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3 February - 5 June 2017 Main Gallery and Lower Gallery – Main Building Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation


Approximately 25 years after the last large-scale exhibition dedicated to the artist, the exhibition José de Almada Negreiros: a way of being modern represents the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation’s homage to one of the outstanding artists of the Portuguese 20th century. Almada Negreiros and his oeuvre are intimately related to the history of this institution and some of its most important moments. In 1957, a year after the Foundation was established, Almada participated in its I Exposição de Artes Plásticas [First Exhibition of Visual Arts] and was awarded the hors concours prize. The following decade, in 1964, he painted a replica of the Portrait of Fernando Pessoa for the Foundation and, two years later, participated in a Bernardo Marques posthumous exhibition, which opened at the Foundation’s Galeria Provisória [Provisional Gallery], in Lisbon. In 1968, he developed the design for the mural To Begin and started its execution. When the Foundation’s headquarters were inaugurated, in October 1969, To Begin had already been completed. Almada Negreiros died in 1970, making this mural his last commission. A polychromatic drawing engraved in stone, it is considered the artist’s pictorial testament. The connection with Almada, nonetheless, lives on and has grown stronger through a series of acquisitions and donations. The Modern Collection now holds an important selection of the artist’s work. This extensive exhibition, which includes over 400 works by Almada Negreiros, also represents the new Museum’s inaugural moment (with the union of the Founder’s Collection and the Modern Collection, starting last year) and precedes the launching of its programme. The exhibition is complemented by a diverse programme of events that will run parallel to it. Many of the works on display belong to the Modern Collection but many other works are unknown, yet all contribute to express the multiple facets of Almada, his versatility and unique talent for working with different languages, media and techniques, along with his contribution towards the history of modernisms. Almada was an artist-geometer and this designation befits his stature as a humanist, who knew how to survey his time with spiritual clarity and expressive agency. Through his multifaceted work, he imparts creative spirit and gaiety to those who see and read him, and this will ensure his enduring quality. As Almada himself once stated, “it wasn’t without punishment that the most enlightened Artists from all the ages established between them that heroic messenger service across time to bring us, today, here, the Art, Unequalled and in all its purity and essence, casting light on the

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History of Humanity itself.” That service’s baton has been handed down by Almada to those artists and researchers who have fathomed how to listen to him. We express our deepest gratitude to those who have co-operated with this initiative by lending works. We also thank Mariana Pinto dos Santos, the curator, for her exhibition research and planning, which she has accomplished with the collaboration of Ana Vasconcelos, as well as all the catalogue authors who have contributed towards a renewed reading of Almada Negreiros’s oeuvre. Finally, our recognition extends to the whole exhibition production team, for the dedication they have shown this project.

Teresa Gouveia Trustee

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A way of being modern, Mariana Pinto dos Santos

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“Polyalmada”: on the multifaceted nature of Almada Negreiros’s work and the importance of his production in the field of the so-called “minor arts”, Carlos Bártolo

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Tensions and harmonies between the modern arts, Marta Soares

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The choreography of words, Fernando Cabral Martins

35

The travels of Almada, Sara Afonso Ferreira

41

Painting as a theatre – Almada and the art commission, Ana Vasconcelos

49

The promise of Europe, Gustavo Rubim

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Almada and the life of peas: cinema, modernists, and modernisms, Tiago Baptista

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Almada’s form: the 20th century of Almada Negreiros, Luís Trindade

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“My eyes are not mine, they are the eyes of our century!”

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Seeing

101

Cinema

127

Saltimbanchi

149

Per formare

173

Public space | private space

205

Mutual relations

257

Humour and graphic narrative

291

Gestures | movements | faces

337

Chronology, LUIS MANUEL GASPAR

385

List of Works

411

Authors

420

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1. Untitled, undated, graphite and gouache on cardboard, 53.5 Ă— 36 cm

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A way of being modern Mariana Pinto dos Santos

Introduction We know nothing about the painting by José de Almada Negreiros reproduced on the facing page. Untitled, undated, hitherto unpublished, it was probably a study for a commissioned work. It cannot be from earlier than 1936, and is probably from after 1940. It may be related to the two frescoes he painted in 1956 for the Patrício Prazeres School in Lisbon, wherein he depicted a gym class of boys and a geography class of girls, four of whom are shown holding their notebooks around a Globe [pp. 246-247]. If so, this would probably have been a first study, an amusement never intended to be submitted, for it would certainly be rejected, considering the representation of a boy and a girl together, and their scant clothing. It might have been made with some other purpose in mind, such as a tapestry cartoon, or with no purpose at all, being just an experiment and not directly related to other preliminary studies. What is undeniable is that this image, in spite of being different from everything else in Almada Negreiros’s known body of work, may be seen as a summary of some of the artist’s representational codes. The background, with its overlapping warm and cool colours in a geometric pattern of squares and rectangles, is an abstract synthesis that counters the depiction of the bodies, denaturalising them. They are jumping, suspended in midair, and overly elongated, so as to prolong the choreography of a game that is also a dance. Two circles disturb the rectilinear background: the lunar ball they are playing with, and an inverted representation of the sun, a black circle overlapping a white square which in turn lies on a yellow rectangle – an allusion to simultaneous contrasts,1 and an enunciation of the basic geometrical elements, the circle and the square, which Almada studied for many years. The contrast between the boy and the girl is also a contrast of skin tones: the boy is darker, maybe African, and the girl is white. Considering the artist’s self-representations, we may discern in the boy’s face the suggestion of a self-portrait, or, at least, a connection with other works of his where the male figures are depicted as darker. This is a probable reference to the artist’s African ancestry, which recurs in several works throughout his career, either as the depiction of a darker skin tone, or as the representation of an Egyptian profile – and let us be reminded that Almada signed his violent poem A Cena do Ódio [The Scene of Hatred] as “Narcissus from Egypt”. “Narcissus” is also the name inscribed on a drawing of a moving figure whose representational style fragments it, making it unrecognisable, but which may be considered a self-portrait due to that inscription and the fact that it is datable to 1915, the same year he wrote the aforementioned poem [cat. 123].

————— 1 In his studies of light and colour, Robert Delaunay stared too long at the sun as an experiment, and obtained the opposite of light: black spots on his retina in reaction to the star’s intensity. Cf. Sonia Delaunay, Nous irons jusqu’au soleil (Paris: Éditions Robert Lafont, 1978), p. 44.

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————— 2 This identification with his maternal line is suspected, considering how young Almada was and how deeply he must have been affected by his mother’s untimely death, an absence mentioned in several of his known texts, both poetic and hybrid (such as the conference A Invenção do Dia Claro [The Invention of the Clear Day], 1921). There is also the abandonment by his father, who, after his wife’s death, sent both his sons to a Jesuit boarding school in Lisbon (Colégio dos Jesuítas de Campolide) and never reestablished a relationship with them. This biographical aspect is only relevant in as much as it helps us to understand Almada’s universalist vocation, at a time when the Portuguese colonial empire was a unanimous and naturalised fact and inter-race relationships widely condemned. While his father symbolised the coloniser (he held a leading position in São Tomé and Príncipe’s colonial government), his mother stood for the colonised, or, more specifically, the miscegenation produced by colonisation. This is not a question of attributing to Almada an anachronistic stance of anti-colonial resistance, but rather of understanding how he sought to integrate his African origin in a discourse, in place since the late 19th century, in which the terms race and nation were structural to the definition of the Portuguese territory. It will also be necessary in future studies to read this positions in the context of the problematic term “lusotropicalism” (Gilberto Freyre, 1953). See Fernando Arenas, “Reverberações lusotropicais: Gilberto Freyre em África”, Buala.org, 16 May 2010. 3 Gustavo Rubim analysed the way in which Almada’s idiom deals with the problematic notions of race and nation. As terms that persist throughout the entire first half of the 20th century, it is of paramount importance to point out that their meaning has varied. Rubim shows that Almada’s concept of race is universalist (to him, the claimed ancestral roots are the source of diversity and knowledge through writing, and through humanity itself) and, above all, Europeanist, and that a nation is only conceivable in terms of its place in a map, that is to say, “it is a political position that sets above the affirmation of the nation or the ‘land’ (which, nevertheless, are not dismissed) the relationship, and particularly the knowledge relationship, with ‘what is happening in the world’.” Cf. Gustavo Rubim, “O próprio humano – língua, nação e outras paragens no idioma de Almada Negreiros”, Almada Negreiros, Revista de História da Arte, series W, no. 2, 2014. 4 Rosa dos Ventos is an undated poem posthumously published for the first time in 1971. It is probably not from earlier than 1943. Cf. José de Almada Negreiros, Poemas Escolhidos, ed. Fernando Cabral Martins, Luis Manuel Gaspar, Mariana Pinto dos Santos, Sara Afonso Ferreira (Lisboa: Assírio & Alvim, 2016). 5 For different reasons (including the production of a Portuguese canon) José-Augusto França elected Almada Negreiros as the main Portuguese artist of the 20th century. França is the author of the first monographic study on the artist, an indispensable volume in Portuguese historiography. There were two comprehensive exhibitions of Almada’s work, held in 1984 (at the Gulbenkian Foundation’s Modern Art Centre) and 1993 (at the Centro Cultural de Belém), and curated by Margarida Acciaiuoli and José Monterroso Teixeira, respectively. The 1984 exhibition’s catalogue was another major milestone in the studies on the artist, as was the parallel exhibition devoted to his graphic work, curated by António Rodrigues and held at Palácio Galveias. Other catalogues and publications have multiplied the studies on Almada, but the ones focusing on his written work are more numerous. As for the art studies, one should point out the contributions of Raquel Henriques da Silva and Sara Afonso Ferreira, among other researchers who have tackled particular aspects of his vast body of work. Luis Manuel Gaspar has contributed to the documentation of the artist’s plastic, graphic and written work, compiling a vast corpus of information on every facet of Almada’s artistic activity. 6 “[…] from its beginnings, modernism was a discourse of the legitimization of change. In its most general form, then, modernism is a collective affirmation of the modern, as such: an affirmation of temporal negation, an affirmation of the time determination of the new.” Peter Osborne, Anywhere or Not at All. Philosophy of Contemporary Art (London: Verso Books, 2013), p. 73. 7 Cf. Peter Osborne, The Politics of Time. Modernity and AvantGarde (London: Verso Books, 1995). 8 Idem, p. 23.

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In the classical representation of men and women, the male genre was usually differentiated by darker hues. While Almada evokes his African blood – which he inherited from his mixed-race mother, the daughter of an Angolan woman2 –, referring to the ancient and wise Egyptian civilisation, the connection with the classical male/female difference allows him to present ethnic miscegenation as a positive feature. Almada’s identity affirmation involves evoking a pre-classical and classical, ecumenical root, of which he claims to be the spokesman.3 Miscegenation and universality are equivalent, as made evident in his (still narcissistic) poem Rosa dos Ventos [Compass Rose]:4 “It was not by chance that my blood from the South / mingled with my blood from the North / it was not by chance that my blood from the East / met my blood from the West / nothing of what I am today is incidental / it has been known since many centuries ago / that I would be the one in whom all bloods on Earth would come together […] / The law is clear: we can only love our own. / And my own are from every blood on Earth / but alas, a curse looms over me, / for no blood on Earth cares to include me among their own!” In the gouache painting on the previous page there is still another contrast – the one between the figures in the foreground and their replication in a smaller size, as if reflected in an implausible mirror. In this replication, the colour of the spheres is inverted, and the scale gives a more schematic appearance to the bodies, while the foreground’s abstract pattern is replaced by the suggestion of a window. This strange doubling complicates the image, with the different scales acting both as a spatial and a temporal differentiation. The image is, thus, a condensation of contrasts: white/black, man/woman, abstract/figurative, near/far, present/past, movement/stillness, action/contemplation. The study in question in its enunciating stage – whether it may be a preliminary study or an inconsequential amusement – is in itself a testament to the contradictory, heteroclite, experimental, eclectic and hybrid character of modernity.5

Modernisms Such is the condition that compels the use of the word “modernism” in the plural form. Following Peter Osborne’s analysis, one might describe modernism as a “discourse of the legitimization of change. […] a collective affirmation of the modern”,6 and the modern as a form of historical time focused on the present, without relinquishing the chronological linear time. The temporal logic of the modern rejects the old to affirm the new, and therefore, according to the same author, modern is also a critical term which constantly enthrones and deposes the new, as much as it produces the old,7 and is thus closely related to the differentiation between development and atavism, civilisation and underdevelopment, progress and backwardness. In this sense, the author states: “[…] modernity is not, as such, a project, but merely its form. It is a form of historical consciousness, an abstract temporal structure which, in totalizing history from the standpoint of an evervanishing, ever present present, embraces a conflicting plurality of projects, of possible futures, provided they conform to its basic logical structure.”8 In other words, it comprises a plurality of modernisms. The idea of a single, naturalised narrative about modernism and modernity is itself an outcome of the modern temporal logic, generating its victors and maintaining in


anonymity those it regards as the defeated.9 However, one can find within modernity itself a critique of this mode of producing the modern and of the temporality it implies, namely in Walter Benjamin’s (1892-1940) rejection of the “history of the victors” and his injunction to brush history against the grain.10 In art history, to pluralise the term modernism is all the more urgent considering the denouncement in feminist and post-colonial studies of the exclusions implied in the so-called dominant narratives (master narratives11), a critique which authors such as Béatrice Joyeux-Prunel or Piotr Pietrowski have very recently applied to the discussion of the modernisms in the so-called peripheral European countries. These authors advocate a horizontal and transnational art history,12 breaking away from the operating hierarchies that produce centres as much as peripheries, within a logic according to which the geographical distance to a hypothetical centre is equated with backwardness.13 The “periphery” itself has produced a historiography wherein it detracts or exalts itself against a “centre”, highlighting artists according to their formal proximity to the art produced in that centre14 – as far as modernity and modernism are concerned, the capital city thus distinguished was, for the first half of the 20th century, Paris. This dominant narrative, with such a temporal and spatial model, is western and male, and generates the canon, which is nothing else than a history of victors. In the particular case of art history, the canon is frequently based on the choice of “geniuses” and of some art forms (painting) to the detriment of others. The canon is a discursive exercise which produces a knowledge that establishes a hierarchy of power, constructing norms to contain whatever it elects. It is always a production of exclusions. In historiography, therefore, the critical path should not be a mere question of replacing a canon with another, the centre with the periphery, the coloniser with the colonised, the man with the woman, and so forth, for that would still be a production of hierarchical value. A relevant critical exercise in historiography would be the questioning of the differentiation devices upon which the dominant narrative relies to produce hierarchies,15 and which involves, for instance, “provincializing the center”16 or establishing that there are only peripheries.17 Considering the modern as a form of historical time, and its critical character, the modernisms were different ways of understanding the modern, and the new. In the conference he delivered in Madrid in 1927, O Desenho [Drawing], focusing on his solo exhibition organised by La Gaceta Literaria, one of the periodicals he contributed to during his five-year period in the Spanish capital, between 1927 and 1932, Almada states: “To be modern is just like being elegant: it is not a way of dressing, but a way of being. To be modern is not to use the modern calligraphy, but to be the genuine discoverer of the new.”18 While the modern may be seen by some as the adoption of a certain style, a certain fashion, Almada defines it rather as a way of being,19 which involves not only embracing the present time, but also acting upon it, not the adherence to the modern, but the act of making it happen. This concept of modernism as action that generates modernity is closely related to the idea of avant-garde.

Avant-gardes and modernisms The avant-garde’s temporality is, according to Peter Osborne, the negation of the present for the sake of a future, but its action upon the present is exerted on behalf of spe-

————— Such is the narrative of historicism. Historicism’s historical 9 time is homogeneous and continuous, and the historicist historian is not someone conditioned by his or her own biographical circumstances, but an impartial vehicle that reports concrete and irrefutable historical facts. Historicism creates a falsely unitary, continuous and progressive temporality, wherein the new dictates the chronological progression, in an evolutionary process naturalised by the historiography. On this issue, see idem, p. 138 and ff. 10 Walter Benjamin, “Theses on the Philosophy of History” [1940], in Illuminations: Essays and Reflections (New York: Schocken Books, 1968). 11 Cf. James Elkins, Master Narratives and Their Discontents (New York: Routledge, 1995). 12 Cf. Piotr Pietrowski, “Toward a Horizontal Art History of the European Avant-Garde”, in Europa! Europa? The Avant-Garde, Modernism and the Fate of a Continent, ed. Sascha Bru et al. (New York: De Gruyter, 2009); and Béatrice Joyeux-Prunel, “Provincializing Paris. The Center-Periphery Narrative of Modern Art in Light of Quantitative and Transnational Approaches”, Bulletin 4, no. 1, 2015. On the periphery as a term that generates spatial and corre13 spondent temporal differences, see Foteini Vlachou, “Why Spatial? Time and the Periphery”, in Visual Resources (Routledge, 2016) – online journal: DOI: 10.1080/01973762.2016.1132500. 14 On the narrative of backwardness, see my article “Estou atrasado, estou atrasado! – Sobre o atraso da arte portuguesa diagnosticado pela historiografia”, in Representações da Portugalidade, ed. André Barata, António Santos Pereira, José Ricardo Carvalheiro (Lisbon: Caminho, 2011); and “O legado de José-Augusto França na escrita da história da arte em Portugal: caracterização crítica do cânone e de exemplos da sua persistência”, Revista Práticas da História. Revista sobre teoria, historiografia e usos do passado, no. 1, Instituto de História Contemporânea da Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, July 2015. See also Joana Cunha Leal and Mariana Pinto dos Santos, “As Sete Cabeças do Modernismo”, in Arte, Crítica, Política, ed. Nuno Crespo (Lisbon: Tinta-da-China, 2016). 15 Cf. Joana Cunha Leal and Mariana Pinto dos Santos, “As Sete Cabeças do Modernismo”, op. cit. 16 Cf. Béatrice Joyeux-Prunel, “Provincializing Paris. The Center-Periphery Narrative of Modern Art in Light of Quantitative and Transnational Approaches”, op. cit. 17 “Generally speaking, […] we only have peripheries. We do not have centers. The centers are interesting only if we take them as peripheries. Of course, if we talk about a master narrative we have to ask what that means and for whom it is the master narrative. If we use the tools of art history that deal with the art market, or with tourism, then we have, of course, something of a master narrative created in the so-called centers. [However,] everything is a periphery, everything is rooted in a particular context.” Piotr Pietrowski, “A way to follow – interview”, in Richard Kosinsky et al., Artmargins online, 29 January 2015 (print version on MITPress). 18 José de Almada Negreiros, Manifestos e Conferências, ed. Fernando Cabral Martins, Luis Manuel Gaspar, Mariana Pinto dos Santos, Sara Afonso Ferreira (Lisbon: Assírio & Alvim, 2006), p. 156. Almada was probably reacting to António Ferro, a journalist and a writer that would come to be the ideologist of the cultural policy of the Estado Novo, the dictatorial regime created by Oliveira Salazar in 1933, after his appointment as President of the Council of Ministers, which allowed him to increase his power within the dictatorship established in 1926. Back in 1921, Ferro wrote: “Just now as I write this article, my Art is out there browsing shop windows, gazing at Worth’s, on the verge of going in to buy a robe, that Moroccan black crêpe robe, all embroidered with gold thread… My Art is Portuguese, Portuguese to the core, but it buys its garments in Paris…” – António Ferro, “O Maior Pecado da Arte de Almeida Garrett”, in António Ferro 1 – Intervenção Modernista: Teoria do Gosto [1921] (Barcelos: Verbo, 1987), p. 261. 19 In 1873 Rimbaud had prescribed: “One must be absolutely modern”, in his poem A Season in Hell.

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2. Manifesto Anti-Dantas e por extenso, 1916

————— 20 Cf. Peter Osborne, Anywhere or Not at All. Philosophy of Contemporary Art, p. 74. 21 Manifesto Anti-Dantas [The Anti-Dantas Manifesto] (1916), Exposição Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso, Liga Naval de Lisboa [Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso Exhibition at the Naval League of Lisbon] (1916), Os Bailados Russos em Lisboa [The Russian Ballets in Lisbon] (1917), and Ultimatum Futurista às Gerações Portuguesas do Século XX [Futurist Ultimatum to the 20th-century Portuguese Generations] (1917). 22 For this manifesto, see Sara Afonso Ferreira’s critical edition: Manifesto Anti-Dantas (Lisbon: Assírio & Alvim, 2013). 23 Cf. Maria José Almada Negreiros, Conversas com Sarah Affonso (Lisbon: Publicações Dom Quixote, 1993), pp. 42-44. 24 Cf. José de Almada Negreiros, Orpheu 1915-1965 (Lisbon: Ática, 1965). 25 Cf. Béatrice Joyeux-Prunel, “Provincializing Paris. The Center-Periphery Narrative of Modern Art in Light of Quantative and Transnational Approaches”, op. cit. 26 Sidónio Pais (1872-1918) was the fourth President of the Portuguese Republic. With dictatorial leanings, Pais governed the country between December 1917, after the coup he had lead against Afonso Costa’s government, and 5 December 1918, the date of his assassination. 27 See Fernando Pessoa, Sobre Orpheu e o Sensacionismo, ed. Fernando Cabral Martins and Richard Zenith (Lisbon: Assírio & Alvim, 2015). 28 Cf. Sara Afonso Ferreira and Mariana Pinto dos Santos, “Almada e Sonia Delaunay”, in O Círculo Delaunay/The Delaunay Circle, ed. Ana Vasconcelos (Lisbon: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, 2015).

