Page 1


SECURITY POLICY

2013

Report on the implementation of the „Main guidelines of Estonia’s security policy until 2015” in 2012

Ministry of the interior


Dear Reader, This report gives an overview of the high-priority issues facing the Ministry of the Interior, the implementation of security policy in 2012 and the tasks assigned to us, through which we have made Estonia a safer place. As the Minister of the Interior, I have established seven priorities for the remit of the Ministry since 2011 – these priorities are touched upon in the foreword and covered in greater detail in the report itself. First – the importance of prevention. 297 million euros were spent on ensuring internal security in 2012. The state therefore allocates a large amount of the taxpayers’ money in order to guarantee that streets are safer, rescue vehicles arrive at accident scenes, police officers patrol the streets, investigators uncover crimes, and border security and public order is ensured. But we have increasingly come to understand that in order to avoid serious threats to our security we must place greater emphasis on prevention. Our investments in prevention have produced very tangible results – as of 2012, the number of fatalities caused by accidents was the lowest in the history of the independent Estonian state. Whereas in 1994 there were 396 traffic accident fatalities, 250 people drowned and 168 people died in fires, figures in all these areas have decreased considerably as of 2012, when there were 87 traffic accident fatalities, 54 drowning fatalities and 54 fire-related fatalities. Even in com-

parison with 2011, when the number of traffic, drowning and fire fatalities amounted to 236, 2012 with its 195 accident fatalities can be seen as a positive step forward in this area. Every life lost in an accident is a painful tragedy – in 2012 we were in effect able to save 41 human lives, which is a significant step forward compared with the year before. Our aim is to reduce the loss of human lives and we have taken systematic and carefully-planned steps to achieve this. The results we are currently seeing have been achieved through the hard and purposeful work of many people. The decision whether to invest into preventative activities or not has a long-term impact. The higher the level of public safety-awareness and the more respectful people’s mutual attitudes are, the safer the society. With that belief firmly in mind, we allocated nearly 50 per cent more resources for rescue and police prevention in 2012 than was previously the case. The same trend is continuing in 2013. I am convinced that every euro allocated for carefully planned preventative activities will yield results that can be measured in human lives. Second – the fight against serious crime. Drug trafficking, embezzlement of public funds, serious economic crimes, money laundering and the activities of organised criminal groups (including trafficking in human beings and the illicit arms trade) are complex offences, the prevention and successful detection of which will help prevent various related offences. The greater the risk of being caught, the more likely these types of crimes will be prevented in the future. Similarly, the greater leeway we have in confiscating criminal assets, the lower those criminals’ eagerness to commit similar offences in the future. Furthermore, the stronger the image of the state, the better will be our ability to prevent crimes in the future. In 2012, we allocated more than 1.9 million euros to enhance the procedural capability of the criminal police and procure special equipment. As of 1 January, 2012, we reinstated the central criminal police in order to improve the capacity for investigating and uncovering serious


crimes through central management and the enhanced harmonisation of work practices, and to increase the investigators’ motivation through a more clearly-defined identity. Third – enhanced rescue capability all over Estonia. In order to strengthen our capability in rescuing human lives, we have allocated additional resources of nearly 2 million euros in 2012 for personnel expenses and the procurement of personal protection equipment. As of May 2012, we reorganised the network of rescue crews, bringing the rescue capability into conformity with the developments in actual risks, dangers and the distribution of people in Estonia since independence. We have continued implementing plans for the transition to a single emergency number by 2014, with the aim of commencing processing calls to the rescue services, the police and the ambulance service, from regional emergency centres. We have established an independent institution, the Emergency Centre, in order to more clearly define the relevant functions and tasks. Nearly 10 500 people work in ensuring security within the remit of the Ministry of the Interior. Additionally, there are numerous volunteer rescue workers and assistant police officers who significantly contribute to our everyday work and preventative activities. By involving volunteers in both rescue work and law enforcement, we can bring additional resources to ensure security and increase the public’s community responsibility. It is clear that volunteers cannot replace professional police officers and rescue workers, but they do have an important role in supporting the activities of professionals, solving crisis situations on the primary level and linking communities and authorities. Estonia still has a lot of room for development in harnessing the potential of volunteers. Another priority is the reduction of drug addiction in society. As a vice causing an increasing amount of damage, drug addiction has become a serious and gruelling problem for Estonia. Reducing the supply of and demand for narcotics is of great importance for society. Since Esto-

nia has for years been among the leading countries in Europe by both the number of intravenous drug addicts and the number of narcotics-related fatalities, we can only be effective in combating the causes and consequences of narcotics consumption in close cooperation with various agencies, experts, NGOs and local governments. For the purpose of strengthening that cooperation, we formed the Government of the Republic Drug Addiction Prevention Committee, which is led by the Minister of the Interior and is at the highest national level tasked with the strategic coordination of prevention and reduction of the supply of narcotics, combining the capabilities of all the relevant parties into an integral force for a common cause. Thanks to our continuing conservative citizenship and migration policy, we have managed to keep the number of asylum applications submitted in Estonia the lowest in the European Union. Despite increasing immigration pressure, we have succeeded in restricting the arrival of aliens who pose a threat to public order, national security or social and cultural processes. The citizenship policy remains grounded on the well-established and proven principle that granting citizenship to a non-citizen is a privilege, which entails a special trust relationship between the state and the person. The last, but by no means the least significant priority is attaining high-quality and sustainable management. At each and every step, we must ensure that the use of the taxpayers’ money entrusted to us is based on high-quality, reasonable and result-orientated management. To this end, we must always be very scrupulous about our own activities and the use of the money which is allocated to us. As Minister, I wish to create all the conditions needed for taxpayers’ money to be used economically and carefully and for those purposes established in the governing area of the Ministry of the Interior. 2013 is an important year for internal security, as Estonia is one of the few countries in the European Union, which

FOREWORD

3


Authors

FOREWORD

4

can actually improve the motivation of rescue workers, police officers and other employees via pay increases. After the economic recession, it is the first time in Estonia where salaries can be increased in such a way within the administration of the Ministry of the Interior. These priority activities were in our focus in 2012 and will remain so in 2013. Everyone can contribute to achieving these objectives by thinking together, proposing ideas, taking part in discussions, investing their own time and efforts, assisting the police or rescue workers as a volunteer, or simply by being observant, caring and respectful towards others in everyday life. If risks and dangers grow beyond a reasonable level, people can turn to police officers, rescue workers or other officials tasked with ensuring that Estonia is a safer and more secure place for all of us.

Ken-Marti Vaher

Minister of the Interior

Tallinn, February 2013


Ruth Annus

Riina Raudne

Lauri Lugna

Priit Laaniste

Priit Heinsoo

Head of Migration and Border Policy Department of the Ministry of the Interior

Adviser of the Law Enforcement and Criminal Policy Department of the Ministry of the Interior

Deputy Secretary General for Resources of the Minister of the Interior

Head of the Rescue and Crisis Management Department of the Ministry of the Interior

Head of the Law Enforcement and Criminal Policy Department of the Ministry of the Interior

Contents Security policy priorities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Prevention policy and reduction of deaths caused by accidents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Combating serious hidden crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Strengthening the rescue capability .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Reducing drug-addiction and narcotics-related deaths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Involving volunteers in security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Conservative citizenship and migration policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 High-quality and sustainable management of internal security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Implementation of the „Main guidelines of Estonia’s security policy until 2015“ in 2012 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Stronger sense of security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Improved traffic safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Improved fire safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Improved protection of property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Decreased number of accidents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Improved national security .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Faster response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Increased efficiency of security policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50 54 57 60 64 67 73 76

AUTHORS AND CONTENTS

5


PRIORITEEDID

1. ENNETUSPOLIITIKA JA ÕNNETUSSURMADE VÄHENDAMINE

Security policy

6

PRIORITIES


Photo: Tuuli H채rson/PPA


Photo: Scanpix/Postimees/Mihkel Maripuu

1

Prevention policy and reduction of deaths caused by accidents


In 2012, the number of deaths caused by accidents was the lowest in Estonia’s recent history. There were 195 fatalities caused by traffic accidents, fires and drowning – 17.4 per cent less than in the previous year.

Modern prevention work is not just focussed on preventing negative consequences, but also on promoting positive behaviour and increasing social responsibility. This requires systematic cooperation with other areas. Many prerequisites for increasing security are in the education system as well as in the social and youth work systems, the public health and other systems. The Police and Border Guard Board and the Rescue Board naturally have an important role here. By rule of thumb, every euro invested in prevention saves ten euros on dealing with the consequences. In 2012, the number of deaths caused by accidents was the lowest in Estonia’s recent history. There were 195 fatalities caused by traffic accidents, fires and drowning – 17.4 per cent less than in the previous year. This significant decrease is largely a result of prevention work, where the Ministry of the Interior has focussed on involving partners and forwarding thoroughly thought-through messages to carefully selected target groups.

Impact of prevention work The success of rescue-related preventative activities has been significant in Estonia. In 2012, the number of deaths caused by accidents was at a record low level: 54 people died in incidents involving fires (73 in 2011 – a decrease of 26 per cent) and 54 by drowning (62 in 2011 – a decrease of 13 per cent). Over five years (from 2007 to 2012) the number of fatalities caused as a result of fires has decreased by nearly 60 per cent. We can confidently attribute this drop in these grim statistics to prevention work. The importance of increasing the prevention work budget can also not be underestimated. The 2012 budget was the largest in the past three years and notably contributed to improving public awareness and the reduction of deaths caused by accidents. 410717

658434

770531

2011

2012

2013

Prevention of deaths caused by fires and drowning The main aims of prevention work in the area of internal security are to save human lives and to reduce property damage. Contemporary approaches to security policy do indeed emphasise the role of social responsibility, but the biggest risks still lie in the chosen lifestyle and behav-

Prevention work budget of the Rescue Board 2011-2013

PRIORITIES

The number of deaths caused by accidents was the lowest in recent history

iour patterns of every individual. Other risk factors such as safety requirements and the overall living environment are only secondary to those risks. Therefore there is no alternative for consistent and constant prevention work. Informing the public of risks and training and counselling people without doubt constitute the most important activities in saving human lives.

In euros

Dealing with the consequences of crimes and accidents is always more costly than the prevention of such incidents. For the police, the Rescue Board and the emergency services, dealing with consequences means response expenses, procedural expenses, healthcare expenses, costs related to convicted offenders and prisoners, as well as property damages, which are at best partly covered by insurance. Moreover, emotional damage, the devastating impact of which cannot be measured in money, has to be taken into consideration.

1. Prevention policy and reduction of deaths caused by accidents

9


Informing the public of risks and training and counselling people without doubt constitute the most important activities in saving human lives.

Number of fatalities

Since the primary cause of fire fatalities is careless smoking, the transition to the sales of self-extinguishing cigarettes as of November 2011 considerably contributed to the reduction of such deaths. The seeming sarcasm expressed in the media back then can now be answered most eloquently by the figures: whereas in 2012 careless smoking caused 34 deaths and in 2011, 30 deaths, the figure dropped to 20 in 2012. Thus, the introduction of self-extinguishing cigarettes effectively helped save 10 human lives in one year. 89

63

69

73

54

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

PRIORITIES

1. Prevention policy and reduction of deaths caused by accidents

10

Fire deaths in 2008-2012 The number of deaths caused by fire has decreased considerably in a few years; self-extinguishing cigarettes have effectively saved about ten human lives.

In 2012, the focus was on comprehensive information solutions and the main causes of accident fatalities. One of the primary causes of accidents was excessive alcohol

Uniform prevention signs in the area of internal security

consumption. Besides state institutions, the private sector – companies producing, selling and importing alcoholic beverages – were involved in prevention work through the round tables organised by the Minister of the Interior. Upon the initiative of the Ministry of the Interior, the uniform prevention signs and the message “Do not drink and drive or swim” were jointly approved for the first time in 2012, to be used by parties engaged in prevention work in the state agencies, the private sector and the non-governmental sector. As a result, more prevention signs and messages were used on the packaging and advertisements of alcohol products, in order to inform and remind people of the risks involved in excessive alcohol consumption. In the rescue area, the activities mainly covered water safety, but on a broader scale the focus has been on traffic safety and restricting the accessibility of alcoholic beverages to minors. Indeed, the Rescue Board’s 2012 water safety campaign concentrated on the prevention of intoxicated swimming as the main cause of deaths by drowning. Considering the specific characteristics of the target group, the water safety campaign was for the first time also aimed at the Russian-speaking population.

Fire safety campaign focussed on causes As alcohol is one of the main causes of accident fatalities, the reduction of alcohol-related high-risk behaviour was taken as the core idea of the national alcohol concept, namely the Green Paper of Alcohol Policy. In the area of fire safety, where the emphasis has previously been on the life-saving value of smoke detectors, the focus in 2012 shifted mainly to the causes of fires through the fire safety campaign “Can you see the danger?”. The objective of the campaign was to improve public awareness of potential sources of fire risk in dwellings. For that purpose, the public’s attention was drawn to the life-threatening consequences of careless smoking, poorly maintained and broken heaters and fireplaces, and overloaded obsolete electricity systems. Several retail enterprises contributed to the campaign, using very diverse solutions within their stores in order to increase people’s awareness.


In 2012, the uniform prevention message “Do not drink and drive or swim� was jointly approved for the first time.

PRIORITIES

1. Prevention policy and reduction of deaths caused by accidents

11

Self-inspection saves time and costs In 2012, a self-inspection requirement was introduced concerning fire safety. Pursuant to the Fire Safety Act, an annual fire safety report must be submitted to the Rescue Board in respect of buildings with a higher fire risk. The analysis has to show which buildings are to be inspected for fire safety. This change allows the performance of state fire safety supervision on the basis of risks, which is more efficient as the state fire safety supervision activities can thereby focus primarily on institutions and enterprises with higher risk levels. One of the aims of the fire safety related self-inspection report is to inspire institutions to ensure fire safety in their building as efficiently as possible. The report is primarily focussed on describing organisational measures, which the possessor of the relevant building has to apply

in order to ensure public safety, prevent fires and limit the potential consequences. Although statistical data confirm the significant results of the prevention work carried out so far, we have to admit that compared with the Nordic countries there is still a lot of room for development in the reduction of the number of accidents. 4.17 people per every 100,000 residents died in fires in Estonia in 2012. In the Scandinavian countries, the figure is nearly five times lower – between 0.93 and 1.25. It can be considered probable that continuing the implementation of the same prevention strategy we have applied until now will help us maintain the achieved level, but will not ensure a considerable decrease in the number of deaths caused by fire. It is not possible to deal with all the causes of deaths solely via the rescue area, as social problems play a significant role here. This leads to


Through 2013, the Ministry of the Interior is continuing to focus on the priority of reducing the number of accident fatalities by increasing the volume and budget of prevention work, improving the efficiency of fire safety supervision and taking a stricter attitude towards offenders.

PRIORITIES

1. Prevention policy and reduction of deaths caused by accidents

12

the conclusion that the key to a considerable decrease in the number of accident fatalities lies in carefully planned cooperation between various agencies.

Punishment in parallel to prevention Through 2013, the Ministry of the Interior is continuing to focus on the priority of reducing the number of accident fatalities by increasing the volume and budget of prevention work, improving the efficiency of fire safety supervision and taking a stricter attitude towards offenders. Together with the Rescue Board, the Ministry of the Interior is to prepare new bases for improving the efficiency of preventative activities this year. The prevention-related survey1 conducted by the Estonian Academy https://www.siseministeerium.ee/public/SKA_ennetusalane_uuring.pdf.

1

of Security Sciences is of great help here, providing important guidelines for the prevention of accident fatalities and for reaching the necessary target groups more effectively. An important keyword for 2013 is ‘evidence based approach’, aimed at reaching the desired result in the prevention of accident fatalities in the most efficient manner possible. In organising campaigns, the specific characteristics of the Russian-speaking population must be taken into account both in the areas of fire safety and water safety. Various cooperation partners with the capability and know-how in the area of reducing accident fatalities must be involved in prevention work. For instance, the Estonian Maritime Administration can contribute considerably to reducing the number of accidents caused by negligence in not wearing life jackets.


At the beginning of 2012, a thoroughly elaborated action plan for traffic supervision was prepared aimed at harmonising punitive practices and police activities all over Estonia.

Reducing traffic fatalities We all participate in traffic – from the moment we close the front door behind us. Therefore, traffic safety cannot be viewed as a narrow niche, but rather as a risk area touching the life of every person every day, where our safe and happy return to our home depends on both ourselves and others and conversely other people’s safe return to their home depends on our behaviour. Scientific Financed from the Estonian-Swiss Cooperation Programme.

Photo: Priit Tuuna/PPA

2

research has confirmed that traffic rules can prevent up to 50 per cent of accidents, good traffic supervision helps avoid up to 25 per cent of traffic accidents and 25 per cent depends directly on the risk behaviour of road users.

Combined notification and supervision Traffic safety is ensured by carefully planned prevention in conjunction with wise supervision. These two areas cannot possibly be viewed separately, because it has been emphasised in specialist literature time and again that the most efficient way to prevent accidents is to carry out preventative media campaigns in combination with supervisory and punitive measures. The use of legal coercive measures can achieve noticeable and permanent results only with the support of active media campaigns. Traffic safety as a whole is in the area of responsibility of the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications, where the Road Administration is the manager of awareness campaigns. Traffic supervision, however, is under the auspices of the administration of the Ministry of

PRIORITIES

2013 will see the completion of the fire safety project,2 through the course of which practical solutions for improving the fire safety of medical and welfare institutions will be created. It also includes the procurement of thousands of evacuation mattresses for medical and welfare institutions to evacuate immobile patients. In addition, the project covers the training of hundreds of employees of medical and welfare institutions to act in the correct manner in the case of a fire.

1. Prevention policy and reduction of deaths caused by accidents

13


In 2012, for the second time this century, the number of traffic fatalities dropped below one hundred.

PRIORITIES

1. Prevention policy and reduction of deaths caused by accidents

14

the Interior. Traffic supervision must also be considered a preventative measure, which has a calming effect on traffic and increases the possibility of detecting violators. The supervisor’s attention is focussed on mistakes and violations in such a way as to motivate road users to behave law-abidingly, because that is how traffic accidents and severe consequences can be avoided. The key to the success of combined awareness and supervision measures is the correct definition of target groups and causes of accidents, as only informed measures can be cost-effective and ensure maximum efficiency. We cannot rely on gut feeling here – target groups must be defined on the basis of information. This kind of performance-orientated work requires capable and active cooperation partners and working as a network, in which every member has a well-defined role and responsibility.

Well-planned improvement of traffic supervision In 2012, for the second time this century, the number of traffic fatalities dropped below one hundred – a total of 87 people died in traffic. This was thanks to the increased focus and resources in the area of traffic supervision. For this purpose, the Ministry of the Interior led the preparation of a thoroughly elaborated action plan for traffic supervision at the beginning of 2012, aimed at harmonising the punitive practices and police activities all over Estonia and changing the attitudes of the most dangerous road users. The constant updating and monitoring of the action plan provides a flexible tool for influencing the most problematic areas and assessing the effectiveness of the measures taken. The focus was on the root causes of traffic risks; the punitive practices were redefined primarily in regard to the most dangerous violations, making full use of the possibilities provided by law (the cumulative effect of basic and additional punishments, revocation of special rights, imposition of arrests and confiscation of vehicles), but the proportion of warning procedures was also reduced in regard to less dangerous violations.

