science, has been working on such problems in cooperation with faculty at the University of Michipn. Partially funded by SIUE, Professor Livingston's research involves the study of different allocation schemes for both hypercube- and mesh-connected c,omputers and a comparison of their fault tolerance properties. Professor Livingston, funded in the past by the National Science Foundation, is hoping to develop effrcient parallel allocation algorithms that use little computational resources and yet give a significant increase in fault tolerance over the algorithms in common use. Morilynn

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scheduling. Professor Youn's research, funded by SIUE, involves the development of a stochastic model for optimal operation under energy

spot pricing policies, using an analytical production costing model. Energy spot pricing policies allow the individual to optimize individual operations using whatever local flexibility is available. Professor Youn's goal is to develop a model for optimal use of the small power-producing facility that is flexible, accurate, and efiicient.

Improving our capabilities and helping solve our problems, SIUE scholan in the physical sciences are part of the mainstream of modern science. Modern technological innovations are explored, further advanced, and harnessed for use in our daily lives. Jean Willimann, administrative

-By assistant, Oftice of Research and Projects, SIUE Graduate School.

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SCHOTARS IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES FIND NEW WAYS TO COMMUNICATE

cholan in the arts and humanities facilitate communication on many levels. Their work is not an exact science of right and wrong, but a discussion of ideas. SIUE scholars are creating dialogues between people and song, porcelain and poetry. Their interchange

of thoughts offers an interpretation of this world, beyond typical scientific analysis and into surprising selfdiscovery.

OPERA PLAYERSAND

CHILDREN'S OPERA

fu Professor of voice performance in the Department of Music and Director of opera ivities at SIUE, Ronald D. Abraham has the driving force behind the OPera of SIUE. This extra-curricular organiion made up of students and members of Ite southwestem lllinois region has been poviding opera performances to the Univerand surrounding communities since 1982. Most recently, the group has delved into children's opera. With the assistance of the

PRESERVING AN ORAT TRADITION

Emai is the native language of approximately 20-25,0ffi people in 12 different villages throughout southern Nigeria. Ronald P. Schaefer, associate profesor in the Department of English Language and Literature, first became acquainted with the language while teaching in Nigeria at the University of Benin from 1981-1985. At that time, he undertook fieldwork in the Emai region to record on cassette tape various samples of Emai oral tradition, which had been previously undocumented. Since then, Professor Schaefer has emerged as a leading authority on the linguistic behavior of the language. With the assistance of the National Endowment for the Humanities and the National Science Foundation, Profesor Schaefer's current focus has been on the formulation

of

an accurate and faithful idiomatic English translation of a set of 70 prose narratives

from Emai oral tradition. Profesor Schaefer's documentation of Emai has done much to further the understanding of this language and preserve its storytelling traditions.

lllinois Arts Council, the Madison County

Aru Council, and the Southern Ars Acces kogram, the Opera Players mounted

Ronold D, Abrohom

Seymour Barab's Chnnticleer. In a series of cvening concerts and elementary school performances, the production toured to visit lhe youth of rural areas in southern lllinois. kofessor Abraham and the Opera Players trought an appreciation of and interest in live treater and music to areas unaccustomed to cxperiences in the fine arts.

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SOCIABILITYTHE WHALE'S

KEYIO SURVMAL

Probably no anirnal has captured our imagination as much as the whale. From ancient Greek writers through Herman Melville's Moby Dick to contemporary studies of whale behavior, society has admired the size, majesty and intelligence of these remarkable animals. This is particularly true of the North Pacific humpback whale whose haunting song has been the subject of interest for centuries. Despite a civilization's adulation, the humpback has been reduced to les than l0 percent of is original population as a result of whaling and habitat erosion. Even after 20 years of complete protection, these whales have not recovered.

Dan R. Salden, professor in the Department of Speech Communication, is attempting to assist in the ultimate recovery of these impressive creatures. Professor Salden holds a federal permit from the National Marine Fisheries Service to conduct a five-year study of humpback whale long-term association pattems. His research explores the posibility that the humpback has a sccial structure and reproductive strategy that is susceptible to disruption from increasing human activity in its breeding waters. If so, the humpback whale's level of sociability may be the key to its survival. With SIUE funding support, Professor Salden has followed the whales to Maui and southeast Alaska in order to identify and document whale histories and association patterns. The resulting knowledge could provide the information needed to reverse the whales' course toward extinction.

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RETELLING THE STORY OF DIDO

The story of Dido from Virgil's Aeneidhas been retold countless times in countless ways through the literature of all ages. [t wasn't

until the nineteenth century, however, that the queen of Carthage became a sympathetic character. Medieval and Renaissance trans-

lators and commentators painted her as the picture of lust or as a comic prostitute figure. These interpretations sought to expound the moral behind the story. With this interpretation accepted as standard, many literary allusions to the Dido character in prenineteenth century works took on negative tones as well and relied on the readers to consider Dido unsympathetically. An analysis of these allusions has been the ongoing focus of research done by Nancy K. Ruff, assistant professor in the Department of English Language and Literature. With SIUE funding, Profesor Ruffis delving into the many interpretations of Virgil's character of

Dido.