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cific futures. The affirmation of the present by the modern makes it generate the new and the old, and therefore implies a certain degree of anticipation of the future; however, unlike the avant-garde, this anticipation is abstract: it is simply the new, without specifying what sort of new this may be.20 When Almada embraces futurism, writing the four important manifestos of the Portuguese avant-garde in the 1910s,21 he focuses his artistic activity on acting upon the present. Such action does not involve the intensive production of an individual visual work. It involves performative writing, in the sense that the written words are in themselves the action they enunciate, which is intensified when they are given a particular typographical arrangement that affects the way they are read, or when the punctuation is absent (as in the 1916 short-story “Saltimbancos (contrastes simultâneos)” [Street Acrobats (simultaneous contrasts)]), or when the text is entirely written in capital letters, like a continuous shout punctuated by a typographical hand shaped as a revolver, shooting at its target (Manifesto Anti-Dantas, 1916 [cat. 2]).22 It involves provocation and public scandal, with spontaneous or rehearsed actions performed in cafes – mostly at A Brasileira in Chiado –, or such gestures as, for instance, dyeing his dog – a hound – green and taking him for walks around the city.23 But also his participation in collective projects, such as the magazine Orpheu, his actions with Guilherme de Santa Rita (for instance, the futurist conference delivered at Teatro República – now São Luiz –, in Lisbon), and the ballets he choreographs and performs with young Lisbon aristocrats, and for which he also designs sets and costumes. However, these collective projects must not be regarded as an attempt to create a group,24 but rather as a desire to participate in the creation of a total action, one that would prove able to truly shake up the present time. In the avant-garde of the early 20th century, one of the most important ways of artistic intervention was the creation of periodical publications that could easily circulate.25 Almada was intensely involved in the making of Orpheu, exerting his influence so that it wouldn’t be an exclusively literary magazine, but rather a publication opened to visual artists (Santa Rita contributes to number 2, and Amadeo was expected to collaborate in the following issue, which was never published), and co-edited, with Santa Rita, Portugal Futurista, which also included contributions from artists, and which would be immediately confiscated by Sidónio Pais’s political police.26 Aspiring to be an international magazine, Portugal Futurista included several manifestos by Portuguese, as well as Italian and French, authors, in a transnational avant-garde affirmation similar to its counterparts from several other countries. Among other elements of provocation, the magazine shocked the public due to the explicit sexuality in Almada’s poem “Mima-Fataxa. Sinfonia Cosmopolita ou Apologia do Triângulo Feminino” [Mima-Fataxa. A Cosmopolitan Symphony, or In Praise of the Female Triangle], in his short-story “Saltimbancos (contrastes simultâneos)”, or in Valentine de Saint Point’s Manifesto Futurista da Luxúria [The Futurist Manifesto of Lust]. Almada’s futurism is the outcome of a creative soup, mostly concocted in the social and intellectual gatherings at the café A Brasileira in Chiado, comprising the humour of his contributions to the press since 1911 and to the Humourists’ Salons, the latest news in art, often sent from Paris by José Pacheko, Mário de Sá-Carneiro and Guilherme Santa Rita, and discussions of Fernando Pessoa’s poetic sensationism and intersectionism.27 Furthermore, Almada’s futurism is directly related to the Delaunay couple’s pictoric ‘simultaneous contrasts’, and he planned by letter several (never consummated) collaborative projects with Sonia Delaunay,28 who at the time was living with her husband Robert in the north of Portugal (Vila do Conde), where they took refuge after the outbreak of the First World War. Finally, the ar-


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“my eyes are not mine, they are the eyes of our century!” Almada continuously explored the self-portrait, assigning special significance to the representation of his eyes (also central to his poems and narratives). In K4 O Quadrado Azul [K4 The Blue Square] (1917) he writes “my eyes are spotlights policing the infinite”; the title of the poem “O Menino d’Olhos de Gigante” [The Boy with the Eyes of a Giant] (1921) again refers to his enormous eyes; and in A Invenção do Dia Claro [The Invention of the Clear Day] (1921) it is written: “Notice my eyes, for they are not mine, they are the eyes of our century! The eyes that pierce through the back of everything.” This physical attribute became a metaphor larger than mere identity: the eyes that devour knowledge; an interface for the apprehension of the world, for its artistic appropriation and transformation. The unmeasured eyes symbolised an aptitude for amazement and wonderment. This quest, or voluntary ingenuousness, as Almada put it, is shaped by the great quest for newness that is common to all avant-garde and modernist movements from the start of the 20th century. But to ignore the past often did not mean to reject it, contrary to what many proclaimed. Being modern meant instead looking at the past through eyes freed from centuries of historical prejudice. Depicting these eyes therefore expressed the modern attitude: the affirmation of the artist’s freedom of choice, liberated from the constraints of history and convention.


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21. [Self-portrait], 1921, graphite on paper, 24.5 Ă— 17.5 cm


22. [Self-portrait], 1921, graphite on paper, 17 Ă— 13 cm

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23. [Self-portrait], 1924, graphite on paper, 37.3 Ă— 27.8 cm


24. [Self-portrait], undated, Indian ink on paper, 27.1 Ă— 21.2 cm 25. [Self-portrait], 1940, graphite on paper, 69.1 Ă— 45.2 cm

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26. [Self-portrait], 1919, graphite on paper, 31 Ă— 21.5 cm 27. Self-portrait, 1950, graphite on paper, 69.9 Ă— 49.8 cm


28. [Self-portrait], 1938, graphite on paper, 70 Ă— 50 cm

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29. [Self-portrait], c. 1921, green ink on paper, 13 Ă— 17.5 cm 30. Untitled, c. 1921, watercolour on paper, 25.2 Ă— 35.7 cm


31. [Self-portrait], c. 1921, graphite on letterhead paper from Fernando Pessoa’s Olisipo publishing house, 25.5 × 19.2 cm

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32. [Self-portrait], undated, graphite and Indian ink on paper, 43.4 Ă— 58.5 cm 33. [Self-portrait], undated, graphite and Indian ink on paper, 43.5 Ă— 58.3 cm


34. [Self-portrait], 1948, graphite on paper, 68.3 × 46 cm. Inscription: “‘homero is between the ancients the fountain from which all has come.’ delacroix. ‘art is made to disturb, science to reassure.’ braque. ‘i do not search, i find.’ picasso. ‘he who has knowledge has learned it from another or has discover it by himself; the science one learns from another is, in some way, exterior: what we find ourselves is ours by all property. to find without searching is difficult and rare; to find what one is looking for is comfortable and easy; to ignore and search (what one ignores) is impossible.’ arquitas from tarento. ‘it seems the decade is the perfect number.’ aristoteles, ‘metaphysics’. ‘reduction to the perfect number, theleon,’ plato, quoted by vitruvius, quoted by luca pacioli di borgo, ‘de divina proportione’, and by francisco da hollanda, ‘da pintura antigua’”.

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35. Self-reminiscence from Paris, [1949], Indian ink on paper, 19 Ă— 11.5 cm


36. [Self-portrait], [1913], gouache on paper, 65 Ă— 49.5 cm

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37. [Self-portrait], 1928, graphite on paper, 65 Ă— 46.4 cm 38. [Self-portrait], 1926, graphite on paper, 34.2 Ă— 23.2 cm


39. [Self-portrait], 1926, graphite on paper, 33.5 Ă— 27 cm

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40. [Self-portrait], undated, oil on canvas, 45.5 Ă— 38 cm


41. [Self-portrait], [1940], wire and gouache on wood, 36 Ă— 30 cm

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This drawing, depicting a double portrait, was composed during the period that Almada spent in Madrid, between 1927 and 1932, a time the artist energetically devoted to making an impact in the Spanish capital’s art scene. Almada made many self-portraits throughout his life, some even featuring a second, accompanying figure, but the fact that he portrays himself in a double profile, enabling a female motif to emanate from his face, is unusual. The artist places himself in the shade relative to the woman being represented, engendering a contrast between his darker countenance and its paler feminine counterpart. This is a recurring theme in several of his works: the male figure appearing with a darker skin tone than its female equivalent, what could be explained as a reference to his matrilinear African origins or as an allusion to the classical representation of man versus woman. In one breath, the self-portrait embraces the female face and body, rendering the double singular, but keeping each half differentiated. The equation “1+1=1”, by Almada, enunciated since his avant-garde years and repeated in various texts of his, including the theatre play Deseja-se Mulher [Woman Wanted], which he wrote in Madrid in 1928, is a synthesis of what he would eventually formulate in some of his essays: the duality between individual and unanimous, particular and universal, singular and diverse. It is this equation that we will see illustrated in this work, which is less about making portraits, than outlining the dialectical relationship between a couple, and the becoming one without any of its halves annulling the other’s individuality. The equation, thus rendered, also encapsulates the unfolding of masculine into feminine, something that the novel A Engomadeira [The Ironer] (1917) and the tale K4 O Quadrado Azul [K4 The Blue Square] (1917) also touch upon in literary form. The woman portrayed is probably Ione Mignoni, the Italian woman Almada lived with during the years he stayed in Madrid. MPS

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42. [Two figures] or [double portrait], 1927, graphite on paper, 51.5 Ă— 48 cm

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seeing

Almada Negreiros privileged sight over every other sense, placing it at the root of all art and thought. Towards the end of his life, he elected the word spectacle as that which could best define the multiple languages of art. Etymologically, it signified contemplating, seeing, from the Latin spectāre. Seeing was also the title that Almada had in mind for a book dedicated to his studies on geometry and numbers, of which only a part was published, in 1948, under the title Mito-Alegoria-Símbolo [Myth-Allegory-Symbol]. His autodidactic research sought a universal and intemporal language, common to all visual communication and “prior to words”. The work he developed focused primarily on two-dimensional geometry, in particular the geometrical properties contained in the relationship between circle and square. To the universal set of visual elements he gave the name canon, not as a rigid norm that all painting should conform to, but because he wanted to trace, pictorially, the essential rules of all visual representation. Almada’s abstract paintings are thus, paradoxically, also figurative: they are the figuration of the geometrical relations he considered to be the basis of all representation.


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44. Door of Harmony, 1957, oil on canvas, 60 × 60 cm 45. Bauhütte’s Point, 1957, oil on canvas, 60 × 60 cm


46. Quadrant I, 1957, oil on canvas, 60 × 60 cm 47. Relation 9/10, 1957, oil on canvas, 60 × 60 cm

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48. Untitled, undated, oil on canvas, 200 Ă— 200 cm


Responding to the commission from the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Almada reproduced the painting that he had created ten years prior for the restaurant Irmãos Unidos, in Rossio, this time inverting it. This locale was frequented by Pessoa and other companions of Orpheu, a group that became known by the name of the ephemeral, yet revolutionary, magazine created by Mário de Sá-Carneiro and Fernando Pessoa, with its two issues being published in 1915, and a third which was never completed. In this portrait Almada represents the poet, who died in 1935, by portraying him as the tutelar figure of the publication, which proposed to initiate literary and visual modernity in Portugal. The refusal to represent the group, and the option to singularise Orpheu as a single protagonist, when even Almada himself had been part of it,1 indicates a deliberate gesture of iconicising Fernando Pessoa. Almada’s depiction of Pessoa became the image of the poet’s brand, having since proliferated in the most diverse manner, with his synthetic portrait immediately recognisable in three elements: spectacles, hat and cursory moustache. The rigorous geometric construction used by Almada is most evidenced in the mirrored version of 1964, and consists in the application of the geometric relationships between the circle and the square, which give origin to the Golden Number and to the Relation 9/10 recurring elements in his pictorial research and represented most often in predominantly red paintings [cat. 43 and 48] and those of 1957 in black and white [cat. 44-47]. In this painting, the geometric construction organises the painting in zones of light and shadow via the overlapping of a relatively limited spectrum of colours: red, yellow, white, and black or brown. This division of the canvas into light/dark areas is reminiscent of the way in which Almada would work in stained glass for various churches, in which he would apply colours outlined in grey, creating chiaroscuro contrasts in each segment of glass. He did this, in way so that each one strained the light through a net, with different grades of density, thereby resulting in a modernist graphic expressivity. The “greying” effect fragments into a discreet pattern, barely perceptible, in both the upper right and left corners, as a counter to the uniform blocks of luminous and darkened colours. Additionally, in this painting there is a specifically pictorial artifice which accentuates the iconic effect: Pessoa is represented seated in an area of shadow at a table, yet a rectangular window highlights his head. The table is represented in perspective, but suffers a cut from the shadow which makes it appear as though the front corner is much shorter than the rear corner, provoking in this shadow area, an inversion of the vanishing point outside of the picture. This effect is intensified by the slight curve of the rows of floor tiles, which emphasizes even more the impression that Pessoa is bowing over us. The inverted perspective – non-geometric and non-realistic – was a manner of representation commonly found in medieval icons, in which they sought to create the illusion of the image being closer to the faithful and for the viewer to sense this proximity.2 However, the image that Almada paints is pagan and modern. The iconisation is of Fernando Pessoa, but it is also of Almada himself, not through a self-portrayal; being a member of Orpheu, he need not show himself as such, seeing as he assumes his place as the creator of the definitive representation of Orpheu. Almada, in this way, occupies the place which he claimed for himself: that of the creator of icons of modernity. He assumed the status of the last modernist artist – being part of the initial group who sought to install the modern, and the one who survived to create their image and to inscribe it upon the collective memory.3 The commission for the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation of a work which had already been rehearsed in an earlier painting is a sign of the institutional recognition of this role of Almada: the modern artist as the agent of the consecration of the modern. MPS

————— 1 “To José de Almada Negreiros (viva, Orpheu’s baby!) with friendship, admiration and enthusiasm as always, and a big hug” wrote Pessoa in the dedication in the copy of his book Mensagem that he offered to Almada shortly before his death. Almada Negreiros and Sarah Affonso estate (ANSA-BIB-6). 2 The second version of the portrait of Fernando Pessoa is made after Almada’s journey to Italy in 1956, which would have a profound effect on him and contributed to his geometric research in painting. See text by Sara Afonso Ferreira in this catalogue. 3 This role is also exercised in the plaque which he designed, wrote, and published to mark the fiftieth anniversary of Orpheu, where the memory of the earliest protagonists is evoked not through a nostalgic story, but through fragmentary writing, which tells of Orpheu by way of refusing to tell, which is deliberately in continuity with the initial modern project, understood as an experience. Cf. José de Almada Negreiros, Orpheu 1915-1965 (Lisbon: Ática, 1965).

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49. Portrait of Fernando Pessoa, 1954, oil on canvas, 201 × 201 cm


50. Portrait of Fernando Pessoa, 1964, oil on canvas, 226 × 225 cm

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51 to 58. Eight handwritten concertina books. 9/10 I. Relâmpagos do Motu-Continuo, undated, 16.5 × 12.5 cm; 9/10, undated, 17.5 × 12.5 cm; 9/10. O Jogo Sagrado. Relâmpagos do Movimento Perpétuo, undated, 16.5 × 12.5 cm; Quinze Panneaux de D. João I: Retable Batalha I, [1955-1956], 16.5 × 12.5 cm; Figura Superflua Exerrore. Sigla num painel do século XV, undated, 17.5 × 13 cm; Cinegeometria, undated, 17 × 13 cm; Mouvement Perpétuel. Eclairs Eclairs, undated, 16.5 × 12.5 cm; 9/10 I, [1965], 17.5 × 12.5 cm


Strictly geometric in nature, the works of the following pages describe and find relationships between elements of the canon studied by Almada Negreiros, such as the division of the circle into equal parts, the golden ratio and the construction of rectangles with defined proportions. This selection is part of a grouping of nearly two hundred drawings, all similar in their formal characteristics (all on the same type of paper and with the same dimensions). The exhaustive handwork involved in creating a grid in pencil which covers the totality of each one of these sheets of paper is remarkable; this preparatory work is common to all the drawings. The grid divides the length and width of the paper into 30 equal parts – curiously enough, each of these parts measures approximately 1.1 cm. This gives us the impression that the artist made these divisions with an unmarked ruler and compass. We do not know if the dimensions of the paper were the choice of Almada Negreiros, but what is certain is that, if nothing else, the effort involved in dividing the pages, and their respective grids, makes this vast collection of drawings very particular. In these drawings the constructions are made with very lively colours, which to a certain extent, are related to the order of their construction. This also happens, in the panel To Begin. The overall quality of these pieces is noteworthy, considering that even within the same formal boundaries we may see drawings ranging from: a proposal for a new disposition of the panels that constitute the retable of Saint Vincent (attributed to Nuno Gonçalves) at the chapel of the Founder at the Batalha Monastery; to the preparatory studies for the panel To Begin; and continuing on to depicting constructions very similar to his four black and white works from 1957. PF and SPC

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cinema

Almada Negreiros’s relationship with the cinema spans his entire life, equally as spectator and artist. By 1921 he had already written an article revealing his admiration for Charlot, a character comparable to the saltimbanco [street acrobat] that Almada held so close to his heart. In that same year he was an actor in the film O Condenado [The Condemned], by Mário Huguin, and later he would recount: “In 1913 I tried to make an animated film with cards , a part of which I preserved for quite some time, but I eventually lost it. Later, during the period of the avant-garde, I planned with the painter Francisco de Cossio several amateur experimental films, which we never managed to direct.” (1959). Almada worked in the publicity department of Paramount Pictures, designing plaquettes and posters, and in Madrid he made bas-reliefs for the refurbishment of the Cine San Carlos, depicting scenes from various film genres, constructed so that they replicated standard film frames and shots. He also exalted animated film in a conference given on the occasion of the premiere of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in Lisbon (1938), rating it as the moment of true autonomy of the cinematic form, thence unencumbered by the need to reproduce the real. The magic lanterns he designed in 1929 and 1934, along with several complementary series of drawings, also bear a strong affinity with animation, where Almada saw the prospect of drawing fulfilling its purpose by acquiring movement. In Almada’s work, cinema was the modern phase of the graphic narrative.


