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HIGH PERFORMANCE

Summer 2015

SIRCuit “Merging COACHING with SPORT SCIENCE & MEDICINE”

STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING FOR TRACK CYCLING:

CANADIAN SPORT INSTITUTE ONTARIO:

PROGRAM DESIGN AND INTEGRATION

A HIGH PERFORMANCE SPORT LEGACY

PREPARING FOR SUCCESS:

INTEGRATED SUPPORT TEAMS:

WHEELCHAIR BASKETBALL ACADEMY AND CSIO

CYCLING CANADA CENTRALIZES AT THE MILTON VELODROME

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Editorial WELCOME to the Summer issue of the High Performance SIRCuit. In this Year of Sport and with the upcoming 2015 Pan Am and Parapan Am Games in Toronto we are proud to watch and celebrate our Canadian athletes as they perform on the world stage. This issue highlights new facilities, venues and training programs focused on providing Canadian athletes with the best opportunities to reach their high performance peak. In particular this issue explores: • • • • • • • •

The Canadian Sport Institute Ontario (CSIO) who introduce their newly built high performance training facility built as the largest legacy facility coming out of the Toronto 2015 Pan/Parapan Am Games to provide 23,000 sq ft of performance and administrative space dedicated to high performance; The new Wheelchair Basketball Academy as they take advantage of their new home at CSIO to centralize their training and development program; A video interview with Mike Patton, Sport Physiologist with Cycling Canada as he shares the amazing opportunities available to integrate ISTs into the training programs for the advancement of Canadian cyclists at their new centralized training facility at the Milton Velodrome; The programming and integration of strength and conditioning into the training plans of sprint and endurance track cycling; and The research looking at psychological and injury & illness considerations specific to high performance athletes with a disability.

Debra Gassewitz President & CEO SIRC

Not to be missed, we have looked to our NSSMAC editorial and SIRC/OTP teams to share their insights and recommendations of the latest research for coaches and ISTs to tap into.

Jon Kolb, PhD

Looking forward to seeing some great Canadian performances this summer!

Director, Sport Science, Medicine and Innovation Own the Podium

Jon and Debra 5

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Feedback uit HP SIRC

Summer

2015

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.ca www.sirc

Editor

Contributing Editor

Debra Gassewitz, SIRC

Dr. Jon Kolb, OTP

Content

Contributors

Nancy Rebel, SIRC

Design

Josyane Morin, SIRC

Jeremiah Barnert Mathieu Charbonneau Kelly Drager Devon Frayne Adrienne Leslie-Toogood Eugene Liang Scott Maw Paddy McCluskey Brendan Murphy Mike Patton

Special Thanks

Paul Dorotich, OTP Kelly McKean, OTP CSI Ontario

Sport Information Resource Centre (SIRC) is Canada’s national sport library, established over 40 years ago.

Translation

Mailing address: SIRC 12 York Street (Ground Level), Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1N 5S6

Marcel Nadeau

Photos Courtesy of:

Cycling Canada Rob Jones/Canadiancyclist.com Own The Podium SIRC Wheelchair Basketball Canada

Disclaimer: Author’s opinions expressed in the articles are not necessarily those of SIRCuit, its publisher, the Editor, or the Editorial Board. SIRC makes no representations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness or suitability for any purpose of the content. Copyright © 2015 SIRC. All rights reserved. No part of the publication may be reproduced, stored, transmitted, or disseminated, in any form, or by any means, without prior written permission from SIRC, to whom all requests to reproduce copyright material should be directed, in writing. HP SIRCuit is partially funded by

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WHAT’S INSIDE

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Integrated Support Teams: Cycling Canada centralizes at the Milton Velodrome.

Strength and Conditioning for Track Cycling: Program Design and Integration

A Video Interview with Mike Patton

Canadian Sport Institute Ontario: A High Performance Sport Legacy

Preparing for Success: Wheelchair Basketball Academy and CSIO

Strength and Conditioning for Track Cycling: Program Design and Integration

This article discusses the various training cycles involved in programming strength and conditioning for track cycling, as well as integration of strength and conditioning practices within a track cycling program.

Integrated Support Teams: Cycling Canada centralizes at the Milton Velodrome. An Interview with Mike Patton

This video feature highlights an interview with Mike Patton, sport physiologist with Track Cycling at CSI Ontario at the Milton Velodrome.

Canadian Sport Institute Ontario: A High Performance Sport Legacy

CSIO showcases its new facilities and services housed at the brand new Toronto Pan Am Sports Centre (TPASC) in Scarborough, Ontario.

Preparing for Success: Wheelchair Basketball Academy and CSIO

Wheelchair Basketball Canada has partnered with CSI Ontario to create “the world’s first full-time, yearround, daily training environment for high performance wheelchair basketball athletes” at the Wheelchair Basketball Academy. Check out the work being done at the new Academy.

Mental and Physical Health of Paralympic Athletes: What’s in the Latest Research?

Research conducted over recent years is highlighted looking at psychological aspects and health/injury concerns for athletes with a disability.

Must Reads … Read, Learn, Excel

• IST Journal Club Reviews • Recommended Research Readings from SIRC & OTP • New HK Books @ SIRC

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STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING FOR TRACK CYCLING: PROGRAM DESIGN AND INTEGRATION

T BRENDAN MURPHY MSC CSCS ASCC Brendan Murphy MSc CSCS ASCC is a Canadian Sports Institute Ontario Strength and Conditioning Coach currently providing support to Cycling Canada’s national and international track cycling athletes. Brendan is an accredited Strength Coach with the NSCA and the UKSCA.

rack cycling consists of the ability to outperform competitors in a range of disciplines which require various physiological demands. The intent of this article is to provide a guideline and thought process around the programming and integration of a strength and conditioning program with sprint and endurance track cycling. The article will discuss the various training cycles involved in programming strength and conditioning for track cycling, as well as integration of strength and conditioning practices within a track cycling program.

Background

Figure 1

Success in track cycling is essentially determined by who has the highest power outputs for a given distance (Craig and Norton, 2001). This quality is a determinant of success in both sprint and endurance events, with time spent on components of power varying through the spectrum of disciplines. Methods of achieving optimal power within the given events can vary greatly due to the fluctuating dominance within metabolic pathways as well as Fig.1 Illustrates the world class power outputs over the neuro-muscular recruitment patterns time in all events with three qualities of power in sprint throughout the disciplines. and endurance track cycling. (Adapted from; Power Profiling. Coggan, 2008)

Sprint vs. Endurance

Sprint cycling demands the highest of power outputs. Within this three factors of power determine a riders success; Peak Power (the highest generated power in watts) Rate at which Power is developed (Rate of Force Development) and Power Decay (the rate of decline from Peak Power) as shown in Fig.1.

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Sprint cycling can be considered a highly anaerobic activity with events lasting anywhere between 9 - 65+ seconds, with major energy contribution from alactic and lactic pathways, with minor contributions from the aerobic pathway. Sprint cycling requires high forces to generate torque (force x perpendicular distance), with muscular power as the force vector. As power is

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Photos: Rob Jones/CanadianCyclist.com

Key Learnings:

1 Strength and power

development are important performance parameters in both sprint and endurance track cycling.