Whereas at the beginning of 2012 the police punished less dangerous violations in the form of oral warnings recorded in writing more than a thousand times a month, the written recording of such violations was discontinued from the second quarter of the year and only oral warnings were issued to first-time violators. This freed significant supervisory resources, which were redirected to identify the perpetrators of more serious traffic violations. By the end of the year, the written recording of less dangerous violations had decreased by nearly five times. Other activities included involving the riot police in traffic supervision, using more IT solutions and procuring technical equipment like speedometers, breathalysers, forced stopping equipment, instant narcotics tests and video and photo equipment.

Ten-fold increase in vehicle confiscation The practice showed, however, that in spite of awareness-raising activities there were still many road users who did not care about any possible punishment or for that matter their own life or the lives of others. There were even those who did not believe until the very end that carelessness in traffic can put them into a detention house for weeks. In 2012, the confiscation of vehicles was used considerably more frequently as a non-punitive sanction in the case of particularly serious traffic offences. While previously vehicles were confiscated from traffic offenders only in a very few cases, in 2012 the police seized 48 vehicles from drunk drivers. That measure is generally applied when earlier sanctions have failed in taming the traffic violator. In Estonia, vehicle confiscation is merely one possibility for influencing the behaviour of violators, but our southern neighbours, for instance, impose it as an inevitable punishment when a driver’s behaviour has caused a significant risk.

Considerable room for development Several surveys of traffic safety were conducted in 2012. TNS Emor surveyed the use of reflectors by pedestrians, the use of safety belts and the traffic safety knowledge


There were even those violators who did not believe until the very end that carelessness in traffic can put them into a detention house for weeks.

9.1% – wore a reflector

14.8% – no reflector 3.4% – no safety equipment

13

8

3 Number of fatalities 25 28.4% – did not use safety equipment

36

3

40.9% – used safety equipment correctly

3.4% – used safety equipment incorrectly

Use of safety equipment Half of the people killed were not using safety equipment or used it incorrectly

E-procedures and simpler, high-quality misdemeanour procedures The objective in 2013 is to reduce traffic accidents and fatalities through increased supervision capability and prevention activities. To that end, the Police and Border Guard Board will complete the e-procedure project, which allows police officers to dedicate most of their working hours to actual supervision. An amendment to the Code of Misdemeanour Procedure has been initiated, aimed at ensuring simplified procedures with a

1. Prevention policy and reduction of deaths caused by accidents

of children and adults. The surveys show clearly that the safety awareness of road users is increasing from year to year. Seventy three per cent of adults and 95 per cent of children considered a reflector essential for pedestrians. In itself, the figures are good, but the remaining 27 per cent of adults is a sign of considerable room for development. Reaching this group of people is very important, because studies show that pedestrians and cyclists are 7 to 9 times more exposed to the risk of being killed in traffic than motor vehicle drivers. According to the Road Administration’s statistics, every third traffic fatality in 2012 was a pedestrian. Nothing illustrates the need to wear a reflector better than the fact that only two people of all the fatalities were wearing a reflector. Together with the Road Administration and ERGO Insurance, the Police and Border Guard Board started distributing reflector jackets and reflectors to people who live in rural areas and due to their work and life arrangements often have to walk on the roads in the dark. During the preparation for the dark months, the campaign reached every sixth resident of Estonia, with 200 000 reflectors distributed to pedestrians, 9 000 bike reflectors to cyclists and 9 000 reflector jackets to road users in rural areas. There is no doubt about the need to continue with this measure. There are three main people-related risks in traffic: intoxication, speeding and failure to use or properly use safety equipment (reflectors, safety belts etc). The Police and Border Guard Board is paying very close attention to these aspects in its supervisory activities.

PRIORITIES

Photo: Scanpix/Õhtuleht/Stanislav Moshkov

15


In 2012, close relationship violence was in particular focus as a type of crime which requires us to take a zero tolerance approach.

PRIORITIES

1. Prevention policy and reduction of deaths caused by accidents

16

higher evidential quality, which would save police officers’ time spent on misdemeanour procedures and allow them to focus more on supervision. The Police and Border Guard Board will also continue the procurement of modern technical equipment (e.g. cameras for recording violations etc.), which will allow for the more efficient use of human resources. The focus is on information-based approaches in order to systematically invest in preventative activities and increase the awareness of road users. The volume of the required supervision depends directly on people’s risk behaviour – the more abidingly and mutuallyrespectfully people behave in traffic – the greater the social control over behaviour, and thus the less society has to invest in direct traffic supervision.

Prevention of close relationship violence Close relationships can be literally called the binding agent that keeps an entire society together. Caring, solidarity, sense of responsibility, support, understanding, mutual respect and sense of security – all these values binding the society together stem from the family and close relationships. People take the values learnt at home with them to school, the community, workplace and the whole society. Unfortunately, we do not live in an ideal world, and close relationship violence, which can be viewed together with school violence, is too common in everyday life.

Zero tolerance as the norm Domestic or close relationship violence is always multifaceted and in most cases there are more victims in a conflict than the two immediate parties. Acts of violence in a family often take place in the presence of children, leaving deep imprints in the children’s psyche and view of the world. Controlling close relationship violence is important for the entire society and the main emphasis can only be on the development of awareness and social control. In

2012, close relationship violence was in particular focus as a type of crime which requires us to take a zero tolerance approach. However, close relationship violence is often not reported to the authorities. The primary reasons for that are the strong ties between the parties to violence, as well as economical dependence. When such crimes are not reported, the perpetrators gain a sense of impunity and find justification to their acts, until that kind of behaviour becomes the norm for them. Such violent conflicts escalate and become increasingly serious over time. In the worst cases, repeated violence causes severe health damage to the victim or even results in the victim’s death. Handling cases of close relationship violence is difficult for law enforcers, because people are not required to give statements against their family members. Victims are afraid to give statements due to the financial dependence mentioned before as well as fear of future acts of violence.

Reporting protects victims The state has to create an environment which offers certainty and a sense of security and which would motivate people to inform the police of incidents of close relationship violence and give statements about the incidents. This is important primarily for the protection of victims, because the state can only respond to reported crimes, using its resources to solve the conflict and avoid its recurrence. Here we are not only talking about punitive measures. The legislator has also provided for conciliation procedures, in order to conciliate the parties and to send the violator, with his or her consent, to appropriate counselling or treatment groups, e.g. alcoholism or anger management treatment. As close relationship violence is escalating by nature, early detection is of primary importance. Physical violence is very often preceded by emotional and mental abuse of a person, which must be treated as mental or psychological abuse. Psychological abuse does not have a clear uniform definition; it is often understood to include


Close relationship violence is always multi-faceted and in most cases there are more victims in a conflict than the two immediate parties.

Zero tolerance increased the number of reported cases The Estonian court practice so far does not include any penal law cases based on psychological abuse, mainly due to problems in obtaining objective evidence and difficulties in determining the cause and effect links. It is therefore even more important to notice close relationship violence early and to apply non-punitive measures, which would prevent the escalation of psychological abuse into physical violence. The number of cases of close relationship violence reported to the police increased by nearly a half in 2012. While in the previous year 510 cases of violence between adult family members were registered, the figure rose to 1 096 in 2012. Similarly, the number of registered cases of violence involving children increased: 210 cases in 2011 and 431 cases in 2012. That does not, however, give grounds to concluding that the occurrence of incidents of close relationship violence has increased dramatically, but rather the state’s zero tolerance approach to these crimes and therefore an overall increase in reporting such incidents. In previous years, efforts were focussed on solving less serious incidents of close relationship violence by conciliating the parties at the scene, particularly when the victim wished to solve the problem, but did not want to participate in subsequent criminal proceedings. As close relationship violence is often recurrent, it is particularly important to determine the background and causes of such incidents upon their first occurrence. The main reason for the increase in the registration of such crimes is the principle applied since 2012 that criminal proceedings are initiated in all the cases, in order to find the best possibilities to influence the conflict positively and to prevent the recurrence of violence. The tolerance and awareness of the society are also

important factors here. There are specially trained police officers who have the skills to successfully handle cases of close relationship violence. It is important to have professional officers who can provide the best possible assistance to victims.

Solutions require cooperation For further development in this area, it is extremely important to establish a cooperation network of specialists of various walks of life, aimed at preventing and responding to close relationship violence. It is the police officers’ task to respond to possible cases of violence and to determine the causes thereof. But for solving cases, the police needs partners in order to find the most effective ways for influencing the violator, helping the victims and reducing the risk of recurrence of violence. Local governments have an important role in preventing cases of close relationship violence and handling alreadyreported cases, as they are in a position to provide efficient counselling to residents. In the framework of that cooperation, it is important to identify problematic households who belong in the target group and whose risks should be mitigated by appropriate measures at the local government level. Besides the state and the local governments, we must not underestimate non-governmental organisations, which constitute a great force in binding communities. The activities of NGOs must be tied to problem-centred preventative activities primarily as factors influencing the social or everyday environment. It is only through cooperation that we can be successful and reduce the risk of violence. Close relationship violence can be most effectively influenced and prevented by early detection. However, crucial factors in putting a decisive stop to the wider spread of such crimes include prevention and awareness, the ability to recognise the symptoms of psychological abuse in our relatives and acquaintances at an early stage, and the courage to report cases of violence. We can change society’s attitudes and make people behave in a more considerate manner towards each other only through observance, caring and responding to problems.

PRIORITIES

emotional abuse, verbal and non-physical aggression and acute discord in the family. However, psychological abuse is characterised by its slow effect, which gradually destroys the victim’s trust and self-dignity.

1. Prevention policy and reduction of deaths caused by accidents

17


Photo: Internal Security Service Annual Review 2008

ENNETUSPOLIITIK A JA ÕNNETUSSURMADE VÄHENDAMINE

2 18

Combating serious hidden crime


The more criminal assets we can confiscate, the lower the eagerness to commit such crimes in the future.

National capability is the best prevention The state’s capability also has an important secondary preventative impact – the more capable the state and the higher the risk of criminals being caught, the greater the preventative effect on future crimes. The more criminal assets we can confiscate, the lower the eagerness to commit such crimes in the future. Serious crime does not have a universal definition, but in the specialist literature of various countries it is understood to include crimes resulting from which people may die or suffer serious health damage, as well as activities which are aimed at gaining large-scale criminal profits and influencing the economic environment. It also includes narcotics-related crimes and crimes against sexual self-determination. Various authors have concluded that organised crime is increasingly similar to the model of today’s business organisations: there are a lot of project-based and shortterm activities. In order to achieve a fast profit, activities are focussed on areas which are the most profitable at the time.

2. Combating serious hidden crime PRIORITIES

Criminal income is the source of vitality for the criminal world. The suppression of serious and hidden crime makes life more difficult for all criminals. While primary preventative activities are aimed at reducing the possibilities of people crossing to the wrong side of the tracks, the fight against serious and hidden crime is focussed on preventing the activities of experienced criminals. That is a professionals’ fight against professionals. The narcotics trade, embezzlement of public funds, serious economic crimes, money laundering and the activities of organised criminal groups (including human trafficking and illegal arms trafficking) are serious offences of hidden nature and the detection of such crimes is in correlation with the invested resources and scrutiny and the capability of investigators. If the state is not willing or able to invest, these crimes – which have an extensively damaging effect on society, but also entail a heavy burden of proof – will remain uncovered.

Photo: Scanpix/Õhtuleht/Tairo Lutter

19

Victims are difficult to define The danger to society of serious and hidden crime lies primarily in its hidden nature. Such crimes are usually based on earning criminal income, but there are no ‘applicants’ – specifically and clearly defined victims. Even if there is a direct victim, they are usually too scared to report falling victim to a crime. The hidden nature of such criminal activities requires that the state have a highly-qualified capability to recognise and uncover hidden crime. Serious and hidden crime helps finance the entire criminal world, thereby reducing the economic security of the state and the physical security of people. The wider development of such crime impairs the business environment and drives away investors who prefer investing in a stable and viable environment that is safe for legal capital. It is precisely due to the broader effect on the functioning of the entire society that combating serious and hidden crime must be considered as a priority. Just like Estonia is not an isolated island in the globalising and increasingly open world, organised crime does not recognise state borders. Therefore, any efficient fight against such crime must take place both at a national and an international level, in order to create a situation where committing such crimes is neither profitable nor attractive.


In 2012, 1.6 million euros were allocated for increasing the procedural capability of the Central Criminal Police, and another 315 000 euros for the procurement of special equipment for the criminal police.

One of the most successful examples of recent years was the money laundering case uncovered in 2009 and currently passing through the courts: the investigation determined that an amount of 64 million euros was being processed outside the official cash circulation system. The hidden movement of such amounts doubtlessly constitutes a huge security risk.

Reinstated central criminal police The state’s success in combating hidden and serious crime ensures a sense of security for the public and a good economic and social environment for the country. The Ministry of the Interior has established the objective of creating a strong and competent structure, the functioning of which would ensure success in the fight against serious and hidden crime. To that end, the Central Criminal Police was reinstated as of January 2012. The unit’s task is to increase the capability for investigating serious crimes through central management and good work practices, while also improving the investigator’s motivation through a clear identity. Over the course of the year, 1.6 million euros were allocated for increasing the procedural capability of the Central Criminal Police, and In euros

PRIORITIES

2. Combating serious hidden crime

20

1 164 414

3 511 416

2 785 807

27 558 009

another 315 000 euros for the procurement of special equipment for the criminal police. In recent years, the Ministry of the Interior has emphasised the need to vigorously develop the criminal asset identification capability as a crucial weapon feared by criminals. The Ministry follows the principle that crime must not pay. Therefore resources must be primarily allocated to investigating crimes that generate the largest amount of criminal income. Last year, 220 000 euros were allocated for developing the capability of the Criminal Assets Identification Office established in autumn 2011. In addition, the number of police officers involved in the identification of criminal assets was tripled. Above all, 2012 demonstrated that the practice of identifying criminal assets has become more efficient. For instance, the amount of criminal assets identified in the working area of the West Prefecture was four times higher than in 2011. The identification of criminal assets has become increasingly important in the European Union, where significant steps have been taken to harmonise the procedure for confiscating criminal assets and related proceedings. The Member States are being consulted in regards to the draft Directive on the freezing and confiscation of proceeds of crime in the European Union. An important principle of the said act is the emphasis on the capability for identifying criminal assets, the extensive use of that capability, and the creation of the possibility of civil confiscation.

Analysis-based management

2009

2010

2011

2012

Confiscated criminal assets The amount of criminal assets confiscated in 2012 exceeded the amounts confiscated in previous years by orders of magnitude.

In order to achieve the maximum results in the work of the Central Criminal Police and in criminal police activities as a whole, resources must be used efficiently. This is possible only through analysis-based management. Activities launched in 2012 to make the work of the Central Criminal Police more systematic and organised will continue in 2013, with the aim to develop a strong and competent centre for combating serious and hidden crime. The employees of the centre are capable information gatherers, implementers and processors. The


The most common corruption crime among both state and local government officials is the acceptance of bribes and gratuities upon making procedural decisions and carrying out public procurement.

PRIORITIES

2. Combating serious hidden crime

Photo: PPA

21

information-based development of the Central Criminal Police continues in 2013. For that purpose, 1.6 million euros will be allocated for the further development of the procedural capability of the criminal police. Activities will also continue in 2013 to strengthen the Criminal Assets Identification Unit, the Anti-Drugs Unit and the Anti-Corruption Unit. Among other things, a system for handling identified and seized assets needs to be clearly defined.

Combating narcotics Narcotics-related crime is still a major problem in Estonia. Within the European Union, Estonia stands out negatively due to its high number of deaths caused by drugs as well as due to its reputation as an exceptionally active region for a strong synthetic drug called phentanyl. The fight against phentanyl is therefore one of the most important objectives in combating narcotics-related crime. In 2012, a separate action plan for combating narcotics was prepared and implemented, and the Ministry of the Interior has allocated additional resources for restricting the distribution of drugs. Important activities here also include special police operations targeted at ‘street dealers’, with the aim to break existing drug distribution channels. Issues related to combating and preventing narcoticsrelated crime is covered in greater detail in the section about drug prevention.

Combating corruption Although corruption does not have a universal definition, there is a consensus in the Western world that the phenomenon is extremely dangerous for society. By narrower definition, it is often understood to mean requesting and offering bribes. On a broader scale, however, it includes influence by peddling election fraud and the non-transparent financing of political parties, influencing the decisions of officials in personal interests, the use of inside information and unequal treatment in the organisations of public procurement.

Corruption destroys trust Many corruption-related crimes do not cause concrete and clearly definable damage – rather, they undermine the trust towards public authority and its implementers. For instance, corruptive preferences in public procurement may endanger the quality of construction works, healthcare services and the environment. Corruption often aims to hide other crimes, from traffic violations to terrorism, slavery and the narcotics trade. Political corruption poses a direct and imminent threat to constitutional values – to democracy and the rule of law. From the point of view of assessing corruptionrelated awareness and the fight against corruption, it is


Corruption is also present in the private and the third sectors, where employees with decision-making authority may not necessarily act in the interests of the employer or the company, but for their own personal gain.

worth mentioning the annual international index prepared by Transparency International, which measures the perceived levels of public sector corruption in countries worldwide. Despite Estonia’s progress, we cannot be satisfied with the current situation. This is confirmed by Transparency International’s 2012 Corruption Perception Index, according to which Estonia’s position has deteriorated compared to 2010 and 2011: Estonia dropped by three places in 2011, ranking 29th, and by another three places in 2012, ranking 32nd.

PRIORITIES

2. Combating serious hidden crime

22

Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index 2012 Place

Country

Index 2012

1

Denmark

90

1

Finland

90

1

New Zealand

90

4

Sweden

88

5

Singapore

87

6

Switzerland

86

7

Australia

85

7

Norway

85

9

Canada

84

9

Netherlands

84

32

Estonia

64

Source: www.transparency.ee

A temptation for public employees On the basis of criminal cases processed in recent years, we can say that the most common corruption crime among both state and local government officials is the acceptance of bribes and gratuities upon making procedural decisions and carrying out public procurement. At the same time, there has been an increase in the number of cases of influence peddling – a form of political corruption – and the probability of competition-related crimes.

Conducting proceedings and prosecuting in cases of corruption is complicated due to the fact that such crimes are often difficult to discover, since unlike the cases of crimes against property, the victims (e.g. the employers of officials or employees who have accepted a bribe) generally never learn of the corruptive acts. In order to uncover corruption crimes, it is therefore very important to make reporting such incidents as simple as possible – in Estonia, a separate corruption reporting hotline has been introduced. The safety of persons reporting corruption must also be ensured. In addition to measures established under penal law, the prevention of corruption also widely involves increasing the transparency of decision-making processes. That is particularly important in the public sector, due to the impact of corruption on the entire society. At the same time, developed countries have acknowledged the need to fight against corruption also outside the public sector. First, corruption-related offers mostly come from the private sector – an entrepreneur offering a bribe being the simplest example here. Second, corruption is also present in the private and the third sectors, where employees with decision-making authority may not necessarily act in the interests of the employer or the company, but for their own personal gain.

Enhanced fight against corruption In Estonia, investigating corruption is primarily the task of the Central Criminal Police, except in the areas directly placed in the competence of the Internal Security Service. As of the beginning of 2012, the processing of corruption crimes was concentrated in the Anti-Corruption Unit of the Central Criminal Police and the area is approached integrally through central management. The Anti-Corruption Unit is tasked with investigating corruption primarily in the 220 local governments (excluding six major Estonian cities, which are in the competence of the Internal Security Service). In 2012, the Ministry of the Interior allocated additional resources to the Police and Border Guard Board, so that the Anti-Corruption Unit


Just as Estonia is not an isolated island in the globalising and increasingly open world, organised crime does not recognise state borders. 23 2. Combating serious hidden crime PRIORITIES

The anti-corruption activities of the Internal Security Service are, above all, aimed at the prevention of damages, including at reducing the criminal income received from crime. That is particularly important in the case of misuse of the resources of EU structural funds, which may result in extensive recovery claims against the Estonian state. The fight against corruption is an ongoing process taking place on several levels and in various sectors and it cannot be considered completed merely by the adoption and enforcement of a legal act. Estonia implemented the first anti-corruption strategy of the Government of the Republic, “An Honest State”, in 2004-2007, and the Government of the Republic approved the second anticorruption strategy for 2008-2012. Work is currently underway in preparing the anti-corruption strategy “An Honest State” for 2013-2020, which will focus more on the prevention of corruption in the private sector and in local governments. One of the objectives of the strategy is to increase the ethics and corruption related awareness of citizens, public sector employees, entrepreneurs and other target groups.