JosĂŠ de Almada Negreiros in the set for the movie O Condenado, directed by MĂĄrio Huguin, 1921 (lost). Scene photography


In 1929, when he was living in Madrid, Almada collaborated with the musician Salvador Bacarisse and the poet Manuel Abril in the creation of the musical show La Tragedia de Doña Ajada [The Tragedy of Doña Ajada], staged for one night only at the Palacio de la Música. The building had been erected shortly before, in 1926, as a concert hall, but in 1928 it also became a cinema. Bacarisse’s score had six tempos, to which the six silhouette cutouts by Almada Negreiros corresponded. It was, according to the contemporary press, a burlesque story, as the title already indicated, enveloped by a musical part that replicated the buffo tendency of Manuel Abril’s poem. Almada’s cutouts also embraced a comedic aspect, depicting exaggerated figures in farcical positions, concluding with the image of a ball of witches and lost souls. It was a set of opaque drawings, which might have been projected by a megascope or an epidiascope (a forerunner of the overhead projector). These devices permitted the projection of opaque images and were often used by artists, for example, to project photographs in complement to paintings. However, six glass plates with the reproduction of the original cutout drawings were recently located (two of them broken), indicating that the projection was in fact made through a magic lantern device, heir to the one Athanasius Kirchner described in 1645. Almada probably had the drawings photographed onto glass plates for the projection in Madrid and later gave them away as a gift, in the 1950s, to a family he befriended in Lisbon. Five of the six plates were painted so as to create a different ambience for each moment of the story: the first and the third were painted in violet, the second in yellow, the forth in turquoise green, the fifth in red and the sixth was kept in black and white.1 We can find in the following day’s newspapers, a series of appreciative notices in music review sections dedicated to Bacarisse’s music, with little mention of the magic lantern. In the El Sol of 30 November 1929, we learn that “under the guise of a tale for children, the sinisterly buffo storyline is blessed by moments of fine poetry” and that kids would better appreciate a show that the adult playgoers had failed to decipher. In fact, there are several accounts pointing to the show being poorly received, seemingly because the audience, in the words of one critic, hadn’t been able to apprehend the Stravinskian mark that Bacarisse had instilled into his score. While another explains that the public had failed to follow the production’s humour.2 Bacarisse was a distinguished member of the Grupo de los Ocho [Group of the Eight], established towards the end of the 1920s in Madrid, following its French counterpart, the Groupe des Six, promoted by Jean Cocteau, and comprised of six composers inimical to romantic and impressionist music and open to Jazz and atonal experimentation. The Grupo de los Ocho also carried with it the ambition to radically renovate musical taste. Manuel Abril frequented, with Almada, Ramón Gómez de la Serna’s gatherings at the café El Pombo. He was the author of several burlesque works giving prevalence to an absurd and comical tone, in the style of the commedia dell’arte, the majority of which were intended for children. Magic lantern shows traditionally included a narrator recounting the story and accompanying the succession of images; a figure that was kept in La Tragedia de Doña Ajada and interpreted by Carlos del Pozo. The show also featured Pilar Duarmig, a lyric singer. Almada’s work responded to Abril’s burlesque poem, which was recited as the music progressed and the images appeared projected in sequence. The magic lantern restored, in the context of this solitary 1929 presentation, a form of entertainment which had been popular up until the 1920s, and then quickly cast into obscurity with the success and proliferation of cinema. The three artists, Bacarisse, Abril and Almada, thereby incorporated an obsolete magic lantern spectacle in an avant-garde musical work. The language of the magic lantern was modified, adapted and utilised with the main purpose of disturbing the conventional reception of a music show: the bizarre, popular, circus-like, puerile element amplified the comedic character of the presentation. The resulting show would be moulded by eclectic contours, combining music, poetry and a still-image or pre-cinema device, in an auditorium that served the twin purpose of concert hall and movie theatre (an adaptation likely devised to meet the need for the live musical accompaniment of silent films). Almada’s figures were cut out of black card and traced with white pencil. They were glued by the artist on a white background,3 and thus rendered static. None of the limb articulations popular in silhouette theatre were to be found. Even so, Almada shaped the arms of Doña Ajada as if they could be articulated, giving the lady’s cutout a look similar to director Lotte Reiniger’s silhouettes, (Reiniger was already active in the 1920s, and Almada could well have watched one of her films in Madrid). In La Tragedia de Doña Ajada, Almada deliberately created false articulated figures, mock puppets, surrendering the burlesque plot to a fictive juvenile universe. The libretto has been lost and with it the storyline; and moreover, the original score has also reached us incomplete, there remaining only a suite version, adapted by the composer. But the story can still be explained as the free adaptation of Lope de Vega’s poem La Gatomaquia (1634), the satire of a classic epic whose principal characters were cats. The cat Marraquiz falls for Zapaquilda, which is initially reciprocated, only for her to then drop him for the affluent cat Micifuz. The former kidnaps his darling, but ends up killed by the latter, and in wedlock Zapaquilda’s interests come to pass.4 According to the press of the time, the cat we see in La Tragedia de Doña Ajada went by the name of Micifuz. And by observing the drawings, it seems that Abril and Almada had replaced Zapaquilda for a witch, Doña Ajada, while slightly altering the 17th century plot. MPS

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————— 1 I thank Madalena Ferrão and Cátia Mourão for this new information. 2 See, for instance, the notice “Vida Musical”, El Sol, 30 November 1929 (signed [Adolfo] S[alazar]); Alfredo Matilla, “De Musica – La Tragedia de Doña Ajada”, La Correspondencia Militar, 30 November 1929; J[uan] del B[rezo], “Información Musical: Un poema burlesco de Bacarisse y de Abril”, La Voz, 30 November 1929; M.H. Barroso, “Música e músicos”, La Libertad, 1 December 1929. 3 Information supplied by Salvador Bacarisse son, via email, in February 2016. 4 Cf. Maria Cândida Zamith Silva, “A figura do gato como capa para considerações mais profundas: Lope de Vega, E.T.A. Hoffmann, T.S. Eliot”), in Estudos em homenagem a Margarida Losa (Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto, 2006). See Fátima Bethencourt Pérez, “La Tragedia de Doña Ajada: un poema burlesco para linterna mágica en los albores del cine sonoro en España", in Música y cultura en la Edad de Plata (1915-1939), ed. María Nagore, Leticia Sánchez de Andrés, Elena Torres (Madrid: ICCMU, 2009).


74 and 75. The Tragedy of Doña Ajada (magic lantern for the music of Salvador Bacarisse with poems by Manuel Abril) I. “The headdress” and II. “The stud walks by”, [1929], cut paper, Indian ink, black and white pencils on paper, 47 × 47 cm (support) / 62 × 62 cm

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76 and 77. The Tragedy of Doña Ajada (magic lantern for the music of Salvador Bacarisse with poems by Manuel Abril) III. “Wedding morning” and IV. “The broken moon”, [1929], cut paper, Indian ink, black and white pencils and colour pencils/watercolour on paper, 47 × 47 cm (support) / 62 × 62 cm


78 and 79. The Tragedy of Doña Ajada (magic lantern for the music of Salvador Bacarisse with poems by Manuel Abril) V. “The crime of the furies” and VI. “Suffering soul”, [1929], cut paper, Indian ink, black and white pencils on paper, 47 × 47 cm (support) / 62 × 62 cm

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80. Photograph of Cine San Carlos, Madrid, c. 1930 81. Booklet for the inauguration of the sound apparatus at the Cine San Carlos, Madrid, 1929 (cover and illustrations by JosĂŠ de Almada Negreiros) [Felix the Cat], [1929], panel for the interior decoration of Cine San Carlos, Madrid (architect Eduardo Lozano Lardet), plaster bas-relief


82. [Jazz], [1929], panel for interior decoration of Cine San Carlos, Madrid (architect Eduardo Lozano Lardet), plaster bas-relief, 130 × 240 cm (diptych) 83. [Sailors’ Bar], [1929], panel for the interior decoration of Cine San Carlos, Madrid (architect Eduardo Lozano Lardet), painted plaster bas-relief, 120 × 240 cm (diptych)

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84. Eight photographs from 1929 of the exterior panels at the Cine San Carlos, Madrid (architect Eduardo Lozano Lardet) (Deteriorated and broken panels)


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85. Programme for the The Shipwreck of Ă?nsua, Modelo do Minho, 1934, Indian ink and gouache on paper 86. Greta Garbo in The Kiss, 1930, Indian ink on paper, 25.3 Ă— 16.8 cm


The 64 drawings on tracing paper that compose this work were created to be displayed in a sequence, to simulate film projection. The sheets of paper were held by wooden bars and were shown in succession; a lamp backlighted the drawings, imitating the effect of light reflected on a screen. As a result, this set was sometimes labelled as a magic lantern, since it implied a sequence of still images which, nonetheless, represented movement and spatialtemporal change, in a story drawn so that it resembled those displayed by pre-cinematograph devices. Still, the use of such a technique in 1934 presupposes the knowledge of some of cinema’s foundations, which appear parodied or reinstated in this improvised film. The Shipwreck of Ínsua was shown at the Moledo do Minho1 festivity, where, for years, Sarah Affonso and Almada spent their summer together (1934, the year of their marriage, was the first). The festivity consisted of market stalls and assorted attractions and, that year, it also included the screening of the “film” The Shipwreck of Ínsua, for which Almada had devised a programme and created a limited company, “Moledo Films, Ltda” [cat. 85]. The images that Almada placed on the wooden bars told the true story of a picnic in Ínsua (a small island facing the Moledo beach that featured a six-pointed star shaped 18th-century fort) to which a group of holiday-makers (which included the surrealist António Pedro) had sailed on a rented boat, the type that usually made the crossing between Caminha and Spain. A storm had risen and the lighthouse-keeper had been contacted for help; a perilous journey back home then followed, which finally ended at Caminha. Almada and Sarah had stayed behind, he was still in Lisbon, and she was by then pregnant.2 Almada’s playful picture renders all the group members plainly and caricature-like, additionally piecing word games (such as “Caminha”3 as a possible diminutive of “cama” [bed]) and placing intertitles between groups of images, in the manner of silent film. At the beginning, Almada parodies the Comissão de Censura [Censorship Commission], which soon before had instituted the pre-release review of all films, publications, plays, etc. All cinemas across the country had been coerced to start screenings with a notice stating that the film had been “Reviewed by the Censorship Commission”. Almada satirises this official note by replacing it with the indication “Reviewed by you and me”, playfully forbidding anyone other than the artist and his public from adjudicating on the film. This magic lantern is especially pertinent, for it demonstrates Almada’s understanding of artistic creation as an integral part of daily life and sociability, a spectacle which could be achieved under different conditions, even with limited resources. Accordingly, it was cinema and drawn narrative’s modern codes that gave the best prospects for art-as-conviviality ever materialising, enabling a wide and participative reception of what the artist wished to communicate. Notice also Almada’s enthusiasm for animated cinema, first stated in a conference (1938) about the film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, and later reiterated in an interview given in 1959,4 where he spoke about his desire to make such films, for which he had once started to create cutouts. Despite the fact that he could not animate the 64 drawings he displayed in front of a lamp, this Moledo do Minho magic lantern could be seen as an exercise of approximation towards animated cinema. MPS

————— 1 A seaside town located in the Minho region of Portugal (translator’s note). 2 Cf. Maria José Almada Negreiros, Conversas com Sarah Affonso (Lisbon: Publicações Dom Quixote, 1993), pp. 65-66. I am grateful to Maria Teresa de Araújo Fernandes for the information she has kindly provided. 3 “Little bed” in Portuguese, but also Portugal’s northern village of Caminha, on the banks of the river Minho and close to Moledo (translator’s note). 4 José de Almada Negreiros, “Desenhos Animados Realidade Imaginada”, in Manifestos e Conferências, ed. Fernando Cabral Martins et al. (Lisbon: Assírio & Alvim, 2006); “Almada Negreiros e o Cinema”, interview given by Almada Negreiros to J.F. Aranda, Diário de Notícias, 24 September 1959.

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87. The Shipwreck of Ă?nsua, 1934, Indian ink on tracing paper (64 drawings), 74.5 Ă— 99.5 cm (approximate measure of each drawing)


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saltimbanchi

From the beginning of the 20th century, the circus became a particularly important theme for artists in literature and painting. The saltimbanchi [street acrobats] were poor, nomadic figures who, although popular, usually lived at the margins of society and performed for entertainment and amusement, but also to parody social order. They had been elected by artists as the denaturalised and exaggerated emblem of the humanity they sought to represent, in opposition to symbolism, naturalism and the haute bourgeoisie portrait that characterised a large part of the painting dominant in the 19th century. We can find the saltimbanco [street acrobat] in the commedia dell’arte, a comical theatre with roots in 16th-century Italian carnival, performed by masked actors whose role was to represent emotions rather than to play any specific character. From the commedia, Pierrot, Harlequin, Columbina and Pierrette became recurring themes in Almada Negreiros’s paintings, drawings and texts; through them he could represent a sum of human relations, the status of art and the condition of the artist himself.


This is a watercolour depiction of a harlequin, a commedia dell’arte character that is recurrent in José de Almada Negreiros’s visual and written work throughout the entirety of his artistic career. Just like the saltimbanco (street acrobat), harlequin is something of a clown, a tragic hero and an acrobat, synthesising, in Almada Negreiros’s work, the condition of the artist as someone who must provide, create and sustain a spectacle before an audience. The harlequin has no underdrawing, and the watercolour paint leaves the paper untouched, a void, on every white area, defining the character through an interplay of light and shadow, which is not achieved by means of a chiaroscuro, but rather by a juxtaposition of contrasting or complementary colours, in a reinterpretation of artists Sonia and Robert Delaunay’s simultaneous contrasts. There are moments of cold contrasts (the black, white and blue hat), as well as of hot ones (the face with its light yellows and dark reds), and the deliberate asymmetry of the character’s body and face, rendered by the variable watercolour strokes, infuses the painting with a dynamic movement that relies entirely on the colour treatment. The signature is green, as are the character’s eyes and mask, which seems to imply an identification of the artist-harlequin with Almada Negreiros himself. Green was the colour he had chosen for himself within the Club he had founded with four other members, young women from the Lisbon aristocracy (who corresponded to the colours purple, white or yellow, blue and red). Green, therefore, is his autograph, his identity, as shown both by the mask and the eyes that peer out through it, and one could justifiably argue that Harlequin’s costume, “made of thirty-seven thousand bits of thirty-seven thousand colours”,1 is the disguise by which the artist best reveals himself. And such a costume, whether metaphoric or depicted, becomes the symbol of colour, which is the artist’s raw material. The figure that conveys colour is harlequin-Almada, an identification further confirmed by the rectangular volumes gathered behind the chair in which he sits that suggest canvases in front of which the artist sits, presenting himself as the source of the creative process and as an element of the spectacle he offers to the viewer. MPS

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————— 1 José de Almada Negreiros, “Pierrot e Arlequim. Personagens de Teatro” [1924], in Manifestos e Conferências, ed. Fernando Cabral Martins, Luis Manuel Gaspar, Mariana Pinto dos Santos and Sara Afonso Ferreira (Lisbon: Assírio & Alvim, 2006), p. 106.


88. Untitled, 1923, watercolour on card, 34.7 Ă— 24.6 cm

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per formare

Almada Negreiros was seen as a performer artist (from the Latin per formare, to give shape) by later generations, who saw in him a precursor to the ephemeral strategies that became common amid the so-called neo-avant-garde of the 1960s, and which predicated the artistic process itself as enunciation, renouncing the need for a concluding oeuvre: the performance. The ballets Almada choreographed, designed and performed between 1916 and 1918, the artistic pamphlets he wrote and publicly recited, the provocations he acted alone or with his friend Guilherme de Santa Rita (jumping over tables, quizzing passersby or concocting unusual scenes; such as when both he and Santa Rita sat staring at a café table, hands holding chins, dressed in green, heads shaven), all point to a theatrical posture, disconcerting and scandalising, that was also present in the conferences to which he gave artistic status. For Almada, the modern artist had to be committed to art with their entire body, voice and life. This kind of artistic perspective was common among the early 20th-century avant-garde; and Almada shared it with the artists and poets he admired, befriended or collaborated with (such as Ramón Gómez de la Serna and Federico García Lorca), always retaining a strong interest in dance, theatre and cinema.


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123. Untitled, c. 1915, Indian ink on paper, 26 Ă— 22 cm


Photographs of José de Almada Negreiros by Vitoriano Braga, c. 1920. Direção-Geral do Património Cultural/Arquivo de Documentação Fotográfica. Luísa Oliveira

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124. Untitled, c. 1914-1915, Indian ink on paper, 26 Ă— 18 cm


125. Untitled, 1913, Indian ink, watercolour and pastel on paper, 25.9 Ă— 22.2 cm

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126. Costume for the ballet A Princesa dos Sapatos de Ferro, 1918, gouache on cardboard, 50.6 Ă— 35.8 cm


A Princesa dos Sapatos de Ferro [The Princess with the Iron Shoes] (1918) is the name of a ballet choreographed by José de Almada Negreiros, who also created the costumes. It was performed at the Teatro Nacional de São Carlos, sponsored by the countess Helena de Castelo Melhor. It was at the countess’s palace that Almada had staged his previous ballet, O Sonho da Princesa na Rosa [The Princess’s Dream on the Rose], in 1916. A Princesa dos Sapatos de Ferro included music by Ruy Coelho and set design by José Pacheko, and was announced in an issue of Portugal Futurista in 1917. The ballet was performed at the Teatro de São Carlos shortly after Sergei Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes had been presented there. The presence of Diaghilev’s company caused a stir in the city, and Almada was a cicerone for the Russian Costume for the ballet A Rainha Encantada (The Queen), 1918 choreographer during his stay in Lisbon between December 1917 and the end of March of 1918. Almada’s ballet was certainly born out of the Russian company’s impact on the Parisian artistic scene, which José Pacheko experienced during his lengthy stays in Paris, where he also saw Isadora Duncan’s performances. This meeting with Diaghilev in Lisbon and the shows presented by him were a stimulus for Almada’s creativity and reinforced his interest in music and dance. The ballet Parade that Diaghilev showed in Paris in 1917 had music by Erik Satie and costumes by Picasso. The programme of that season, which included texts by Apollinaire and Cocteau, was offered to Almada, who kept it all his life. In Lisbon the Ballets Russes performed different shows in the Coliseu dos Recreios and Teatro Nacional de São Carlos: Les Sylphides, Shéhérazade, Le Spectre de la Rose, Scènes et Danses Polovtsiennes du Prince Igor, Soleil de Nuit, Carnaval, Thamar, Les Papillons, Sadko, Cléopatre, Narcisse, Le Festin, Las Meninas, under the title “Pavane”, and Le Pavillon d’Armide under the title “Danse des Bouffons”.1 Costumes and scenery where made by, amongst others, Mikhail Larionov, Natalia Gontcharova and Léon Bakst. Almada Negreiros’s ballets were also informed by the underlying desire to combine the visual arts and the performing arts, and to extend into all areas of artistic expression, a concept of active art that transforms reality and constructs modernity, transmitting a “happy comprehension of modernity”.2 The costume shown here is therefore in dialogue with the revolutionary tendencies in scenography and costume design of the Ballets Russes, and it represents a diabolical figure in rigorously geometrical attire with a colour scheme that is, without doubt, connected to the simultaneous contrasts in the Orphic circles of Sonia and Robert Delaunay. Sonia Delaunay certainly explored clothing and costumes in her pictorial research and, in the correspondence that Almada sent her in 1915-1916, there is talk of “poèmes en couleurs” and “ballets simultanéistes” that never materialised.3 The coloured gouache drawing, with twisted horns and triangular claws, is the costume for the devil character, played by Almada himself. As well as the devil, he also played the role of the witch. There is another ballet by Almada, A Rainha Encantada [The Enchanted Queen], never performed, whose costumes are also a result of the enduring memory of the encounter with the Ballets Russes. MPS

Costume for the ballet A Rainha Encantada (The Queen’s Page of Honour), 1918

————— 1 See programme of Coliseu dos Recreios, cover and backcover by Jorge Barradas, and programme of Teatro de São Carlos, 1917. 2 José de Almada Negreiros, “Os Bailados Russos em Lisboa”, Portugal Futurista [1917], republished in José de Almada Negreiros, Manifestos (Lisbon: Assírio & Alvim, 2016). 3 Cf. Paulo Ferreira, Correspondance de quatre artistes portugais avec Robert et Sonia Delaunay (Paris: Fondation Calouste Gulbenkian / Centre Culturel Portugais, Presses Universitaires de France, 1972).

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public space private space

In the absence of art galleries, dealers or an art market, Almada, as did many other artists, worked from early on in his career under commission from clients such as the tailors Alfaiataria Cunha, the cafĂŠ A Brasileira in Chiado, the Bristol Club, or the many newspapers, books, magazine and book covers or posters that commissioned his drawings, illustrations and graphic works. Upon returning from Madrid, in 1932, Almada witnessed the emergence of the programme of political propaganda of the Estado Novo, which had started to rely on modern artists and architects to establish its image, and had become nearly the only means of subsistence for the large majority of them. The integration of all arts, the recuperation of traditional craft and the convergence of high and applied art were all dictums of the modern period: in the Arts & Crafts movement, in art nouveau, in noucentisme, in De Stijl or in Bauhaus. This modernist matrix was also present in authoritarian regimes, such as the Italian or the Portuguese, serving a propaganda that exploited the legitimation of change sparked by modernist discourse, to promote the renewal of a nationalistic image through public architecture and decoration. Almada operated within an artistic milieu where artists often had to serve different and contradictory uses of modernity. However, both in testimony and in writing, he took issue with the arrogation of art by the State, repeatedly making the unconditional defence of artistic freedom. Generally speaking, the themes he was commissioned for were predefined, but we can also find examples of a certain deviation from this thematic control, to which Almada often responded with an either subtle or overt insubordinate humour.