2 Complimenting training

modalities can help to improve adaptation and performance potential.

3 Training variables,

athlete training age and experience should be considered before designing a periodized program as well as taper planning.

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equal to force x velocity, maximum muscular strength and speed of muscle contraction are crucial in optimizing power output in sprint performance. Further to this, cross sectional area of type II fibre distribution within quadriceps has also been correlated with optimal pedaling rate, a determinant of maximal cycling power. (Martin et al, 2007) Endurance track cycling is perceived to be a predominantly aerobic event with the majority of training occurring on the road aimed at increasing aerobic capacity. Endurance events last anywhere from 5 – 20+ minutes in duration, and as with sprint cycling, have energy contribution from alactic, lactic and aerobic pathways, with the majority of energy being generated via lactic and aerobic pathways. Besides the obvious event duration differences between sprint and endurance racing, peak power and decay of peak power can still be considered as endurance performance determinants, but with a higher peak power as well as sustainability of power or minimizing peak power decay being direct derivatives of successful performance. Upon closer observation of endurance based events, it can be determined that there is a neuromuscular demand, particularly in events with a standing start. Resistance type training can enhance type II muscle fibre recruitment and neural drive for both starts and ‘sprint’ finishes, not to mention increases

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in cycling efficiency, as well as improvements in metabolite clearing, as demonstrated in the literature (Bazyler et al, 2015; Faria et al, 2005). With this in mind, resistance training which targets maximum strength and power development is a valid prerequisite of endurance cycling.

Sport Program and S&C As broad as the requirements of an elite cyclist are, so too are the paradigms and philosophies for success. Further to this, interdisciplinary training tends to lean heavier on the most specific fitness requirement to that sport, i.e. endurance based athletes may train more aerobically. This is important when considering the design of a strength and conditioning program.

Interference Interference can be considered as the training of multiple fitness modalities concurrently resulting in over reaching and overtraining, stimulating competing adaptations over a long term training program (Leveritt et al, 1999). Although training for aerobic endurance and maximum strength concurrently can improve both of these qualities above baseline, without appropriate periodization and phase prioritization, the adaptation potential may be limited or take longer to achieve the desired training effect.

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Figure 2 For example, in a meta-analysis by Wilson et al, (2012) aerobic activity trained concurrently with resistance exercise can reduce both hypertrophic and strength improvements compared to resistance exercise alone. Although within the analysis, the studies collected showed improvements from baseline, programs that prioritized maximal strength or hypertrophy showed greater adaptation (Fig.2).

Interference must be accounted for within

the strength and conditioning program as if a training priority in the program is maximal strength but aerobic capacity is trained for concurrently, maximal strength development can be inhibited. Interestingly, when combining strength and endurance exercise, VO2 max and lean body mass improve further than endurance alone. Further examples of how interference can be exploited positively in a program may be to prevent some unwanted training response as when programming with more traditional hypertrophic type sessions whereby the athlete requires increased structural integrity, and training/ competitive capacity, but any significant increases in mass (muscle) are unwanted. Alternatively interference can be avoided whereby maximal strength in the gym can both compliment and be complimented by a higher intensity strength type training on the bike. Looking at these points can help to determine decision making in a program and help refine the individual needs of the athlete.

Fig.2. Overall effect sizes for strength, endurance and concurrent training (Wilson et al, 2012).

Supercompensation Strength and conditioning programming for sprint cycling can be seen as more of a challenge with regard to both supercompensation and interference of a desired fitness trait. Supercompensation can be defined as a post-training effect whereby the training parameter has a higher capacity than prior to the training. This concept is based off work by Hans Selye (1950) on the General Adaptation Syndrome, whereby adaptation occurs after a period of stress on biological organisms, with a reduced function response occurring prior to an increased capacity adaptation to the stressed system. A consequence of this concept is the over application of a stimulus to the point whereby stimulation continues without due time for the adaptation response to occur, which can deteriorate both training and competitive performance drastically. This may be seen in which high training stress is continually applied during the resistance and

exhaustion phases. In power based events such as cycling this can be easy to do, with high stimulation on both the central nervous system and peripheral skeletal muscle.

Optimizing Development of Maximal Strength Take for example maximum strength development, high gear bike training has high neuromuscular demand when done at near maximal intensity. This being a commonly used method in sprint cycling can be ‘complimented’ by maximum strength resistance training. Conceptually, if both methods are not combined in a periodized manor, the result of multiple sessions can be over stress of the central nervous system resulting in degraded performance and adaptation potential on both bike and resistance work. (Fig.4.1) One method of combing these training interventions is to ‘stagger’ them in order to achieve the desired training response in one, and then follow that up with focus on the other (Fig 4.2).

Figure 3

Fig.3. General Adaptation to a stressor and supercompensation. (Adapted from: Siff, 2003).

Photos: Rob Jones/CanadianCyclist.com

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Figure 4.1

Figure 4.2

Fig.4.1 Theoretically too much stimulus can result in not achieving desired level of training response as well as compromising supercompensatory effect.

This method may consist of concurrent linear progression of resistance training modality focus, with undulating high intensity bike training, in which sufficient de-loading of high gear bike training facilitates higher resistance exercise loading due to reduced intensity of track sessions/ gears. Note this is when maximum strength development is the primary focus within the training block. This type of periodization can facilitate the next phases leading to the taper for competition.

Tapering Tapering is considered to be a reduction in training load and volume to allow for sufficient restoration prior to a competition, or competition phase. Tapering can also be used throughout training periods as a transfer of focus from one training modality to another, once the desired training effect has occurred. The difference between both tapers is that a competitive taper occurs usually after cycling through all periods of training, conclusion of a mesocycle or macrocycle. ‘Phase-transition tapers’ occur throughout the training phase within the mesocycle. This ‘phase-transition’ taper would take place during a set recovery week, which allows for a reduction in physiological and psychological stress of the training variable (Mujika and Padilla, 2003) as well as facilitating the adaptation response from the preceding weeks training at either higher load, volume or both. Tapering for major competition for track cycling, from a strength and conditioning perspective, is generally led by the cycling program, as ultimately the goal is to produce successful cyclists, with strength and conditioning playing a supportive role to that program.

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Fig.4.2 Theoretical training intensities linear integration of max strength development via resistance and undulating progression of max force development on bike which compliments transfer to max strength (resistance).

Considering track sprint, as the athlete progresses through the final mesocycle, generally they will move from higher session and weekly volume to lower volumes more specific to their discipline. The strength and conditioning program must align with this training in order to maximize performance potential. With this, volumes will generally decrease as maximum strength gains should have been made 3-4 weeks prior to competition, as the focus is shifted to a greater emphasis on speed and power, with maximum strength being maintained to prevent ‘ decay’, facilitating training adaptation into performance. Within the final phases training, power and speed will compliment a program which has low gears for over speed work as well as track work done on ‘race gear’ selections. As track sprint cyclists are usually accustomed to strength training, the performance taper has been demonstrated to be most effective with decrease in volume by up to 60%, with reduction in training intensity no more than 1015% over the last 7 – 10 days (Mujika, 2010; Pritchard et al, 2015). For a major competition, the reduction in volume would be reduced gradually over 14-21 days, with the reduction in intensity only occurring in the final 7-10 days prior to competition. Training frequency should not be altered until 7 – 10 days from competition (Bosquet et al, 2007). A similar trend may be followed within endurance track cycling, with the taper involving a more gradual decline in intensity (~15%) and particularly volume (~60%) (Neary et al, 2003) over a period of 10 – 30 days, as endurance athletes are not as frequently predisposed to strength workouts in both micro and mesocycles. Progressive tapering may help with maintaining strength and increasing Français

neuro-muscular power (Brannstrom and Rova, 2013) while maximize the performance transfer.