In June 2012, after more than five years of preparation, the new Anti-Corruption Act was passed, replacing the previous act dating from 1999. The new Act specified the restrictions established for the procedures and activities of officials, making the prevention of corruption in the public sector more substantive and flexible and clearer for citizens. The new Act also makes the filing of precompleted declarations more convenient for officials and more visible for the public.

The anti-corruption activities of the Internal Security Service are, above all, aimed at the prevention of damages, including at reducing the criminal income received from crime. The Ministry of the Interior follows the principle that crime must not pay.

Photo: Shutterstock

could recruit and train more employees. As of 10 October, 2011, the Internal Security Service also investigates corruption crimes committed by members of the management board or supervisory board of state-owned, partly state-owned or state-founded legal persons, if the activities of those members may entail a risk to national security. The Ministry of the Interior allocated additional funds for the Internal Security Service to fulfil its additional tasks in 2012.


Photo: Scanpix/Postimees/Toomas Huik

3 Strengthening the rescue capability


In addition to efficient prevention work, the strengthening of the rescue capability of rescue crews has played a role in the noticeable decrease in the number of fatalities.

Progress and room for development In 2012, a total of 195 people died in fires, traffic and water accidents in Estonia – that is 41 fewer than in 2011. In addition to efficient prevention work, the strengthening of the rescue capability of rescue crews has played a role in the noticeable decrease in the number of fatalities. From January to November 2012, rescue workers saved the lives of a total of 622 people in fires, traffic accidents, water accidents and other dangerous situations. Only complete rescue teams, i.e. rescue crews with a full rescue capability, can save human lives in accidents. In 2011, nearly half of the rescue crews were unable to ensure that those teams which had a full rescue capability were on call on a constant basis. Comparing the number of rescue workers per 100 000 residents in Estonia and Finland (134 in Estonia as against 72 in Finland) we can say that rescue workers in Estonia are unevenly distributed among too many rescue crews. Thus, there was a need to improve the organisation of the current system and to strengthen the rescue capability of the professional crews within the limits of the available resources. The number of accidents and casualties needs to drop and rescue crews need to respond to accidents even faster. In 2011, rescuers arrived at the scene at an average of 8.45 minutes after receiving the dispatch order; in Finland, the same figure was 8.39 minutes. A rescue crew with rescue capability (a team of at least three rescue workers who are capable of quickly and safely saving human lives in fires, traffic accidents or water accidents) arrived at the scene at an average of 11.20 minutes in

Estonia compared with 9.32 minutes in Finland.

Historical rescue network Up to 2012, the Estonian network of national rescue crews had developed historically, without taking into account the demographic and economical-geographical development of recent decades. According to the census carried out in 2011, people have relocated considerably and there has been a decrease in the overall population, moving from rural areas to larger settlements and there has been significant urban sprawl around major cities. Together with industrial and economic development, risks have also been geographically redistributed and become more diverse and complex. Due to that the locations of rescue crews had to be reviewed, taking into account the distribution of the population and risks. In 2011, there were 1 735 rescue workers in Estonia, working in a total of 81 rescue crews. However, only 41 national crews were able to ensure a constant rescue capability. For 86 per cent of Estonia’s population, the rescue service response time was 15 minutes. This shows that there is considerable room for development and in the first half of 2012 the Ministry of the Interior and the Rescue Board started looking for solutions to improve the accessibility of rescue services. An analysis was launched at the end of 2011 with the aim of internally reorganising the Rescue Board into the best possible structure of national rescue crews, which would ensure the prompt accessibility of rescue services to as many people as possible. The final objective of the plan to reorganise the network of rescue crews was to create a rescue service network, which takes into account the possibilities of Estonia, meets the expectations and needs of citizens and ensures prompt availability.

Another 25 crews with full rescue capability As a result of more than six months of analysis, the national rescue crews were reorganised in May 2012. The number of rescue workers remained the same in the restructuring. The overall number of rescue crews was reduced from 81 to 72, but the number of crews with full rescue

PRIORITIES

There can be no doubt that the most important objective of a rescue team is to save human lives. Besides fire-fighting, rescue capability today also covers rescue in chemical and radiation accidents, sea pollution, building collapse, traffic and water accidents and many other incidents. This has led to an increasing tendency towards professional rescue workers further improving their professional competence, providing specialised services and modernising the technical equipment.

3. Strengthening the rescue capability

25


Together with industrial and economic development, risks have also been geographically redistributed and become more diverse and complex.

capability increased by 25 – from 41 to 66. Estonia now has 53 rescue crews with at least four rescue workers working on a daily basis and 13 rescue crews with at least three rescue workers working on a daily basis. Six smaller national rescue crews remained in distant regions, i.e. at various isolated places on the mainland, like Värska, Tõstamaa and Nõva, and on the small islands of Vormsi, Kihnu and Ruhnu. The number of rescue crews with full rescue capability was increased by 25. As of today, the number of people in Estonia for whom rescue services are constantly available within a 15-minute response time has increased by about 121 000. The reorganisation of rescue crews will only be completed in the first half of 2013, but the main objective of the reorganisation has already been achieved since the beginning of the year – to increase the availability of the 15-minute response time to 93 per cent of the population instead of the former 86 per cent. Statistical data for the period from 16 May, 2012 to 31 December, 2012 justify the reorganisation. During

Number of rescue crews

PRIORITIES

3. Strengthening the rescue capability

26

that period, 511 rescue events took place in the regions where the 25 strengthened rescue crews are based, including 112 fires and 55 traffic accidents. In fires, two people were injured and one person died. Nineteen people were injured and three people died in traffic accidents. On average, rescue crews arrived at the scene in 11.4 minutes. During the same period, 102 rescue events took place in the response regions of nine former national crews, including 18 fires and 12 traffic accidents. Two fires involved a total of three casualties; there were no fatalities. On the average, rescue workers arrived at the scene in 16 minutes.

Two new rescue crews In addition to the reorganisation of the existing rescue crew network, the Ministry of the Interior in cooperation with Riigi Kinnisvara AS is planning to establish two new rescue crews as of 2013 – the Lasnamäe rescue crew in Tallinn and the second Tartu rescue crew in the Annelinn district. That will bring the provision of rescue services in those cities even more into correspondence with the

Distant

Distant 3 members

5

6

13

0-3 members More than 4 members

26

34

2011

16

3-4 members

2012

53

More than 3 members

National rescue crew system before and after reorganisation The number of rescue crews with full rescue capability increased by 25.


As of today, the number of people in Estonia for whom rescue services are constantly available within a 15-minute response time has increased by about 121 000.

PRIORITIES

3. Strengthening the rescue capability

Photo: Vassili Sokolov/ Rescue Service

27

distribution of residents, thereby further shortening the response time of rescue teams. However, the location of rescue crews in the network only serves to create the preconditions necessary for saving human lives. The actual rescue efficiency depends on properly-trained fast rescue workers with modern equipment. Indeed, the strengthening of the rescue capability will continue in 2013 primarily in the area of improving the quality and speed of the activities of rescue teams. Similar to ambulance vehicles, the Emergency Centre and the Rescue Board’s rescue trucks will start using the GIS-112 information system to be completed in an Estonian-Swiss joint project in 2013. The system automatically positions both the person making the emergency call and rescue teams corresponding to the caller’s needs, and forwards instructions on how to quickly reach the caller straight to the vehicle. The system will help shorten the average response time by up to a minute.

Modern equipment One technical innovation, which the rescue crews have

recently introduced, is thermal cameras. In 2013, the number of rescue crews using thermal cameras will grow from its current level of four to 24. Thermal cameras help rescue workers render the invisible visible – in a room filled with thick smoke, effectively helping determine the location of people so that rescue workers can penetrate the smoke and save people more safely and up to ten times as fast. In 2013, 16 telescopic rescue poles will be purchased in order to develop water rescue capability, and new personal protection equipment will be procured in order to improve the work safety of rescue workers. Other steps related to work organisation will also be taken towards strengthening the rescue capability. Strengthening the rescue capability will remain our priority now and in the coming years. Protecting human lives as of the highest value is one of our main tasks. The Ministry of the Interior is already planning activities for 2015 and onwards, with the aim to bring the rescue capability to the same level with countries whose example Estonia is following.


Photo: Scanpix/Postimees/Toomas Huik

4

Reducing drug-addiction and narcotics-related deaths


In 2012, the police confiscated a record amount of narcotics and criminal assets, but the number of intravenous drug addicts who died on the streets was higher than before.

Focus on reducing supply The prevention of drug trafficking and the reduction of the availability of drugs are important tasks in the fight against narcotics. In spring 2012, the Ministry of the Interior led the preparation of a specific action plan for reducing the availability of narcotics. The efficiency of the plan is monitored regularly. While for years the activities of the police in the fight against narcotics have been focussed on reducing organised crime, this year the activities aimed at limiting supply are clearly focussed on protecting public health. The confiscation of phentanyl as the narcotic substance causing the biggest number of narcotics-related deaths are in the centre of attention and the police has been allocated additional resources for capturing street dealers. In total, 1.64 kilograms of phentanyl was confiscated in 2012 – an amount equal to several thousands of doses. The value of confiscated criminal assets amounted to 1.5 million euros, which is nearly twice as high as the figure for 2011. As another important task in reducing the supply of narcotics, the Ministry of the Interior considers it essential to focus on identifying criminals who are making drugs

available to minors. The objective is to combat the use of narcotics among young people and prevent the growth of a new generation of drug-addicts. Activities in that area were more successful than was the case in 2011. As elsewhere in Europe, new psychoactive substances are the latest problem in reducing the supply of drugs. In Estonia, GHB has been one of the frequently used narcotic substances for years and many people have died from overdoses of GHB, with intoxicated drivers causing traffic accidents involving human victims. After a couple of years of delay and debate, the inclusion of GBL, the precursor of GHB, in the list of narcotic and psychotropic substances has reached its final phase. The Riigikogu (Estonian Parliament) will hold the second reading of the Act on Narcotic and Psychotropic Substances and Precursors Thereof at the beginning of 2013 and GBL will probably be included in the list in the first half of the year.

Confiscated illegal narcotics (kg) Substance

2011

2012

1.0

1.7

41.3

13.4

Methamphetamine

1.5

Cocaine

0.8

Cannabis

29.3

Marihuana

53.5

GHB

13.5

GBL

2.3

26.8 3.4 6.6 25.0 28.4 197.2

Phentanyls Amphetamine

The total volume of confiscated illegal narcotics increased considerably in 2012.

Still a lot of work to do In addition to its central role in reducing the supply of narcotics, the Ministry of the Interior also focussed on establishing new directions in the broader fight against drugs in 2012. The National Strategy for the Prevention of Drug Addiction for 2004-2012, which coordinated the activities of several ministries, has expired, but it is clear that there is still a long way to go towards achieving the

PRIORITIES

As a vice causing an increasing amount of damage, drug addiction has become a serious and gruelling problem for Estonia, endangering both public health and internal security as well as offering the criminal world endless opportunities to earn illegal income. Estonia continues to be among the primary countries in Europe by number of intravenous drug addicts (nearly 1 per cent of the population) and by the number of deaths caused by drug overdose (of which nearly 80 per cent are phentanyl overdoses). In 2012, the police confiscated a record amount of narcotics and criminal assets, but the number of intravenous drug addicts who died on the streets was higher than before. Various authorities hold levers for reducing both the supply of and demand for narcotics, and therefore an efficient fight against narcotics must be carefully planned and implemented and managed in concert between individual authorities.

4. Reducing drug-addiction and narcotics-related deaths

29


The National Strategy for the Prevention of Drug Addiction for 2004-2012, which coordinated the activities of several ministries, has expired, but it is clear that there is still a long way to go towards achieving the objectives established in it. In April, the Government of the Republic Drug Addiction Prevention Committee was formed upon the initiative of the Minister of the Interior. objectives established in it. Narcotics-related deaths are still on the rise – 132 people died in Estonia as a result of a drug overdose in 2011 and 160 in 2012. Most of them were long-time drug-addicts and 80 per cent died due to a phentanyl overdose. The number of minors who have used an illicit drug during their life has stabilised, but is still very high. According to the newest study of alcohol and drug use among European school students (ESPAD, 2011) 32 per cent of Estonian school students aged 15 to 16 years had used at least one illicit drug. That gives grounds to conclude that the measures taken so far have not helped reduce the use of drugs. In addition, the current treatment options and facilities are not sufficient for saving the life and health of those who have already become drug addicts. Percent

PRIORITIES

4. Reducing drug-addiction and narcotics-related deaths

30

7

15

24

30

32

1995

1999

2003

2007

2011

Use of illicit substances among young people aged 15 to 16 years in 1995-2011 Source: ESPAD

Investments in the addiction treatment and rehabilitation system must also be continued. Outpatient and inpatient addiction treatment services should be integrated into the existing healthcare system, so that addiction development can be prevented by early detection and those who have become addicted could receive the necessary help in order to get better, become independ-

ent and return to the labour market. The Ministry of the Interior holds that treatment and a post-addiction rehabilitation system is very necessary in Estonia also for the purpose of preventing crime and violence, because the lack of treatment is often the reason why the police keep encountering drug addicts who have already previously come into contact with the law enforcement system.

Government of the Republic Drug Addiction Prevention Committee In April, the Government of the Republic Drug Addiction Prevention Committee was formed upon the initiative of the Minister of the Interior. The purpose of the Committee is to handle the issues of drug prevention at the national level in a more coordinated and uniform manner. Besides the Minister of the Interior, the Committee includes the Minister of Education and Research, the Minister of Justice and the Minister of Social Affairs as well as the heads of relevant authorities, experts and the representatives of local governments and non-governmental organisations. The Committee is regularly attended by various members in order to link the activities of individual ministries and partners and to coordinate activities for future periods. This kind of cooperation ensures that the fight against crime is not random, but carefully planned and constantly monitored. The Drug Addiction Prevention Committee met three times in 2012 and at the meeting the ministers were given a detailed overview of the situation in the areas of addiction treatment and rehabilitation, drug prevention and the reduction of the supply of narcotics in Estonia. At the last meeting of the year, the Ministry of the Interior and the Drug Addiction Prevention Committee assumed the task of coordinating the follow-up document to the National Strategy for the Prevention of Drug Addiction, which is currently a measure included in the National Health Plan coordinated by the Ministry of Social Affairs. Among other forms of work, the Committee will also operate through small expert groups called together to solve specific problems in the area of prevention, treatment and follow-up services and the reduc-


Efficient prevention does not mean a one-off lecture given to teenagers, but years of consistent work.

Self-preservation takes years to evolve Drug prevention is a concern for all. Efficient prevention does not mean a one-off lecture given to teenagers, but years of consistent work. Self-preserving attitudes, which include refraining from the use of drugs, are instilled over the years in the everyday growth environment – at home, at school and in the community – hopefully long before the police has to intervene. Although drug prevention in Estonia is mostly coordinated by the Ministry of Social Affairs and the Ministry of Education and Research, the police also take part in various prevention programmes. Participation in drug prevention will be an important priority in the governing area of the Ministry of the Interior and considerable resources have been allocated particularly for prevention work aimed at reducing the use of drugs among minors. The justification for that investment is that broad-based prevention initiatives implemented in cooperation with other governing areas and social partners will help prevent drug addiction and reduce the response burden of the police in the future. Nearly 400 000 euros were allocated to the prevention fund of the Ministry of the Interior, with the aim of updating the prevention work model of the police at the beginning of 2013 and to reduce narcotics-related risks. Those new preventative activities planned for 2013 include, for instance, information activities aimed at improving the awareness and skills of parents so that they are able to establish clearer boundaries for their children.

Protect yourself and help others In the framework of preventative activities planned for 2013, the Police and Border Guard Board and the Rescue Board will participate in project KEAT (“Kaitse end ja aita teisi!” – “Protect yourself and help others!”), which is aimed at school children and among other activities

includes a lesson focussed on drug prevention. According th to the plan, the project activities will reach all 6 grade students all over Estonia. The drug prevention lesson is focussed on drug awareness and the skill to resist social pressure and say “No”. In March 2013, the “Clean Future” project will be launched in cooperation between the North Prefecture of the Police and Border Guard Board and the child protection workers of the Mustamäe district of Tallinn. The objective of the project is to find appropriate social services for minors who have come into contact with the police due to drugs. High-level coordination through the Government’s Drug Prevention Committee, involvement of communities in the networking and information activities carried out by the police and the everyday work of the criminal police in combating drug trafficking constitute a powerful contribution to reducing narcotics-related damages in Estonia. Coordinated joint efforts carry an important message – reducing drug addiction must be a common concern and interest of the entire society.

PRIORITIES

tion of the supply of narcotics. The expert groups will also help solve any bottlenecks in the system and plan cooperation between individual agencies in order to achieve the common objectives.

4. Reducing drug-addiction and narcotics-related deaths

31


Photo: Helin Vaher/PPA

5

Involving volunteers in security


Volunteers do not replace professionals, but supplement their activities, connect the community and the authorities and help solve a significant part of primary level crisis situations.

14 new volunteer rescue crews in a year By December 2012, Estonia had the total of 1 238 volunteer rescue workers operating in cooperation with the Rescue Board in 96 volunteer rescue crews and two reserve rescue groups. In the course of the reorganisation of the national rescue crews carried out at the beginning of May 2012 the state supported the formation of several new volunteer rescue crews. The need for this arose particularly in the Palamuse, Võnnu, Emmaste, Leisi, Puhja, Puka, Saku, Võsu and Kanepi regions where professional crews were reorganised due to the lack of constant full rescue capability. In 2012, 14 new volunteer rescue crews therefore started work at Palamuse, Saku, Võsu, Emmaste, Leisi, Avinurme, Lohusalu, Kallaste, Kirna, Kuusalu, Puurmani, Kädva, Muraste and Kärmu. 12,7

3,2

1,7

1

0,3

0,03

France

Germany

Finland

Estonia

Latvia

Lithuania

Increased role of volunteer rescue workers The population of Estonia is decreasing and more and more people are moving from rural settlements to cities. However, everyone all over the country wants to have a safe living environment, regardless of whether they live in the city or in a sparsely populated rural area. Besides urbanisation, changes in the migration patterns and age composition of the population as well as changes in the economy and other sectors have to be taken into account when ensuring the sense of security. All of that makes the role of volunteer rescue workers increasingly important beside the professional rescue system. The 72 rescue crews of the current national rescue network ensure rescue services with full rescue capability within 15 minutes for 93 per cent of the population. In distant regions, where the response time of professional crews is longer, the number of residents and the sparseness of the population make volunteer rescue workers particularly important in creating a safer living environment.