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Anthropology Profesor Charlotte J. Frisbie's research addreses a continuing need in the areas of cultural anthropology, American Indian studies, women's studies, and Navajo studies. Professor Frisbie is in the process of preparing the life history of a traditional Navajo woman, 'Asd"aa Nez or Tall Woman (1890-1977). The result is significant for what it will contribute to society's understanding of traditional Navajo women, their statuses and roles, their lives, and their cultural impact. With the aid of SIUE frrnding, Profesor Frisbie has been able to travel to Arizona to collect information and interview Tall Woman's seven swviving children. Professor Frisbie's efforts will result in a discussion of Tall Woman's life, as well as in documentation relating the preparation ofthis text to current discussions in cultural anthropology.

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SUNKEN TREASURE OFAN ANCIENT CMLIZATION

At one time or another, each adventurous soul longs to search the seas for sunken treasure. For Martha J. Ehrlich, assistant professor in the Department of Art and Design, this dream has become a reality. Ehrlich is studying the riches of the pirate ship "Whydah," sunk ofrCape Cod in 1717. Since 1987, Professor Ehrlich has worked with the

excavation crew on the recovery of pieces of West African gold from the Akan-speaking peoples of Ghana and the lvory Coast. With the assistance of the National Endowment for the Humanities and SIUE grants, Professor Ehrlich is working to esiablish a

stylistic chronology of gold ornaments from the early Akan states and their su@essor, the Asante kingdom. The "Whydah" ornaments, the earliest known reliably-dated Akan pieces, for the first time make such a study possible. When these pieces broke or wore out, they also became a commodity in the Akan/ European gold trade. Therefore, they also provide a link between the Akan states and the European documentation of 400 years of African gold trade. In fact, they are among the few surviving pieces of evidence of European demand that ultimately destroyed the early Akan cultures and the Asante kingdom.

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A NEW LOOK FOR PORCELAIN

WAR CRIMES

Paul A. Dresang, professor of Art and Design, has been at SIUE for 13 yean. During that time, he has worked extensively with sculpture images in porcelain. These effoffi paid ofrin 1988 when he was awarded a Visual Ars Fellowship Grant from the National Endowment for the Arts. Professor Dresang's work uses difrerent techniques for firing porcelain, such as affecting surfaces with sodium to vary the color ofthe sculpture. The residual salt on the surface creates soft pastel colors ranging from a light blush to orange. Professor Dresang then often erases some of this color by sandblasting and repeats the fuing process for another effect. The originality and oeativity of Profesor Dresang's work have been recognized in this extremely competitive national forum. In the future, Professor Dresang will eagedy forge ahead with his artistic vision into the world of glass.

According to James J. Weingartner, professor of History, World War II was fought on two levels of brutality. His ongoing examination of this war's crimes has led him to identify such a distinction. Professor Weingartner contends that geater restraints in conflict tended to be shown to adversaries who regarded one another as ethnically related and sharing a common plane of humanity. Where this was not the case, warfare degenerated into unmitigated savagery. Professor Weingartner's theory is used as a base in comparing the German war against the Soviet Union and the war waged by the United States against Japan. Both Germans and Caucasian-Americans saw themselves as locked in elemental struggle with a less-thanhuman enemy. Although volumes have been published about World War II, Professor Weingartner's studies promise a unique perspective for further undentanding of this monumental

conflict. Through the dedication of SIUE scholars in the arts and humanities, society is offered a "second way" of understanding and communicating with its world, using techniques from documenting other languages to communicating through sculpture. Teresa Goettsch Wingert, research and coordinator, Office of Research

-By development

and Projects, SIUE Graduate School. PoulA Dresong

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DIRECIORY

Area Code:618 The Graduate School (Grajuate Studies and Research):

. Projects

Rosemarie Archangel, dean Office of Research and

..... ..

692-3010

. 692-3162

Stephen L. Hansen, associate dean and director

Karin Gregory, administrative aide Lillian O'Neal Manning, project coordinator Teresa Goettsch Wingert research and development coordinator Georgia Voils, resources analyst School of Business:

.

David E. Ault, dean

..

School of Dental Medicine: Patrick J. Ferrillo Jr., School of Education: Gary L. Hull, School of Engineering: Colby V. Ardis, School of Fine Arts and Communications: William H. Tarwater, acting School of Humanities:

....

dean

463-3920

dean

dean

dean

Davidl.

Butler,dean..

School of Nursing: Jacquelyn Clement, acting

dean

School of Sciences: Donal G. Myer, School of Social Sciences: Samuel C. Pearson, East St. Louis Center:

dean..

Johnetta A. Haley, Lovejoy Library:

Gary N. Denue,

692-3822

692-3350

......

692-2500

.

692-2771

...692-3014

...

692-3956

...

692-3170

dean..

692-2372

director

482-6900

director

..692-2603

Oflice of Continuing Education:

director

692-3210

director

692-2996

Lynn E. Dieterich, The University Museum: David C. Huntley, Development and Public Affairs: James R. Buck, vice president University News Services: Sam L. Smith,

director.

.....

......

692-2794

....692-3600

21



Edition 4