Summary Strength and conditioning programming for competitive track cycling should focus on maximizing strength and power development, regardless of discipline. This should be done in collaboration with the cycling program in order to avoid interference of strength and power development as well as increase adaptation potential. A dose response relationship should be considered on the needs of the given athlete and wherein, athletes chosen discipline. Block type periodization may be best adapted to both novice athletes and more experienced athletes who are limited by both time and experience to strength and power stimuli. This can also be applied to athletes more accustomed to strength and power development, but consideration given to altering the duration in the mesocycle that the stimulus is applied (undulating approach) as their strength and power requirements may not be as great as a novice. A great deal of thought should be given to periodization, and when training modalities should be incorporated to ‘compliment’ for both track and off track sessions. The taper should be considered on an athlete to athlete basis with observation on how long an athlete responds to a training stimulus, as this will vary and is dependent on the athlete. When tapering, frequency should not change dramatically excluding the final 5 – 7days prior to competition, with training volume decreasing the most dramatically and intensity remaining high. Longer, more gradual tapers should be considered for novice athletes. ∆ References

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INTEGRATED SUPPORT TEAMS: CYCLING CANADA CENTRALIZES AT THE MILTON VELODROME. A VIDEO INTERVIEW WITH MIKE PATTON

O MIKE PATTON, SPORT PHYSIOLOGIST, IST LEAD CYCLING CANADA CANADIAN SPORT INSTITUTE – ONTARIO

wn the Podium’s Kelly McKean talks with Mike Patton, Sport Physiologist with Cycling Canada out of the new training centre at the Milton Velodrome, about the work that Integrated Support Teams (ISTs) are performing and how the new facility has improved the training and competition potential of Canadian track cycling athletes.

A Video Interview with Mike Patton

Mike works with coaches to understand the training process that leads to optimal athlete development and ultimately, performance. He has been working with elite and recreational athletes for almost 15 years. Throughout his Undergraduate and Master’s degrees in exercise physiology, as well as working in the Human Performance Lab at the Canadian Sport Institute Calgary, Mike gained a broad view of the human body’s response to training. His keen interest in cycling, both as a competitor himself and as an academic subject led him to his current role with Cycling Canada as a Sport Physiologist. He is thrilled to be continuing his role with Cycling Canada as a member of the team at Canadian Sport Institute Ontario. Source: Canadian Sport Institute Ontario

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Photo Credits: Rob Jones/CanadianCyclist.com

The Role of the IST members in the Track Cycling program The Milton Velodrome allows for more access between IST members, which means better integrated training knowledge. The IST members include: physiologists, strength and conditioning professionals, a nutritionist consultant, a psychologist, soigneurs (athletic training), mechanics, and joining the team will be performance analysts. In terms of data collection, there are several innovative monitoring instruments within the facility that have made the ISTs more valuable to the coach. Data is collected by the team from a new electronic timing system located at 8 points around the velodrome, a more intensive data source than found anywhere else. Add this to the data collected through tools like the power meters on the bikes and the heart rate monitors on the athletes and the ISTs are able to synthesize training data from a very rich data pool. The role of the ISTs is then to take this information, distill it down and integrate it into training. What this means is that data collected through the various IST members (physiologists, nutritionist, performance analysts, etc.) on the track and off the track can be pooled in a highly comprehensive manner. The team focus allows this information to be pulled from these varied sources and translated into integrated, useful data for the coach. The coach no longer has to stand alone and try to measure, gather, analyze, synthesize and interpret information all on their own, they now have their own team to tap into.

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BENEFITS OF CENTRALIZATION Mike identifies a number of benefits that the Track Cycling program has garnered through the creation of a central training program. Watch and listen to the video at the various time stamps indicated as Mike elaborates on the benefits of centralization at the Milton Velodrome. • Provides for better contact between the IST members meaning a higher form of collaboration. Not only is the IST more integrated within the team, the team as a whole is more integrated into daily training. Before this training centre, face-to-face interaction with the athlete and coach was limited to training camps in Los Angeles and/or competition venues. (Begin listening at: 2:00) • For the IST members themselves, having a training facility of this quality allows for a better work-life balance. It reduces the travel required and means that they can be at home on a daily basis. (Begin listening at: 3:45) • Facilitates improved communication both within the IST members and between the ISTs and the coach and athlete. The IST is better able to integrate their training advice into a better plan for the athlete and coach. (Begin listening at: 4:00) • The design of the track and its banking dimensions make it a great training site for all levels of athletes. Not only is it ideal for high performance athletes it is also a great track for new and developing athletes to learn and improve on. (Begin listening at: 5:52) • Milton represents the only real international standard size training and competition facility in Canada. (Begin listening at: 8:45) • The city of Milton has provided electric motorcycles for use by the training centre. This is unique in track cycling facilities and provides for better air quality for athletes when coaches use these for pacing. (Begin listening at: 9:50) ∆ Français

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CANADIAN SPORT INSTITUTE ONTARIO: A HIGH PERFORMANCE SPORT LEGACY

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fter over a decade of concepts, planning and growth, the Canadian Sport Institute Ontario (CSIO) finally opened its doors as a world-class sport institute facility in September 2014. Housed at the brand new Toronto Pan Am Sports Centre (TPASC) in Scarborough, ON, the largest legacy facility of the Toronto 2015 Pan/ Parapan Am Games, CSIO’s sport institute occupies 23,000 sq ft of performance and administrative space dedicated to high performance athletes and coaches.

CSIO Staff & Building – CSIO’s at the Toronto Pan A

CSIO facility, the main high performance legacy of the Games, was designed by incorporating the best concepts and technology from other sport institutes around the world and then tailoring them to meet the needs of our athletes and coaches in Ontario and Canada. Moving from a much smaller space that was located in a Toronto office building with minimal sport lab and strength and conditioning space, to a state-of-the-art facility has transformed CSIO ten-fold. CSIO has grown to a staff of 40 full-time sport sciencists, sport medicine practitioners, and sport administrators that work to provide a dedicated daily training environment to help prepare elite athletes and coaches for international podium success. The in-house experts include nutritionists, strength and conditioning coaches, biomechanists, sport therapists, sport medicine physicians, and mental performance coaches, who work together in Integrated Support Teams (ISTs). CSIO’s IST members work together to service 20 targeted sports on the national and provincial level, including 6 residents sports within TPASC – Wheelchair Basketball, Swimming, Diving, Synchronized Swimming, Judo, and as of April 2015, Wheelchair Rugby.