Number of volunteer rescue workers per 1 000 residents in EU countries In order to ensure the sustainability of volunteer rescue crews the inclusion of new volunteers must be constantly ensured. For a volunteer rescue crew to be sustainable and vital, it should have at least 12 members. However, by the end of 2011, only every fifth volunteer crew in distant regions had more than 12 members. This shows that the state has to support the recruitment of new members to nearly 80 per cent of volunteer crews in distant regions. Besides the recruitment of members to

PRIORITIES

A safe and secure living environment in Estonia is created both by the civil society and the state authorities. The sense of security starts from the safety and security of every person and home, continues with the creation of the sense of safety in the community and extends to the work of the police and other state institutions. People are important partners in both creating and supporting internal security. However, the work of volunteer rescue workers and maritime rescue workers as well as assistant police officers is of key importance. Involving volunteers in rescue work and law enforcement allows us to engage additional forces in ensuring security particularly in distant regions and to increase everyone’s sense of responsibility towards the community. Compared with developed countries, the proportion of volunteers is still several times smaller in Estonia. Volunteers do not replace professionals, but supplement their activities, connect the community and the authorities and help solve a significant part of primary level crisis situations.

5. Involving volunteers in security

33


One important objective in 2013 is the formation of new volunteer rescue crews in remote areas.

existing crews, new members are also needed for forming new volunteer crews. According to our forecast for 2013, the number of volunteer rescue crews will rise above 100 and the number of volunteer rescue workers will reach 1 330, of which 900 are trained to independently participate in rescue work. Thus the number of volunteer rescue workers will increase to one volunteer rescue worker per 1 000 residents. In Finland that figure is 70 per cent higher – 1.7 volunteer rescue workers per 1 000 residents, which indicates that we have a lot of room for development. In order to achieve the same ratio Estonia should have approximately 2 200 volunteer rescue workers. One important objective in 2013 is the formation of new volunteer rescue crews in remote areas. We wish to increase their number from the 47 of 2011 to 61 by the end of the year. We are working towards increasing the number of local governments that have a volunteer rescue crew operating in their territory or support the activities of a regional volunteer rescue crew together with neighbouring local governments. At the end of 2011, volunteer rescue workers were active in 71 local governments, but our aim is for 82 local governments to have volunteer rescue crews by the end of 2013. Besides assisting professionals in rescue work, the role of volunteers is also increasing in preventative activities aimed at avoiding fire and water accidents and saving human lives. As of December 2012, the volume of prevention work organised by volunteers amounted to 1 884 hours, which is comparable to the annual workload of a full-time service employee. It is clear that we have great potential and a lot of room for development in increasing the volume of prevention work performed by volunteers.

State support in developing volunteer rescue work In recent years, the Ministry of the Interior has taken concrete steps in developing the area of volunteer rescue work. The new Rescue Act enforced in 2010 established the basis for volunteers’ participation in rescue work. In

autumn 2011, coordinators started work in every rescue centre, acting as everyday cooperation partners and contact persons for volunteers. At the beginning of 2013, a regional strategy document will be completed in cooperation between the Ministry of the Interior, the Rescue Board and the representative organisation of volunteer rescue workers, the Voluntary Rescue Union. The document will summarise the state’s position on the relationship of volunteer rescue workers and the professional rescue system and formulate the objectives to be achieved in the subsequent four years. Those objectives cover several areas. Besides increasing the number of volunteers and the volume of prevention work, the legal environment has to be adjusted to the new situation and financial support must be provided to crews in order to ensure their sustainability. For volunteers to have maximum possible capability, they must also have modern technical and protection equipment. In order to improve the level of organisation of the volunteer rescue area, we must facilitate cooperation in the network between the various parties and emphasise and promote the social role of volunteer rescue work in communities. In euros

PRIORITIES

5. Involving volunteers in security

34

300 385

682 081

1 261 411

2011

2012

2013

State resources allocated to volunteer activities (volunteer rescue workers and assistant police officers) The amount has nearly tripled over three years


Assistant police officers are active and respected members of the community and care deeply about the security of their home neighbourhood and the entire country.

1031

1109

1238

2009

2010

2011

2012

Number of volunteer rescue workers in Estonia

The broader role of assistant police officers The sense of security is based on common positive values. It is therefore of utmost importance that support for the values creating security in the society is as wide as possible and the number of those carrying the values as large as possible. Slightly paraphrasing the Pareto principle, or the 80-20 rule1, we can say that 20 per cent of the people commit 80 per cent of all the offences and therefore the remaining 80 per cent of the people should influence the problematic fifth of the population. That 80 per cent cannot only rely on state institutions. The keywords here are active participation in the society and volunteering, which help increase the social sense of security in communities.

Assistant police officers are not only patrollers One form of participating in volunteer law enforcement is the position of the assistant police officer. Assistant police Italian economic Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) has noted on the basis of his study of the distribution of resources in the society that 20 per cent of the population hold 80 per cent of the wealth. Pareto has been later somewhat mistakenly claimed to have stated that 80 per cent of the effects come for 20 per cent of the causes, which became known as the Pareto principle.

1

officers are often regarded simply as active citizens who take part in policing alongside professional police officers. In reality, the activities of assistant police officers are much wider and the value of assistant police officers is much higher than simply patrolling together with professional police officers. It is an approach which values security and safety. Essentially, assistant police officers are active and respected members of the community and care deeply about the security of their home neighbourhood and the entire country. They have a strong leading and contributing role in the community. Assistant police officers are more conscientious in regards to law and order and are able to notice small things that may cause extensive harm in the future, if not dealt with. Individual countries approach the position of the assistant police officer differently. There are countries where assistant police officers have rights equal to those of professional police officers, but they are only used during extraordinary events. There are also countries where assistant police officers supplement the police force and take part in police activities together with the police. Estonia has chosen a combined version, using assistant police officers in direct police work both together with professional police officers and independently. We are convinced that it is very important to assign independent competence to assistant police officers who have obtained the necessary skills and knowledge, as it allows us to contribute more into law enforcement on the level of communities. Besides classical police activities, assistant police officers are also involved in active prevention work.

More active assistant police officers It is the wish and objective of the Ministry of the Interior to have as many assistant police officers as possible. The institution of the assistant police officer should unite all those who wish to contribute to law enforcement and those who due to their work or private life cannot actively participate in police activities, but are willing to join in when there is a critical need. In other words, we must form a reserve of assistant police officers. The members

5. Involving volunteers in security

853

PRIORITIES

In euros

35


Only through strong social responsibility in communities can we ensure efficient social control over the positive values and norms of the society and reduce the pressure on handling consequences.

of the reserve can participate in further training and other activities, which helps create common values – a sense of security and a sense of cohesion. The number of assistant police officers is currently approximately 1 500, of whom half are reserve officers. Whereas in 2012 Estonia had one active assistant police officer per 2 139 residents, the objective for 2015 is to have one active assistant police officer per every 1 000 residents. Reaching that ratio is an ambitious objective, but it is achievable and undoubtedly necessary. In the long-term perspective, the role of assistant police officers needs to be increased particularly in the area of prevention work. Therefore it is in accordance with the objective that one assistant police officer carry the prevention message to 1 000 residents. In order to create a strong institution of assistant police officers, the Police and Border Guard Board and the prefectures have had coordinators since autumn 2011, tasked with establishing a strong institution that creates value. The state has allocated notable amounts for developing volunteering, as only that allows us to bring considerably more

people who care about the security and future of Estonia into the ranks of assistant police officers, and to create a close-knit community with a strong identity, which responds to problems in the area of safety and security. Only through strong social responsibility in communities can we ensure efficient social control over the positive values and norms of the society and reduce the pressure on handling consequences.

Development of volunteer maritime rescue workers In 2011, the Parliament enforced regulations for involving volunteer rescue workers and assistant police officers and in 2012 the legal basis for the activities of volunteer maritime rescue workers was established. The amendments to the Police and Border Guard Act enforced on 1 September, 2012 stipulate the rights and obligations, requirements and training principles as well as the benefits and securities of volunteer maritime rescue workers. That gave the Police and Border Guard Board the leeway to involve volunteer maritime rescue workers in Photo: Helin Vaher/PPA

PRIORITIES

5. Involving volunteers in security

36


Depending on the training completed, volunteer maritime rescue workers participate in rescue works either together with police officers or fulfil the orders of the police independently.

PRIORITIES

5. Involving volunteers in security

Photo: Jaan R천천mus/PPA

37

the search and rescue of people and vehicles that are in trouble or have gone missing in domestic and territorial waters, principally on Lake Peipsi, Lake Pskov, Lake L채mmij채rv and on the Narva River and water reservoir. Depending on the training completed, volunteer maritime rescue workers participate in rescue works either together with police officers or fulfil the orders of the police independently. During their participation in police activities, volunteer maritime rescue workers are in effect representatives of state authority, whose lawful orders must be fulfilled. Volunteer maritime rescue workers have formed non-profit associations, with which the Police and Border Guard Board has concluded a contract in order to

organise their activities and support in greater detail. At the end of 2012, negotiations were being held with the Estonian Maritime Rescue Organisation and the Estonian Voluntary Rescue Union. After the conclusion of the contracts the Police and Border Guard Board will recognise the members of the non-profit associations who meet the legal requirements for volunteer maritime rescue workers. In 2012, the Police and Border Guard Board organised level I basic training for 34 volunteer maritime rescue workers and the Estonian Maritime Rescue Organisation has, with European Union funds, provided training to about 70 volunteer maritime rescue workers since 2011.


Photo: Scanpix/Postimees/Toomas Huik

6

Conservative citizenship and migration policy


2012 has shown that Estonia is capable of decisively and adequately responding to the misuse of the immigration system.

Analysis-based migration policy Citizens are not allowed to simultaneously have the citizenship of another country, but the state has assigned the fulfilment of that obligation to citizens and does not impose coercion or sanctions. Thus, the exclusion of multi-citizenship is based on the presumption that Estonian citizens respect law and order and behave law-abidingly when fulfilling these obligations – it is not ensured by coercion by the state. The core of the immigration policy is to prevent those aliens from entering Estonia who pose a threat to public order, national security or social and cultural processes. At the same time, we are open to those who bring clear added value to the society and whose stay in Estonia is in accordance with public interests. An integral migration policy takes into account analyses and cooperation with social partners. Estonia shapes its migration policy in accordance with the European Union policy and on the basis of the Constitution of Estonia and the common values of the Euro-

pean Union. The Estonian migration policy has directed migration flows, facilitating the settlement of those aliens who are willing and able to contribute to the development of the Estonian economy, science, education and culture, and striving to prevent the arrival of those aliens who may jeopardise the common values.

Misuse has taught a lesson 2012 has shown that Estonia is capable of decisively and adequately responding to the misuse of the immigration system. The amendments made to the Aliens Act in order to avoid further misuse of residence permits discovered in 2011 were enforced on 1 July, 2012 and have proven very efficient. It was discovered in spring 2011 that residence permits for employment as a member of a governing body of a company were mostly applied for in order to gain legal basis for living in Estonia or staying in the Schengen area. First, the Minister of the Interior issued a regulation, which suspended the issuance of residence permits on the aforementioned ground and allowed the issuance of residence permits to skilled labour and entrepreneurs within an established limit. That also effectively prevented the misuse of residence permits granted in the case of sufficient legal income. As a result of the more efficient control measures applied by the Police and Border Guard Board, several residence permit applications were not satisfied, because the applicants were unable to prove their actual investments or business activities in Estonia. At the same time, the Ministry of the Interior and its partners promptly developed amendments to the Aliens Act, amending the requirements for residence permits granted for employment and business. The issuance of residence permits in the case of sufficient legal income was repealed. The efficiency of the amendments to the Aliens Act is also evidenced by the fact that the number of residence permits issued for employment as a member of a corporate governing body has dramatically decreased – from 580 residence permits in 2011, to 50 residence permits in 2012. The Police and Border Guard Board have

PRIORITIES

The Estonian citizenship and migration policy relies on the basic values and principles of the Constitution, including the theses of the preservation of nation-state and the protection of public order and national security, as well as the common policies agreed in the European Union. The laws, the coalition agreement and the Government’s Action Programme translate these values and principles into concrete activities. The foundation of Estonia’s well-functioning citizenship policy is the understanding that citizenship gained at birth is a right and citizenship granted to a non-citizen is a privilege, which entails a relationship of trust with the state both in the form of rights and obligations. This is based on the presumption that every citizen has a sense of responsibility towards the state and behaves law-abidingly. Pursuant to the Constitution, the citizens of the Republic of Estonia have the obligation of loyalty and the obligation of national defence towards the state, as well as the right to live in Estonia and rely on the state’s protection both in Estonia and abroad.

6. Conservative citizenship and migration policy

39


The efficiency of the amendments to the Aliens Act is also evidenced by the fact that the number of residence permits issued for employment as a member of a corporate governing body has dramatically decreased – from 580 residence permits in 2011 to 50 residence permits in 2012.

PRIORITIES

6. Conservative citizenship and migration policy

40

Family migration

2011

1371

2012

1255

2011

1430

Employment 2012 Business Studies

835

2011

142

2012

61

2011

464

2012

516

Legal income

2011

62

2012

6*

International agreements

2011

838

2012

639

areas – air border, sea border, police cooperation and data protection. The issuance of visas, consular cooperation and land border will be assessed in 2013. Issuing personal identification documents in a customer-centred and efficient manner is an integral part of the conservative citizenship and migration policy. The replacement of personal identification documents increased dramatically in 2012 due to their expiry. After establishing the objective that waiting time at the service offices of the Police and Border Guard Board must remain between 15 to 30 minutes, significant changes were made in order to facilitate the smoother application for, and processing and issuance of, personal identification documents.

* Repealed since 1 July, 2012

Residence permits issued in 2011-2012, by grounds for issuance

204 881

220 498

433 009

631 453

20ˇ0

2011

2012

2013

As a result of amendments to the Aliens Act enforced on 1 July, 2012, the number of residence permits issued for business decreased considerably

increased the efficiency of follow-up control over residence permits, in order to ascertain the purposeful use of residence permits during their validity period. The Residence Permit Application Review Committee formed by the Police and Border Guard Board also includes experts familiar with the economy. That ensures a greater efficiency of proceedings, as a result of which people who contribute to the development of the Estonian economy can settle in Estonia. The state’s prompt and decisive action after the discovery of the misuse of residence permits is also important in view of preventing similar attempts in the future.

A positive assessment of the border guarding policy The relevance of Estonia’s border guarding policy was convincingly confirmed in 2012, when Estonia’s conformity with the Schengen requirements was assessed. It was concluded after the assessment that Estonia is in full compliance with the common rules in all the assessed

The number of personal identification documents issued in 2010-2012, and forecast for 2013. One efficient change was the introduction of the queue management system, which allows people to book a suitable service date and time on the homepage of the Police and Border Guard Board and to come to the service office at the booked time. In order to achieve the objectives established in regards to waiting time, more than fifty non-staff service employees were hired. In addition, the service points of the citizenship and migration offices in Tallinn and Tartu employed waiting area clerks who are


In the common Schengen area with no internal borders, the activities of one Member State have a significant impact on other Member States and therefore a responsible attitude towards the management of migration flows is the obligation of every individual Member State.

The conservative citizenship and migration policy also includes the management of migration flows and adjustment to changes in the environment, which require concrete actions to protect constitutional values and achieve political objectives. In order to increase the competitiveness of the Estonian economy, the Government of the Republic has established the task to create a favourable environment for attracting top specialists, scientists, skilled labour and foreign students to Estonia. The Ministry of the Interior therefore began the development of amendments to the Aliens Act in 2012, involving not only the relevant ministries, but also many other cooperation partners in the process, like the Estonian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the Estonian Employers’ Confederation, the Estonian Trade Union Confederation and the Estonian Rectors’ Conference as well as the representatives of public universities. A properly-managed immigration policy has to be developed in accordance with the objectives deriving both from the Constitution and the Government’s Action Programme, with the aim to open up those types of migration that facilitate the achievement of the established objectives. An open structural immigration policy primarily requires the creation of an attractive social and economic environment, an appropriate adaptation programme and

PRIORITIES

Properly managed migration flows

a support network, as well as the creation and promotion of a friendly environment image. Together with partners, the Ministry of the Interior will determine which aliens are particularly welcome in Estonia. After that we shall jointly create a flexible system, which facilitates their settlement in Estonia and helps prevent the misuse of residence permits. In the common Schengen area with no internal borders, the activities of one Member State have a significant impact on other Member States and therefore a responsible attitude towards the management of migration flows is the obligation of every individual Member State. Together with cooperation partners we can establish measures, which help prevent misuse and ensure Estonia’s reliability in the European Union.

Photo: Nelli Pello/PPA

available to provide instructions and advice to customers in the service area and at the photo booths, if necessary. Additional citizenship and migration service points were also opened in Otepää and Elva. Public computers for paying the state fees and additional photo booths have been installed in larger service points in Tallinn and Tartu. Although the workload in customer service will increase even further in 2013, the Police and Border Guard Board still aims to keep the waiting time in customer service points between 15 to 30 minutes, in order to ensure the application for and issuance of personal identification documents in a customer-friendly and smooth manner.

6. Conservative citizenship and migration policy

41


Photo: Archives of the Ministry of the Interior

PRIORITEEDID

1. ENNETUSPOLIITIKA JA ÕNNETUSSURMADE VÄHENDAMINE

7 42

High-quality and sustainable management of internal security


In the public sector, it is very important not to forget the higher objective of activities in the midst of the everyday workload.

26,9

26,3

24,1

22,7

2009

2010

2011

2012

Kilometres travelled by land vehicles

Quality stems from management The management of internal security simultaneously in a high-quality and sustaniable manner means balanced management. The aim is to provide high-quality services with the resources put at our disposal and therefore we always have to be demanding towards our activities and resources. On the other hand, our goal is to do that sustainably and wisely. While companies have to be demanding towards themselves due to competition, the public sector does

not have the ‘invisible hand’ of the market and dissatisfied customers cannot choose another service provider. In the public sector, fastidiousness towards one’s own service quality therefore comes from managers and the employees themselves. Fastidiousness is best illustrated by asking the question whether we are doing the right thing in the right manner every working hour. In the public sector, it is very important not to forget the higher objective of activities in the midst of the everyday workload.

Main projects in 2012 Procurement of multifunctional pollution response vessel PVL-101 General Kurvits As a member of the Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea, Estonia fulfills the marine pollution control requirements of HELCOM. The most high-risk regions in Estonia’s area of responsibility include the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Finland, where shipping lanes leading to Russian, Finnish, Swedish and Estonian ports intersect. Under the leadership of the Ministry of the Interior, a 32 million EUR multifunctional pollution response ship PVL-101 was procured for the Police and Border Guard Board. The ship was named General Kurvits in the honour of the founder and first commander of the Estonian professional border guard service. The ship was procured with support from the European Fund for Regional Development and will be used for prevention and monitoring, in order to prevent the malicious contamination of the marine environment. The procurement process took six years. In its designated area of responsibility, the ship is capable of arriving at the scene of an accident within six hours and start work within 12 hours from the time of the accident. In ordinary circumstances, the ship has a crew of 12 to 14 people, but in the event of a marine accident it can pick up at least 150 people. The new ship allows us to carry out rescue and pollution control work also in extremely adverse weather conditions and to operate in

PRIORITIES

In millions of km

With nearly 10 500 employees, 7 000 computer workplaces, 400 physical locations of activity, 2 000 vehicles, autonomous radio communications systems, aircraft, helicopters, ships and other specific technical equipment, the governing area of the Ministry of the Interior is the largest organisation in Estonia. We have to use all the equipment wisely in fulfilling our various resource-intensive tasks. On the one hand, it means taking good care of equipment and resources, while on the other hand it means ensuring that more expensive equipment is constantly in use. However, the nature of our work requires that we always have reserves and options for cases when everyday equipment breaks down – fires must be extinguished, criminals captured and illegal border-crossings prevented regardless of the time of day or year.

7. High-quality and sustainable management of internal security

43


Experience so far has proven that cooperation with RKAS ensures the functional and appropriate management of real estate.