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167. Untitled (Paintings for Alfaiataria Cunha tailor shop, Lisbon), 1913, oil on canvas, 178 Ă— 100 cm


168. Untitled (Paintings for Alfaiataria Cunha tailor shop, Lisbon), [1913], oil on canvas, 178 Ă— 100 cm

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169. [Nude] (Painting for the Bristol Club, Lisbon), 1926, oil on canvas, 94.5 Ă— 191 cm


170. [Bathers] (Painting for the cafĂŠ A Brasileira in Chiado, Lisbon), 1925, oil on canvas, 131 Ă— 166 cm

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The prolific relationship between Pardal Monteiro and Almada1 would bear fruit even after the architect’s death in 1957. Of the projects that were in development at the time, Almada was to participate in three: the Ritz Hotel (1952-1959), the buildings of the Cidade Universitária [University Campus] (1952-1961) and the Biblioteca Nacional [National 171. Untitled (Theme for tapestry, The Ritz Hotel, Lisbon), 1959, oil on canvas, 90 × 94 cm Library] (1954-69).2 If generic themes for the buildings of the Cidade Universitária were pre-defined by internal study commissions – which Almada, and the other artists worked from3 – it is perceivable that in the Ritz, none of those pre-determined decisions had been made, leaving to each artist4 creative freedom, which in turn would provoke, upon a final analysis, that the sought-after integration of the arts did not work together as a whole.5 Almada was given the responsibility to create three tapestries for the main salon, and the decoration of a wall at the entrance to the Grill restaurant. Executed in the last two mural techniques Almada had experimented with – wall tapestry6 and intaglio on stone,7 here in gold overblack marble – they corroborated the status which was desired for the hotel, a luxury building in line with the tourism policies of the regime. Independent of one another, the themes he developed are characteristically almadian narratives, concluding studies which he had started long before. The theme of desire is present in both, whether in the consummate passion of the centaur couple, or in the voyeuristic eroticism of the rural scene where several stories interweave. In any one of these works, love is also unlove, be it in the rejected female centaur who is hiding in the initial scene or the solitary centaur at the end, or in the apparent misencounter between the rural characters. The different mediums compel Almada to use different solutions. The rhythmic weavings which score the three tapestries – mimicking coloured constellations and stars – serve as a background for the actions of the figures that, defined by geometric contours, are coloured in by chromatic permutations that go with the moods of the narrative. Contrarily, the intaglio was worked upon as a true high contrast engraving where the dense textures of the bales and foliage, incised in gold lines, stand opposed to the emptiness of the black marble slab, with the volumes of the bodies being depicted by a varying thickness of line. The adaptation of the drawing to the concave wall, and the column in front – where Almada has placed the tree through which a farmhand is peering out – has the effect of spatially including the observer as a fifth character, also voyeuristically embedded within the scene. CB

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————— 1 From public to private commissions, of a larger or smaller scale, they had worked together since the Our Lady of Fátima Church project, which began in the middle of the 1930s. 2 In the case of the library project, the reading room tapestry ended up being commissioned from Guilherme Camarinha. In the other two projects, they respected Pardal Monteiro’s initial plans, commissioning the works from the artists he had originally selected. See Maria José Almada Negreiros, Conversas com Sarah Affonso (Lisbon: Editora Arcádia, 1982), pp. 124-125. 3 See Ana Mehnert Pascoal, A Cidade do Saber: estudo do património artístico integrado nos edifícios projectados pelo arquitecto Porfírio Pardal Monteiro para a Cidade Universitária (1934-1961), master thesis, 2010 (Faculdade de Letras: archive of the University of Lisbon), pp. 159-160. 4 In the Ritz Hotel, besides Almada, the other participants were – in projects ranging from artistic furniture, independent artworks to pieces integrated into the architectonic structure of the building – António Alfredo with Sena da Silva, António Duarte, Arnaldo Louro de Almeida, Bartolomeu Cid dos Santos, Carlos Botelho, Carlos Calvet, Estrela Faria, Fred Kradolfer, Hein Semke, Hansi Stäel, Joaquim Correia, Jorge Barradas, Jorge Vieira, José Farinha, Lagoa Henriques, Lino António, Luís Filipe, Margarida Schimmelpfennig, Martins Correia, Mily Possoz, Pedro Leitão, Querubim Lapa, Sá Nogueira, Salvador Barata Feyo and Sarah Affonso. 5 Due to lack of greater coordination, some of the proposals were not very well tied into either each other, nor with the architecture, nor the interior design of the epoch: “As far as the orientation, however, there is not a shadow of it, which makes the famous Ritz appear, to less provincial eyes, to be ornamented with scraps; and since there are so many scraps, the patchwork blanket has portions which are very beautiful to look at, but others which are very poor.” Nikias Skapinakis, “O sempiterno problema da conjugação das artes: a decoração do Hotel Ritz”, Arquitectura, no. 67 (April 1960), pp. 51-52. 6 Beginning in 1957, Almada designed tapestry cartoons which were produced by Manufactura de Tapeçarias de Portalegre [Portalegre Tapestry Manufacture] for the Tribunal de Contas [the Court of Audit] in Lisbon (The Number and The Accountant, in 1957); for the Fair of Lausanne (Portugal, in 1957); for the Hotel Santa Luzia (Crossing the River Lethe, in 1958); for the Ritz Hotel (Centaurs, in 1959); and for the Palácio da Justiça [Court House], Aveiro (The Judgment of Solomon, in 1962). 7 A drawing created by carving a line in a stone surface, with the incisions being coloured afterwards. He used the same technique in the façades of the Cidade Universitária (1957-1961) and in the panel To Begin (1968).


Tapestries for the Ritz Hotel, architect Porfírio Pardal Monteiro, Manufactura de Tapeçarias de Portalegre, 1959, 367 × 390 cm 172. Untitled, 1946, Indian ink and gouache on paper, 78 × 58 cm

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173. Study for intaglio, The Ritz Hotel, Lisbon, c. 1958-1959, gouache on paper, 63 Ă— 70 cm 174. Study for intaglio in gold leaf for The Ritz Hotel, Lisbon, c. 1959, graphite and Indian ink on tracing paper, 48 Ă— 74 cm


175. Study for intaglio in gold leaf for The Ritz Hotel, Lisbon, c. 1959, coloured pencils and Indian ink on paper, 70 × 50 cm Panel Nap, 1959, The Ritz Hotel, Lisbon, architect Porfírio Pardal Monteiro, intaglio in gold leaf on marble, 320 × 723 cm

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176. Untitled (Theme for tapestry), c. 1954, gouache on cardboard, 76.5 × 104 cm 177. Untitled, c. 1954, gouache on cardboard, 45 × 62.5 cm


178. Untitled, c. 1953, graphite on paper, 35 Ă— 30 cm 179. Untitled [Harlequin, ballerina and horse], 1953, oil on canvas, 200 Ă— 100 cm

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mutual relations

The idea of artistic collaboration, more than the idea of being part of a group, was important to Almada Negreiros. With reference to Orpheu, he would write, in 1965, that its participants had got together for the sake of “Art” and not because of any similarities they might have shared between them. They were collaborators, not a group. Modernity and the avant-garde were forged in a prolific milieu of exchange, appropriation and debate, and not from isolation – in Portugal as much as elsewhere. Throughout his life, Almada made the acquaintance of many artists, architects, actors and writers, with whom he worked and shared experiences. Collaboration also happened in his private life: his ballets, drawings and poems often animating junior artistic gatherings; or later, in workshop garb, when he learned artesanal techniques from stained-glass artists, ceramicists and others. Informal gatherings and reunions continued to be a part of his day-to-day relationship with other generations: in the 1950s, he made friendships with the young poets Mário Cesariny and Eugénio de Andrade; Lourdes Castro and René Bértholo sought his companionship; Ernesto de Sousa first met him in 1946, to organise with him and Diogo de Macedo a comparative exhibition of African and modern art, later declaring himself the voluntary heir to Almada the performer; he befriended Vitor Silva Tavares and with him worked in theatre; Maria do Céu Guerra made her debut as an actress in one of his plays. Almada was always watchful of young artists, even acquiring a drawing by Querubim Lapa and a painting by Júlio Pomar immediately after both had just completed their studies at the António Arroio Art School.


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204. Parva (em latim), no. 1, 2, 4 and 5, 1918-1920, permanent ink and aniline dye on Ingres paper, 31 × 24 cm, 31.6 × 18.6 cm, 24 × 15.7 cm, 31.6 × 24.1 cm


205. Untitled, c. 1920, aniline dye on paper, 26.9 Ă— 21.2 cm

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Between 1916 and 1921 Almada worked intensely with words and images in the private sphere, entertaining, with home-made publications and drawings, a group of young women from the Lisbon aristocracy, with whom he had founded the “Club das Cinco Cores” [Five Colours Club].1 It was also within this Club that he created ballets, for which Wrapping paper of the N.C.5 – invention vert cards, 1918 he did the set and costume designs. In the manuscript newspaper parva (em latim) made for the Club, there are examples of the use of pochoir, a technique promoted by Sonia and Robert Delaunay during the couple’s sojourn in Portugal. They intended to develop and collectively use this technique for the expositions mouvantes, planned in collaboration with Eduardo Viana, Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso and Almada himself.2 The project was to be presented in Barcelona and subsequently in several other places, and would explore the pochoirs’ reproduction possibilities, that is to say, the possibility of producing original editions of a few copies. The project, however, was never accomplished. Almada would apply the pochoir technique – or a fake pochoir technique – in magazine parva, as well as in small drawings. In the seven small cards written in French, N.C.5 – invention vert, made in 1918 (the acronym meant “Nosso Club 5” [Our Club 5]), Almada reproduced the pochoir’s graphic effect in the first one (on both sides), while the others display a humorous blending of poetry, simultaneous contrasts and futurism: he breaks up the syllables of his friends’ nicknames – Lalá, Zeka (Zeca), Treka (Tareca), Tantan (Tatão) –, as well as his own – Zu3 –, and also the syllables of their corresponding colours – yellow, red, purple, blue and green –, and recombines them in unrecognisable words. The method produces syllabic simultaneous contrasts, which create a fictitious vocabulary made of names and colours. The analogy between letters and colours that it involves had been explored by poets such as Arthur Rimbaud, Blaise Cendrars and Guillaume Apollinaire, and appealed to artists such as the Delaunay couple,4 who used it in their explorations of colour and light within simultaneous contrasts.5 It is from this mix of various inputs that Almada would produce these curious cards, experimenting with the possibilities of the fragmentation of language and of the colours it enunciates. Almada’s cards written in French celebrate youth, the body, and thought, with mock futurist catchphrases such as: “A train loaded with futurists!”, “Sudden sways of Spanish rondas under landslides of pink castanets!... These are machine guns of elegant blast,” “I offer you all as good chocolate… I, FUTURIST GREEN.”6 MPS

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————— 1 The girls were Tareca (Maria Madalena Moraes da Silva Amado); Lalá (Maria Adelaide Burnay Soares Cardoso); Zeca (Maria José Burnay Soares Cardoso); and Tatão (Maria da Conceição de Mello Breyner). Almada was a regular guest in their families’ palatial homes through his friendship with Gonçalo de Mello Breyner, Tatão’s brother, who had been his schoolmate in Colégio de Campolide and was a well-known figure in Lisbon’s bohemian circles, and through Fernando Amado, Tareca’s brother, who would later become a playwright. 2 No pochoirs by Almada are known from this project, although he and Viana mention them in their letters to the Delaunays. Cf. Paulo Ferreira, Correspondance de quatre artistes portugais avec Robert et Sonia Delaunay (Paris: Fondation Calouste Gulbenkian / Centre Culturel Portugais, Presses Universitaires de France, 1972). 3 “Zu” is the German word for the preposition “to” – in Portuguese, “para”. Almada adopts it as the translation of the beginning of the word “paradox”, which he often used as a nickname. 4 Cf. Pascal Rousseau, “Voyelles. Sonia Delaunay et le langage universel de l’audition colorée”, in Sonia Delaunay: Les Couleurs de l’abstraction (Paris: Paris Musées, 2014), catalogue of the exhibition held at the Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris (from 17 October 2014 to 22 February 2015) and at Tate Modern, London (from 15 May to 9 August 2015). 5 The Delaunays’ experiments with simultaneous contrasts, derived from Michel Eugène Chevreul’s De la loi du contraste simultané des couleurs et de l’assortiment des objets colorés (1839), were based on the notion that the visual perception of each colour changes when juxtaposed with other colours. According to this law, two complementary colours seen side by side appear more intense than when seen separately. 6 “Train charger [sic] de futuristes!”, “Déhanchements subits de rondes espagnoles sous des écroulements de castagnettes roses!… Ce sont les mitrailleuses au fracas élegant [sic]”, “Je vous les offre tous comme un bon chocolat… moi VERT FUTURISTE”.


206. N.C.5 – invention vert, 1918, permanent ink and aniline dye on cardboard, 12 pages on 7 cards – 13 × 9 cm (each)

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207. Untitled, c. 1920, aniline dye on paper, 27 Ă— 21.3 cm


208. Letter sent to the “Club das Cinco Cores”, 1920, aniline dye on paper, 27 × 21.1 cm. Transcription: “Paris 28 Mars 20 / Joy !??! / 28 feb 20 Paris / This morning I felt a tiny snap on my head / I became cheerful again / as I was before / Everything is playing around me. / drawing of the tiny snap on my head (Fig. I) / r.i.p. / madame sadness / god took to his divine presence madame sadness of almada-negreiros. 28 feb 20. / I no longer want to go to... / Madame Sadness of almada-negreiros / How disfigured are priests! / they seem made of macarron / face like a chick pea / poor fellows / full of dandruff / so dirty / made of wood / they don’t know how to dance / No more sadness! / almada / health / fernando / tatão / tareca / lalá / parody / joy / our club”. 209. Untitled, c. 1920, aniline dye on paper, 26.8 × 21 cm

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210. Untitled, 1922, watercolour on paper, 33.5 Ă— 42 cm


211. Untitled, 1919, fountain pen on paper, 27.2 × 21.5 cm 212. Untitled, 1920, watercolour on paper, 33 × 23.5 cm Portrait of Maria Adelaide Burnay Soares Cardoso, undated 213. Untitled (Drawing offered to Lalá, Maria Adelaide Burnay Soares Cardoso), c. 1921, Indian ink on paper, 31 × 21 cm

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214. Picnic (Calligram), 1920, fountain pen on paper, 11.4 × 15.5 cm. Transcription: “MANY PEOPLE HAD BEEN IN THE SAME TWO PLACES JUST LIKE US TODAY SITTING THERE ALONE BECAUSE OF EACH OTHER / WE DRANK TOGETHER / THERE WERE TWO PLACES EVERYWHERE / WE WERE THREE ONCE / A TERRIBLE THIRST / SHE WROTE ON THE SAND J. / DON’T FORGET ME / WE TALKED ABOUT THE PAST / WE LOOKED AT EACH OTHER / IT WAS SUNDAY / THE TREES WERE BRIMMING WITH HEALTH / MAYBE SAD / EVERYTHING SEEMED TO HAVE BEEN MADE FOR US / EVERYTHING SHE WAS WEARING WAS A TOKEN OF LOVE FOR ME / THERE WAS NEVER A HAPPIER DAY THAN TODAY / A HEART IS BIGGER THAN A MAN / EVERYTHING INSIDE IT IS BIG VERY BIG / IF I HAD DIED THAT DAY, I WOULDN’T HAVE FELT SORRY / DON’T TALK ABOUT ME TALK ONLY ABOUT YOURSELF BECAUSE YOU ALONE ARE ALIVE / EVERYTHING SHE SAID HAD THE CHARM OF HAVING BEEN SAID BY HER / I HAVE ALREADY CHOSEN THE ONE WHO’LL BE MINE ONE DAY FOREVER / THE SKY WAS NEVER AS BRIGHT! (Paris, 26 March 1920)”.

215. Girl Rider (Calligram), 1920, fountain pen on paper, 11.5 × 15.6 cm. Transcription: “NOTHING MAKES MY MIND WANDER FAR AWAY LIKE A GIRL IN A PINK MAILLOT RIDING A WHITE HORSE / I FELT SO VERY CURIOUS ABOUT HER LIFE / HOW IS IT LIKE, THE DAILY LIFE OF A GIRL RIDER? / EVERYBODY WAS HAPPY / THE KING’S WHITE HORSE / THE MUSIC AS BIG AS A CAVALRY REGIMENT / JOY AND HUNGER FOR LIFE EVERYWHERE / THE PINK MAILLOT / THE HORSE / THE GIRL / YOU COULDN’T WISH FOR ANYTHING BETTER / SOMETIMES THE MUSIC HAD TO STOP BECAUSE IT WAS SO DIFFICULT / MANY PEOPLE CAME EVERY DAY / THE LADIES CLOSED THEIR EYES WHEN SHE SOMERSAULTED / THEY ALL KNEW THE HORSE SHE WORKED BETTER WITH / ONCE HER FOOT SLIPPED AND EVERYBODY WENT OH! HOW FRIGHTFUL / HER NAME WAS MARIA LIKE ALL THE OTHERS / THEY CALLED HER THE GIRL RIDER DRESSED UP AS A JOCKEY / SHE WAS VERY SHAPELY / ALL HER GESTURES WERE RIGHT / HER PROFILE WAS ALMOST SHY BUT HER EYES WERE FULL OF LIFE / MARIA / THE AUDIENCE ENJOYED WATCHING HER / THEY ALREADY KNEW HER / WHEN SHE FINISHED EVERYTHING WAS SAD (Paris, 26 March 1920)”. 216. Tree (Calligram), 1920, fountain pen on paper, 15.5 × 11.5 cm. Transcription: “THE SUN LYING ON THE MEADOW BY A GENTLE BROOK / ELEGANT AS A TREE IN APRIL / IN THE SHADE OF AN ORANGE TREE / RESPITE / THE SEA BREEZE / VERY EARLY IN THE MORNING / I TAKE A STROLL / EMERALD GREEN / THE HAPPY SWALLOWS / OLIVE GREEN / ILLUSTRATED NOVEL / FRESH AIR AT THE BEACH / A BEAUTIFUL SUMMER DAY / ELEVEN O’CLOCK / THE PICNIC / north / south / east / west (Paris, 26 March 1920)”.

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217. The Invention of the Clear Day, [1920], watercolour on paper, 25.5 × 19.5 cm 218. The Invention of the Clear Day, [1920], watercolour on paper, 26 × 19 cm


219. Untitled, 1919, watercolour on paper, 34.5 Ă— 24.5 cm

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humour and graphic narrative

In 1969, in an interview on the popular TV show “Zip-Zip”, Almada highlighted the significance of humour, going as far as to state that it had propelled the passage from the 19th to the 20th century, with reference to the comic strip, and placing it at the very heart of the modern condition. Cartoons, graphic novels, illustration and graphic work were part and parcel of modernity, as was the printed page, at once image and text, which had become one of the main tools for artistic intervention. Contrary to other mediums, its potential for propagation and synthetic immediacy carried an incomparable efficiency. Besides, in a fundamental text for modernity, Baudelaire had already elected an illustrator as the “painter of modern life”. One can see the forerunner to the graphic narrative and humour in fresco paintings, friezes and stained glass, but also in the stories the saltimbanchi [street acrobats] told with drawn images, as they moved from town to town. Such procedures remained throughout Almada’s artistic career as the means that could best accomplish what he regarded as the ultimate function of his art: communicating with the public.


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255. Untitled, undated, graphite on paper, 32 × 24 cm 256. Untitled, 1911, Indian ink and gouache on paper, 27 × 19.9 cm 257. Untitled, c. 1911-1913, Indian ink, gouache and ink wash on paper, 31.6 × 18.6 cm 258. Dr. Ramada Curto, 1932, Indian ink and graphite on paper, 31.8 × 21.6 cm


259. Untitled, 1922, Indian ink on paper, 35.2 × 25 cm 260. Untitled, [1921], Indian ink on paper, 30.7 × 21.5 cm 261. Always cool, 1926, Indian ink and graphite on paper, 49.5 × 34.8 cm 262. The two always cool, 1926, Indian ink on paper, 45 × 32.8 cm

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gestures movements faces

In the novel Nome de Guerra [War Name] (1925), which fuses narrator and author, Almada writes: “The author behind these pages also draws and cannot express in words the extraordinary impression he receives every time he copies someone’s profile. Nature arrives so complex at every face that we are forced to reject the place society has given each and every one of us. Throughout the centuries, a single line incessantly trailed has rendered every silhouette inimitable. This line now traces from the top of the forehead until under the chin, sometimes it resembles another, but it remains intransmissible.� This observation closely follows the artistic and political reflections Almada conveyed in conferences and essays, where he defended individual recognition as the basis of collective life and human universality. In his artistic work, the outlining of faces and bodies also became a means of pictorial experimentation, sometimes sustained, and at other times abandoned: the representation of gesture and movement often served as a pretext to explore the oscillation, contortion and flexibility of the sinusoidal line; and sometimes to survey the geometrised fragmentation of representation; or to express ideas by way of realist or neoclassical styles.


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316. [Self-portrait in a group] (Painting for the cafĂŠ A Brasileira in Chiado, Lisbon), 1925, oil on canvas, 130 Ă— 197 cm


317. Study for The Ironer, [1938], graphite on paper, 32 × 22 cm 318. The Ironer, 1938, oil on canvas, 50 × 40 cm 319. Untitled, 1925, graphite on paper, 31.5 × 31 cm

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320. Five O’Clock Tea, 1912, Indian ink and watercolour on paper, 55 × 23.1 cm 321. The Kiss, c. 1913, Indian ink and aniline dye on paper, 46 × 40.5 cm 322. Catalogue for the Caricature Exhibition on the Salão da Escola Internacional, 1913 (cover and backcover by José de Almada Negreiros) Untitled, 1914 (unknown location)


323. Untitled, undated, graphite and aniline dye on paper, 26 × 19.7 cm 324. Untitled, c. 1924, gouache on paper, 35 × 25.1 cm 325. Untitled, 1920, graphite and watercolour on paper, 22.8 × 29.3 cm

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395. Untitled, undated, Indian ink and ink wash on paper, 35.7 Ă— 24 cm


396. Portrait of La Argentinita, 1925, gouache on paper, 34.4 Ă— 23.5 cm

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Chronology Luis Manuel Gaspar

1893

1905

1913

7 April José Sobral de Almada Negreiros is born in Roça Saudade, in São Tomé, an island in the São Tomé and Príncipe archipelago, which remained a Portuguese colony until 1975. His father, António Lobo de Almada Negreiros, born in Aljustrel (in 1868), a poet and a journalist, the author of a Historia Ethnographica da Ilha de São Thomé [Ethnographic History of the Island of São Tomé], was the county governor between 1890 and 1899. His mother, Elvira Freire Sobral, born in 1873, was the daughter of a landowner and an Angolan woman. Educated at Colégio das Ursulinas, a religious school in Coimbra, she was very skilled at drawing. 24 June Baptised at Igreja da Trindade, his parish church.