THE DAILY TRAINING ENVIRONMENT THAT CSIO PROVIDES TO HIGH PERFORMANCE ATHLETES AND COACHES INCLUDES: 5,000 sq ft of Strength & Conditioning Space Biomechanics Suite complete with motion capture cameras and video analysis 35m 3-lane track that includes 4 force plates embedded in the track (and it opens to the 200m track in the greater TPASC facility) Altitude Chamber with an antigravity treadmill

Recovery and Regeneration Centre featuring a Hydroworx 2000 pool with moveable floor, treadmill, and video analysis Sport Lab including a DXA Body Scan for accurate body composition analysis Sport Performance Kitchen for instructional nutrition sessions Athlete Lounge Medical Offices Boardrooms and Meeting Space CSIO Administrative Offices

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CSIO also offers open training hours 6 days a week for any Sport Canada carded athlete to utilize the strength and conditioning area using their own training plan. The CSIO space is also home to the Advanced Coaching Diploma program as well as other coach education and professional development events. In its new home, CSIO strives to develop a Centre of Para Sport Excellence. The entire facility – both CSIO and the greater TPASC space, is fully accessible and built on the principles of inclusiveness. CSIO also features state-of-the-art equipment designed with para athletes in mind, including an oversized treadmill embedded into the floor to easily accommodate wheelchair athletes, strength and conditioning equipment that allows the bench to be moved so wheelchair athletes can use the equipment in their own chair, and the Hydroworx 2000 therapy pool www.sirc.ca


s staff outside their new home Am Sports Centre.

CSIO’s state-of-the-art Strength and Conditioning space, dedicated to high performance athletes.

where the floor raises to be parallel to the ground so para athletes, or those with injuries, can easily access the pool. There is also a water wheelchair available for use in the therapy pool. As a tenant in a larger state-of-the-art facility, CSIO shares elements of TPASC with the City of Toronto, University of Toronto Scarborough Campus and TPASC Inc. including not one, but two 10 lane - 50m pools (the first to be built in the city in more than 30 years!), a dive tank (with 3m, 5m 7.5m and 10m platforms) and dryland training area, a field house featuring 4 courts (with 2 FIBA hardwood sprung floors), and other public use areas such as a track, strength and conditioning space, multi-purpose studios and a climbing wall.

Low, CEO of CSIO. “Being able to provide enhanced sport science and sport medicine services in a dedicated high performance space, both at TPASC and the Velodrome, is a fantastic opportunity for our athletes and coaches to optimize their daily training and ultimately their performance on the international stage.” ∆

www.csiontario.ca @CSIOntario

CSIO also recently opened a satellite training facility at another legacy building of the 2015 Pan/Parapan Am Games, the Mattamy National Cycling Centre in Milton, ON. CSIO’s satellite facility includes a 1,100 sqft of strength and conditioning space with an adjoining kitchenette, a sport therapy suite, a sport lab (shared with Cycling Canada) featuring state-of-the-art equipment for testing and training high performance athletes, and office space for 4 full-time staff. “Canadian Sport Institute Ontario’s new home is a world-class sport institute and is a true milestone for the sport system in Ontario and Canada, and is a significant legacy of the 2015 Pan/Parapan Am Games,” Debbie www.sirc.ca

Sport Lab – CSIO’s high performance Sport Lab.

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PREPARING FOR SUCCESS:

WHEELCHAIR BASKETBALL ACADEMY AND CSIO

S DEVON FRAYNE, M.SC, Sport Scientist CSI Ontario Devon Frayne is a Sport Scientist at the Canadian Sport Institute Ontario. Devon attended the University of Massachusetts Amherst, investigating lower limb asymmetries during maximal speed sprinting for his Master’s Thesis. In his role at CSIO, Devon uses the scientific method and technology to help athletes and coaches achieve podium performances.

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uccess in international-caliber team sports is affected by many factors, with ~50% of success being accounted for by uncontrollable (population size, economics, geography), and the other half more controllable policy-related, factors (Allen et al., 2015). Centralization, which is the process of recruiting many talented individuals to a single well-resourced location, has been shown to have a positive effect on long-term swimming performance of National team athletes in New Zealand (Allen et al., 2015). If one can provide better equipment or additional funding, the likelihood of attracting not only the top athletes, but coaches and other IST members improves. In response to getting better people having better performances, funding may increase, which in turn will attract more talent. This cycle could play a large role in the observed long-term success of the New Zealand swimmers. Wheelchair Basketball Canada (WCBB) has taken this concept and instituted the Wheelchair Basketball Academy (the Academy) as, “the world’s first full-time, yearround, daily training environment for high performance wheelchair basketball athletes” (Wheelchair Basketball Canada, website). The Academy is located in the Toronto Pan Am Sports Centre on the University of Toronto Scarborough campus. The same building houses the Canadian Sport Institute Ontario (CSIO), whose mandate it is to “provide world-class programs, services, and leadership to high performance athletes and coaches to enhance their ability to achieve international podium performances” (Canadian Sport Institute Ontario, website). This partnership was formed in an effort to develop sustained success in wheelchair basketball on a world stage. With about 20 athletes attending the Academy on a largely full-time basis, WCBB can afford to place large resources at their disposal. The athletes partake in ~20 hours of scheduled on-court and strength and conditioning Français

training per week, with certain weeks of the year dedicated to testing and evaluation. Considering the paucity of research on the topic of wheelchair basketball, CSIO’s staff are committed to providing the coaches and athletes with data to inform training and competition strategies. Specialized equipment within the CSIO is used in an attempt to study multiple facets of wheelchair basketball performance. Two major sports science investigations currently underway relate to equipment setup and push performance, and the physiological and physical demands imposed on wheelchair basketball athletes during practices and games. Brief descriptions follow:

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1. Equipment and Push Performance When an athlete makes a chair adjustment or seating change, it is in an effort to either perform better or maintain/improve health. Historically, these equipment changes have occurred on a trial-and-error basis, and quantitative evaluation of such changes from both performance and injury perspectives has been lacking. Determining the optimal position that maximizes performance has taken athletes up to a decade without the athlete ever knowing for sure that the installation they are using is the best (personal communication). Recently, Own the Podium, the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, the Canadian Sport Institute Ontario and Wheelchair Basketball Canada collaborated to create, fund and build an adjustable wheelchair. This chair allows for re-configuration of a single (or multiple) aspects of setup without affecting other

aspects, stark contrast to the “traditional” method of adjusting chair setups; which was to order a completely new wheelchair each time a change was to be made. Consequently, athletes may be informed of their optimal setup sooner, saving both money and time. In its preliminary use, the adjustable chair has been teamed up with a speciallymade wheelchair ergometer (Figure 1) to evaluate push performance.

Figure 1

Figure 1. Wheelchair Ergometer at CSIO. Keku Sports Equipment. Thus far, the decision to change a wheelchairathlete relationship has been evaluated based on distance covered and power generated during the first three pushes and a 30s sprint test (Figure 2).

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Figure 2

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Figure 2. Speed data from a 30s ergometer test. In addition to the temporal (distance and speed) metrics, kinematic analyses are paired with these results to further examine push mechanics. Ongoing research at CSIO examines the various movement strategies adopted by the Academy athletes, associating those strategies with both oncourt and ergometer performance. Previous literature in this realm has examined push mechanics and seating position as they relate to injury (e.g. Boninger et al., 2000), but evidence linking athlete’s seating position to performance is lacking. Additional sensor development is currently underway as part of the Innovation for Gold projects to glean information regarding internal joint loading to better inform training and/or seating interventions. In this way, CSIO and WCBB can begin using evidence-based decisions to confidently make changes to athletes’ equipment for the betterment of performance.