PRIORITIES

Photo: Jaan Rõõmus/PPA

7. High-quality and sustainable management of internal security

44

chemical accident zones. Over the years, it has been a tradition that the President’s spouse fulfils the honourable role of being the godmother to border guard ships. The godmother of the new PVL-101 is Mrs. Evelin Ilves.

New buildings in Jõhvi, Jõgeva and Kuressaare In cooperation with Riigi Kinnisvara AS (State Real Estate, hereinafter RKAS), new joint buildings for internal security institutions were constructed in Jõhvi, Jõgeva and Kuressaare in 2012. That helped us improve the working conditions of employees, fulfill the requirements established for detention facilities and reduce the overhead expenses of real estate. It also improved the accessibility of public services for the public, as previously scattered institutions are now at the same location. In April, a nearly 8 500 square metre joint building was completed in Jõhvi for the East Prefecture of the Police and Border Guard, the East Rescue Centre of the Rescue Board, the IT and Development Centre of the Ministry of the Interior and the Eastern Department of the Estonian Internal Security Service. The building also houses the first joint control centre of the Emergency Centre and the Police and Border Guard Board, where

emergency calls to 112 and 110 are handled. The new work arrangements considerably improved the speed of exchanging and forwarding information. In Jõgeva, a new court and police building was opened. The area of the building is more than 2 000 square metres and provides modern working premises for the court, probation supervision, registry department and the Jõgeva Police Department and the Jõgeva service of the Citizenship and Migration Bureau of the Police and Border Guard Board.

Transfer of real estate to Riigi Kinnisvara AS In 2012, the Ministry of the Interior handed over to RKAS 63 real estate properties of the Rescue Board and 9 properties of the Police and Border Guard Board with the total value of 7 460 600 euros. That releases the government agencies from having to manage real estate and allows them to concentrate on their core activities. The transfer has also improved to the planning of the budgets of the Ministry and its area of administration. Experience so far has proven that cooperation with RKAS ensures the functional and appropriate management of real estate. Thanks to the involvement of RKAS, the institutions in the area of administration of the Minis-


The Saaremaa base of the flying squad of the Police and Border Guard Board and the cordon building of the West Prefecture in Kuressaare will be completed in the summer.

Joint Emergency and Police control centre in Pärnu In October, the previously separately located Western Centre of the Emergency Centre and the control centre of the West Prefecture of the Police and Border Guard Board moved to a joint control centre in Pärnu. After Jõhvi, that was the second control centre where calls to emergency numbers 110 and 112 are received in one place.

Steps towards a joint coastal base Photo: Irina Mägi

The Ministry of the Interior has been looking for possi-

bilities to establish a joint coastal base for its agencies in Tallinn for many years already. As of now, an agreement has been concluded that the Estonian Maritime Administration's Hundipea Port will become the home port of the Police and Border Guard Board. That will ensure improved coastal support to ships at port facilities and eliminate the need to invest more than 20 million euros into infrastructure at the Süsta Port. The saving will be used for improving the efficiency of existing floating vessels in the project "Ships to Sea".

Major national joint procurements In the comparison of ministries, the Ministry of the Interior is one of the largest buyers and organisers of joint public procurements in Estonia. In 2012, the Ministry held two national joint procurements for fuel and drinking water, which was open for joining to all the public institutions in Estonia. Organising joint procurements between

PRIORITIES

try of the Interior now use property, the functionality of which corresponds to their specific needs and which is properly managed. Since 2009, the Ministry has transferred to RKAS the total of 180 real estate properties with the aggregate value of more than 5.4 million euros.

7. High-quality and sustainable management of internal security

45


The service-based management accounting will make management more purposeful and the costs clearer.

public institutions for the purpose of cutting costs is the state’s preferred direction of activity. The Ministry of the Interior made the proposal to join the fuel procurement to all the ministries and institutions in their governing area, as well as to the Government Office, the Supreme Court and the National Audit Office. In accordance with the two-year framework agreement, the institutions will buy the total of nearly 6.47 million litres of petrol and 6.1 million litres of diesel fuel.

IT Agency successfully physically moved to Estonia In March, the Management Board of the European Agency for the Operational Management of Large-scale IT Systems convened for the first time in Tallinn and passes a number of necessary decisions for launching the activities of the Agency. By now, a decision has also been made to introduce ‘eu-LISA’ as the acronym for the Agency’s long and complicated name. The Executive Director of the Agency, Krum Garkov, started work in Tallinn together with the first officials as of 1 November, and the Agency has been fully functional from 1 December, 2012. Pursuant to Estonia’s commitment made in competing to become the hosting country for the Agency, Estonia has provided working premises for the Agency. The current premises are only temporary – the Agency will be found its own permanent facilities in due course.

Internal, or support services Internal, or support services, which facilitate everyday police and rescue work (e.g. accounting, real estate maintenance and personnel work) will be based on a common understanding, the creation of which will be based on an analysis of the need to establish a Joint Internal Service Centre (ÜSK). The descriptions and performance of internal services were harmonised in the institutions of the governing area of the Ministry of the Interior, in order to create a basis for comparing the institutions. The draft principles of the internal service policy were also formulated and pursu-

ant to those principles the objective of internal services is to provide sustainable and efficient support to the core services. The harmonisation of internal services also requires their simplification, and services should be centrally managed either by the relevant institution or even the owner of the internal services across the entire area of administration.

Service-based management, budgetary and cost accounting In 2012, the project for the service-based management of the governing area of the Ministry of the Interior was continued. The Rescue Board, which launched the project already in 2008, has by now harmonised the descriptions of its main services and created a preliminary version of an activity-based cost model, which is the basis for price formation. The service-based management accounting will make management more purposeful and the costs clearer. By the end of 2012, the service catalogue of the area of administration of the Ministry of the Interior was prepared and it covers both main and internal services and specifies the service processes and sub-processes.

Photo: Private collection of the Academy of Security Sciences

PRIORITIES

7. High-quality and sustainable management of internal security

46


Organising joint procurements between public institutions for the purpose of cutting costs is the state’s preferred direction of activity.

In the academic year 2012/2013, the Estonian Academy of Security Sciences reinstated vocational studies in the area of police work, offering curricula for both police officers and border guards. The vocational studies provide the necessary professional training for every position. The content of the higher education curriculum of the rescue service area was adjusted and cut from the four years as had been the case, to three years. The change allows the provision of sufficient training to rescue workers in a more flexible manner and in a shorter time.

Analysis of the transfer of the Estonian Academy of Security Sciences to Ida-Viru County The Action Programme of the Government of the Republic has established an objective for 2011-2014 to improve the training of law enforcement officers and to consider the establishment of the Estonian Academy of Security Sciences in Ida-Viru County. After weighing the possible locations and the cost of construction, the Government gave the Ministry of the Interior the task of continuing the analysis of moving the Academy to Ida-Virumaa in cooperation with the Ministry of Finance and RKAS. As of today, a public enquiry has been made in order to find a suitable place for the Academy of Security Sciences in Ida-Viru County. The Ministry will prepare the financial and activity plan for moving the Academy so that it will act as an internationally recognised high-quality and innovative study, research and development centre.

Plans for 2013 In January 2013, the Narva Police station and the Eastern Rescue Centre of the Rescue Board moved to a new building. The Saaremaa base of the flying squad of the Police and Border Guard Board and the cordon building of the

West Prefecture in Kuressaare will be completed in the summer. That will significantly improve the helicopter response capability in Western Estonia: people in need of assistance will be transported to hospitals in Tallinn or Tartu in a considerably shorter time, as this change cuts the initial 60-minute flight time from Tallinn to Kuressaare. The West Prefecture will also be able to respond to rescue and border incidents faster. In 2013, work will start to design joint administrative buildings for the internal security institutions of the Ministry of the Interior at Sillamäe, Kohtla-Järve and Kiviõli. Efforts will continue to enhance rescue capability, conditions for that were created by the 2012 state budget and the reorganisation of the network of rescue crews. Activities also include the construction of new buildings for rescue crews in the Annelinn district of Tartu and the Lasnamäe district of Tallinn. Preparations are being made for the transition to the single emergency number 112 at the end of 2014. That includes the beginning of the construction of new buildings for the Emergency Centre in Tallinn and Tartu and investments in the joint emergency calls system. The project for the budgetary and cost accounting of service-based management will continue in 2013. Firstly, the content of services and the assignment of responsibility will be specified – a service information card will be prepared for every service, stating the service parameters and their measurement system. Secondly, a cost accounting system will be created for the purpose of determining the service costs as of 2014 and for preparing the budget of the governing area on the basis of services as of 2015. In subsequent years, the servicebased management model will be specified and a service management information system will be introduced, to be integrated with other information systems used in the governing area.

PRIORITIES

Improved training in the governing area

7. High-quality and sustainable management of internal security

47


Implementation of the

PRIORITEEDID

1. ENNETUSPOLIITIKA JA ÕNNETUSSURMADE VÄHENDAMINE

48

„Main guidelines of Estonia’s security policy until 2015“ in 2012

The following report provides an overview of the fulfilment of the objectives established in the „Main guidelines of Estonia’s security policy until 2015“ approved by the Riigikogu on 10 June, 2008, and of the main development directions in 2012.


PRIORITEEDID

1. ENNETUSPOLIITIKA JA ÕNNETUSSURMADE VÄHENDAMINE

49


1

Stronger sense of security

Ensuring the public sense of security requires the state’s capability in responding to crimes, social control and people’s active participation in law enforcement activities. Only the cumulative effect of these factors allows us to effectively prevent and respond to crimes. In 2012, the number of serious violations of public order decreased by 218, and in total the number has dropped by more than a half over the past three years. At the same time, however, the number of cases of physical abuse in public places has increased from 2011. One of the reasons for the rise in that statistical indicator was the prioritisation of that type of crime in 2012, when it was decided together with the Ministry of Justice that none of such incidents must be disregarded. Those crimes are mostly committed in dwellings or public places (Table 1). Cases of physical abuse are usually related to intoxication and are generally committed during weekends and at night. Although the number of law enforcement patrols was on the same level as in 2010, the number of emergency calls has considerably decreased (224 000 in 2010 and 174 000 in 2012), as a result of which the response speed has increased.

Scenes of physical abuse in 2011 and 2012 Apartment/private house Public space/street Recreational/catering establishment Detention facility

2011

2012

1632 1209 203 21

2472 1306 332 7

Crimes against the person While in 2009, the number of deaths as a result of manslaughter and murder was 69, the figure was 56 in 2010, 65 in 2011 and 55 in 2012, which can be considered as a positive result. There were 20 cases of expressive homicide committed in a state of intoxication in the domestic environment in 2012. The number of cases of causing

serious health damage has remained at the same level compared to 2011.

Narcotics-related crimes Narcotics-related crime endangers the society due to the fact that it generates other types of crime and directly jeopardises well-being and security in the society. Over the past dozen years, 1 135 people have died in Estonia due to the consumption of illegal drugs, 132 of them in 2011 and 160 in 2012 (Figure 2). In 2012, the police confiscated 166 062.109 grams of narcotic and psychotropic substances and their precursors – which is nearly 25 per cent more than in 2011. As a result of prioritisation, the amounts of confiscated phentanyl and methamphetamine as well as cocaine have increased considerably. Cannabis has been confiscated in

2001

38

2002

90

2003

37

2004

99

2005

61

2006

74

2007

107

2008

94

2009

140

2010

104

2011

132

2012

160

The dynamics of narcotics-related deaths in 2011-2012


form mainly from Russia, and processed for sale locally. In 2012, phentanyl was one of the main causes of drugsrelated fatalities, as it is a strong narcotic substance and extremely easy to overdose. Therefore, phentanyl will remain as one of the priority narcotic substances, the distribution of which must be decisively stopped also in the coming years.

Objective in the Main Guidelines of Security Policy

Activities in 2012

8.1. The public will be notified of the places and times where and when people are at a risk of falling victim to assault, as well as the individuals’ opportunities to contribute to public security.

In accordance with the 2012 annual plan for the prevention of offences, awareness-raising campaigns were held concerning the following topics: • offences committed by and against minors; • close relationship violence; • saving human lives; • offences violating public peace; • offences related to the use of addictive substances; • prevention of offences against property; • safe conduct on the Internet; • traffic violations according to the traffic supervision plan. In 2012, law enforcement officers published the total of 1 715 media articles and statements on the prevention of various offences (1 830 in 2011).

8.2. The visibility of the police as the general law enforcement authority on patrol in public places will be enhanced and quick response to police emergencies guaranteed.

The average number of law enforcement patrols on duty was 92.48 in 2012.

8.3. The analysis-based patrol work system will be enhanced in the police authorities, so as to put the resources allocated to law enforcement into maximum use in ensuring public security.

As of the beginning of 2012, the police have been applying a patrol duty model based on an analysis of the place and time of offences, which is a tool used in planning the work of patrol teams.

8.4. Effective co-operation networks will be established on the local government level for engendering law-abiding behaviour among risk groups.

162 local government units had committees focussed on security in 2012.

The results of an opinion survey conducted in early summer showed that the average satisfaction with the activities of the police has grown in all the regions (from 64% to 70%). People are satisfied with the work, communication skills, efficiency and professional skills of the police.

In December, the Police and Border Guard Board completed a patrol simulation model, which makes it possible to calculate the time spent on responding to incidents.

In smaller rural municipalities, which have not formed committees, preventative work is performed through various cooperation networks that also involve regional police officers.

51 1. Stronger sense of security

8. People’s fear of falling victim to assault in public places has decreased.

REPORT

a smaller amount compared to 2011. The Estonian drugs market is small in the global context and one or two confiscations may change the overall situation and reduce the availability of a narcotic substance here. One of the main trends in 2012 was the spread of synthetic heroin, or phentanyl. The extremely dangerous narcotic substance is brought to Estonia in liquid


9. The number of offences against the person will be reduced, while special attention will be paid to reducing the number of manslaughters and murders as well as offences against minors. Activities in 2012

9.1. Media campaigns will be conducted for drawing public attention to the problem of school violence and violence in personal relationships, and the measures for preventing such problems.

Training was provided to kindergarten employees, in order to increase their ability to recognise and help mistreated children. Folders with the contact details of cooperation partners were printed. 400 kindergarten employees in Harju County participated in the training. Prefectures organised various projects among school children, aimed at preventing bullying and improving the cooperation of school staff in dealing with the problem – particularly in the area of early recognition and intervention. The initiative included the completion of a workbook for teachers, a youth-toyouth film “School Violence” and other such materials, which are of assistance in noticing bullying among students and give instruction on how to give notice of a mistreated child. The total of 2 145 people took part in the projects. The training events aimed at upper-secondary school students on the subject of close relationship violence taught participants how to recognise the signs of danger in relationships and how to behave when the conduct of one’s own or a friend’s partner shows signs of violence. Folders in Estonian and Russian were produced in the course of the project and 800 10th-grade students participated in the training.

REPORT

1. Stronger sense of security

52

Objective in the Main Guidelines of Security Policy

The national project “Together we create security!” is aimed at increasing the efficiency of cooperation between various local providers of help (the police, the prosecutor’s office, the local government, victim support, shelters, healthcare institutions etc). About 120 officials from different areas of life took part in the four information days organised by the police in the eastern part of Harju County, Ida-Viru County, Valga County and Järva County. The project will be continued in 2013. A directive of the Director General of the Police and Border Guard Board enforced in October updated the instructions for responding to cases of close relationship violence and forwarding the relevant information to victim support.

9.2. The cooperation between officials involved in protecting minors will be enhanced.

The Police and Border Guard Board took part in the European Commission project EE-SIC II, which provides training to officials communicating with children and supports the activities of the youth panel. The Board will participate in EE-SIC II until spring 2014. The police worked closely together with social workers and child protection officials in the area of notification of cases of close relationship violence involving minors. In 2012, the Police and Border Guard Board also took part in the project “Crime prevention and community safety in Nordic countries”, which was financed from the national structural funds of the European Social Fund. The aim of the project was to increase the awareness of Estonian specialists of community-based crime prevention methods and the rehabilitation of former prisoners, but also to improve community-based prevention work skills.


9.3. Support to non-profit associations, which offer social programmes, will be enhanced.

Prevention work includes active cooperation with the public, private and nonprofit sectors, which support the offence prevention activities of the police both financially and non-financially. Local governments supported offence prevention projects with 110 142 euros, which formed 8 per cent of the total cost of the projects. The number of the sectors of neighbourhood watch, school watch and kindergarten watch has grown, with 1 089 registered sectors as at the end of 2012 (1 025 in 2011).

Objective in the Main Guidelines of Security Policy

Activities in 2012

10. More efficient integration activities improve the unity of Estonian society.

In 2012, work was continued to speed up and improve the organisation of the naturalisation process. The activities launched in February 2008 were continued in informing the parents of children of undetermined citizenship of the possibilities of applying for Estonian citizenship for their child by simplified procedure. Since November 2011 the Police and Border Guard Board has been able to receive data about newborn children and their parents from the Population Register via the X-tee system. On the basis of the received data, proceedings to determine the citizenship of the child are conducted in the information system of the Police and Border Guard Board. If the child has not obtained Estonian citizenship upon birth, the parents are sent a letter, informing them of the need to register a legal basis for their child’s residence in Estonia and explaining the possibilities of applying for Estonian citizenship for their child. The total of 824 such notices were sent to parents in 2012. If a parent has not applied for Estonian citizenship for the child after a repeated notice, the Police and Board Guard Board will send an information letter addressed personally to the child (when the child has become 14 years of age), informing the child of the possibility to apply for Estonian citizenship by simplified procedure before becoming 15 years of age. A few such letters have been sent. The service offices of the Citizenship and Migration Bureau at the Prefectures of the Police and Board Guard Board provide information on a constant basis, explaining to all the persons of undetermined citizenship, who meet the requirements for obtaining citizenship, regardless of their purpose of coming to the service points, that they can apply for Estonian citizenship for themselves and their children. The number of people of undetermined citizenship living in Estonia on the basis of the right of residence or a residence permit has decreased and continues to decrease steadily. According to the data of the Police and Border Guard Board, the number of persons of undetermined citizenship living in Estonia as of December 2012 was 94 344, of whom 1 265 were children under the age of 15.

REPORT

10. More efficient integration activities improve the unity of Estonian society.

1. Stronger sense of security

53


2

Improved traffic safety

The traffic supervision action plan enforced upon the initiative of the Ministry of the Interior at the beginning of 2012 is showing first results. While in 2011 there were 101 fatalities in traffic accidents, the figure in 2012 dropped by 14, to 87. The number of traffic casualties, traffic accidents and traffic accidents involving victims was also smaller. 100

79

101

87

2009

2010

2011

2012

Traffic accident fatalities in 2009-2012 Of the 87 fatalities of 2012, 31 were pedestrians (26 in 2011). A half of the victims were killed while travelling on an unlit road in the dark and only very few of them wore a reflector. There has been an increase in the proportion of pedestrian victims who are under the influence of alcohol or have consumed excessive quantities of alcohol, particularly among young people. Although traffic has again become more lively on the main highways, pedestrian fatalities were more frequently than previously also registered on smaller local roads and secondary roads, which do not have pedestrian walkways or bicycle roads. Although the Police and Border Guard Board has in cooperation with the Road Administration and the third sector made considerable efforts to equip pedestrians with reflectors and reflector jackets, and cyclists with

reflector jackets and spoke reflectors, there is still a lot of work to be done in the society in changing the attitudes towards the use of reflectors. The most exemplary reflector users are still kindergarten children and primary school children, but they do not often even travel in the dark; as people get older, they tend to forget this extremely necessary precaution. A survey conducted by AS Emor showed that basic school and upper-secondary school students mostly wear a reflector, if their parents do so. In order to reduce the number of fatalities, we are focussing on preventative activities in traffic supervision and on coordinated cooperation between authorities. In regards to vehicle drivers our primary aim is to reduce speeding, drunk-driving and the habit of not using safety equipment, and in regards to pedestrians our main attention is on safe road-crossing and the use of safety equipment.