Writes and illustrates, until 1906, a series of manuscript newspapers: O Progresso, A República, O Mundo and A Pátria.

Together with his brother, lives for a short time in their aunt and uncle’s house, on Rua Castilho. n Contributes occasionally to Jornal de Arganil, and to the Lisbon periodicals O Século Cómico and A Capital. n Paints four oils on canvas for the decoration of a tailor shop – Alfaiataria Cunha –, in downtown Lisbon. n Writes the poem “Rondel do Alentejo” [Alentejo’s Rondel], which will be published in 1922. n Frequents the café A Brasileira, in the Chiado quarter. 1 March Fernando Pessoa mentions Almada for the first time in his personal journal: “I went with Almada Negreiros to his room to look at the pieces for the exhibition; I found them very good.” (Páginas Íntimas e de Auto-Interpretação, Lisbon, Edições Ática, 1966). 10 March Holds his first solo exhibition, of about ninety drawings, at the Escola Internacional de Lisboa. April An article on his exhibition by Fernando Pessoa – “As caricaturas de Almada Negreiros” [The caricatures of Almada Negreiros] – is published in the Porto magazine A Águia, issue 16, series II. 16 May The article “A Exposição da Sociedade Nacional apreciada pelo caricaturista José de Almada Negreiros” [The National Society Exhibition reviewed by cartoonist José de Almada Negreiros] is published in Diário da Tarde, a Lisbon newspaper. 26 May Replies to the Diário da Tarde opinion survey “O que será a Exposição dos Humoristas?” [What will the Humourists’ Exhibiton be like?]. June Takes part in the 2.ª Exposição do Grupo de Humoristas Portugueses [Second Exhibition of the Portuguese Humourists Group], held at Grémio Literário, in Lisbon. Writes a short autobiographical note for the exhibition’s catalogue. His contributions include portraits of, among others, Ruy Coelho, Fernando Pessoa, and Mimi Aguglia.

1895 His brother, António Sobral de Almada Negreiros, is born. 23 April Embarks for Lisbon, with his parents and brother. 23 November His parents return to São Tomé; he and his brother remain in Cascais, taken in by their maternal grandparents, aunt and uncle.

1896 29 December His mother dies, at the age of 24, while pregnant with her third child.

1900 He and his brother are sent to a Jesuit boarding school – Jesuítas de Campolide –, in Lisbon. During their rare periods away from school, on holidays, they live with their maternal aunt and uncle, Berta and Daniel, on Rua Castilho. His father is appointed director of the Portuguese Colonies’ Pavilion at the Paris Exposition Universelle, a city where he would reside from then on and eventually remarry.

1910 Transfers to Liceu de Coimbra, a public high school, after the closing of the Jesuit school, following the establishment of the Portuguese Republic. He and his brother are taken in by a friend of their father, a Botany teacher and a gardener of begonias. The boys are sent back to Lisbon after the destruction of the begonia greenhouse by a group of school friends, who were looking for flowers to offer the Italian actress Mimi Aguglia.

1911 Enrols at the Escola Internacional de Lisboa [International School of Lisbon], on Rua da Emenda. n Draws a self-caricature, which will remain unpublished, for the newspaper A Briosa. n Draws The Prior’s Snuffbox, a parody of Júlio Dantas’s sonnet “A Liga da Duquesa” [The Duchess’s Garter]. 1 June Makes his artistic debut, at the age of 18, with the publication of a cartoon, A Weighty Reason, in issue 4 of A Sátira, a Lisbon magazine.

1912 Writes and illustrates the manuscript newspaper A Paródia, copygraphed at school. n Publishes cartoons in the newspapers A Bomba (Porto), A Luta (Lisbon), A Manhã (Porto) and A Rajada (Coimbra). n Writes the plays O Moinho [The Mill], a tragedy in one act dedicated to Eduardo Afonso Viana (lost), and 23, 3.º Andar [23, Third Floor], a drama in three acts, a fragment of which was discovered and published in 1993. May Contributes to the I Salão dos Humoristas Portugueses [First Portuguese Humourists’ Salon], at the Grémio Literário, in Lisbon.

385


With his mother, c. 1894

1913

16 June The Humourists’ Salon is reviewed by Júlio Dantas in the magazine Ilustração Portuguesa: “Very interesting are some watercolours by Castañé, Christiano Cruz, Almada Negreiros, etc.” 29 December Illustrates “Rodopio” [Swirl], a poem by Mário de Sá-Carneiro published in Ilustração Portuguesa.

ments with two drawings: a self-caricature, and a cartoon of a scholar barking at Orpheus. May Takes part in the I Exposição de Humoristas e Modernistas [First Humourists and Modernists Exhibition], held at Passos Manuel public garden, in Porto, namely with the poster Boxing (which would be reproduced in the second issue of magazine Contemporânea, on 2 June 1922). n Does a cover – The Age of Silk – for the specimen edition of magazine Contemporânea, edited by José Pacheko. 14 May Concludes the poem A Cena do Ódio [The Scene of Hatred], dedicated to Álvaro de Campos, and intended for inclusion in the third issue of Orpheu (it was partly published in 1923, and fully in 1958). Summer Meets, in Lisbon, Sonia and Robert Delaunay, who had arrived from Spain, where they had been surprised by the outbreak of the First World War. n Takes part in the planning of the Corporation Nouvelle, an association formed by the Delaunay couple (by then settled in Vila do Conde), D. Rossiné (a Russian painter living in Paris), and the Portuguese artists Almada, Eduardo Viana and Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso, and later joined by poets Guillaume Apollinaire and Blaise Cendrars. The group intended to organise “expositions mouvantes” and to publish art books, but none of this would come to pass. 7 August In a letter from Paris to Fernando Pessoa, Mário de Sá-Carneiro writes about Almada’s projected contribution to the third issue of Orpheu, describing A Cena do Ódio as “a superb thing”.

1914 Collaborates as art director and illustrator in the monarchist weekly periodical Papagaio Real (Lisbon). March Publishes the prose poem “Silêncios” [Silences] in Portugal Artístico, issue 2, with an illustration by Spanish artist Rodríguez Castañé. 5 July In a letter from Paris to Fernando Pessoa, Mário de Sá-Carneiro writes: “Ask Almada whether he comes or not”, referring to a projected visit that was eventually cancelled.

1915 Starts writing the poem “As Quatro Manhãs” [The Four Mornings], published in 1935. n Starts writing A Engomadeira – Novela Vulgar Lisboeta [The Ironer – A Trivial Lisbon Novella], published in 1917. 26 March Publishes the prose poems “Frisos / do desenhador / José de Almada Negreiros” [Friezes / by the draughtsman / José de Almada Negreiros] in the first issue of magazine Orpheu. 3 April Is interviewed for the newspaper O Jornal – “O suposto crime do Orpheu” [The alleged crime of Orpheu] –, and illustrates his state-

386

24 August Writes from Lisbon to Sonia Delaunay, signing the letter off as “Narcisse d’Egypte”. Several other letters would follow in the subsequent months. October In a letter from Lisbon to the Delaunay couple, published in 1972, Eduardo Viana writes: “My dear friends, / I went by [the café] A Brasileira. Almada saw me. He makes an incredible fuss, comes running towards me knocking over all the chairs, and throws himself in my arms practically swooning with joy. He is happy to see me; he shouts at the people around us that they’re bloody boring and that I’m a swell chap, and as for you, he says that you’re simply wonderful. […] Negreiros has been hard at work, but he writes a lot more than he paints. I spent a lovely evening listening to him reading out loud his latest literary productions. Some of them are, quite simply, wonders of wit. He reads very well; his gestures, his expressions, go very well with his words, and I firmly believe that he will be a great writer.” 2 October Writes Manifesto Anti-Dantas e por extenso [The Anti-Dantas Manifesto in full], after attending the premiere of Júlio Dantas’s play Soror Mariana (published in 1916). 7 October In a letter from Paris to Fernando Pessoa, Mário de Sá-Carneiro writes: “I was ecstatic, positively ecstatic, with the frontispiece of A Cena do Ódio. Pass on to Almada my enthusiastic appreciation!”, referring to a planned chapbook edition of the poem. 25 October Signs, together with Israel Anahory, Miguel da Silveira, Victor Chaves de Almeida and Fernando de Carvalho, two letters about the booing of Júlio Dantas’s play, published in A Luta (Lisbon), under the title “Incidente Teatral” [An Incident at the Theatre]; one of the letters is addressed to the newspaper’s chief editor, and the other to two of the actresses in the play. 20 November In a letter to Fernando Pessoa, Mário de Sá-Carneiro refers to a planned visit of Almada and José Pacheko to Paris, which, once again, never happened. December Writes, “in Lisbon, in the last days of the war year of nineteen fifteen”, the poem “Chez moi” (published in 1997). 29 December In a letter from Paris to Fernando Pessoa, Mário de Sá-Carneiro writes: “I received yesterday your enthusiastic letter about Almada Negreiros’s Sr. Mendes. Give the lad a hug on my behalf.” The novella O Mendes,


Poster Boxing, 1915 (unknown location)

dedicated to Christiano Cruz, was never published, and the original copy has been lost.

1916 Writes “Saltimbancos (Contrastes Simultâneos)” [Street Acrobats (Simultaneous Contrasts)], dedicated to Santa Rita Pintor (published in 1917). n In “Prefácio para uma antologia de poetas sensacionistas” [A Foreword to a Sensationist Poets Anthology], which remained unpublished until 1952, Álvaro de Campos wrote: “José de Almada-Negreiros is more spontaneous and rapid, but he is nonetheless a man of genius. He is younger than the others, not only in age, but in spontaneity and effervescence. His is a very distinct personality, and the wonder is how he came about it so early.” Winter Reading of the ballet Lenda de Inês [The Legend of Inês], at Anadia Palace. 22 February In a letter from Paris to Fernando Pessoa, Mário de Sá-Carneiro writes: “And what about Almada Negreiros? That one I would really like to have here, even if only to make a stir in the cafés… Send him my regards and tell him this.” 7 March Choreographs the ballet O Sonho da Princesa na Rosa [The Princess’s Dream on the Rose], performed at Palácio da Rosa [Palace of the Rose], the residence of the Counts of Castelo Melhor. 18 March Writes the poem “Mima-Fataxa – Sinfonia Cosmopolita e Apologia do Triângulo Feminino” [Mima-Fataxa – A Cosmopolitan Symphony and a Praise to the Female Triangle] (published in 1917).

6 April Publishes “Madame Delaunay-Terk”, a letter addressed to José Pacheko, in the section “Arte e Artistas” [Art and Artists] of A Ideia Nacional, an illustrated monarchist weekly magazine, edited by Homem Christo Filho. 13 April Does a cover – Paradox – for A Ideia Nacional, and replies to the magazine’s opinion survey “Qual tem sido a influência da nova geração na vida portuguesa?” [What has been the younger generation’s influence on Portuguese life?”]. The same issue includes a letter to Almada from Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso, correcting “an information mistake” in the article that Almada had published in the magazine’s previous issue. (Amadeo was against the announcement of the joint exhibition with the Delaunays as an expression of an artistic movement; he rather saw it as a project of a group of autonomous artists.) 20 April Does another cover – Holy Week – for A Ideia Nacional, representing a green, faceless crucified Christ. 26 April Mário Sá-Carneiro takes his own life, in Paris. 7 May Writes the poem Litoral [Coast], dedicated to Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso (published in December). 30 May Writes, from “the Marquês de Pombal square”, in Lisbon, a poem-letter to Sonia Delaunay (published in 1972). June-July Publishes the Manifesto Anti-Dantas e por extenso. September Holds his second solo exhibition at Galeria das Artes (Salão Bobone, run by José Pacheko). 12 December Writes and publishes the manifesto Exposição Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso, Liga Naval de Lisboa [Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso exhibition, at the Naval League of Lisbon], later pasted between the final pages of K4 O Quadrado Azul [K4 The Blue Square]. Develops a friendship with Amadeo in Lisbon, during the time of the latter’s exhibition, which ended on 18 December.

1917 4 January While convalescing from an operation, writes to Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso, asking him for the proofs of K4 O Quadrado Azul. n Co-edits, with Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso, K4 O Quadrado Azul. n According to Jorge Barradas’s account to architect Jorge Segurado, “in the upper floor-gallery of Café Martinho, near Rossio [square], Almada and Santa Rita had given a great and unusual performance. They sat symmetrically and perfectly poised at

a table, as in a live futurist-poster, face to face, very serious, staring at each other. Elbows on the table top, hands under the chin, shaved heads, and both equally attired in fine parsleygreen outfits! A wonderful thing. The scandal had begun earlier as they walked down the Chiado [area], for everyone’s astonishment.” 13 April Publishes a letter about the 1.ª Conferência Futurista [First Futurist Conference] in the newspaper A Capital. 14 April Delivers the 1.ª Conferência Futurista at Teatro República – a “Futurist Ultimatum to the 20th-century Portuguese Generations” –, later published in the magazine Portugal Futurista, with a “Review by the Lecturer”, dated ‘May 1917’. 20 April Publishes the letter “A Nova Ideia – Futurismo” [The New Idea – Futurism] in A Capital. 17 June Republishes the poem Litoral in Heraldo, Semanário Republicano Democrático, a Faro newspaper edited by Lyster Franco, with a page devoted to Futurism. 5 August Together with Santa Rita Pintor, and as a member of the “Futurist Committee”, writes a letter to the Heraldo, which would be published under the title “Futurism”. 14 October Writes and prints the manifesto Os Bailados Russos em Lisboa [The Russian Ballets in Lisbon] as a leaflet, later pasted between the first pages of the magazine Portugal Futurista. November Publishes, in the first and only issue of Portugal Futurista, the texts “Saltimbancos (Contrastes Simultâneos)”, “Mima-Fataxa”, “1.ª Conferência Futurista” and “Ultimatum Futurista às Gerações Portuguesas do Século XX” [Futurist Ultimatum to the 20th-century Portuguese Generations]. Under the signature “The Futurist Committee” [Almada and Santa Rita Pintor], he also publishes the text “Atenção!” [Attention!]. n Publishes A Engomadeira, with a dedication-letter to José Pacheko. December Attends the performances of the Ballets Russes. Meets Diaghilev and Massine, to whom he shows his ballet projects. 15 December Illustrates, with three drawings inspired by Scheherazade, the first part of the article “Impressões dos Bailados Russos” [Impressions of the Russian Ballets], by Manuel de Sousa Pinto, published in the magazine Atlântida.

1918 15 January Illustrates, with two drawings inspired by Carnaval, the second part of Manuel de Sousa Pinto’s “Impressões dos Bailados Russos”, published in Atlântida.

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List of Works

1. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Graphite and gouache on cardboard 53.5 × 36 cm Private collection 2. José de Almada Negreiros, Manifesto Anti-Dantas e por extenso, author’s edition, 1916 BNP collection RES 3773V

13. Invitation for the solo exhibition of José de Almada Negreiros at the Salones de la Unión Ibero-Americana, 1927 Ernesto de Sousa | Isabel Alves collection 14. Dinner menu in honour of the architect Porfírio Pardal Monteiro, by José de Almada Negreiros, 1938 Private collection

3. Ballets Russes Programme, 1917 Private collection

15. A Ideia Nacional, 20 April 1916 Cover by José de Almada Negreiros Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Art Library PAP 8

4. José de Almada Negreiros, K4 O Quadrado Azul, 1917 Author’s cover and edition with Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Art Library AP 6262

16. Magazine Sudoeste, nos. 1, 2 and 3, edições UP, 1935 Edition and cover by José de Almada Negreiros Private collection

5. Letter from José de Almada Negreiros to Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso, 4 January 1917 Estate ASC, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Art Library 6. José de Almada Negreiros, manuscript Não António Ferro Não, [1936] Estate Almada Negreiros and Sarah Affonso ANSA-L-213 7. Exhibition flyer Semana de Arte Negra, 1946 Ernesto de Sousa | Isabel Alves collection 8. Diogo de Macedo, Arte Indígena Portuguesa Divisão de Publicações e Bibliotecas – Agência Geral das Colónias, 1934 Cover by José de Almada Negreiros Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Art Library BB 18625 9. Study for a painted mural (destroyed) for Café Suíça, Rossio, Lisbon, c. 1922 Unsigned / Undated Graphite and gouache on paper 28.5 × 66 cm Private collection 10. Magazine Portugal Futurista, no. 1, dir. Carlos Filipe Porfírio, Lisbon, [1917] Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Art Library PAP 459 11. José de Almada Negreiros, A Invenção do Dia Claro, Edições Olisipo, 1921 Cover by the author Private collection 12. Poster (?), 1928 For the celebration of Goya’s Centenary (Madrid, April-May 1928) Unsigned / Dated Water based ink on paper glued to canvas 120.5 × 80.3 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. 83P1424

17. José de Almada Negreiros, Direcção Única, edições UP, 1932 Author’s cover Miguel and André Ferreira collection 18. Poster for the film A Canção de Lisboa, directed by Cottinelli Telmo, 1933 Lithograph 116.4 × 89.6 cm Associação de Coleções – The Berardo Collection (Ernesto de Sousa poster collection) Inv. 932CACINP0026 19. Poster for the film A Canção de Lisboa, directed by Cottinelli Telmo, 1933 Lithograph 111.6 × 89.5 cm Museu Nacional do Teatro e da Dança collection Inv. MNT245131 20. José de Almada Negreiros, Desenhos Animados Realidade Imaginada, Editorial Ática, 1938 Author’s cover Miguel and André Ferreira collection 21. [Self-portrait], 1921 Published in A Invenção do Dia Claro, ed. Olisipo, 1921 Signed / Dated Inscription: “of Tareca / Dez 21” Graphite on paper 24.5 × 17.5 cm António Leite de Castro’s heirs collection 22. [Self-portrait], 1921 Signed / Dated Inscription: “reino da junqueira 9 Ag. 1920” Inscription on the back: “On the eve of the thirteenth. / thirteen is the most acute number, / however, black velvet doesn’t have to mean / mourning. / May God allow a clear thirteen. / Why thirteen? / Twelve doesn’t mean anything, thirteen / does, but it is terrible!”; handwriting of Maria Adelaide Cardoso: “On the 13th Pisões / will see the sun / lálá”

Graphite on paper 17 × 13 cm Private collection 23. [Self-portrait], 1924 Published in the book Pierrot e Arlequim, ed. Portugália, Lisbon, 1924 Signed / Dated Inscription: “Almada / Madrid / 20-5-1928” Graphite on paper 37.3 × 27.8 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 24. [Self-portrait], undated Unsigned / Undated Indian ink on paper 27.1 × 21.2 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 25. [Self-portrait], 1940 Signed / Dated Graphite on paper 69.1 × 45.2 cm Private collection 26. [Self-portrait], 1919 Signed / Dated Inscription: “paris” Graphite on paper 31 × 21.5 cm Amaral Cabral collection 27. Self-portrait, 1950 Signed / Dated Inscription: “To my dear Xico Amaral to whom I’ve made the greatest good or the greatest evil / Lisbon Oct. 30/10/50” Graphite on paper 69.9 × 49.8 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP195 28. [Self-portrait], 1938 Signed / Dated Inscription: “To ‘Europa Editors’ / Lisbon 31 Jan 38” Graphite on paper 70 × 50 cm Private collection 29. [Self-portrait], c. 1921 Unsigned / Undated Inscription: “green” Green ink on paper 13 × 17.5 cm Private collection 30. Untitled, c. 1921 Signed / Undated Inscription: “almada / of / Joaquim Graça” Watercolour on paper 25.2 × 35.7 cm Private collection

31. [Self-portrait], c. 1921 Signed / Undated Graphite on letterhead paper from Fernando Pessoa’s Olisipo publishing house 25.5 × 19.2 cm São Roque Antiguidades e Galeria de Arte 32. [Self-portrait], undated Unsigned / Undated Graphite and Indian ink on paper 43.4 × 58.5 cm Private collection 33. [Self-portrait], undated Unsigned / Undated Graphite and Indian ink on paper 43.5 × 58.3 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 34. [Self-portrait], 1948 Published in the book by José de Almada Negreiros Mito-Alegoria-Símbolo, Sá da Costa, 1948 Signed / Dated Graphite on paper 68.3 × 46 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP220 35. Self-reminiscence from Paris, [1949] Published in the newspaper Diário de Lisboa, 22 June 1949 Signed / Undated Indian ink on paper 19 × 11.5 cm Manuel de Brito collection 36. [Self-portrait], [1913] For the catalogue of the artist’s first solo exhibition at Lisbon’s International School Unsigned / Undated Inscription: “catalog / costs / 40 / reis” Gouache on paper 65 × 49.5 cm Private collection 37. [Self-portrait], 1928 Signed / Dated Graphite on paper 65 × 46.4 cm Jorge de Brito collection 38. [Self-portrait], 1926 Signed / Dated Inscription: “not pessimist nor optimist, there are no misunderstandings between life and myself.” Graphite on paper 34.2 × 23.2 cm João Esteves de Oliveira collection