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Figure 3

2. Physical Demands of Wheelchair Basketball Currently, it is estimated that there are approximately 60-70 offensive and defensive possessions throughout a wheelchair basketball game, resulting in about 120-140 trips up and down the court for an athlete who can play the whole game (Sporner et al., 2009). There appears to be a shift in the style of play on a global scale to increase the speed (and thus the number) of possessions (personal communication). To play this style, it is hypothesized that athletes must move up and down the court at faster average velocities, thus increasing the physiological demands placed upon them. Small gains in this area will produce an exponential effect that could create a gap between Canada and other countries. Consequently, training must be modified to meet the increased in-game physiological demands. Optimal training benefits occur when movement patterns and physiological demands exhibited in competition are reproduced within the daily training environment (Gabbett, 2010), so knowledge of the physiological costs (energy expenditure) of wheelchair basketball athletes during games and training sessions are required. Currently, estimates of energy expenditure are being derived from information regarding the speed of the movement and the loads being moved. Information which has been gleaned via traditional notational analysis based on video, or more recently, Local Positioning System (LPS) data. Most people are familiar with Global Positioning Systems (GPS) that use satellites orbiting earth to triangulate an object’s position. When the position data is sampled at a sufficient frequency, velocity and acceleration metrics can also be taken. Unfortunately, GPS requires “line-of-sight”, whereby the object in question must be in view of the satellites at all times. This condition is violated underground or inside (where wheelchair basketball takes place). Cue, the LPS, which is essentially indoor GPS. These systems include a number of satellites that must be placed around the field of play (Figure 3), and transmitter tags that transmit a signal which is read by the satellites.

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Figure 3. Diagram of LPS setup, Courtesy of Catapult Sport Systems. At CSIO, the Academy physiologist and strength and conditioning coach have been using the LPS system (Clearsky, Catapult Sports, AUS) at some practices and simulated games. Although, this system yields information regarding the athlete’s instantaneous position, speed and acceleration, it is only one piece of the “Physical Demands” puzzle. The second piece is associating the LPS data with energy cost to link the internal energy production with external speed. One method by which this is accomplished is by completing incremental exercise tests in the CSIO laboratory using a large motor-driven treadmill (Blade, Woodway USA Inc., USA) to control speed. The variables measured during this incremental exercise test are blood lactate accumulation and heart rate (Figure 4), which are both related to physiological cost and energy expenditure. Using the observations from the treadmill tests, sport science staff can estimate how much energy is required to meet the physical demands on athletes during game-play.

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Figure 4

Key Takeaways

1 Centralization at the

Wheelchair Basketball Academy allows athletes and coaches to have access to a large integrated support team and many pieces of innovative equipment.

2 Using various

biomechanical tools, the effects of changing how athletes sit in their chairs on both performance and health are being examined.

3 Currently, CSIO and the

Academy are using a Local Positioning System to investigate the physical demands of adopting a newer style of wheelchair basketball.

Figure 4. Sample Data from an athlete completing a treadmill step test. Courtesy of Rob Rupf, Sport Physiologist, CSIO. In conclusion, the centralization model employed by WCBB and the Academy brings together many talented athletes, coaches and IST members to one well-resourced location. The primary goals of the CSIO sport science staff working with WCBB and the Academy are to gain an understanding of both the physiological requirements of wheelchair basketball, and the movement strategies of the top Canadian athletes. Insight into both of these topics will hopefully have long-lasting, highly-effective impacts on training and competition-readiness. The ultimate goal is that cooperation between CSIO, WCBB and the Academy will contribute to the sustained success of Canada in wheelchair basketball on the world stage. ∆ For further information regarding the Wheelchair Basketball Academy, please visit: http://www.wheelchairbasketball.ca/ team-canada/national-academy/

References Allen, S.V., Vandenbogaerde, T.J. and Hopkins, W.G. (2015). The Performance Effect of Centralizing a Nation’s Elite Swim Program. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, pp. 198-203. Boninger, M.L., Baldwin, M., Cooper, R.A., Koontz, A. and Chan, L. (2000). Manual wheelchair pushrim biomechanics and axle position. Archives of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation, 81, pp. 608-613. Canadian Sport Institute Ontario (2015). Strategic Plan. Gabbett, T.J. (2010). GPS Analysis of Elite Women’s Field Hockey Training and Competition. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24 (5), pp. 13211324. Sporner, M.L., Grindle, G.G., Kelleher, A., Teodorski, E.E. Cooper, R. and Cooper, R.A. (2009). Quantification of Activity During Wheelchair Basketball and Rugby and the National Veterans Wheelchair Games: A Pilot Study. Prosthetics and Orthotics International, 33 (3), pp. 210-217. Wheelchair Basketball Canada (2015). Team Canada: National Academy.

More information about CSIO can be found at http://csiontario.ca/home/

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Mental and physical health of Paralympic Athletes: What’s in the Latest Research? Nancy Rebel, MLIS Director of Content Development, SIRC

A

n athlete’s health status has a direct impact on their ability to perform. When an athlete is in their peak condition both mentally and physically, their potential for excellence is at its best. While research specific to high performance athletes with a disability is still in its early stages, most studies agree that many attributes of psychology and physical health are similar in all athletes, with or without disabilities. Here we will look at what the research says about how injury and illness and psychological preparations may affect more particularly high performance athletes with a disability.

Health, Injury and Illness for High Performance Athletes with a Disability

• There were no differences in illness incident rates between pre-competition periods and during competition periods;

When it comes to high performance athletes, types of injuries or illness show great similarities with or without a disability. However, the nature of a particular disability will often predispose certain athletes with a disability to greater risk for injury or illness. An injury or illness to an athlete with a disability also has a greater impact on them as it may often cause a chain reaction through their particular circumstances. As Gawroński, Soviecka & Malesza (2013) observe, at the Paralympic Games in both Beijing and London, athletes with spinal cord injury had the highest rate of injury and illness incidence mostly due to the character of the dysfunction and the associated risk of complications.

• There is a high incidence rate of illness in Paralympic athletes, with the highest incidence in the respiratory system, followed by skin, digestive, nervous and genitourinary systems; and

When Schwellnus et al. (2013) took a look at illness rates at the London 2012 Paralympic Games they noted the following results:

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• Age and gender were not independent predictors of illness. In terms of injury for high performance athletes with a disability, the very nature of sport itself comes with an inherent risk of injury. And while researchers have undertaken a large number of studies to understand the incidence and risk patterns of injuries for able-bodied athletes, studies in the same area for athletes with a disability are not as prolific. The nature and type of injuries for all high performance athletes remains similar, however, high performance athletes with a disability do encounter certain differences in their experience of injury. The use of adaptive aids, assistive

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propulsion and protective devices (including orthotic or prosthetic equipment, wheelchairs, goggles, etc.) produce additional medical care considerations. Also the compensatory factors such as the way the body re-orients itself for the use of a prosthetic limb, also requires additional medical knowledge and approach (Van de Vliet, 2012). A further consideration from a medical perspective for injury to an athlete with a disability is the fact that not only does the injury affect athletic performance, it may have far-reaching consequences on activities of daily living. The most common sport injuries particular to athletes with a disability include the following: Repetitive stress on joints and muscles; Injuries from crashes involving wheelchairs, prosthetics, etc.; Sensory disorders; Skin breakdown; Thermoregulation and dehydration (Athletes with some levels of spinal cord injury are less able to regulate body temperature); Bladder dysfunction; Osteoporotic fractures; Blood pressure; Oedema; Autonomic dysreflexia; and Inappropriate fitting of assistive or orthotic devices.