Pedestrian

2011

26

2012

30

2011

34

Passenger car driver2012 Passenger Cyclist Motorcyclist Jeep driver Moped driver Truck driver

24

2011

23

2012

20

2011

13

2012

8

2011

4

2012

2

2011

0

2012

1

2011

0

2012

1

2011

1

2012

1

Traffic fatalities by types of road users in 2011-2012


11. The number of fatalities and injuries in traffic accidents as well as the related property damage will be reduced. Objective in the Main Guidelines of Security Policy

Activities in 2012

11.1. The police authorities will be equipped with an optimum number of speed measuring equipment and evidential alcohol breathalyzers.

In 2012, the police procured another 29 speed measuring devices (19 stationary radar-type devices and 10 stationary multifunctional radar-type speed measuring devices).

11.2. Automatic traffic surveillance systems (above all, speed cameras) will be implemented.

In 2012, the area covered by speed cameras was expanded by installing 10 speed cameras on the more dangerous sections of the Tallinn-Narva Road. Two automatic cameras were installed at the Kristiine junction in Tallinn, in order to check compliance with the speed limit and traffic lights as well as the correct use of the public transport lane. The cameras do not yet issue warning fine notices, but their installation has already had a positive effect – according to data from October 2011, there were 4003 traffic violations in 24 hours on the Kristiine junction, but in 2012 the figure decreased to 123. Tallinn City Government installed two traffic light, speed and public transport lane cameras in Tallinn in 2012.

11.3. The legislative base for ensuring traffic safety will be updated.

Work was started to solve the problems that had arisen from the implementation of the Traffic Act enforced on 1 July, 2011. The relevant draft act will be presented to the Government of the Republic in 2013.

45 monitors were procured for police vehicles for the purpose of showing traffic-related prevention videos. 31 new evidential alcohol breathalyzers were procured.

Preparations also started for the implementation of the penal law reform and changes in the composition of traffic offences.

11.4. The legislative base will be No activities were carried out in 2012. The activities are covered in the Estonian established in order for insurers National Traffic Safety Programme Activity Plan until 2015. to be able to take the traffic offences committed by road users into account in establishing the personal insurance payment of these offenders.

55 2. Improved traffic safety

affected the driving speed outside the 100 km/h road sections and the impact of the Traffic Committee's decision is considerably wider than those road sections where the speed limit was not increased to 100 km/h in 2012. One of the main aims of automatic traffic supervision is to improve the overall traffic safety and reduce the number of traffic accidents involving human casualties. In 2012, the area covered by speed cameras was expanded on the more dangerous sections of the Tallinn-Narva Road. In total, Estonia has 27 automatic speed cameras and 40 stationary speed measuring booths. With regard to speeding as recorded by automatic traffic supervision equipment (speed cameras), the police sent out 45 644 warning fine notices in 2012, which was 15 000 less than in 2011. The majority of the warning fines were between 9 and 18 euros and speedings were most frequently recorded in 70 km/h zones.

REPORT

The wider and more efficient use of electronic and automatic traffic supervision equipment reduces the need for manned supervision, which in turn allows us to use police patrols more on basic roads and secondary roads, thereby increasing the territorial scope of traffic supervision. In 2012, the Government’s Traffic Committee decided not to increase the speed limit on one-lane highways, where the allowed driving speed in previous summers had been 100 km/h. Although this caused some chagrin among road users, it can be said in retrospect that it was the right step towards calming road traffic. At three speed cameras on the Tallinn-Tartu-Võru-Luhamaa Road, where in 2011 numerous cases of speeding were registered in the 90 km/h zone immediately following the 100 km/h zone, the number of speedings decreased by two and half times in 2012. Thus, the higher speed limit also


12. Traffic culture will be improved. Objective in the Main Guidelines of Security Policy

Activities in 2012

12.1. The measures for informing the public of the trafficrelated risks and the methods for hedging these risks will be enhanced.

Traffic supervision and safety related information activities were based on the special traffic supervision media plan, which was in accordance with the various campaigns and activities of the Road Administration and Operation Lifesaver Estonia (railroad safety).

REPORT

2. Improved traffic safety

56

Extraordinary notice was given to changes in weather conditions and danger elements on the roads. Information activities also conveyed the necessity of using reflectors, light traffic protection equipment (helmets and protective gear) and safety equipment. “Traffic Group” (Liiklusring), which includes traffic specialists from various areas, driving instructors, specialists from car companies, opinion leaders etc, discussed traffic safety problems and supported the area-specific messages of other parties with additional messages.

Activities continued similarly to 2011. The involvement of citizens was increased 12.2. The involvement of citizens in the ensuring of traffic through the media, announcements made by spokespersons, the web pages of the Police and Board Guard Board and the Road Administration, the Facebook safety will be increased. account of the Police and Border Guard Board and the South-Estonian traffic hotline. Work started to make the South-Estonian traffic hotline into a national traffic hotline. Similarly to previous years, traffic supervision was enhanced at the beginning of the school year at junctions and crossings located near educational institutions, involving both private persons and organisations in the activities.

12.3. Traffic safety-related instruction in kindergartens and basic schools will be improved.

Traffic ABC books were distributed to 1st grade students in traffic safety classes. Pedestrian safety-related preventative activities were also organised (reflector and zebra workshops, the so-called “black doll” tests, traffic games, quizzes, orienteering). Cyclists were taught where and how to use bicycles in traffic, and what kind of bikes are considered fit for use. They were also shown the necessity of wearing a helmet. Preventative activities were also carried out in the area of safe moped and roller driving and a traffic-related educational film “A clearer sight” was produced. A traffic playground was established in Jõhvi, in order to teach traffic safety to pre-school children and primary school students. Activities also included technical equipment presentations, participation in family and information days, hosting visits to police institutions, organising bicycle exams and holding public events with Lion Leo.


3

Improved fire safety

In 2012, the number of fire fatalities was the lowest since Estonia regained its independence – having dropped to 54 from the 73 of the previous year. This confirms that fire safety related prevention work has been necessary and efficient. 89

63

69

73

54

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Number of fire fatalities in 2008-2012 The wide distribution of smoke detectors has definitely been a contributing factor toward reducing the number of fire fatalities in recent years. The requirement for smoke detectors in dwellings became mandatory in 2009, but constant awareness-raising activities have to be carried

out in order to achieve the full possible effect after the enforcement of requirements. Whereas in 2009 78 per cent of dwellings were equipped with a smoke detector, by 2012 the figure had risen to 93 per cent – primarily as a result of awarenessraising activities. In Finland, where smoke detectors have been mandatory for a longer period, about 95 per cent of dwellings are equipped with a smoke detector, which means that we are almost on the same level with our northern neighbours. Besides prevention work, the number of fires can also be reduced through efficient fire safety supervision, which must be focussed primarily on high-risk facilities. Such facilities include, for instance, social welfare and care institutions, which have a lot of patients incapable of evacuating independently in the event of a fire. Thinking of exactly such institutions, the Estonian-Swiss Cooperation Programme financed a project aimed at finding suitable special solutions. In 2012, methods were developed for assessing the specific nature and risks of hospitals and care homes, the construction requirements for hospitals and care homes were analysed and a training system was established for training the staff of hospitals and care homes. In addition, guidelines were prepared for the use of fire safety installations and equipment at hospitals and care homes and work started to assess risks in those institutions.


13. The number of fatalities and injuries caused by fire, as well as the related proprietary damage will be reduced. Objective in the Main Guidelines of Security Policy

Activities in 2012

13.1. The measures for informing the public of the necessity and the mandatory nature of autonomous smoke detectors in residential space.

In 2012, we continued public media campaigns about the need and mandatory requirement to use smoke detectors.

REPORT

3. Improved fire safet y

58

The fire safety related media campaign “Can you see the danger?” carried out in 2012 was focussed on fire safety in dwellings (incl. the main causes of fires), but it also included reminding people of the need to maintain smoke detectors. The visibility of the campaign was 90 per cent among the Estonian-speaking population and 87 per cent among the Russian-speaking population. According to a survey commissioned by the Rescue Board, 93 per cent of households had smoke detectors in 2012. The advertisements of private companies selling smoke detectors also helped convey the need and mandatory requirement to use smoke detectors.

13.2. Establishment of the legislative base for making the use of non-combustible textiles mandatory in public buildings.

The relevant amendment of law has not been initiated. The impact analysis showed that the expenses resulting from the amendment would be very high and the positive effects do not outweigh the potential expenses.

13.3. The fire safety awareness of social workers and staff of welfare institutions will be increased.

The implementation of the Rescue Board’s project “Prevention and management of natural disasters – increased fire safety at Estonian 24-hour healthcare and care institutions” financed from the Estonian-Swiss Cooperation Programme continued in 2012. Methods were developed for assessing the specific nature and risks of hospitals and care homes, an analysis of construction requirements was performed on the basis of the specific nature of hospitals and care homes, a training system was created for training the staff of hospitals and care homes, guidelines were prepared for the use of fire safety installations and equipment at hospitals and care homes and work was started to assess the risks of hospitals and care homes. The project will be completed in 2013.

13.4. Fire extinguishers will be made obligatory in residential space.

The relevant amendment of law has not been initiated. In 2010, the Applied Research Centre of University of Tartu completed the study “The assessment of the impact of the mandatory use of primary fire extinguishing tools in residential spaces”. It was concluded in the study that it is not rational to establish the obligation to have a fire extinguisher in every living space, because it is not costeffective. However, according to a study commissioned by the Rescue Board, the existence of a fire extinguisher in residential spaces increased considerably to 29 per cent in 2012.


14. Public awareness of the right course of action in fire emergencies will be increased. 14.1. More volunteers will be involved in the organisation of fire safety counselling related home visits. 14.2. The public will be informed of the safety of furnaces and open flames as well as the use of primary fire fighting equipment, including fire extinguishers.

Volunteers provided fire safety related counselling in 335 households in 2012. Another 129 volunteers were trained in the course of the project “Fire safety at home�. The public is informed of risks related to furnaces and other home fireplaces every year before the beginning of the heating period. The public is informed of risks related to open flames every spring, i.e. upon the arrival of the period of higher fire risk, and regularly thereafter. The public is also informed of high fire risk periods and regions and the related restrictions established on using open fire in nature. In cooperation with the Environmental Inspectorate, supervision is being performed over the compliance with safety requirements established on making campfires and bonfires in areas covered with forest and other plant growth. The public is being kept informed of the necessity of primary fire extinguishing equipment (fire extinguishers) regularly through the course of everyday prevention work and in communicating with the public. For instance, 41 safety days were organised in 2012, which included the introduction of primary fire extinguishing equipment to the public. The 2012 media campaign concerning fire safety was focussed on the main causes of fires in dwellings and on the safety of heating equipment.

14.3. The measures for informing parents of child-related fire safety risks will be enhanced.

In 2012, the total of 41 safety days and 228 information days were organised, offering activities also for families with children.

14.4. Fire safety related activities in social welfare institutions will be improved.

Compliance with fire safety requirements in welfare institutions is inspected every year on the basis of risk assessments. As of 2012, healthcare and care institutions meeting certain criteria have to submit to the Rescue Board a self-inspection fire safety report, an analysis of which shows the fire safety status of the relevant institution and the need to perform a fire safety audit. 409 healthcare and care institutions were checked over the course of risk-based national fire safety supervision in 2012. An external aid project has been initiated for the purpose of developing the best special fire safety solutions for welfare institutions (the Swiss-Estonian Cooperation Programme). The project was approved by the Swiss side in 2010 and actual measures to improve the fire safety of institutions were implemented in 2012. Work was also started in 2012 to assess risks at the healthcare and welfare institutions in the target group of the project, in order to solve any fire safety problems of those institutions.

59 3. Improved fire safet y

Activities in 2012

REPORT

Objective in the Main Guidelines of Security Policy


4

Improved protection of property

Dynamics of offences against property in 2009-2012 Total offences against property

Total thefts

Thefts from dwellings

Thefts from vehicles

Theft or unauthorised use of vehicle

Systematic thefts

2009

46691

23071

3002

3743

889

4439

2010

47633

24725

3179

3745

816

5063

2011

39470

19641

2768

2696

710

4074

2012

36564

18224

2713

2776

623

3639

Decrease in crimes against property The number of crimes against property also continued to decrease in 2012, dropping by seven per cent compared with the previous year. The number of thefts decreased by an equal amount. The number of thefts or unauthorised use of vehicles decreased by 12 per cent compared with 2011. The number of systematic thefts decreased by 11 per cent. However, the number of thefts from vehicles increased by 3 per cent. The number of frauds remained at the same level as before. With regard to crimes against property, the number of cases of discovery of acquisition and sales of stolen items increased in 2012. The fall in crimes against property and the overall number of crimes clearly indicate that criminal activity is moving into other areas of crime. There has conversely been an increase in the category of acquisition, storage and sales of property received from criminal activity, and also in the area of physical abuse.

Robberies Robberies are a dangerous type of crime, as they are committed either by the threat of or actual use of violence or weapons. That indicates that the offender acts in a coldly calculated and purposeful manner to obtain material gains. In 2009 we saw a certain decrease in the number of robberies, but the robberies that were committed were of increased brutality. The number of reg-

istered robberies continued to decrease in the following years and dropped by 7 per cent in 2012. The number of aggravated robberies (gunpoint and mask robberies) decreased by 12 per cent. 726

599

525

457

2009

2010

2011

2012

Robberies committed in 2009-2012 The fall in the number of robberies may be attributed to a rise in people’s awareness in protecting their life and property as well as to a stricter penal policy.

Increase in cybercrime Cybercrime also continued to grow in 2012. According to the Ministry of Justice, such crimes primarily concern computer fraud and thus there has been an increase in


Confiscation of criminal assets In 2011, 4.4 million euros worth of criminal assets were confiscated in the criminal cases sent to the prosecutor’s office by the Police and Border Guard Board. In 2012, the figure was 27.5 million euros The majority of crimes, in which criminal assets were detected, were narcotics-related. There are two reasons for this: first, narcotics-related crimes are easier to detect than white-collar crimes and second, they allow more extensive confiscation. At the same time, white-collar crimes are characterised by larger than average seized amounts, as these cases involve, for instance, money laundering, fraud, embezzlement, inducement of insolvency, and bribery. The development of the Criminal Asset Identification Office established in 2011 continued in 2012. Over the past year, the Office has employed 10 officers, plus seven officers working at the Prefectures. Another important step forward is the fact that cooperation with the Proceedings Office of the Central Criminal Police is becoming increasingly close and the Criminal Assets Identification Office is involved in proceedings at an early stage, which helps prevent evasion from the possible confiscation of criminal assets.

15. The number of criminal offences against property will be reduced, while paying special attention to prevention of criminal offences against property committed by minors. Objective in the Main Guidelines of Security Policy

Activities in 2012

15.1. Preventative measures based on the analysis of the criminal offences committed by minors will be redirected to influencing the causes of these offences.

The 2012 overall annual plan of offence prevention activities developed by the Police and Border Guard Board formulated the priorities of preventative activities aimed at minors. The priorities were based on an analysis of the offences committed by minors. According to the plan, various preventative activities were carried out in order to prevent offences committed by minors. 68 per cent of the budget for prevention projects was used for implementing prevention projects aimed at minors (45 per cent in 2011).

61 4. Improved protection of propert y

Over the past year, invitations to attack Estonian servers were widely disseminated. No proceedings were initiated against those who acted under the name “Anonymous”, but the attacks were averted and the consequences were dealt with efficiently. The activities of the joint Estonian and German investigation team are a good example of international cooperation which resulted in the arrest of the members of an international criminal group, who in this case had been helping to deliver goods purchased with stolen credit card data to the Russian Federation. The development and increasing role of information technology and Internet services in everyday life allow us to forecast an increase in cybercrime and the number of crimes related to information technology, as well as the spread of the use of IT tools into other areas of crime

and the increasing transfer of crime to the Internet environment. It is probable that we will also see an increase in the number of frauds committed in the Internet environment.

REPORT

the number of cases of the illegal use of computer systems or, in layman's terms, hacking into someone else’s computer. The widespread use of the Internet plus the active use of web-based avenues can be viewed as the main causes of this increase. Cross-border information exchange and efficient operational cooperation have been playing an important role in the control and detection of cybercrimes. As a result, the decision made in 2012 to create the European Cybercrime Centre at Europol has been a big step forward. The Centre will begin some of its functions as early as 2013 and should become fully operational in 2014.


The ability of police authorities to identify traders of stolen goods has improved.

15.3. The parents’ awareness of the risks related to minors and the options for hedging such risks will be enhanced.

The campaign “Failure to intervene comes back full circle” was aimed at adults and parents and included media discussions on the topic of youth and alcohol in spring and shoplifting in autumn. The campaign reached two thirds of the population of Estonia.

15.4. The capacity for combating criminal offences committed with the help of information technology and the Internet will be improved.

The number of offences committed via the Internet is still growing.

In 2012, the number of identified cases of acquisition, storage and sales of assets gained as a result of committing an offence grew by 72 compared with 2011. In total 481 such crimes were registered in 2012.

The state’s objective is to increase the capacity for solving computer crimes: by equipping the existing workplaces with modern hardware, creating at least 10 positions all over Estonia and training employees who would be able to organise the pre-court proceeding of cybercrimes. Due to the lack of resources, the plans were only partly implemented.

REPORT

4. Improved protection of propert y

62

15.2. The ability of police authorities to apprehend traders of stolen goods will be improved, and a system will be developed in cooperation with the private sector in order to complicate the disposal of assets deriving from crime and receiving the proceeds of crime.

At least four officers a year complete training in cybercrime and fraud detection.

16. Efficiency of confiscation of criminal assets will be enhanced. Objective in the Main Guidelines of Security Policy

Activities in 2012

16.1. The capacity of police authorities for identifying criminal assets will be developed.

By the end of 2012, the Criminal Assets Identification Office created in autumn 2011 employed 10 officers, plus seven officers at Prefectures (two at the West, South and North Prefectures and one at the East Prefecture). Criminal assets identification services are also offered to other institutions conducting criminal proceedings. The employees of the Office completed several training courses in Estonia (including accounting, legal training, language training, changes in surveillance procedures) and in the European Union (financial analysis and combating money laundering and criminal assets). The Office also participated in the meetings of the work groups of the criminal assets units of EU Member States, and in the plenary meeting of CARIN.


59 money laundering offences were sent to the prosecutor’s office in 2012 (58 in 2010 and 76 in 2011). The Financial Intelligence Unit restricted the disposal of assets in 107 cases in the total amount of 48.1 million euros (13 cases involved the extension of restrictions on the disposal of assets established in 2011 to the total amount of 6.9 million euros).

16.3. Facilities for storing seized assets will be created in a way which guarantees the preservation of the assets.

The Police and Border Guard Board formed control committees to check compliance with the procedure for handling evidence, removed items, confiscated property, seized assets and found items. The facilities for storing evidence were considerably improved thanks to the completion of the new police buildings of the Police and Border Guard Board in JĂľhvi and Kuressaare. A special room was renovated for storing evidence at the Narva maintenance base. In Rapla, an area was paved and fenced for storing seized and confiscated vehicles. The Central Criminal Police and the Police Prefectures took inventory of the evidence.

17. Public awareness of the options for property protection will be increased. Objective in the Main Guidelines of Security Policy

Activities in 2012

17.1. The public will be notified of the potential risks and trends of criminal activity.

The public was informed of crimes against minors, domestic violence, risks to public order, narcotics-related crime, offences against property, cybercrime and traffic risks via press releases and TV messages as well as via articles in county newspapers.