411


39. [Self-portrait], 1926 Signed / Dated Inscription: “The eyes are meant to see / and what the eyes see only / the drawing will know. / To my friend / Mario Ribeiro / Sintra 26” Graphite on paper 33.5 × 27 cm Private collection

50. Portrait of Fernando Pessoa, 1964 Commissioned by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Signed / Dated Oil on canvas 226 × 225 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. 64P66

40. [Self-portrait], undated Unsigned / Undated Oil on canvas 45.5 × 38 cm Private collection

51. 9/10 I. Relâmpagos do Motu-Continuo, undated Handwritten concertina book 16.5 × 12.5 cm Private collection

41. [Self-portrait], [1940] Signed / Undated Wire and gouache on wood 36 × 30 cm Private collection 42. [Two figures] or [double portrait], 1927 Signed / Dated Graphite on paper 51.5 × 48 cm Acervo Artístico-Cultural dos Palácios do Governo do Estado de São Paulo (photography Rômulo Fialdini) 43. Untitled, 1958 Signed / Dated Oil on canvas 60 × 60 cm Private collection 44. Door of Harmony, 1957 Signed / Dated Oil on canvas 60 × 60 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. 83P65 45. Bauhütte’s Point, 1957 Signed / Dated Oil on canvas 60 × 60 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. 83P64 46. Quadrant I, 1957 Signed / Dated Oil on canvas 60 × 60 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. 83P63 47. Relation 9/10, 1957 Signed / Dated Oil on canvas 60 × 60 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. 83P62 48. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Oil on canvas 200 × 200 cm Private collection 49. Portrait of Fernando Pessoa, 1954 Commissioned by the restaurant Irmãos Unidos, Lisbon Signed / Dated Oil on canvas 201 × 201 cm Museum of Lisbon/Casa Fernando Pessoa/EGEAC Inv. MC.PIN.0410

412

52. 9/10, undated Handwritten concertina book 17.5 × 12.5 Private collection 53. 9/10. O Jogo Sagrado. Relâmpagos do Movimento Perpétuo, undated Handwritten concertina book 16.5 × 12.5 cm Private collection 54. Quinze Panneaux de D. João I: Retable Batalha I, [1955-1956] Handwritten concertina book 16.5 × 12.5 cm Private collection 55. Figura Superflua Exerrore. Sigla num painel do século XV, undated Handwritten concertina book 17.5 × 13 cm Private collection 56. Cinegeometria, undated Handwritten concertina book 17 × 13 cm Private collection 57. Mouvement Perpétuel. Eclairs Eclairs, undated Handwritten concertina book 16.5 × 12.5 Private collection 58. 9/10 I, [1965] Handwritten concertina book 17.5 × 12.5 cm Private collection 59. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Graphite, gouache and markers on paper 33.7 × 33.7 cm (16 drawings) Private collection 60. Study for the tapestry The Number of the Court of Audit, 1956 Signed / Dated Oil on plywood 77 × 200 cm Private collection 61 to 70. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Graphite, gouache and markers on plywood or cardboard 49 × 49 cm (8); 50 × 50 cm (1); 60 × 60 cm (1) Private collection 71. Study for the panel To Begin, 1968 Signed / Dated Inscription: “1916-68” Gouache and markers on tracing paper 46.8 × 215.5 cm Private collection 72. Study for the panel To Begin, c. 1968 Unsigned / Undated Graphite, gouache and markers on paper 31 × 128 cm Private collection

73. To Begin, 1968 Commissioned from the artist by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Intaglio on limestone 225 × 1300 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation 74. The Tragedy of Doña Ajada (magic lantern for the music of Salvador Bacarisse with poems by Manuel Abril) – I. “The headdress”, [1929] Signed / Undated Cut paper, Indian ink, black and white pencils on paper 47 × 47 cm (support) / 62 × 62 cm Salvador Bacarisse and Jennifer Bacarisse collection 75. The Tragedy of Doña Ajada (magic lantern for the music of Salvador Bacarisse with poems by Manuel Abril) – II. “The stud walks by”, [1929] Signed / Undated Cut paper, Indian ink, black and white pencils on paper 47 × 47 cm (support) / 62 × 62 cm Salvador Bacarisse and Jennifer Bacarisse collection

84. Eight photographs from 1929 of the exterior panels at the Cine San Carlos, Madrid (Deteriorated and broken panels) Ernesto de Sousa | Isabel Alves collection 85. Programme for the The Shipwreck of Ínsua, Moledo do Minho, 1934 Indian ink and gouache on paper Private collection 86. Greta Garbo in The Kiss, 1930 Signed / Dated Indian ink on paper 25.3 × 16.8 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP155 87. The Shipwreck of Ínsua, 1934 Indian ink on tracing paper 64 drawings 74.5 × 99.5 cm (approximate measure of each drawing) Private collection

76. The Tragedy of Doña Ajada (magic lantern for the music of Salvador Bacarisse with poems by Manuel Abril) – III. “Wedding morning”, [1929] Signed / Undated Cut paper, Indian ink, black and white pencils and colour pencils/watercolour on paper 47 × 47 cm (support) / 62 × 62 cm Salvador Bacarisse and Jennifer Bacarisse collection

88. Untitled, 1923 Signed / Dated Inscription: “To my friend / Gonçalo Breyner / Lisbon Nov 23” Watercolour on card 34.7 × 24.6 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection

77. The Tragedy of Doña Ajada (magic lantern for the music of Salvador Bacarisse with poems by Manuel Abril) – IV. “The broken moon”, [1929] Signed / Undated Cut paper, Indian ink, black and white pencils on paper 47 × 47 cm (support) / 62 × 62 cm Salvador Bacarisse and Jennifer Bacarisse collection

89. Untitled, 1925 Signed / Dated Graphite on paper 34.7 × 23.8 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP178

78. The Tragedy of Doña Ajada (magic lantern for the music of Salvador Bacarisse with poems by Manuel Abril) – V. “The crime of the furies”, [1929] Signed / Undated Cut paper, Indian ink, black and white pencils on paper 47 × 47 cm (support) / 62 × 62 cm Salvador Bacarisse and Jennifer Bacarisse collection

90. Untitled, 1932 Signed / Dated Indian ink on paper 32.8 × 22.5 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection

79.The Tragedy of Doña Ajada (magic lantern for the music of Salvador Bacarisse with poems by Manuel Abril) – VI. “Suffering soul”, [1929] Signed / Undated Cut paper, Indian ink, black and white pencils on paper 47 × 47 cm (support) / 62 × 62 cm Salvador Bacarisse and Jennifer Bacarisse collection 80. Photograph of Cine San Carlos, Madrid, c. 1930 Ernesto de Sousa | Isabel Alves collection 81. Booklet for the inauguration of the sound apparatus at the Cine San Carlos, Madrid, 1929 Cover and illustrations by José de Almada Negreiros Ernesto de Sousa | Isabel Alves collection

91. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Indian ink on paper 58.4 × 43.5 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 92. Untitled, 1952 Signed / Dated Green ink on paper 63.5 × 51 cm Private collection 93. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Indian ink on paper 23.5 × 15 cm Private collection

82. [Jazz], [1929] Panel for the interior decoration of Cine San Carlos, Madrid (architect Eduardo Lozano Lardet) Signed / Undated Plaster bas-relief 130 × 240 cm (diptych) Manuel de Brito collection (photography Carlos Santos GC-CMO)

94. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Graphite on paper 104 × 69 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP221

83. [Sailors’ Bar], [1929] Panel for the interior decoration of Cine San Carlos, Madrid (architect Eduardo Lozano Lardet) Unsigned / Undated Painted plaster bas-relief 120 × 240 cm (diptych) Manuel de Brito collection (photography Carlos Santos GC-CMO)

95. Untitled, 1920 Signed / Dated Graphite on paper 33.8 × 26.8 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP170


96. Untitled, 1936 Signed / Dated Scenery Indian ink and gouache on paper 150 × 110 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 97. [Pierrot], c. 1921 Signed / Undated Inscription: “of / tareca” Indian ink on paper 25.3 × 17.5 cm Private collection 98. Untitled, 1926 Signed / Dated Indian ink, ink wash and graphite on paper 30.8 × 23.5 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP162 99. Untitled, 1928 Signed / Dated Graphite on pressboard 49.4 × 33.2 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP197 100. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Graphite on paper 70.3 × 50.3 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 101. Untitled, 1921 Signed / Dated Indian ink on paper 47 × 34.3 cm Private collection 102. Untitled, 1923 Signed / Dated Indian ink on paper 34.7 × 24.5 cm Private collection 103. Untitled, 1933 Signed / Dated Indian ink on paper 34.5 × 26.6 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 104. Untitled, 1922 Published in the magazine Contemporânea, no. 7, January 1923 Signed / Dated Inscription: “Lisbon” Graphite on paper 32.8 × 23.8 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP161 105. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Graphite on paper 50 × 40.5 cm Private collection 106. Untitled, 1919 Signed / Dated Inscription: “Paris” Indian ink on paper 29.3 × 21.8 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection

107. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Gouache on paper 50 × 50 cm Private collection 108. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Gouache and ink wash on paper 69.5 × 46 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 109. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Indian ink on paper 52 × 39 cm Private collection 110. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Inscription: “freres” Indian ink and gouache on paper 54 × 41.5 cm Private collection 111. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Graphite on paper 34 × 22 cm Private collection on deposit at the National Museum of Contemporary Art – Museu do Chiado 112. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Graphite on paper 34 × 22.9 cm Private collection on deposit at the National Museum of Contemporary Art – Museu do Chiado 113. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Indian ink on tracing paper 50 × 75 cm Private collection 114. Untitled, 1925 Signed / Dated Graphite on paper 25 × 25 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP151 115. [Junior Cashier], 1939 Signed / Dated Oil on canvas 181.2 × 131 cm Millennium bcp collection (photography Pedro Aboim Borges) Inv. 1090583 116. Untitled, 1968 Signed / Dated Inscription: “to Rusa / forever / thankfull / Almada / Hilario’s Farm April / 1968” Crayons on paper, adhesive plastic 48.2 × 35.7 cm Private collection 117. Study, undated Unsigned / Undated Ballpoint pen on paper 54 × 42 cm Private collection 118. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Gouache on paper 63 × 51 cm Private collection

119. Untitled, 1947 Signed / Dated Graphite and gouache on paper 51 × 63.5 cm National Museum of Contemporary Art – Museu do Chiado Inv. 1483 120. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Graphite and gouache on paper 30 × 42.5 cm Private collection on deposit at the National Museum of Contemporary Art – Museu do Chiado 121. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Graphite on paper 63.3 × 48 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 122. Untitled, 1931 Signed / Dated Indian ink on paper 31.5 × 21.6 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 123. Untitled, c. 1915 Signed / Undated Inscription: “narcizo” Indian ink on paper 26 × 22 cm João Esteves de Oliveira collection 124. Untitled, c. 1914-1915 Unsigned / Undated Indian ink on paper 26 × 18 cm São Roque Antiguidades e Galeria de Arte 125. Untitled, 1913 Signed / Dated Indian ink, watercolour and pastel on paper 25.9 × 22.2 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP152 126. Costume for the ballet A Princesa dos Sapatos de Ferro, 1918 Signed / Dated Gouache on cardboard 50.6 × 35.8 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP3338 127. Carnaval (Ballets Russes), 1918 Drawing of the ballet performed in Lisbon in December, published in the magazine Atlântida, 15 January 1918 Signed / Dated Inscription: “Carnaval, 1918” Indian ink on paper 17 × 10 cm João Esteves de Oliveira collection 128. Sheherazade (Ballets Russes), 1917 Drawing of the ballet performed in Lisbon in December, published in the magazine Atlântida, 15 December 1917 Signed / Dated Inscription: “Scheherazade 1917 / Lisbôa” Indian ink on paper 14.2 × 12 cm Rita Roby Gonçalves collection 129. Sheherazade (Ballets Russes), 1917 Drawing of the ballet performed in Lisbon in December, published in the magazine Atlântida, 15 December 1917 Signed / Dated Inscription: “Scheherazade 1917 / Lisbôa” Indian ink on paper

17 × 12.5 cm Rita Roby Gonçalves collection 130. Soleil de Nuit (Ballets Russes), 1917 Drawing of the ballet performed in Lisbon in December, published in the magazine Atlântida, 15 February 1918 Signed / Dated Inscription: “Soleil de Nuit 1917 / Lisbôa” Indian ink on paper 11.3 × 13 cm Rita Roby Gonçalves collection 131. Sheherazade (Ballets Russes), 1918 Drawing of the ballet performed in Lisbon in December, published in the magazine Atlântida, 15 December 1917 Signed / Dated Inscription: “Scheherazade 1918” Indian ink on paper 13.2 × 15.5 cm Rita Roby Gonçalves collection 132. Costume (probably for the ballet A Lenda d’Ignez, never performed), 1918 Signed / Dated Inscription: “2 Assassin” Gouache on paper 27.7 × 21.7 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP180 133 to 135. Drawings/costume designs for the ballet O Jardim da Pierrette, music by Grieg and Chopin, story by Maria Madalena Moraes da Silva Amado, [1918] Signed / Undated Graphite, green ink and sepia on paper 14 × 9 cm; 11.1 × 11.3 cm (c. 11.3 diameter); 13.4 × 11 cm (Inscription: “Tareca”) Private collection 136. First proofs of the illustrated programme for the ballet O Jardim da Pierrette, 1918 Signed / Dated Inscription: “pierrette’s garden / edition by almada-negreiros / To Tareca / of / almada / 18 / 1st proofs” Indian ink and cut-outs on paper; handmade binding 16.5 × 44.5 cm Private collection 137. Drawings/costume designs for the ballet O Jardim da Pierrette, music by Grieg and Chopin, story by Maria Madalena Moraes da Silva Amado, [1918] Signed / Undated Green ink on paper 15.5 × 18 cm Private collection 138. [Pierrot and Pierrette], 1921 Signed / Dated Indian ink and aniline dye on paper 22.3 × 16.4 cm Private collection 139. Drawings/costume designs for the ballet O Jardim da Pierrette, music by Grieg and Chopin, story by Maria Madalena Moraes da Silva Amado, [1918] Signed / Undated Indian ink and aniline dye on paper 21.7 × 17.2 cm Private collection 140. Drawings/costume designs for the ballet O Jardim da Pierrette, music by Grieg and Chopin, story by Maria Madalena Moraes da Silva Amado, [1918] Signed / Undated Indian ink and aniline dye on paper 24 × 17.7 cm Private collection

413


141 and 142. Costume designs for the play O Casamento das Musas, by Fernando Amado, 1949 Signed / Dated Graphite and watercolour on paper 73.5 × 61.5 cm Private collection 143. Untitled, 1920 Signed / Dated Inscription: “? Moraes / Lisbon 1920” Fountain pen on paper 38.1 × 31.3 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP216 144. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Graphite on paper 35.6 × 25.8 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 145. Portrait of Alexandro, a mime who was in Portugal (with Marcel Marceau) in 1960, 1960 Signed / Dated Inscription: “to / Alexandro / almada / Jan. 60” Graphite on paper 26 × 21 cm Amaral Cabral collection 146. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Ballpoint pen on paper 42.2 × 30.3 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 147. Untitled, 1933 Signed / Dated Graphite on paper 36.7 × 26.4 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 148. Untitled, 1940 Signed / Dated Gouache on paper 46.7 × 58 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 149. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Graphite and gouache on paper 63.5 × 51 cm Private collection 150. [Card Game], 1947 Signed / Dated Tempera on paper 78 × 57.7 cm Dario Martins collection 151. [Girls Playing with Rhinestones], 1951 Signed / Dated Inscription: “to my dear friend Dario / godfather of my dear Ana Paula / Lisbon 17-11-51” Indian ink and watercolour on paper 46.5 × 56 cm Dario Martins collection 152. Untitled, c. 1953 Probable study for tiles for the house at Rua de Alcolena, no. 28, Lisbon (architect António Varela) Unsigned / Undated Indian ink and gouache on paper 78 × 57 cm Private collection

414

153 to 155. Costume designs for Auto da Alma by Gil Vicente, staging by Almada Negreiros, Rey Colaço Robles Monteiro Company, [1965] Unsigned / Undated Graphite and gouache on paper 50 × 32.7 cm Private collection on deposit at the National Museum of Contemporary Art – Museu do Chiado 156. Prop for the play Auto da Alma by Gil Vicente, staging by Almada Negreiros, Rey Colaço Robles Monteiro Company, [1965] Unsigned / Undated Metal, wood and red enamel paint 200 × 106 cm Museu Nacional do Teatro e da Dança collection Inv. MNT132235 157. Study for the prop for the play Auto da Alma by Gil Vicente, staging by Almada Negreiros, Rey Colaço Robles Monteiro Company, [1965] Unsigned / Undated Ballpoint pen on paper 32 × 22 cm Private collection 158. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Oil on canvas and wood 102.3 × 88.2 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 159. Untitled (Expulsion from the Garden of Eden), undated Signed / Undated Gouache on paper 91 × 51.1 cm Private collection 160. Untitled, c. 1948 (?) Signed / Undated Graphite and ink wash on paper 44.5 × 32.4 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 161. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Graphite on paper glued on cardboard 46 × 37.3 cm Private collection on deposit at the National Museum of Contemporary Art – Museu do Chiado 162. Untitled, 1948 Signed / Dated Graphite on paper 69.5 × 45.7 cm Private collection on deposit at the National Museum of Contemporary Art – Museu do Chiado 163. Untitled, 1940 (?) Signed / Dated Oil on canvas 92 × 73 cm Millennium bcp collection Inv. 1097404 164. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Graphite and gouache on paper 63.5 × 51 cm Private collection 165. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Graphite and Indian ink on paper 53.2 × 36.4 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection

166. Untitled, c. 1948 (?) Unsigned / Undated Graphite, Indian ink and ink wash on paper 53 × 37 cm Private collection on deposit at the National Museum of Contemporary Art – Museu do Chiado 167. Untitled (Paintings for Alfaiataria Cunha tailor shop, Lisbon), 1913 Signed / Dated Oil on canvas 178 × 100 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. 83P55 168. Untitled (Paintings for Alfaiataria Cunha tailor shop, Lisbon), [1913] Signed / Undated Oil on canvas 178 × 100 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. 83P56 169. [Nude] (Painting for the Bristol Club, Lisbon), 1926 Signed / Dated Oil on canvas 94.5 × 191 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. 83P59 170. [Bathers] (Painting for the café A Brasileira in Chiado, Lisbon), 1925 Signed / Dated Oil on canvas 131 × 166 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. 83P58 171. Untitled (Theme for tapestry, The Ritz Hotel, Lisbon), 1959 Signed / Dated Oil on canvas 90 × 94 cm Private collection 172. Untitled, 1946 Signed / Dated Indian ink and gouache on paper 78 × 58 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 173. Study for intaglio, The Ritz Hotel, Lisbon, c. 1958-1959 Unsigned / Undated Gouache on paper 63 × 70 cm Private collection 174. Study for intaglio in gold leaf for The Ritz Hotel, Lisbon, c. 1959 Unsigned / Undated Graphite and Indian ink on tracing paper 48 × 74 cm Private collection on deposit at the National Museum of Contemporary Art – Museu do Chiado 175. Study for intaglio in gold leaf for The Ritz Hotel, Lisbon, c. 1959 Unsigned / Undated Coloured pencils and Indian ink on paper 70 × 50 cm Private collection on deposit at the National Museum of Contemporary Art – Museu do Chiado

176. Untitled (Theme for tapestry), c. 1954 Unsigned / Undated Gouache on cardboard 76.5 × 104 cm Private collection 177. Untitled, c. 1954 Unsigned / Undated Gouache on cardboard 45 × 62.5 cm Private collection 178. Untitled, c. 1953 Signed / Undated Graphite on paper 35 × 30 cm Private collection 179. Untitled [Harlequin, ballerina and horse], 1953 Signed / Dated Oil on canvas 200 × 100 cm Private collection 180. [The Novel], 1944 Signed / Dated Oil on canvas 59 × 49 cm Private collection 181. Eros and Psyche, [1954], Ricardo Leone’s workshop Oficina de Vitrais e Mosaicos de Arte Unsigned / Undated Stained glass 57.5 × 325 cm Museu da Assembleia da República collection (photography Carlos Pombo) Inv. MAR 271 182. Study for the fresco for the Diário de Notícias building, Av. da Liberdade, no. 266, Lisbon, c. 1939 Unsigned / Undated Gouache on cardboard 65.5 × 179 cm Private collection 183. Graphic design for the gable of the Diário de Notícias building, Av. da Liberdade, Lisbon, no. 266, c. 1939 Unsigned / Undated Gouache and graphite on paper 99 × 69 cm Private collection 184. Untitled (Study for the poster “Grand Portuguese Industry Exhibition”), 1932 Unsigned / Undated Inscription: “Grand Portuguese Industry Exhibition / Organised by / the Portuguese / Industry / Association / September / To November / 1932 Lisbon / Zora” Gouache on cardboard 36 × 32.4 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 185. Poster “To Seville via Portugal” for the Companhia dos Caminhos de Ferro Potugueses and Consultad Agencias de Viajes y C.as de Navegación, undated Lithograph 99.5 × 63 cm Private collection 186. Untitled (Study for the poster “Double Centenary of Portugal”), c. 1939-1940 Unsigned / Undated Gouache on paper 46.7 × 35.8 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection


187. Tile pattern study for building façade at Rua do Vale do Pereiro, no. 22, Lisbon, c. 1949 Unsigned / Undated Graphite and gouache on paper 47 × 58 cm Museu Nacional do Azulejo MNAz Inv. 143 Proj.