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with the aid of a guide or support person, many psychological factors come into play. Support people are often highly integrated into the day-to-day life of the athlete, so personal dynamics and interaction will be affected by the tone of the relationship. This may put strain on the performance aspect of the relationship. Also, when it comes time to compete, psychological preparations must also occur for the guide/ support person as they too are part of the competition team (Kenttä and Corban, 2014).

Psychology of High Performance Sport for Athletes with a Disability Research has begun to explore the question of whether there are differences in the psychological needs of athletes with a disability. According to a review done by Dieffenbach and Statler (2012), most research indicates that the psychological needs and characteristics of Paralympic athletes do not differ significantly from those of Olympic athletes. They observe that the reasons for participation and the mental approach necessary within the high performance context for athletes with a disability are akin to those of ablebodied athletes. Two highlights are drawn out of their observations in regards to high performance: i. Both coaches and athletes with a disability rank confidence and focus/ concentration as the two most important mental skills. ii. A lack of qualified coaches familiar with working with athletes with a disability is a common theme negatively impacting performance. Richards (2004) takes a look at the reality of the ‘growth through adversity’ theory as it applies to athletes with a disability. The premise is that by experiencing adverse events or serious life challenges an individual learns coping strategies that better enable them to adapt to challenging environments and situations. In an athletic context, the theory suggests that athletes with a disability may show different psychological skills and coping mechanisms than athletes who have not experienced a disability. In his research, elite athletes both with and without a disability were compared and no differences existed in psychological www.sirc.ca

skills as well as selected attributes of mental toughness. Also athletes who experienced a disability from birth and those that acquired a disability through an accident showed no real differences either. The conclusion from this research indicated that the very nature of high performance sport requires constant adaptation to adverse events for both athletes with a disability and those without. Explained through the “frame of reference” effect, athletes with a disability are coping with the challenges of high performance sport the same as any athlete; they just do it from their specific frame of reference. Some of the psychological considerations faced by high performance athletes with a disability outlined in the research include: • Athletic identity – while athletes with a disability see themselves as serious athletes they often feel that the general public does not see them as legitimate athletes (Van de Vliet, 2012). • Defining ‘difference’ – According to Kenttä and Corban, difference in the context of physical disability is often interpreted as less capable. When athletes with a disability encounter offers of unnecessary or unwanted help these acts of kindness can sometimes be counter-productive for them by reinforcing or instigating a feeling of inferiority in the “helped” person. • Acceptance and Resilience – “those individuals who have learned to fully accept the reality of their disability are often the ones that are more resilient in terms of dealing with the challenges of executing in high performance environments” (Kenttä and Corban, 2014). • Role of the Guide/Personal Support – When an athlete with a disability competes Français

• Stressors particular to athletes with a disability and the Paralympic Games (Martin, 2012 & 2015) – Travel factors such as first on last off planes, bathroom accessibility, and personal care aid were all identified by athletes as stressors for elite competition. Another factor identified was possible reclassification or misclassification leading to feelings of anxiety, stress and even anger. A third area of stress was drug testing with additional considerations needed around catheters or medication exemptions. Even though research is still in its early stages, it would seem evident that while there are many similarities amongst all high performance athletes, athletes with a disability do require additional understanding and exploration of their additional physical and psychological health needs when it comes to supporting peak sport performance. ∆ References Dieffenbach, K. D., & Statler, T. A. (2012). More Similar than Different: The Psychological Environment of Paralympic Sport. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 3(2), 109-118. Gawroński, W., Sobiecka, J., & Malesza, J. (2013). Fit and healthy Paralympians--medical care guidelines for disabled athletes: a study of the injuries and illnesses incurred by the Polish Paralympic team in Beijing 2008 and London 2012. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47(13), 844-849. Kenttä, G., Corban, R. (2014). Psychology within the Paralympic Context – Same, Same or Any Different?. Olympic Coach, 25(3):15-25. Martin, J. J. (2015). Determinants of Elite Disability Sport Performance. Kinesiology Review, 4(1), 91-98. Martin, J. (2012). Mental Preparation for the 2014 Winter Paralympic Games. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 22(1), 70-73. Richards, G. (2004). Are Elite Athletes with Disabilities Mentally Tougher Than Able-Bodied Competitors? Retrieved from the Internet June 24, 2015. Schwellnus, M., Derman, W., Jordaan, E., Blauwet, C. A., Emery, C., Pit-Grosheide, P., & ... Willick, S. E. (2013). Factors associated with illness in athletes participating in the London 2012 Paralympic Games: a prospective cohort study involving 49 910 athlete-days. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47(7), 433-440. Van de Vliet, P. (2012). Paralympic athlete’s health. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 46, 458– 459.

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MUST READ... Must Reads … Read, Excel, Learn

IST Journal Club The goal of the IST Journal Club is to share ‘must reads’ on cutting edge performance based applications, training/competition variables, and proactive medical interventions, selected by performance service experts representing various professional disciplines associated with Integrated Support Teams.

The Effect of Neck-specific Exercise With, or Without a Behavioral Approach, on Pain, Disability, and Self-Efficacy in Chronic Whiplash-associated Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial Ludvigsson ML, Peterson G, O’Leary S, Dedering A, Peolsson A. Clinical Journal of Pain. April 2015; 31(4):294-303.

Reviewed by Eugene Liang Whiplash-associated-disorders (WAD) are a common occurrence in high velocity and impact sports. Similar to the general population, many athletes exhibit chronic pain and function symptoms years past the initial injury date. Current literature suggests that this chronic presentation of symptoms can be attributed to the deconditioning of neck muscles. Although it is common knowledge that general exercise prescription is beneficial to WAD, there is no clear consensus on the most effective exercise based approach to treatment. Ludvigsson et al. compare a common treatment approach for WAD, Prescription of Physical Activity (PPA), with neck-specific exercise programs and their effects on pain, disability and selfefficacy. Additionally, this study is the first to delineate the effectiveness of interventions between WAD grade 2 (non-neurological) and 18

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New HK Books @ SIRC SIRC, in collaboration with Human Kinetics, features four books of interest to high performance sport.

Delavier’s Women’s Strength Training Anatomy Workouts.

Training for Speed, Agility, and Quickness.

Delavier, F. and Gundill, M. Ferrigno, V.A. and (2015). Windsor, Ontario: Brown, L.E. (2015). Human Kinetics. 3rd Edition. Windsor, Ontario: Human Kinetics.

grade 3 (neurological) subjects. The authors’ outcomes indicate that neck-specific exercise programs were more effective than PPA in managing chronic WAD symptoms; with a greater impact on grade 3 WAD subjects. For clinicians, Ludvigsson et al. highlight a direction care for some WAD patients. Further research is needed delineate the most effective care for each grade of WAD; as well as the efficacy of specific exercise selection. ∆

Psychological Readiness to return to competitive sport following injury: A qualitative study Podlog L, Hannon J, Banham S, Wadey R. Sport Psychologist. March 2015;29(1):1-14.