17.2. Preventative work within the community will be expanded by involving in the process apartment associations, real estate developers, insurance agencies, security companies, companies selling security products, and citizens’ associations.

One of the main objectives in regional police work is to participate in the activities of security committees operating at local government units.

17.3. Sustainable development of the Neighbourhood Watch will be endorsed.

The police take part in the formation of new Neighbourhood Watch sectors and provide advice to the sectors in their activities.

By the end of 2012, there were 162 security committees operating at local government units, i.e. eight less than in the previous year. However, the number of Neighbourhood, School and Kindergarten Watch sectors has grown, with 1 089 registered by the end of the year (64 more than in the previous year).

In 2012, the activities of the non-profit association Neighbourhood Watch were supported with 25 565 euros.

63 4. Improved protection of propert y

The value of the criminal assets identified in 2012 amounted to 24.8 million euros, 20.1 million euros of which was made up of assets seized in one criminal proceeding.

REPORT

16.2. Identification of criminal assets in the proceedings of all precursor offences to money laundry offences will be guaranteed.


5

Decreased number of accidents

If we wish to reduce the number of accidents, we inevitably have to increase the efficiency of prevention work. The volume of prevention work has, indeed, grown significantly over recent years, but in addition to the volume we have to think of the impact which will eventuate, in order to achieve the maximum result. In order to reach important target groups, the Ministry of the Interior will be planning prevention work with the help of the study of prevention work and campaigns in the areas of water, fire and traffic safety completed by the Academy of Security Sciences in 2012. Careless smoking has been one of the main causes of fire fatalities in Estonia. Ordinary prevention work and awareness raising activities have proven rather inefficient in reducing fire fatalities, because smoking is a vice and prevention work has a somewhat limited effect in changing people’s behaviour. In 2012, the sales of self-extinguishing cigarettes as of November 2011 considerably helped reduce the number of deaths caused by fire. The introduction of self-extinguishing cigarettes does not require changes in people’s behaviour – the preventative effect lies in the altered

burning qualities of the cigarettes; unattended cigarettes generally go out before they manage to ignite any flammable materials in the vicinity. Statistical data unambiguously confirm the correctness of the chosen path – in one year, the introduction of self-extinguishing cigarettes has effectively saved 10 human lives. 39

43

34

30

20

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

The number of fire fatalities caused by careless smoking

18. The number of fatalities and injuries in traffic accidents will be reduced. Objective in the Main Guidelines of Security Policy

Activities in 2012

18.1. The legislative basis will be established for the activities of fire safety supervisors in case of any threat of fire.

The legal bases of the activities of fire safety supervision officers are set forth in the Rescue Act and the Fire Safety Act enforced on 1 September, 2010. In cases requiring prompt intervention, rescue officers have the right to issue precepts for the elimination of risks in the event of any violations of fire safety requirements established by law. In 2012, a draft act to amend the Fire Safety Act was developed, which among other things specifies the legal basis of the activities of fire safety supervision officers (e.g. suspension of the use of a building or a part thereof, if such use may cause a rescue event). The draft act to amend the Fire Safety Act has been presented to the Government of the Republic by 2013.


18.3. The criteria for preparing risk analyses in enterprises exposed to the risk of major accidents will be specified, and mandatory legislative conditions will be developed for taking the results of risk analyses of enterprises into account in the preparation of plans.

In 2012, the Rescue Board prepared uniform guidelines for the approval of plans. The implementation of the guidelines facilitates the granting of approvals required in the Chemicals Act for plans and projects related to enterprises exposed to the risk of major accidents and the surrounding areas of such enterprises.

18.4. The legislation on the transportation of hazardous goods will be prepared.

The preparation of this legal act has not been initiated, as according to the assessment of the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications, the area is already regulated by other legal acts.

18.5. Safety awareness of teachers and students, including in the areas of fire, water and household safety, will be increased.

In 2012, fire safety training events were organised for various age groups. Training programme “Nublu helps” was aimed at kindergarten children, “I know about fire” at primary school children and “Protect yourself and help others” at basic school children. There was also an additional training course for children living in substitute homes. The total of 32 266 students participated in the training. Activities to update information on the water safety web page www.veeohutus. ee continued in 2012. The organisation of water safety training for students in grades 10 to 12 also continued in 2012, with the total of 6 929 students participating in the training. 468 primary school and kindergarten teachers also completed water safety training.

18.6. The ability to conduct, on the basis of risk-based selection, work environment-related inspections of workplaces will be increased with the aim of reducing the probability of work accidents.

In 2012, 14 work accident fatalities were registered, which was five less than in 2011 (data as of February 2013).

18.7. Academic and recreational facilities of educational establishments will be brought into compliance with health, occupational safety and fire safety requirements as well as the building norms (legal acts, standards and instructions for construction).

Compliance with the fire safety requirements established for educational institutions is checked every year on the basis of risk assessments. As of 2012, educational institutions meeting certain criteria have to submit to the Rescue Board self-inspection fire safety reports, the analysis of which shows the fire safety situation at the relevant institution and the need for carrying out a fire safety inspection. 1 313 educational institutions were inspected in 2012 in the course of risk-based national fire safety supervision.

The Rescue Board organises fire safety inspections at various institutions and enterprises in the framework of risk-based national fire safety supervision. The Rescue Board also supervises chemical safety at dangerous enterprises and enterprises exposed to the risk of major accidents. That kind of supervision helps reduce the occurrence of work accidents related to the fire or chemical safety of the work environment.

65 5. Decreased number of accidents

The Rescue Board has concluded a cooperation agreement with the Estonian National Broadcasting in order to provide operative information to the public in the case of emergencies and other events.

REPORT

18.2. An early warning system will be implemented, allowing the public to be given timely notification of extraordinary events, accidents and emergencies, considering, among other things, the possibility of power and communication failure.


19. Public awareness of the right course of action in emergencies will be increased.

REPORT

5. Decreased number of accidents

66

Objective in the Main Guidelines of Security Policy

Activities in 2012

19.1. An Internet environment will be launched, designed to help and instruct people, consisting of information on potential threats and instructions for behaviour in different emergencies, including fire, traffic accidents and other emergencies.

The instructions for conduct in emergencies are available on the following four web pages: www.kodutuleohutuks.ee, www.rescue.ee, www.veeohutus.ee and www.ohutusope.ee. Information on those web pages is updated on a current basis. Safety related information can also be obtained from the rescue area information hotline 1524.

19.2. The measures for public protection will be improved, among other things by specifying the tasks of state authorities in educating the public in order to raise public awareness of the specific threats in the living environment, and the sustainable course of action in emergencies.

The implementation of the Emergency Act has continued. In order to specify the tasks of state institutions, various emergency exercises were organised (e.g. “Cyber Fever”, “Emergency Training in Tartu”). Work also continued on the development of conduct instructions for the public.

19.3. The activities of the organisers of social advertisements in the field of safety will be coordinated in order to increase their effect on target groups.

The Rescue Board, the Police and Border Guard Board and the Road Administration have coordinated the dates of organising public safety campaigns every year, in order to avoid the overlapping of campaigns aimed at the same target groups. In 2012, many social campaigns were aimed at preventing and reducing accident fatalities caused by excessive consumption of alcohol (e.g. in the areas of water and traffic safety) for the purpose of ensuring that the focus is on one specific problem. In 2012, the Academy of Security Sciences conducted a study for the purpose of improving the efficiency of prevention work and campaigns. The study focussed on the areas of water, fire and traffic safety and the results of the study will be used in planning future prevention work, in order to reach important target groups more efficiently.

19.4. Public awareness of the course of action on bodies of water, handling of explosives found and ascertainment of threats conditioned by negligence, as well as the related preventive measures will be enhanced.

The 2012 summer media campaign “Don’t let your drunk friend in the water” was again aimed at reducing the number of water accidents with people under the influence of alcohol, who are the largest target group. For the first time, a separate media campaign was carried out for the Russian-speaking target group. The visibility of the 2012 campaign was 86 per cent among the Estonian-speaking population and 82 per cent among the non-Estonianspeaking population. In 2012, bomb threat related prevention work was also carried out at schools in the framework of the “Mine Risk Education” programme of the US Defence Department. Approximately 8 000 students attended lectures about mine clearance.


6

Improved national security

2012 was a breakthrough year in the arena of internal security policy. There were several events, which can be considered as being first-time and which will undoubtedly have an effect on the development of the area. Developments worth noting include changes in the Ministry of the Interior and in the areas of counter-intelligence and international cooperation as well as issues related to cybercrime, energy security and the fight against corruption. 2012 can be considered an extraordinary year in the context of shaping the internal security policy. The structural reform, in the course of which the position of the Deputy Secretary General for Internal Security and the Internal Security Policy Department were created at the Ministry of the Interior, was of great importance. This change puts more focus on the more analytical development of internal security policy and also on the supervision of the Internal Security Service.

Self-assertion in counter-intelligence In a certain sense, 2012 was a year of final testing for the Internal Security Service. In February 2012, the long and hard work of the Internal Security Service resulted in a confirmation of a sinister suspicion – high treason was being committed actually within the Internal Security Service. The case of Aleksei Dressen was remarkable among offences against the state: its discovery allows us to recognise that the Internal Security Service has developed to such an advanced stage that it is able to capture dishonest officers within its own structure. International cooperation and the representation of Estonia’s interests abroad play an important role in ensuring internal security. Unfortunately, 2012 did not pass without incident, as criminals kidnapped an Estonian citizen in Nigeria in October. Both the Ministry of the Interior and the Internal Security Service were closely engaged in freeing the victim. At the international level, we must turn our attention to the cyber area. The fight against cybercrime is success-

ful when it is based on cooperation, familiarity with criminal methods and a clear, adequate and internationally recognised legal framework. When combating cybercrime, more and more attention must be paid to the cyber threats endangering our everyday living arrangements and to improving the state’s capability when responding to such threats. We must keep in mind the current risks and the fact that an e-society is so much more exposed to cyber threats than a less advanced society. Estonia has separately outlined this topic in its basic security documents and the development of this area will continue.

Economic security as an objective The 2012 developments in the area of energy security can be considered first-time events. The Act amending the Natural Gas Act passed by the Parliament in June stipulated the obligation to apply for an assessment of conformity with national internal security requirements for persons wishing to acquire the transmission network. The aim of the amendment is to ensure energy security, the security of supply of natural gas and the development and protection of the transmission network. Pursuant to the amendment, the Ministry of the Interior is appointed as the institution carrying out the preliminary assessment. Previously, the Act did not prescribe such control mechanisms, so this development is an important change in the approach to protecting our economic interests and infrastructure. Looking to the future, the creation of such mechanisms for critical national infrastructure is crucial. There is unfortunately an increasing amount of criminal resources circulating in the world and therefore background checks on buyers are inevitable, if we want to prevent the state infrastructure from falling under such control. The uncovering of several corruption cases has demonstrated that our supervision system is efficient and reliable and investigative institutions have drawn the right conclusions from their previous proceeding practice and


REPORT

6. Improved national securit y

68

increased the efficiency of their activities even further. At the same time, corruption crimes must be investigated from the viewpoint that uncovering such offences is not an objective in itself, but a tool for improving the soundness of the society. This principle must be taken into account both by the investigative institutions and the public. The line of thought can be extended to the functioning and future development of the entire internal security policy area. A functioning policy-making system can only be driven by analytical activities and the development and implementation of best practices.

Meaningful legal migration After the discovery of the cases of misuse of residence permits in 2011, amendments to the Aliens Act were enforced, as a result of which the number of residence permits granted for employment as a member of a governing body of a company, for business and on the basis of legal income decreased considerably in 2012 (Table 9). The proportion of residence permits granted for studying has grown gradually, while the number of permits granted on the basis of international agreements has been decreasing from year to year.

The Government’s action programme for 2011-2015 stipulates the facilitation of the arrival to Estonia of foreign students and top specialists. The amendment package is being prepared together with a number of partners and it will be submitted to the Government in the last quarter of 2013.

Illegal migration pressure In recent years, there has been an increasing number of citizens of Asia, CIS countries, and also Georgia among persons who arrive in Estonia illegally. The number of illegal immigrants of African origin apprehended at the external border decreased considerably in 2012, but the number of apprehended Russian and Vietnamese citizens grew. In 2012, a total of 149 cases of illegal migration were discovered – which is 67 more than in the previous year. The majority of the cases of illegal immigration (63 cases) involved the misuse of visas, a trend which has been growing since Estonia joined the Schengen area. The importance of the preliminary and follow-up control of visas has therefore also increased.

Issue of temporary residence permits in 2007-2012 Family migration Employment Business Studies Legal income International agreement Total

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

1572 733 3 286 35 1436 4065

1380 911 56 353 31 1137 3868

1136 1063 72 392 56 1050 3769

1063 941 68 459 44 976 3551

1371 1430 142 464 62 838 4307

1255 835 61 516 6* 639 3312

* repealed as of 1 July, 2012

20. The state has the capability to reliably identify the people residing in Estonia. Objective in the Main Guidelines of Security Policy

Activities in 2012

20.1. Digital fingerprint information will be entered in travel documents.

Digital fingerprint data is entered in Estonian travel documents since 29 June, 2009 and on residence permit cards since 1 January, 2011. As the contract concluded between the Republic of Estonia and Gemalto OY for the issuance of travel documents ends in 2013, a procurement procedure was held for the conclusion of a new contract as of 2014. The entry of biometrical fingerprint data in travel documents will continue under the new contract.


20.2. Identification and personal In 2012, a preliminary analysis and preparations for procurement were launched identification document-related for the purpose of commissioning a new procedural information system for the databases will be harmonised citizenship and migration area, which will allow us to achieve the said objectives. with personal status and identification procedures, with the options for cross-usage of the data being increased.

In September, the Police and Border Guard Board started upgrading the chip software of personal identification certificates and residence permit cards issued in 2011. The offices of the Police and Border Guard Board continue issuing digital personal identification certificates as a prompt service.

21. Possibilities for illegal immigration and illegal stay in Estonia will be reduced. Objective in the Main Guidelines of Security Policy

Activities in 2012

21.1. The measures for preventing, combating and discovering illegal immigration will be enhanced.

149 law enforcement officers completed migration supervision training under the Schengen compensation measures in 2012.

21.2. The accession of Estonia to the EU standardised Visa Information System (VIS) and the second-generation Schengen Information System (SISII) will be ensured.

On 11 October, 2011, Estonia joined the central database of the joint Schengen Visa Information System (VIS). Development activities continued in 2012, with the aim to ensure the readiness of the Police and Border Guard Board to interface with SIS II (both entry and enquiry information systems). According to plans, the development work will be completed by the beginning of 2014.

One of the most efficient measures in preventing and combating illegal immigration is cooperation with the countries of origin of illegal immigration. Estonia and Georgia concluded a bilateral protocol for the implementation of the readmission agreement (entered into force on 9 November, 2012) and on 5 June, 2012 the readmission agreement and the protocol for the implementation thereof were signed between Estonia and Kosovo.

69 6. Improved national securit y

As of 1 January, 2012, the Police and Border Guard Board began issuing personal identification certificates, residence permit cards and digital personal identification documents to European Union citizens and third-country nationals and their dependants who are staying in Estonia of the basis of a right granted by the directive of the Minister of Defence and on the basis of the International Military Cooperation Act. The amendment has created considerably more convenient possibilities for them to perform their everyday procedures both in the physical and the digital world (including personal identification in the electronic environment, access to e-services and the possibility to give digital signatures).

REPORT

20.3. The options for the use of personal identification documents will be expanded with the purpose of ensuring their wider use.


21.3. The efficiency of the capacity for visual identification of marine surveillance system marks in heavy shipping traffic areas, and exchange of marine information with the competent agencies will be enhanced.

Development work continued for equipping the main monitoring positions with surveillance and thermal cameras and the necessary transmission network. We also continued developing the second stage of the marine surveillance information system. Investments will continue.

21.4. The land section of the external border, as well as the lake and river border will be developed.

This activity was not started in 2012.

6. Improved national securit y

21.5. The guarding of the land section of the external border with the help of technical surveillance systems and the use of modern technology for conducting border control will be increased.

In 2012, the modern Automated Numberplate Recognizing System (ANTS) was used at the external border points of Narva, Luhamaa and Koidula and at the Ikla and M천isak체la border crossing points on the internal EU border.

REPORT

22. Prevention and combating of intelligence and subversive activities targeted against the Republic of Estonia will be enhanced.

70

Objective in the Main Guidelines of Security Policy

The Tax and Customs Board uses mobile X-ray equipment, which allows the performance of checks both on the internal and the external border.

Activities in 2012

The collection of information about factors endangering the security of Estonia 22.1. Collection of information continued at an optimum level and efficient cooperation with partner countries will be improved and was enhanced. international cooperation enhanced for gathering data on the activities of special services hostile to the security of the Estonian state and for taking the appropriate counter-measures.

22.2. The awareness of possible espionage activities will be increased among the subjects of scientific and industrial espionage.

The possible subjects of scientific and industrial espionage were informed and educated in regards to possible threats. People processing state secrets received regular specialist training and counselling during the year. Cooperation with research institutions continued.

22.3. The legislative basis will be established, making mandatory the electronic registration and preservation of the personal information of passengers who are departing to or arriving from EU member states in airports, passengers who are travelling through ports and railways that conduct customs and border procedures, and customers of accommodation establishments, as well as ensure electronic access by law enforcement authorities.

Estonia carried out a pilot project for the data forwarding and processing of the lists of airline passengers from third countries. The Ministry of the Interior developed the Tourism Act and the draft act for amending other related Acts for the purpose of creating a database of users of accommodation services. Work continued in the development of regulation, which would obligate airline companies to forward the booking information of airline passengers to law enforcement institutions.


22.4. The country’s cyber security-related capacities will be developed, and the internal security and defence authorities cooperation with other interested parties and individuals with the corresponding competence improved.

Cyber security issues are coordinated by the Cyber Security Council operating under the Security Committee of the Government of the Republic. In order to assist in the work of the Cyber Security Council, information and coordination meetings in the area of cyber security are held at least once a month. The representatives of ministries and governing area institutions involved in the issues of cyber security take part in those meetings.

Objective in the Main Guidelines of Security Policy

Activities in 2012

23.1. The security of objects with high risk of a physical attack will be raised.

The Government of the Republic enforced a Regulation in April 2012, establishing physical protection measures for objects with a high risk of attack, and issued an Order establishing the list of such objects. Possessors of objects with a high risk of physical attack are counselled by the Internal Security Service.

23.2. The efficiency of security measures will be analysed on a regular basis.

The analysis of the efficiency of security measures continued in 2012.

23.3. The personal protection of individuals facing a high risk of attack and the security of national events and state visits will be improved.

The procedure for ensuring personal protection was completed. The work organisation in the provision of protection, the allocated resources and the response capability are in accordance with the risk assessment. The Police and Border Guard Board formed a personal protection support unit. The unit was manned in 2012 and the members completed the necessary training. The security of events of national importance and the security of individuals is ensured. In May 2012, Estonia guaranteed the security of the spring meeting of the Parliamentary Assembly of NATO.

23.4. Security activities will be transformed into a set of information-based activities which are based on professional cooperation with various associated organisations.

The provision of personal protection was based on the circumstances potentially endangering the protected individuals as identified by the Central Criminal Police, and on the relevant risk assessments. The procedure for determining the level of threats to individuals and objects was enforced. The protection of persons subject to protection was organised in cooperation with the Office of the President of the Republic, the Prime Minister’s Office, the Government Office, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Rescue Board, the Internal Security Service and other competent authorities, as well as with the relevant services and authorities and other organisations of foreign countries within the limits of competence.