197. Study for a mosaic panel for the Bloco das Águas Livres building, Lisbon, c. 1955-1956 Unsigned / Undated Gouache and Indian ink on tracing paper 163 × 109 cm Private collection

188. Tile pattern for the Cidade Universitária (rejected project), Lisbon, architect Porfírio Pardal Monteiro, Viúva Lamego Factory, c. 1957 Unsigned / Undated 98 × 84 cm Museu Nacional do Azulejo MNAz Inv. 228 Az

198. Study for a mosaic panel for the Bloco das Águas Livres building, Lisbon, c. 1955-1956 Unsigned / Undated Indian ink and ink wash on paper 51 × 63.5 cm Private collection on deposit at the National Museum of Contemporary Art – Museu do Chiado

189. The Family, 1955 Tile panel for Ática Bookshop (Rua Alexandre Herculano, Lisbon), Viúva Lamego Factory Signed / Dated Ceramic with polychrome painting on black enamel 300 × 140 cm Museum of Lisbon/EGEAC Inv. MC.AZU.0402 190. Study for logotype and/or tapestry Portugal (Portuguese participation on the Comptoir Suisse, Fair of Lausanne, 1957), c. 1957 Unsigned / Undated Graphite on tracing paper 50 × 38 cm Private collection 191. Study for logotype and/or tapestry Portugal (Portuguese participation on the Comptoir Suisse, Fair of Lausanne, 1957), c. 1957 Unsigned / Undated Graphite on tracing paper 49 × 74 cm Private collection 192. Cartoon for tapestry Portugal (tapestry exhibited at the Comptoir Suisse, Fair of Lausanne), 1957 Signed / Dated Gouache on platex 50 × 250 cm Private collection 193. Study for intaglio for the Faculty of Humanities of the Cidade Universitária, c. 1957 (detail) Unsigned / Undated Inscription: “dostoievski / eurico o presbitero / alexandre herculano / viagens na minha terra / almeida garret / antero / primo basilio / eça de queiroz / alberto caeiro / ricardo reis / alvaro de campos / no plaino abandonado / fernando pessoa” Gouache on paper 105 × 47 cm Private collection 194. Study for intaglio for the Faculty of Humanities of the Cidade Universitária, c. 1957 Unsigned / Undated Graphite and ballpoint pen on paper 43 × 61.3 cm Private collection

199. Study for a mosaic panel for the Bloco das Águas Livres building, Lisbon, c. 1955-1956 Unsigned / Undated Indian ink and gouache on paper 51 × 63.5 cm Private collection on deposit at the National Museum of Contemporary Art – Museu do Chiado 200. Study for stained glass for the mortuary chapel at Our Lady of Fátima Church, Lisbon, c. 1938 Unsigned / Undated Gouache on paper glued on wood 202 × 202 cm Private collection 201. Study for stained glass for the baptismal chapel at Our Lady of Fátima Church, Lisbon c. 1938 Unsigned / Undated Gouache and graphite on paper 140 × 100 cm Private collection 202. Study for stained glass for the chorus at Our Lady of Fátima Church (rejected version), Lisbon, c. 1938 Unsigned / Undated Gouache on paper 158 × 117 cm Private collection 203. Untitled (Study for Our Lady of Fátima Church’s stained glass?), c. 1937 (?) Unsigned / Undated Graphite on paper 26.5 × 37 cm Private collection 204. Parva (em latim), no. 1, 2, 4 and 5, 1918-1920 Permanent ink and aniline dye on Ingres paper 31 × 24 cm, 31.6 × 18.6 cm, 24 × 15.7 cm, 31.6 × 24.1 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP243, DP244, DP245, DP246

195. Study for intaglio for the Faculty of Law of the Cidade Universitária, c. 1957 Unsigned / Undated Gouache on cardboard 70 × 50 cm Private collection

205. Untitled, c. 1920 Signed / Undated Aniline dye on paper 26.9 × 21.2 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP168

196. Study for intaglio for the Faculty of Law of the Cidade Universitária, c. 1957 Unsigned / Undated Graphite and coloured pencils on paper 43.5 × 58 cm Private collection

206. N.C.5 – invention vert, 1918 Permanent ink and aniline dye on cardboard 12 pages on 7 cards – 13 × 9 cm (each) BNP collection Exp. N 15/5

207. Untitled, c. 1920 Signed / Undated Aniline dye on paper 27 × 21.3 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP183 208. Letter sent from Paris to the “Club das Cinco Cores”, 1920 Signed / Dated Aniline dye on paper 27 × 21.1 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP167 209. Untitled, c. 1920 Signed / Undated Aniline dye on paper 26.8 × 21 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP184 210. Untitled, 1922 Signed / Dated Inscription: “felipe / portugal” Watercolour on paper 33.5 × 42 cm Julia Almeida “Moranguinho” collection 211. Untitled, 1919 Signed / Dated Inscription: “Comme vous j’aime une Marie / Qu’avec elle je me marie / G. Apollinaire / Paris, 10 Juin 1919” Fountain pen on paper 27.2 × 21.5 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP176 212. Untitled, 1920 Signed / Dated Inscription: “of. a / Agostinho Fernandes / Lisbon 1920” Watercolour on paper 33 × 23.5 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP164 213. Untitled (Drawing offered to Lalá, Maria Adelaide Burnay Soares Cardoso), c. 1921 Signed / Undated Inscription: “Sintra / almada / of / lálá” Indian ink on paper 31 × 21 cm Private collection 214. Picnic (Calligram), 1920 Signed / Dated Fountain pen on paper 11.4 × 15.5 cm Private collection 215. Girl Rider (Calligram), 1920 Signed / Dated Fountain pen on paper 11.5 × 15.6 cm Private collection 216. Tree (Calligram), 1920 Signed / Dated Fountain pen on paper 15.5 × 11.5 cm Private collection 217. The Invention of the Clear Day, [1920] Signed / Undated Watercolour on paper 25.5 × 19.5 cm Private collection

218. The Invention of the Clear Day, [1920] Signed / Undated Watercolour on paper 26 × 19 cm João Lourenço Leite de Castro collection 219. Untitled, 1919 Signed / Dated Inscription: “Paris” “For / Gonçalo Breyner / Lisbon Nov 23” Watercolour on paper 34.5 × 24.5 cm São Roque Antiguidades e Galeria de Arte 220. Untitled, 1922 Signed / Dated Inscription: “Mar 3 / 22 / almada / of / Tareca” Green ink on paper 25 × 17 cm Private collection 221. The Flower, c. 1920-1921 Signed / Undated Inscription: “of / Tareca” Graphite on paper 32 × 24.5 cm Private collection 222. Untitled [Portrait of Maria Madalena Moraes da Silva Amado], 1921 Signed / Dated Inscription: “«13 ag. 1921 / “doux comme le Violet” / 7 Avril / “fou comme le Vert!” / almada of. Tareca” Watercolour on paper 72.3 × 55 cm António Leite de Castro’s heirs collection 223. Drawing for the cover of magazine Contemporânea, no. 9, 1923 Signed / Dated Inscription: “for / Álvaro Pires” Indian ink and ink wash on paper 38 × 33 cm Private collection 224. Drawing for the cover (?) of magazine Contemporânea, no. 3, rejected, 1922 Signed / Dated Indian ink, watercolour and graphite on paper 17.9 × 17.9 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP182 225. Drawing for the cover of magazine Contemporânea, no. 2, 1922 Signed / Dated Inscription: “For Carlos Ramos” Indian ink, aniline dye and varnish on paper 23 × 22.3 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP210 226. Portrait of José Pacheco, 1921 Signed / Dated Inscription: “Sintra Oct. 21” Graphite on paper 42 × 30.8 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP174 227. Portrait of Agostinho Fernandes, 1922 Signed / Dated Inscription: “offers to / Agostinho Fernandes / Lisbon / Nov. 1922” Graphite on paper 34.6 × 22.4 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP175

415


228. [Reading Orpheu 2], c. 1954 Unsigned / Undated Inscription: “fernando pessoa / luis de montalvor / mário de sá-carneiro / armando cortes rodrigues / josé pacheco / alfredo guisado / ronald de carvalho / guimarães / josé de almada negreiros” Gouache, watercolour and ballpoint pen on paper 36 × 63.5 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 229. [Reading Orpheu 2], c. 1954 Unsigned / Undated Watercolour and Indian ink on paper 35.4 × 62.8 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 230. [Reading Orpheu 2], c. 1954 Signed / Undated Inscription: “fernando pessoa / mário de sácarneiro / josé pacheco / luiz de montalvor / armando cortes rodrigues / alfredo guisado / ronald de carvalho / guimaraens / josé de almada negreiros” Gouache on cardboard 35.5 × 62.5 cm Private collection 231. Homage to Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso, c. 1958 or c. 1968 Signed / Undated Crayons on paper 29.8 × 19 cm Private collection 232. Ex libris for the publisher Ática, 1942 Signed / Dated Indian ink on paper 38 × 25 cm João Esteves de Oliveira collection 233. Drawing for Message by Fernando Pessoa, 1942 Signed / Dated Inscription: “‘Europe rests on her elbows: / … the face from which she stares is Portugal.’ / Fernando Pessoa, Message” (excerpt from the poem “O dos Castelos”, Message by Fernando Pessoa, 1934) Graphite on paper 50.5 × 50 cm Manuel Brito collection (Manuel de Brito collection) 234. Untitled, 1947 Signed / Dated Inscription: “To friend Batoréo” Gouache on paper 67 × 46 cm Private collection 235. Untitled, [1963] Signed / Undated Engraved acrylic plate printed on BFK Rives paper 75.8 × 56.5 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. GP1009 236. Untitled, [1963] Signed / Undated Engraved acrylic plate printed on paper 97 × 66.3 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. GP1377 237. Untitled, 1963 Signed / Dated Engraved acrylic plate printed on paper 52.5 × 40.2 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. GP158

416

238. Untitled, 1963 Signed / Dated Engraved acrylic plate printed on BFK Rives paper 70 × 49.4 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. GP1961 239. Untitled, [1963] Signed / Undated Engraved acrylic plate printed on BFK Rives paper 75 × 57 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. GP1008

249. Portrait of the Novais Teixeira family, Madrid, 1927 Signed / Dated Inscription: “to / Joaquim / Julia / José Antonio / Madrid May 1927” Charcoal and graphite on paper 169 × 75 cm Novaes Ledieu family collection 250. Portrait of Joaquim de Novais Teixeira for his chronicle “Quem nunca Viu Lisboa...: Crónica Frívola”, magazine Ilustração, no. 73, 1 January 1929, [1928] Unsigned / Undated Indian ink on paper 36.8 × 19.8 cm Novaes Ledieu family collection

240. Untitled, 1963 Signed / Dated Engraved acrylic plate printed on paper 52.6 × 39.8 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. GP157

251. Portrait of Júlia Novais, Madrid, c. 1927 Unsigned / Undated Gouache on paper 74 × 52 cm Novaes Ledieu family collection

241. Untitled, 1963 Signed / Dated Engraved acrylic plate printed on BFK Rives paper 75.9 × 56.4 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. GP1005

252. Untitled, 1939 Signed / Dated Charcoal on paper 68 × 100 cm National Museum of Contemporary Art – Museu do Chiado (photography Direção-Geral do Património Cultural/Arquivo de Documentação Fotográfica. Arnaldo Soares) Inv. 986 (back of 986-A)

242. Untitled, [1963] Signed / Undated Engraved acrylic plate printed on BFK Rives paper 76.6 × 56.5 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. GP1007 243. Untitled, 1930 Signed / Dated Inscription: “Mad 30” Graphite on paper 31.9 × 32 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP150 244. Untitled, 1929 Signed / Dated Inscription: “Mad” Graphite on paper 32 × 47.5 cm Amaral Cabral collection 245. Untitled (from the painting The Naked Maja, 1797-1800, by Francisco Goya), 1932 Signed / Dated Inscription: “Madrid” Indian ink on paper 24.1 × 31.2 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 246. [Fish seller], 1928 Signed / Dated Inscription: “Madrid” Graphite and Indian ink on paper 31 × 23.5 cm Amaral Cabral collection 247. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Indian ink on paper 29.2 × 22.8 cm Private collection 248. Untitled, 1930 Signed / Dated Graphite on paper 62 × 48 cm Private collection

253. Study for the decoration of the Teatro Muñoz Seca, Madrid, [1939?] Signed / Dated Inscription: “1st study / for the decoration / of the proscenium of the / Theatre Muñoz Seca in / made in Madrid 1929” Gouache on paper 68 × 100 cm National Museum of Contemporary Art – Museu do Chiado (photography Direção-Geral do Património Cultural/Arquivo de Documentação Fotográfica. Arnaldo Soares) Inv. 986-A 254. Scenery for the theatrical play Los Medios Seres by Ramón Gómez de la Serna, [1929] Signed / Undated Inscription: “‘Los medios seres’ / I acto / de / Ramón / Gomez de la Serna” Indian ink and gouache on paper 50 × 65 cm Private collection 255. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Graphite on paper 32 × 24 cm Private collection 256. Untitled, 1911 Signed / Dated Indian ink and gouache on paper 27 × 19.9 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP307 257. Untitled, c. 1911-1913 Unsigned / Undated Indian ink, gouache and ink wash on paper 31.6 × 18.6 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP224 258. Dr. Ramada Curto, 1932 Published in the weekly humour newspaper Sempre Fixe. Semanário Humorístico, no. 323, 28 July 1932 Signed / Dated Indian ink and graphite on paper 31.8 × 21.6 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection

259. Untitled, 1922 Signed / Dated Indian ink on paper 35.2 × 25 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP203 260. Untitled, [1921] Published in the newspaper Diário de Lisboa, 27 July 1921 (“American sailors”) Signed / Undated Indian ink on paper 30.7 × 21.5 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP158 261. Always cool, 1926 Published in the weekly humour newspaper Sempre Fixe. Semanário Humorístico, no. 3, 27 May 1926 Signed / Dated Indian ink and graphite on paper 49.5 × 34.8 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP189 262. The two always cool, 1926 Published in the weekly humour newspaper Sempre Fixe. Semanário Humorístico, no. 5, 10 June 1926 Signed / Dated Indian ink on paper 45 × 32.8 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP209 263. Untitled, 1923 Signed / Dated Inscription: “To Alice who came over to lunch / Lisbon 4-5-41” Indian ink on paper 33.8 × 22.5 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP212 264. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Indian ink on paper 29.3 × 22.7 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 265. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Indian ink on paper 34.2 × 25.2 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 266. Untitled, 1932 Published in the weekly humour newspaper Sempre Fixe. Semanário Humorístico, 4 August 1932 Signed / Dated Indian ink and graphite on paper 34.2 × 22.5 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 267. Untitled, [1932] Published in the weekly humour newspaper Sempre Fixe. Semanário Humorístico, 16 June 1932 Signed / Undated Indian ink and graphite on paper 34 × 22.4 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 268. Untitled, c. 1913-1915 Signed / Undated Indian ink and watercolour on paper 22 × 16 cm João Esteves de Oliveira collection


269. A married man, 1921 Cover of the humour magazine ABC a Rir, February 1921 Signed / Dated Indian ink and watercolour on paper 31 × 22.8 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP200 270. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Indian ink on paper 31.1 × 23.2 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 271. Untitled, 1924 Signed / Dated Graphite on paper 27.8 × 21.8 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 272. Untitled, 1919 Signed / Dated Inscription: “Paris” Red Indian ink on paper 35.2 × 24 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 273. Untitled, 1920 Signed / Dated Inscription: “Biarritz” Graphite on paper 35 × 26.2 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 274. Untitled, 1920 Signed / Dated Inscription: “Biarritz” Graphite on paper 35.2 × 26.1 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 275. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Pink pen on paper 33 × 21 cm Private collection

281. Untitled [Manicure], c. 1928-1930 Signed / Undated Indian ink and ink wash on paper 120 × 80.3 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP219 282. Untitled, 1928 Signed / Dated Inscription: “Madrid” Indian ink and gouache on paper 43.3 × 41.9 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP226 283. Drawing for Marginalia “El secreto del salon de espera” by Ramón Gómez de la Serra, Nuevo Mundo, 7 December 1928 Signed / Undated Indian ink on paper 20.2 × 26.5 cm R.V. collection (Barcelona) 284. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Indian ink and gouache on paper 46 × 70 cm Private collection 285. Untitled, 1948 5 drawings Signed / Dated Sepia Indian ink on paper 30 × 22.1 cm (4 drawings), 25.5 × 24 cm (1 drawing) Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 286. Untitled [Pair], 1948 8 drawings (3 published in magazine Tricórnio, ed. José-Augusto França, 1952) Signed / Dated Indian ink on paper c. 26.2 × 24 cm (each) Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 287. Untitled, 1948 Signed / Dated Indian ink and graphite on paper 46 × 70 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection

276. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Pink pen on paper 35.5 × 25.5 cm Private collection

288. Untitled, 1948 Signed / Dated Indian ink on cardboard 50 × 50 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection

277. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Marker on paper 65 × 50 cm Private collection

289. [Maternity], 1948 Signed / Dated Oil on wood 100 × 80 cm Ilídio Pinho collection

278. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Graphite on paper 42.2 × 30.5 cm Private collection

290. Untitled [Maternity], 1948 Signed / Dated Sepia Indian ink on paper 30 × 22.1 cm (23 drawings), 28.2 × 21.5 cm (1 drawing) Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection

279. Untitled, undated (back of cat. 277) Unsigned / Undated Marker on paper 65 × 50 cm Private collection 280. Untitled, 1928 Signed / Dated Graphite on paper 62.5 × 40.5 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP214

291. Illustrations for Fábulas, Joaquim Manso, ed. Bertrand, Lisbon, 1936 14 drawings Signed / Dated Indian ink on paper 11 × 19 cm (10 drawings), 24.5 × 18.5 cm (3 drawings), 24.5 × 24.5 (1 drawing) Museu do Abade de Baçal collection Inv. 1863A, 1863C, 1222, 1221, 1220, 1219, 1218, 1785, 1950, 1958, 1864C, 1959, 1904, 1905

292. Drawing for the book Lisboa, Oito Séculos de História (1947), 1946 Signed / Dated Inscription: “end of chapter 1” Indian ink and gouache on paper 50 × 70 cm Private collection

302. Untitled (Study for the fresco paintings in the Alcântara Shipping Terminal), c. 1941 Unsigned / Undated Graphite on paper 32 × 21.7 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection

293. Illustrations for Fábulas, Joaquim Manso, ed. Bertrand, Lisbon, 1936 9 drawings Signed / Dated Indian ink on paper 24 × 26 cm Museu do Abade de Baçal Inv. 1741

303. Untitled (Study for the fresco paintings in the Alcântara Shipping Terminal), c. 1941 Unsigned / Undated Graphite on paper 46 × 69.5 cm (2 drawings) Private collection