Reviewed by Dr. Adrienne LeslieToogood In this article, the authors emphasize the importance of both physical and psychological Français

Doing Exercise Psychology. Hanrahan, S. and Andersen, M. (2015). Windsor, Ontario: Human Kinetics.

Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology 6th Edition With Web Study Guide. Weinberg, R. and Gould, D. (2015). Windsor, Ontario: Human Kinetics.

readiness to return to play post-injury. In the literature review, they discuss an integrated model of psychological response to sport injury and the rehabilitation process (WieseBjornstal, Smith, Shaffer & Morrey [1998]). This study included a focus group and followup semi-structured interviews with 7 English athletes (3 female and 4 male) in a range of both team and individual sports. Three key components of psychological readiness were identified including: a) confidence in returning to sport, b) realistic expectations of their sporting abilities, and c) motivation to regain previous performance capacity. Confidence in returning to sport was a key aspect of psychological readiness and three themes emerged from this construct including i) a belief in the efficacy of their rehabilitation program, ii) a belief that the injured body part is healed, and iii) a belief in their performance capabilities. Several factors were identified which could facilitate the development of psychological readiness to return to sport. In order to develop confidence in their ability to return to sport, it is recommended that the athlete trust the rehabilitation providers, secure www.sirc.ca


social support, and achieve physical standards or clinical outcomes. In order to facilitate the development of realistic expectations; patience, acceptance of post-injury state, and effective goal-setting were suggested. In order to motivate the athlete to achieve previous performance standards; effective goal-setting, feeling wanted by coaches/training group, social support and being bored with injury were identified as helpful. Wiese-Bjornstal, D.M., Smith, A.M., Shaffer, S.M., & Morrey M.A. (1998). An integrated model of response to sport injury: Psychological and sociaological dynamics. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 10, 46-69. ∆ Effect of Repetition Duration during Resistance Training on Muscle Hypertrophy: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis. Schoenfeld B, Ogborn D, Krieger J. Sports Medicine. April 2015;45(4):577-585.

Reviewed by Jeremiah Barnert Maximizing the hypertrophic response during resistance training is thought to be best achieved by the proper manipulation of a number of program variables including exercise order, selection, rest intervals and training load. An often overlooked variable that impacts muscle growth is the repetition duration. To evaluate the effects of altered repetition duration on increasing the hypertrophic response during resistance training Schoenfeld et al (2015) performed a metaanalysis to evaluate whether these alterations in repetition duration can amplify the hypertrophic outcomes. The meta-analysis included 204 subjects within 18 treatment groups and 8 scientific studies. The primary finding was that the hypertrophic outcomes are similar when training with repetition durations ranging from 0.5 to 8 s to concentric muscular failure. It is interesting to note that the authors highlighted that muscle growth is comparable regardless of the training intensity utilized when an individual is taken to a point of concentric failure. This is consistent with previous findings that fatigue reduces motor unit recruitment thresholds, thereby enhancing muscle recruitment. Further results indicated that training at volitionally very slow durations (>10s per repetition) is inferior from a hypertrophic standpoint, as there is a lack of motor unit recruitment and stimulation potentially due to reduced intensity of load. ∆ www.sirc.ca

A proposed method to detect kinematic differences between and within Individuals.

The governor has a sweet tooth – mouth sensing of nutrients to enhance sports performance.

Frost DM, Beach TAC, McGill SM, Callaghan JP. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. June 2015; 25(3):479–487.

Burke L, Maughan R. European Journal of Sport Science. February 2015;15(1):29-40.

Reviewed by Mathieu Charbonneau In the high performance domain, scientists are not necessarily interested in finding group effects but are monitoring individual achievements. As practitioners, we want to train few individuals toward the greatest rewards. Regarding that, we don’t want to lose important findings on an individual by watering down results into group analysis! At the same time, individual findings have to be supported by robust and valid data as well as statistical evidence to be sure they have scientific or clinical relevance. To reach those decision making thresholds, analyzing variability of datasets to find genuine changes is the key. In this paper, authors are discussing the importance of between and within-individual differences in monitoring performance. They describe the individuality, the commonalities and the variability of movement performed by different individuals. They also describe a statistical method to get the best power out of data calculated from 3-10 repetitions of a movement. This statistical method allows individualized interpretation of performance results. It shows we can be confident to make decision based on few repetitions of a movement depending on variability of data. This is also a reminder that a certain amount of repetitions of a movement are needed to get a typical representation of the individual variability. Data collection, testing and statistical methods need to be prepared with proper standards to give valid and robust information to practitioners supporting elite athletes. Then datasets can be compared and interpreted throughout time as part of the monitoring process. ∆

Reviewed by Kelly Drager, MSc, RD The contact of compounds with the richly receptor populated oral-pharyngeal cavity is literally the gateway to potential performance enhancing outcomes. Carbohydrate mouthsensing has been the research focus to date but other areas of interest include oral receptor responses to fluid, cold fluids, acetic acid (pickle juice), caffeine, and bitter tastes (quinine). These receptor-substance interactions activate regions in the central nervous system without the necessity of full ingestion and assimilation of the compound into the gut or blood stream. Benefits to these interactions include rapid motor feedback to the brain as well as removing gastrointestinal discomfort or dysfunction from full consumption. Carbohydrate mouth rinsing studies have focused on moderate-high intensity cycling and running exercise lasting 1 hour where exogenous carbohydrate is not necessary for muscle fuel. Measured brain activity with carbohydrate mouth rinses reveal activation in the regions of reward and motor control. In treatment groups, this carbohydrate receptor stimulation produced higher power outputs, faster times and greater distance covered when compared to placebo groups. In other studies, ingestion of a small amount of pickle juice rapidly inhibited electrically induced cramps in dehydrated male subjects. The effect was not due to rapidly restoration of fluid or electrolytes but suspected to be a neutrally mediated reflex originating in the oropharyneal region. Future studies on mouth-sensing agents need to examine the optimal frequency and duration of receptor exposure, potential compound interactions that might mitigate positive outcomes, and the nutritional and training state of subjects. This area of research is literally at the tip of our tongues! ∆

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Risk Factors for Tibial Stress Injuries: A Case– Control Study

Do Elite Endurance Athletes Report Their Training Accurately?

Beck BR, Rudolph K, Matheson GO, Bergman AG, Norling TL. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. May 2015; 25(3):230-236.

Sylta Ø, Tønnessen E, Seiler S. International Journal of Sports Physiology & Performance. January 2014;9(1):85-92.