23.5. The automatic fugitive and The Tax and Customs Board continued work to extend the number plate vehicle identification system will recognition system to the internal border and the ports. In the first half of 2013, be developed. new recognition points will be launched on the Estonian-Latvian border (Murati, Lilli, Valga and Vana-Ikla) and at ports (Muuga, Vanasadam and Paldiski North Port).

REPORT

23. The effectiveness of prevention and combating of acts of terror, including the prevention of attacks against persons protected by the state, will be enhanced.

6. Improved national securit y

71


23.6. The capacity for discovering radiation sources on the internal borders and in major ports will be developed.

REPORT

6. Improved national securit y

72

The installation of radiation monitors at Tallinn Airport began in 2012. Radiation monitors have also been installed at Sillam채e Port and Muuga Port.

23.7. The inspection of goods in In 2011, a unit for the clearance of ship traffic was formed at the Tax and ports and on ships will be made Customs Board. One of the tasks of the unit is the overall monitoring of the more effective. clearance process. In connection with the structural reform of the Tax and Customs Board, the control process guidelines were reviewed in 2012, in order to increase the speed and efficiency of customs checks. A new objective in this area is to enhance the inspection of the quality of the data concerning the goods that have arrived by marine transport.

24. The functioning of vital services in case of accidents and emergency situations will be secured. Objective in the Main Guidelines of Security Policy

Activities in 2012

24. For this purpose, the required legislative base will be established.

In 2012, the Emergency Act was amended. Pursuant to the amendment, which entered into force on 1 January, 2013, institutions organising the continuous operation of vital services are obligated to establish a regulation stipulating the description of vital services and the requirements for continuous operation. The aim of the amendment is to unite the practices of ensuring the continuous operation of vital services into a single integral system. The enforcement of the requirements will ensure the scope of vital services and the clarity of quality indicators. In 2012, the total number of vital services was 43 and the number of institutions and enterprises providing those services was 170. There are 13 institutions and persons organising the continuous operation of vital services, including seven ministries, the Bank of Estonia and five largest local governments. The service providers prepared the risk analyses of and plans for the continuous operation of vital services. On the bases of these documents, the institutions organising the services will prepare an overview of the continuous operation of every vital service. In the future, the providers of vital services will assess the currency and relevance of the risk analyses and continuous operation plans and, if necessary, will make changes therein. After that the organising institutions will prepare an updated overview of every service and submit it to the Ministry of the Interior.


7

Faster response

In order to increase the speed with which help reaches those in need of assistance, the Ministry of the Interior has applied two principles: improving the rescue capability of rescue crews and increasing the role of volunteer rescue workers. The reorganisation of the professional rescue crews reduced the number of under-manned crews, and redistributed rescue workers so as to allow the formation of more teams with full rescue capability. The overall number of national crews decreased from 81 to 72, but the number of crews with full rescue capability increased by

25, rising to 66. In total, rescue workers are able to provide rescue services in a faster manner to 121 000 residents of Estonia. The number of volunteer rescue workers has also grown and by now the number of volunteer rescue crews in Estonia exceeds the number of professional rescue crews. As of December 2012, there are 96 volunteer rescue crews and two reserve rescue crews with the total of 1 238 rescue workers operating in cooperation with the Rescue Board.

25. The time between suspicion of a threat and combating of the threat or elimination of the violation will be reduced. Objective in the Main Guidelines of Security Policy

Activities in 2012

25.1. Self-initiative-based volunteer activities will be developed with the aim of implementing primary measures for alleviating the consequences before the arrival of professionals.

By the end of 2012, the number of volunteer rescue workers grew to 1 238. The number of volunteers who had completed level I training rose to 1 144 and 818 of them had also completed level II training. The number of volunteer rescue crews, which had concluded a rescue work agreement with the Rescue Board, grew to 95 by the end of 2012. There are also two reserve rescue crews in Harju County and L채채ne County. In 2012, the Ministry of the Interior started the preparation of the national guidelines document for the volunteer rescue area for 2013-2016. The Ministry of the Interior continued financing the representative organisation of volunteer rescue workers, the non-profit association Estonian Voluntary Rescue Union. The total of 70 000 euros was allocated as operating support to the Union in 2012. In June 2012, sea rescue training was organised for volunteers. The training was focussed on the skills of searching and rescuing people who have gone missing in a collision of small vessels.


In 2012, the Police and Border Guard Board concluded a training agreement with Reval Maritime School. Under the agreement, training will be provided to 34 sea rescue volunteers (level I training). The Police and Border Guard Board participated in the Central Baltic Sea 4A programme project VOSABASE 2011-2013 (Volunteers for Safety of Baltic Sea) as a cooperation partner. The main aims of the project are to make traffic safe on the sea and on inland water bodies, use resources in an optimum manner, respond faster in an emergency and develop the umbrella organisations of sea rescue volunteers. The project supports the training of sea rescue instructors (instructor training) in order to improve the training system.

REPORT

7. Faster response

74

25.2. Standards will be established for police emergency response and standard emergency response priorities. 25.3. Sea patrol will be improved and the procurement of new multifunctional (patrol, marine rescue, pollution control, etc.) ships continues. 25.4. Public awareness of the 112 emergency phone number will be increased.

Emergency centres and control centres started working in the same facilities in two regions.

25.5. Emergency call response and emergency crew dispatch speed will be increased and the skills of forwarding emergency notices improved.

In 2011, the average time of responding to 112 calls was 6 seconds in normal circumstances.

A work group was formed in order to determine response priorities for transition to a common classification system. A new multifunctional ship “General Kurvits” started work and the number of sea patrols was increased.

In 2012, 90 per cent of the population of Estonia was aware of the emergency number 112. Activities to improve public awareness included the “European 112 Day”, participation in county safety days (including the European Day in Tallinn) and target group based information work of the essence of the emergency number 112 and the assistance provided (target groups included people older than 65 years, kindergarten and school children and the Russian-speaking population).

The geo-information system GIS-112 was prepared in 2012 in the framework of the Estonian-Swiss cooperation programme. The information system will be introduced in 2013. Preparations continued for the transition to the common emergency number 112, in order to simplify and speed up the provision of rescue, police and ambulance assistance to the public. In 2012, the first stage of the transition to the common emergency number 112 was implemented in the Eastern region, where calls to 110 and 112 are processed in the same call centre in Jõhvi. The transition to the common emergency number 112 is planned to be completed by the end of 2014. In order to speed up the provision of assistance to people with hearing and speech disabilities, a pilot project of receiving 112 emergency messages via SMS was launched in 2012. The service will be fully introduced in 2013.


The number of crews providing basic rescue services increased from 41 to 64.

Training and exercises for rescue workers continued in 2012: exercises in extinguishing burning liquids, regional surface rescue exercises, classroom training events, emergency vehicle driver’s training and category C driving licence training. In 2012, cooperation training and exercises were organised in order to improve the efficiency of cooperation between rescue crews, ambulance services, the police, the Defence League, environmental institutions and local governments in the event of rescue incidents.

25.7. The capacities for fighting the consequences of extensive forest fires, extensive coastal spills and combustible liquid fires will be improved. 25.8. The 24-hour national capacities for conducting aerial patrol, search and rescue, pollution surveillance, patient transportation and emergency flight operations will be increased, and brought into compliance with international requirements. 25.9. Implementation of additional fire detection equipment (in addition to autonomous fire alarm sensors) and the related awareness will be increased.

Regional pollution control exercises, forest fire exercises, cooperation training and regional classroom training continued in 2012.

Work continued on establishing an aircraft base in Kuressaare for the purpose of improving guarding and rescue capability in Western Estonia. The base will become fully operational in 2013.

As in 2011, activities in 2012 focussed on informing the public of the necessity of smoke detectors and checking the presence of smoke detectors in dwellings. The next stage of prevention work includes the promotion of other, more expensive and efficient, detection devices. The Regulation of the Minister of the Interior establishing requirements for fire alarm systems was updated. The amended Regulation will enter into force in 2013, making the requirements for design and installation more flexible and creating possibilities for reducing the number of false alarms. Thanks to the amendments, fire alarm systems can now be designed and installed more in line with the producer’s instructions, which allows for more diverse solutions.

75 7. Faster response

In order to improve the capability of rescue crews, the following important acquisitions were made in 2012: • new breathing devices (full masks and lightweight bottles for all the crew members and the Rescue College of the Academy of Security Sciences, accessories); • 14 sets of hydraulic rescue equipment; • 9 telescopic ladders; • 24 thermal cameras; • 720 sets of protective clothing (including 500 sets with support from the European Regional Development Fund); • 1 326 pairs of rescue boots.

REPORT

25.6. The capacity of rescue squads to independently conduct smoke-diving and rescue work in case of road accidents, accidents involving hazardous substances, and accidents higher than the 3rd floor will be increased.


8

Increased efficiency of security policy

In order to increase the efficiency of shaping and implementing the security policy, the tasks and roles of the Ministry of the Interior and the agencies operating in its governing area were altered and defined more clearly. The working environment for officials was upgraded in various regions and a new multifunctional pollution control ship was launched. Cooperation with other state ins-

titutions in improving the joint use of resources was also an important development in 2012. In a situation where resources are limited, we have to ensure that all the equipment is put to optimum use. For this purpose, we have to constantly look for smart solutions and check whether resources can be used jointly before we make any acquisitions.

26. Formation and implementation of the security policy will be enhanced. Objective in the Main Guidelines of Security Policy

Activities in 2012

26.1. The causes of public offences, and the efficiency of the measures applied for prevention of public offences will be analysed, with the corresponding developments in the area coordinated and strategic planning carried out accordingly.

Offences were analysed both centrally at the Police and Border Guard Board and at the regional level, i.e. in prefectures. Offences were handled on the basis of target groups, taking into account the specific characteristics of the relevant region. The measures were carefully planned and supported the fulfilment of strategic objectives.

26.2. In enhancing internal security capacities, special attention will be paid to the areas material to the state’s integrity and national security, such as Ida-Viru County and local governments near the border.

In April, the joint building of the Rescue Board, the Police and Border Guard Board, the IT and Development Centre of the Ministry of the Interior and the Internal Security Service was completed in Jõhvi. The construction of the Narva administrative building continued and will be completed in January 2013. The Jõhvi administrative building was the first joint regional building of that scope in the area of internal security and it improved the working conditions of the employees of the governing area of the Ministry of the Interior as well as the availability of internal Internal Security Services for citizens, as service providers who were previously operating at different locations can now work at the same centre. The Jõhvi building also houses the first regional joint emergency centre, which increases the speed of responding to accidents or offences. In 2013, the Ministry of the Interior intends to start work on designing new administrative buildings for Sillamäe, Kohtla-Järve and Kiviõli in order to improve the working conditions of internal security employees in those towns.


26.3. A general legal act will be established in the field of crisis management, organising the entire legislative basis for crisis management. 26.4. The analyses of public threats and planning of preventative measures will be enhanced in local government territories. 26.5. The Defence League will be involved to a greater extent in guaranteeing internal security.

The Emergency Act passed in June 2009 consolidated the previous Emergency Preparedness Act and the Emergency Situation Act. The Emergency Act establishes the legislative basis for crisis management, including preparing for and responding to emergencies and ensuring the continuous operation of vital services.

26.6. All internal security agencies will be connected to the two-way radio communication system.

Five new base stations were installed in order to expand the operative radio communication network ESTER, which considerably improved the usability of the network in regions where it had previously been complicated. The communication network ESTER currently has approximately 9 000 end users.

Activities included participation in the work of security committees operating at local governments. Cooperation networks between the police and other cooperation partners functioned smoothly. Participation in city planning committees also continued. The cooperation agreement between the Police and Border Guard Board and the Defence League was renewed and extended until 2014. In November, a cooperation seminar for the Police and Border Guard Board and the Defence League was held. Both organisations introduced their capabilities and discussed possible areas of cooperation where to assist each other.

8. Increased efficiency of securit y policy

Preliminary vocational studies in internal security were introduced for 32 students at the Kohtla-Järve Russian Upper-secondary School and the KohtlaJärve Järve Upper-secondary School. The first year of studies is focussed on rescue, the second year on police work and the third year on prison service. The majority of lecturers are Ida-Viru rescue and police officers. In May and June 2012, preliminary study camps in the area of internal security were organised for 30 students at Väike-Maarja and 20 students at Paikuse, and a preliminary vocational study camp in the area of rescue work was organised for 30 students at Väike-Maarja. As of September 2012, one-year internal security studies began at the Jõhvi Upper-secondary School. In total, 90 students are studying internal security at five schools in Kohtla-Järve and Narva in the 2012/2013 academic year.

77

REPORT

The Government of the Republic action programme for 2011-2014 includes the improvement of the qualification of law enforcement officers and an analysis of the possibilities of establishing the Academy of Security Sciences in Ida-Viru County. The possible locations together with construction calculations were submitted to the Government. On the basis of the instructions received from the Government, the Ministry of the Interior continued preparations for transferring the Academy of Security Sciences to Ida-Viru County, performed an analysis of spatial needs and possibilities, taking into account the number of prospective students and socio-economic and security related aspects. On the basis of that analysis the Ministry of the Interior will submit a new proposal on the location of the Academy to the Government in spring 2013.


26.7. All forms of proceedings (criminal, misdemeanour, administrative and civil proceedings) will be integrated with the E-Toimik (E-File) environment and services.

Information was exchanged with E-file in the same manner as in 2011; no major ICT developments to integrate various types of proceedings with the E-File environment were carried out. Preparations were made in the administrative area of the Ministry of the Interior to launch the follow-up project to the E-File, “Payment and financial accounting functions in E-File�. Works were started to improve the availability of information systems in the administrative area of the Ministry of the Interior.

REPORT

8. Increased efficiency of securit y policy

78

2012 also saw the launch of the field e-proceedings project, which will allow police officers to conduct misdemeanour proceedings electronically straight from police vehicles. The plan is to implement the payment and financial accounting project in 2013.

26.8. Volunteers and the nonprofit sector will be involved in law enforcement, both in the prevention of threats to public order and alleviation of the consequences of major accidents. 26.9. The organisation of the psychological defence of the Estonian people will be developed, involving the measures for providing emotional comfort in case of major accidents and emergency situations and states of emergency, as well as measures required for creating and maintaining a bond of trust between the victims and their families and the state representatives, and for avoiding panic.

In 2012, the Police and Border Guard Board employed 1 431 assistant police officers, of whom 557 were engaged in active work. In total, assistant police officers worked for 60 000 working hours in 2012 and the majority of work was related to the protection of public order.

26.10. The organisation of the internal security will be developed in accordance with the changes and new risks in the operating environment as well as the need to increase cost efficiency.

Changes in the structure of the Rescue Board and the Police and Border Guard Board entered into force on 1 January, 2012. As a result of the changes, regional rescue centres and police prefectures are no longer independent institutions, but are included in the structure of their parent organisations. The aim of the structural changes was to improve the sustainability of the institutions and to ensure balanced development under common management.

Work began to improve the organisation of the system of assistant police officers and to develop a recognition and motivation package. Information concerning the organisation of psychological defence is for internal use only.

The project for the service-based management of the governing area of the Ministry of the Interior continued throughout the year. The Rescue Board, who initiated the project in 2009, has by now prepared the descriptions of its core services and created the first version of an activity-based cost model, which forms the basis for calculating the cost of services. The service-based management accounting will make management more purposeful and costs clearer.


As of the end of 2012, the service catalogue for the governing area was practically completed. The catalogue covers both core and internal services and contains the descriptions of service processes and sub-processes. Work on the project will continue in 2013 in two main directions. First, the content of services and the relevant responsibility will be specified – service cards will be prepared for every service, setting forth the service parameters and the measurement system. Second, preparations will be made for the creation of a cost accounting system, which would allow the determination of service costs as of 2014 and the preparation of the service-based budget of the governing area as of 2015.

The analysis concluded that the Ministry lacks resources for policy-making and for analysing the impacts of policies. The Ministry is currently engaged in policymaking at the level of legal acts, but not in analysing and long-term planning of policy directions or analysing the use of resources. In order to increase the policy-making capability of the Ministry of the Interior and to reduce the overlapping and competition between the functions of the Ministry and the Police and Border Guard Board, changes were made in the structure of both organisations in 2012. The new Statutes of the Ministry of the Interior entered into force, implementing considerable changes in the Ministry’s structure in order to improve the development of policies in the area of internal security. The tasks of the previous position of the Deputy Secretary General for Internal Security were divided between three Deputy Secretary Generals: the Deputy Secretary General for Internal Security Policy, the Deputy Secretary General for Law Enforcement and Migration Policy and the Deputy Secretary General for Rescue Policy. The Deputy Secretary Generals focus on the development of policies in their respective areas and the tasks of the departments subordinated to the Deputy Secretary General will become more area-specific. The former area of the Law Enforcement and Criminal Policy Department became a separate internal security policy area, for the management of which the Internal Security Policy Department was formed. The former Legal and Administrative Department was replaced by two departments: the Asset Management and Procurement Policy Department and the Legal Department. As a result of those changes the Ministry will focus on policy-making as its core function.

8. Increased efficiency of securit y policy

In January 2012, Ernst & Young completed an analysis of the management of the internal security area, pointing out the bottlenecks in the distribution of the tasks between the Ministry and the Police and Border Guard Board.

79

REPORT

The service-based management model will be specified in the coming years and a service management information system will be introduced and integrated with other information systems in use in the governing area.


The Ministry’s tasks include the development and analysis of decisions related to security both in internal and external policy areas and to monitor the implementation of such decisions without intervening in the details of implementation (methods, tactics etc). The policies developed by the Ministry will be implemented by the institutions operating in the governing area of the Ministry. In connection with the above, the new Statutes of the Police and Border Guard Board were enforced on 1 November, 2012. The new Statutes allow the Board to fulfil its tasks more efficiently, improve the coordination of the Board’s structure and activities and implement the policies developed by the Ministry.

80 8. Increased efficiency of securit y policy

According to the new structure, the position of the head of the Secretary General’s administration was renamed as the Deputy Secretary General for Resources. The number of structural units was reduced from 20 to 11. Coordination offices were eliminated and their tasks divided to administrative offices. The mandate of the Deputy Secretary General and the prefects was specified more clearly. The areas of activity of the Board are function-based (border guarding, criminal police, law enforcement police, citizenship and migration, administration) and the management of the areas is organised through the development of the relevant methods, guidelines etc.

REPORT

As the Deputy Secretary General is responsible for the distribution of the budget and resources in the area, but the prefects are responsible for the use of funds at prefectures, the mandate of the Deputy Secretary General was defined more clearly, stipulating that the Deputy Secretary General is responsible for the purposeful and expedient distribution of budgetary resources in the area. The mandate of the Deputy Secretary General was also defined more clearly in supervising the lawful, accurate, timely and expedient compliance with the legal acts regulating the activities in the relevant area.

26.11. The best opportunities will be created for training law enforcement, criminal police and other internal security officials in the Estonian Academy of Security Sciences.

In cooperation between the Tax and Customs Board and the US Energy Department, study-purpose radiation control gates were installed at the Muraste Border Guard College of the Academy of Security Sciences. Radiation control classroom was also set up in order to practice cooperation between the Tax and Customs Board and the Police and Border Guard Board. Vocational police studies were reinstated at the Academy of Security Sciences as of the academic year that began in September 2012. Two study programmes were created: the police officer’s programme and the border guard’s programme. The vocational studies ensure the necessary professional training for each position. The content of the higher education curriculum in the rescue area was altered and shortened by one year (to three years), allowing rescue workers to obtain the necessary qualification for work more flexibly and in a shorter period of time.


Security Policy 2013