294. Once upon a time, graphic narrative published weekly in the humour newspaper Sempre Fixe. Semanário Humorístico, between 27 May and 15 July 1926 54 drawings Unsigned / Undated Indian ink on paper Between 10.5 × 10.5 and 11 × 11 cm Private collection 295. Pechalim’s Dream, graphic narrative published weekly in the humour newspaper Sempre Fixe. Semanário Humorístico, between 22 July and 2 September 1926 65 original drawings Unsigned / Undated Indian ink on paper Between c. 14.2 × 12 cm and c. 22.5 × 17 cm Private collection 296. The Serpent Girl, graphic narrative published weekly in the humour newspaper Sempre Fixe. Semanário Humorístico, between 16 September and 11 November 1926 23 original drawings Unsigned / Undated Indian ink on paper Between 22.5 × 16 cm and 22.5 × 32.5 cm Private collection (drawings 45 and 46 João Esteves de Oliveira collection) 297. Untitled (Study for the fresco paintings in the Alcântara Shipping Terminal), c. 1943-1944 Unsigned / Undated Gouache on cardboard 44.5 × 28 cm Private collection 298. Study, undated Unsigned / Undated Gouache on paper glued on cardboard 77.5 × 56.5 cm (drawing) 100 × 60 cm (cardboard) Private collection 299. Untitled, 1940 Signed / Dated Graphite on paper 32 × 21.8 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 300. Untitled (Study for the fresco paintings in the Alcântara Shipping Terminal), c. 1941 Unsigned / Undated Graphite on paper 32 × 22 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 301. Untitled (Study for the fresco paintings in the Alcântara Shipping Terminal), c. 1941 Signed / Undated Graphite on paper 32 × 21.7 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection

304. Untitled (Study for the fresco paintings in the Alcântara Shipping Terminal), c. 1941-1943 Unsigned / Undated Gouache, ink wash and graphite on paper 65 × 32 cm (paper), 40.7 × 26 cm (image) Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 305. Untitled (Study for the fresco paintings in the Alcântara Shipping Terminal), c. 1941-1943 Unsigned / Undated Gouache, ink wash and graphite on paper 65 × 36.5 cm (paper), 40.5 × 26 cm (image) Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 306. Untitled (Study for the fresco paintings in the Alcântara Shipping Terminal), c. 1941-1943 Unsigned / Undated Gouache, ink wash and graphite on paper 65 × 31.5 (paper), 40.5 × 26 cm (image) Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 307. Untitled (Study for the fresco paintings in the Alcântara Shipping Terminal), c. 1941-1943 Unsigned / Undated Graphite and gouache on paper 65 × 48.5 cm (paper), 40.5 × 23.4 cm (image) Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 308. Untitled (Study for the fresco paintings in the Alcântara Shipping Terminal), c. 1941-1943 Unsigned / Undated Graphite and gouache on paper 65 × 48.5 cm (paper), 40.5 × 23.4 cm (image) Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 309. Untitled (Study for the fresco paintings in the Rocha do Conde de Óbidos Shipping Terminal), c. 1946 Unsigned / Undated Indian ink and gouache on paper 73.4 × 59.2 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 310. Untitled (Study for the fresco paintings in the Rocha do Conde de Óbidos Shipping Terminal), c. 1946 Unsigned / Undated Gouache and graphite on paper 63.5 × 51.1 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 311. Untitled (Study for the fresco paintings in the Rocha do Conde de Óbidos Shipping Terminal), c. 1946 Unsigned / Undated Gouache on paper 63.5 × 51 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection

417


312. Untitled (Study for the fresco paintings in the Rocha do Conde de Óbidos Shipping Terminal), c. 1946 Unsigned / Undated Crayons, graphite and gouache on Arches paper 78 × 57.7 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 313. Untitled (Study for the fresco paintings in the Rocha do Conde de Óbidos Shipping Terminal), c. 1946 Unsigned / Undated Graphite, gouache and ink wash on paper 63.5 × 51.2 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 314. Untitled (Study for the fresco paintings in the Rocha do Conde de Óbidos Shipping Terminal), 1946 Inscription: “‘Saltimbanchi” / fresco painting in the Rocha do Conde de Óbidos / Lisbon” Signed / Dated Graphite on paper 50 × 50 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 315. Untitled (Study for the fresco paintings in the Rocha do Conde de Óbidos Shipping Terminal), c. 1946 Unsigned / Undated Crayons on cardboard 50 × 50 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 316. [Self-portrait in a group] (Painting for the café A Brasileira in Chiado, Lisbon), 1925 Signed / Dated Oil on canvas 130 × 197 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. 83P57 317. Study for The Ironer, [1938] Unsigned / Undated Graphite on paper 32 × 22 cm Private collection 318. The Ironer, 1938 Signed / Dated Oil on canvas 50 × 40 cm Private collection 319. Untitled, 1925 Signed / Dated Inscription: “First drawing for the / figure of the spanish woman that sits / next to me in the painting for / Brazileira do Chiado. Offers to / Manuel Ventura” Graphite on paper 31.5 × 31 cm Private collection 320. Five O’Clock Tea, 1912 Signed / Dated Indian ink and watercolour on paper 55 × 23.1 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP204 321. The Kiss, c. 1913 Signed / Undated Inscription: “1912 or 1913” Indian ink and aniline dye on paper 46 × 40.5 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP223

418

322. Catalogue for the Caricature Exhibition on the Salão da Escola Internacional, 1913 (drawings of the cover and backcover by José de Almada Negreiros) António Neves Nobre collection

333. Untitled (Study), undated Unsigned / Undated Indian ink on paper 58.5 × 44 cm Private collection

323. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Graphite and aniline dye on paper 26 × 19.7 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP187

334. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Graphite on paper and cardbord 50 × 50 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection

324. Untitled, c. 1924 Unsigned / Undated Inscription: “Today is / 29 April 1924 / To José de Bragança / because we both / like it (watercolour) / but he likes it even more / and also because José / almada, or better, his /friendship so authorizes. By the / common friend like prime numbers Gonçalo.” Gouache on paper 35 × 25.1 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP165 325. Untitled, 1920 Signed / Dated Inscription: “Paris” Graphite and watercolour on paper 22.8 × 29.3 cm Private collection on deposit at the National Museum of Contemporary Art – Museu do Chiado 326. Family, 1940 Signed / Undated Watercolour and gouache on paper 27 × 27.9 cm Millennium bcp collection Inv. 1090581 327. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Watercolour and gouache on paper 27 × 27.9 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP206 328. Maternity, 1935 Signed / Dated Oil on canvas 100 × 100 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. 83P60 329. Gulfweed Picker (Minho), [1936] Unsigned / Undated Oil on canvas 252.5 × 102.5 cm Private collection 330. Double portrait, 1934-1936 Signed / Dated Oil on canvas 146 × 101 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. 62P260 331. Untitled (Study), undated Unsigned / Undated Indian ink on paper 58.5 × 44 cm Private collection 332. Untitled (Study), undated Unsigned / Undated Indian ink on paper 58.5 × 44 cm Private collection

335. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Gouache on paper 64.5 × 50 cm Private collection

346. Untitled, 1925 Signed / Dated Inscription: “To the great friend / Manuel Ventura / with all the wishes / of / Happiness / that his fine character deserves” Graphite on paper 35.2 × 25 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP207 347. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Graphite on paper 70 × 37 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection

336. Untitled (Study), undated Unsigned / Undated Gouache on paper 59 × 44 cm Private collection

348. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Graphite on paper 45.9 × 69.7 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP194

337. Untitled, 1937 Signed / Dated Coloured pencils on paper 69.5 × 46 cm Private collection

349. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Graphite on paper 35 × 25 cm Private collection

338. [Fish seller], 1924 Signed / Dated Inscription: “of. Tareca” Watercolour on paper 20 × 12.5 cm Private collection 339. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Gouache on paper 64.7 × 48.5 cm Private collection 340. Untitled, 1940 Signed / Dated Gouache on paper 61 × 41.2 cm Private collection 341. Woman (Lisbon), 1939 Signed / Dated Oil on canvas 61 × 50 cm Private collection 342. Portrait of Sarah Affonso, undated Unsigned / Undated Graphite on paper 24 × 24 cm Private collection 343. Portrait of Sarah Affonso, 1938 Signed / Dated Graphite on paper 58.5 × 44.1 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP222 344. Untitled, 1925 Signed / Dated Inscription: “for / Manuel Ventura / this drawing / from 1925 / with / a hug / of / friendship / from / almada” Graphite on paper 30.5 × 27 cm Private collection 345. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Graphite on paper 29.7 × 21.1 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection

350. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Graphite on paper 31.6 × 23.1 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 351. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Graphite on paper 31.6 × 23.1 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 352. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Graphite on paper 31.5 × 23.2 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 353. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Graphite on paper 31.6 × 23.1 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 354. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Oil on cardboard 37.5 × 35 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 355. The Beach, c. 1950-1960 Signed / Undated Gouache and graphite on paper 63.5 × 51 cm Private collection 356. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Indian ink on paper 23 × 17 cm Private collection 357. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Indian ink on paper 25 × 21 cm Private collection


358. Untitled, 1939 Signed / Dated Graphite on paper 64 × 51 cm National Museum of Contemporary Art – Museu do Chiado Inv. 1340

369. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Coloured pencils and crayons on paper 49.5 × 48.5 cm Private collection on deposit at the National Museum of Contemporary Art – Museu do Chiado

359. Untitled, 1926 Signed / Dated Indian ink on paper 19 × 25.2 cm Private collection on deposit at the National Museum of Contemporary Art – Museu do Chiado

370. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Gouache on paper 63.7 × 51.2 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection

360. Untitled, 1926 Signed / Dated Indian ink on paper 21 × 25.5 cm Private collection on deposit at the National Museum of Contemporary Art – Museu do Chiado 361. Untitled, 1926 Signed / Dated Indian ink on paper 18.5 × 22.5 cm Private collection on deposit at the National Museum of Contemporary Art – Museu do Chiado 362. Untitled, 1928 Signed / Dated Inscription: “Mad 28” Graphite on paper 63.1 × 43 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP192 363. Untitled, 1933 Signed / Dated Inscription: “off. / to / Tom / Lisbon 17 April 33” Graphite on paper 33.5 × 22.2 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP1600 364. Untitled, 1933 Signed / Dated Indian ink on paper 32.7 × 21.3 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP218 365. [Three Graces], undated Signed / Undated Indian ink and watercolour on paper 36.5 × 26.5 cm Dr. Araújo dos Anjos collection 366. [Three Graces], undated Unsigned / Undated Gouache on paper 67 × 44 cm Private collection 367. Untitled, 1948 Signed / Dated Gouache and oil on paper 43 × 57 cm National Museum of Contemporary Art – Museu do Chiado Inv. 2364 368. Untitled, 1940 Signed / Dated Graphite, coloured pencils and gouache on cardboard 46 × 70 cm Maria Eugénia Garcia collection

371. Untitled, 1945 Signed / Dated Indian ink and gouache on paper 63.5 × 51.2 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 372. [Aurora], 1945 Signed / Dated Oil on wood 80 × 100 cm Private collection 373. Untitled, 1946 Signed / Dated Gouache on paper 29.7 × 21.1 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 374. Untitled (Study), undated Unsigned / Undated Gouache on paper 63.5 × 51 cm Private collection

science learn from me, / since it failed to teach me. / I feed on the silence of the world / that lingers on mountain crests / and never comes down to the city / and climbs up to the clouds that search for their shape / before disappearing. / Why do you want me to meet you / if I’d rather be free from these constant obligations? / I got my idleness from the sky / and I can do without reality, just as reality does without me. / Why do you pity me, / if I’m at my peak?! / I had the good fortune of having been robbed of everything / but my ivory tower. / Invaders don’t ever take away our ivory towers. / They took all my pride / left me with a poisoned memory / and my ivory tower, untouched. / I just don’t know what to do with the tower’s door / that leads to the place from where I came. 379. Portrait of Manuel de Lima, c. 1944 (?) Signed / Undated Marker on paper 53.9 × 41.6 cm Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection Inv. DP198 380. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Graphite on paper 42 × 30.5 cm Private collection 381. Untitled, c. 1948 Signed / Undated Sepia Indian ink on paper 21.5 × 28 cm Private collection

375. Untitled (Study), undated Unsigned / Undated Graphite and gouache on paper 70 × 46 cm Private collection

382. Untitled, 1929 Signed / Dated Inscription: “To Alice, / my only disciple / reminder of her true friend / and admirer” Graphite on paper 58 × 43 cm Private collection

376. Study for the bookcover of Arte Indígena Portuguesa by Diogo Macedo, Divisão de Publicações e Bibliotecas – Agência Geral das Colónias, Lisbon, 1934 Unsigned / Undated Indian ink and gouache on paper 25 × 35 cm Private collection

383. Portrait of La Argentinita, 1924 Signed / Dated Graphite on paper 35.5 × 25.4 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection

377. Untitled, 1957 Signed / Dated Inscription: “Les persones sont tres etrangement diferentes” Indian ink and gouache on paper 50.2 × 65 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 378. Illustration for poem “Encontro”, 1937 Published in the newspaper Diário de Lisboa, 25 November 1937 Signed / Dated Inscription: “encounter” Indian ink on paper 50 × 35 cm Private collection encounter To Carlos Queiroz / What have you come to tell me / if all I can hear is silence? / I’m stalled in the world. / All I know is to listen from afar / to the old days or the days yet to come. / It is very true I exist: / now is my time to listen. / What do you want me to tell you / if I know nothing and forget what I’ve learned? / My peace is in ignorance. / I learn to know nothing: / may

384. Untitled (gift from Almada Negreiros to the Novais Teixeira family), c. 1928-1930 Signed / Undated Inscription: “un / recuerdo / de / almada” Indian ink on paper 35 × 25 cm Novaes Ledieu family collection 385. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Graphite on paper 30 × 21 cm Private collection

388. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Watercolour on paper 31.5 × 24.5 cm Private collection 389. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Graphite on paper 27.4 × 21.4 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 390. Portrait of D. Rufino Blanco Fontora, Madrid, 1927 Signed / Dated Graphite on paper 36.8 × 26.8 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 391. Untitled, 1932 Signed / Dated Indian ink on paper 31.7 × 24 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 392. Untitled, 1933 Signed / Dated Graphite on paper 32.5 × 23 cm Private collection 393. Portrait of Antero de Quental, 1943 Signed / Dated Graphite on paper 32 × 25 cm Manoel de Oliveira’s heirs collection 394. Untitled, undated Signed / Undated Graphite on paper 34 × 22.4 cm Private collection 395. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Indian ink and ink wash on paper 35.7 × 24 cm Private collection 396. Portrait of La Argentinita, 1925 Signed / Dated Gouache on paper 34.4 × 23.5 cm Private collection on deposit at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection 397. Study for painted mural (destroyed) for the Restauradores Post Office, [1940] Oil on platex 97 × 223 cm Private collection

386. Untitled, undated Unsigned / Undated Graphite on paper 100 × 70 cm Private collection 387. Portrait of Almada Negreiros’s mother, undated Unsigned / Undated Graphite on paper 65 × 50 cm Private collection on deposit at the National Museum of Contemporary Art – Museu do Chiado

419


Authors

A NA VASCONCELOS is a specialist curator at the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum – Modern Collection and is currently responsible for the painting collection. Among her most recent exhibitions are The Delaunay Circle, on Sonia and Robert Delaunay’s exile in Portugal during First World War, and Hein Semke. A German in Lisbon, following the integration of a large donation of this artist’s work into the collection, for which she was responsible. Her work has involved numerous Portuguese and international artists, including Arshile Gorky, Dominguez Alvarez, Ana Hatherly, Ruy Leitão, as well as 1950s/60s British art. She has a master’s degree in Art History from the Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa (2001). B EGOÑA FARRÉ TORRAS has a bachelor’s degree (2011) and a master’s degree (2014) in Art History from the Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa. She is a doctoral researcher at the Instituto de História da Arte of that same faculty, where she is preparing a thesis on the appropriation of medieval references in modernist painting in Portugal and Spain (Catalonia).

C ARLOS B ÁRTOLO has a bachelor’s degree in Graphic Design (Escola Superior de BelasArtes do Porto, 1990) and a master’s degree in Industrial Design (Faculdade de Arquitetura da Universidade do Porto, 1998). He has been teaching at Universidade Lusíada, in Lisbon, since 1995, and is currently completing his PhD Design submission on the role of objects as vehicles of communication, with a focus on extreme political contexts (Instituto de História da Arte, Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa / Centro de Investigação em Território, Arquitetura e Design, Universidade Lusíada).

G USTAVO R UBIM is a Professor of Literature in the Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa (FCSH-UNL). He has published an edition of Clepsydra, by Camilo Pessanha, in the magazine Colóquio/Letras (2000), and is the author of the books Experiência da Alucinação: Camilo Pessanha e a Questão da Poesia (1993), Arte de Sublinhar (2003) and A Canção da Obra (2008). He is a researcher at the Instituto de Estudos de Literatura e Tradição of the FCSH-UNL, where he oversees its Editorial Commission. He writes literary reviews for the newspaper Público.

C ÁTIA M OURÃO holds a Doctorate in Ancient Art History from the Universidade Nova de Lisboa. She is a researcher at the Instituto de História da Arte da Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas of that same university, where she organises the antiquity studies programme Linha de Antiguidade. She is a Member of the Institute’s Scientific Commission. Her research has focused on classical iconography and iconology, tracing the transformation of images and their meanings from antiquity to the present day. She has also conducted research on the Portuguese Parliament’s iconography and is Director of the Museu da Assembleia da República.

L UIS M ANUEL G ASPAR was born in Lisbon in 1960. He is an artist, a poet and a literary editor. Together with João Paulo Cotrim, he organised the exhibition El Alma de Almada, el Impar – Obra Gráfica 1926-1931 (2004). He limned, for a magazine Colóquio/Letras pullout supplement, the poem Litoral, by José de Almada Negreiros. He is a co-editor of Almada Negreiros’s literary works published by Assírio & Alvim.

F ERNANDO C ABRAL M ARTINS has been a Professor of Portuguese Literature at Universidade Nova de Lisboa since 1981. He has published book essays and critical anthologies on Cesário Verde, Mário de SáCarneiro and Fernando Pessoa. In 2008, he was chief editor of the Dicionário de Fernando Pessoa e do Modernismo Português. He has co-edited books by Almada Negreiros and Alexandre O’Neill, and is also a published author of fiction.

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L UÍS T RINDADE teaches history and Portuguese culture at Birkbeck University of London. His most recent book is Narratives in Motion. Journalism and modernist events in 1920s Portugal, published by Berghahn Books in 2016. He has also published on such topics as nationalism, marxism, and mass-culture in Portugal during the 20th century. Since 2015, he has been developing a project, supported by the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, on Portuguese audiovisual culture between 1950 and 1990.


M ARIANA P INTO DOS S ANTOS is an art historian. She has a PhD in History and Theory from the Facultat de Belles Arts, Universitat de Barcelona, and is a researcher at the Instituto de História da Arte, Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa. She is the author of the book Vanguarda & Outras Loas – Percurso Teórico de Ernesto de Sousa (Assírio & Alvim, 2007), and of several essays in magazines, catalogues and books on contemporary art history, modernity and modernism, and the theory and historiography of art. She is a co-editor of Almada Negreiros’s literary works (Assírio & Alvim) and of the magazine Intervalo (Pianola/Vendaval). M ARTA S OARES has a bachelor’s degree in Portuguese and Lusophone Studies and a master’s degree in Art History from the Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Since 2014, she has collaborated with several institutions, such as the Millennium bcp Foundation, the Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda and the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. She is the curator of the exhibition Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso / Porto Lisboa / 2016-1916 at the Museu Nacional de Soares dos Reis and the National Museum of Contemporary Art – Museu do Chiado. P EDRO F REITAS is an Assistant Professor at the Department of History and Philosophy of Sciences of the Faculdade de Ciências of the Universidade de Lisboa. In addition to his work as a lecturer and researcher, in the fields of mathematics and the history of maths, he also devotes time to the communication of the interaction between mathematics and art.

S ARA A FONSO F ERREIRA has a master’s degree in Art History and is a member of the Instituto de Estudos de Literatura e Tradição of the Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas. She is a co-editor of José de Almada Negreiros’s written work, and has published a critical and annotated edition of his Manifesto Anti-Dantas (Assírio & Alvim, 2013). She co-curated the exhibition Almada por Contar (National Library of Portugal, 2013), and organised the show Almada: o que nunca ninguém soube que houve, in 2015, at the EDP Foundation. She has collaborated in the organisation of two international colloquia dedicated to Almada Negreiros, in 2013 at the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, and in 2015 at the University of Pisa.

T IAGO B APTISTA is a curator at the Cinemateca Portuguesa – Museu do Cinema and a film lecturer for the Council for International Educational Exchange programme at the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, and also at the Universidade Católica Portuguesa. He has recently completed his PhD at the University of London, with a thesis on the practice of the audiovisual digital essay.

S IMÃO PALMEIRIM C OSTA finished his bachelor’s degree in Painting at the Faculdade de Belas-Artes of the Universidade de Lisboa (FBAUL) in 2007, and his Fine Art master’s degree at Central Saint Martins in 2009. He has exhibited and published in Lisbon and London, and focuses his research on the relationship between artistic practice and theory. His PhD, awarded by FBAUL in 2016, with a grant by the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, focused on composition in 15th and 16th centuries Portuguese painting. He has also been researching, since 2012, the use of geometry in Almada Negreiros’s oeuvre, in the context of the project “Modernismo Online” [Modernism Online] (Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas).

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Almada Negreiros, A way of being modern  

José de Almada Negreiros, art, modernism, drawing, painting, public art

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