Reviewed by Paddy McCluskey

Reviewed by Scott Maw

This recent article from CJSM regarding tibial stress injuries is another look at risk factors for this common injury in endurance athletes (and new military recruits). It identifies biomechanical issues of the feet, low lean body mass coupled with high fat mass and smaller bones (more common in females) as risk factors. Interestingly, it did not identify low bone mineral density as a risk factor, which has been previously reported as being a risk factor. The association with lower lean body mass may allow us to target athletes deemed at risk with exercise based interventions to improve lower body muscle mass, as one method of reducing the incidence of this injury. In addition, this article is great as it provides a great literature review of all the studies that have looked at tibial stress injuries. ∆

Quantification of training volume and intensity is one of the most important tasks of the coach and sport scientist. Training quantification enables a better understanding of the relationship between training dose and training adaptation. Many different methods of training quantification exist, but one of the most attractive is athlete self-reporting. This method is relatively simple and requires little in terms of time and resources. However, self-reporting is only valuable if it can be relied upon as being accurate. In this study the investigators examined the relationship between self-reporting and expert analysis of training volumes and intensities during a 14-day altitude training camp. Subjects

were 12 male and 12 female elite Norwegian cross-country skiers. These were truly elite athletes, with reported average VO2 max values of 80.9 and 70.9 mL/kg/min for males and females respectively. The results of the study show nearly perfect correlations between self-reporting and expert analysis for training durations. No significant differences were observed for intensity distributions in zones 1 & 2 (55-82% of max HR), while slight discrepancies were found for zones 3 & 4 (82-92% of max HR). Despite these small discrepancies the authors conclude that selfreported training duration and intensity is a valid method of training quantification. Limitations of this study include a short training duration (2 weeks), no training completed above zone 4, and that a large percentage of the training was completed at altitude, which can alter an athlete’s perceived effort. Nonetheless, this study supports the use of athlete self-reporting as a tool that coaches and sport scientists can use to quantify training programs. ∆

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Recommended Readings In our collaborative effort to bring you the latest research in high performance sport, Own The Podium has selected specific areas of interest to coaches and trainers and SIRC has culled through our resources to provide access to recent research published within these areas.

Psychology Cohen A. Olympic Quadrennial Planning: Psychological Keys for Maximizing Performance and Minimizing Distractions at the Olympic Games. Olympic Coach. Summer2014 2014;25(3):4-11. Crampton J. Depression in elite athletes: are we doing enough? Sport Health. July 2014;32(3):45-53. Healy L, Ntoumanis N, Veldhuijzen van Zanten J, Paine N. Goal Striving and WellBeing in Sport: The Role of Contextual and Personal Motivation. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology. October 2014;36(5):446-459. Lobinger B, Klämpfl M, Altenmüller E. We Are Able, We Intend, We Act--But We Do Not Succeed: A Theoretical Framework for a Better Understanding of Paradoxical Performance in Sports. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology. December 2014;8(4):357-377. Shanmugam V, Jowett S, Meyer C. Eating Psychopathology in Athletes and Nonathletes: The Effect of Situational and Dispositional Interpersonal Difficulties. Journal Of Clinical Sport Psychology. December 2014;8(4):319-338.

Anti-Doping Brzeziańska E, Domańska D, Jegier A. Gene Doping in Sport - Perspectives and Risks. Biology of Sport. December 2014;31(4):251-259. Moston S, Engelberg E, Skinner J. Perceived incidence of drug use in Australian sport: a survey of athletes and coaches. Sport in Society. January 2015;18(1):91-105.

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Rogol A. Can Anabolic Steroids or Human Growth Hormone Affect the Growth and Maturation of Adolescent Athletes?. Pediatric Exercise Science. November 2014;26(4):423-427.

LTAD Hollings S, Mallett C, Hume P. The Transition from Elite Junior Trackand-Field Athlete to Successful Senior Athlete: Why Some Do, Why Others Don’t. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching. June 2014;9(3):457-472. Schubring A, Thiel A. Coping with Growth in Adolescent Elite Sport. Sociology of Sport Journal. September 2014;31(3):304-326. McArdle S, Moore P, Lyons D. Olympic Athletes’ Experiences of a Post Games Career Transition Program. Sport Psychologist. September 2014;28(3):269-278.

Health & Nutrition Clarsen B, Rønsen O, Myklebust G, Wåle Flørenes T, Bahr R. The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center questionnaire on health problems: a new approach to prospective monitoring of illness and injury in elite athletes. British Journal of Sports Medicine. May 2014;48(9):1-8. Mårtensson S, Nordebo K, Malm C. High Training Volumes are Associated with a Low Number of Self-Reported Sick Days in Elite Endurance Athletes. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine. December 2014;13(4):929-933.

Pelly F, Meyer N, Pearce J, Burkhart S, Burke L. Evaluation of Food Provision and Nutrition Support at the London 2012 Olympic Games: The Opinion of Sports Nutrition Experts. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism. December 2014;24(6):674-683. Mujika I, Stellingwerff T, Tipton K. Nutrition and Training Adaptations in Aquatic Sports. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism. August 2014;24(4):414-424. Stellingwerff T, Pyne D, Burke L. Nutrition Considerations in Special Environments for Aquatic Sports. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism. August 2014;24(4):470-479.

General Conditioning Goods P, Dawson B, Landers G, Gore C, Peeling P. Effect of Different Simulated Altitudes on Repeat-Sprint Performance in Team-Sport Athletes. International Journal of Sports Physiology & Performance. September 2014;9(5):857-862. Halson S. Monitoring Training Load to Understand Fatigue in Athletes. Sports Medicine. November 2, 2014;44:139-147. Orie J, Hofman N, de Koning J, Foster C. Thirty-Eight Years of Training Distribution in Olympic Speed Skaters. International Journal of Sports Physiology & Performance. January 2014;9(1):93-99.

Olympic Performance Learning Hollings S, Hopkins W, Hume P. Age at Peak Performance of Successful Track & Field Athletes. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching. September 2014;9(4):651-662. Ahmetov I, Kulemin N, Govorun V, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies three novel genetic markers associated with elite endurance performance. Biology Of Sport. January 2015;32(1):3-9.

Excel

Walker N, Love T, Black K, et al. Knowledge and attitudes to vitamin D and sun exposure in elite New Zealand athletes: a cross-sectional study. Journal of The International Society Of Sports Nutrition. October 2014;11(1):1-14. Français

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Calendar

For more events, check out the SIRC Conference Calendar.

JULY July 8-11 2015 NSCA National Conference July 10-26 Pan Am Games July 14-19 14th European Congress of Sport Psychology AUGUST August 7-16 Parapan Am Games August 21-22 ICCE Research Fair August 23-25 10th ICCE Global Coach Conference August 24-25 ICSEHS 2015 : XIII International Conference on Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences SEPTEMBER September 17-19 Faculty of Sports and Exercise Medicine, RCPI & RCSI, Annual Scientific Conference 2015 September 25-27 2015 AthletesCAN Forum OCTOBER October 7-9 4th Congress of the European College of the Sport & Exercise Physician October 14-17 Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP) Annual General Meeting October 26-28 10th Annual SPIN Summit 2015 October 29-30 Sport Canada Research Initiative (SCRI) Conference

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Orlando, Florida Toronto, Ontario Bern, Switzerland Toronto, Ontario Vierumäki, Finland Vierumäki, Finland Kuala Lumpur, Malasia

Dublin, Ireland Toronto, Ontario Barcelona, Spain Hamilton, Ontario Toronto, Ontario Gatineau, Quebec

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