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Culture & History II ARC60203 Project 2 : Report / Tutor : Mr. Hafiz / Building : Menara Maybank

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Architect of Building


Site Context Analysis


Architectural Layout


Architectural Style Analysis


Architectural Elements


Building Construction







Menara Maybank Introduction

Menara Maybank is situated at the highest ground of it’s site. The building stands to be the tallest building in Malaysia after its completion in the 1980s. Thus, our group, made up of 6 students, decided to choose this building, which is one of the most prominent building during its era to analyze its application of modern architectural style.


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FAST FACTS Building: Menara Maybank Location: Maybank Tower, 100, Jalan Tun Perak, Bukit Bintang, 50050 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Architect: Hijjas Kasturi Associates


Construction finish: 1989 Description: 53-Storey Malayan Banking Berhad HQ with 170, 000 square meters of useable space and car parking capacity of 1, 700.

fast fact

Maximum Height: 244 meters





HISTORY OF MAYBANK TOWER Maybank Tower started construction in 1984, and was completed in 1987. It serves as the headquarter of the Malayan Banking Berhad(also known as Maybank). Maybank is the largest bank in Malaysia, incorporated in 1960. Maybank contains a network of morethan 450 branch offices and 2,500 ATM machines. Maybank Tower was the tallest building in Malaysia until the completion of the construction of Petronas Twins Tower in 1996, which is almost double the height of Maybank Tower. Although Maybank Tower is not the tallest tower since then, it is one of the prominent and significant skyscraper of the city’s skyline.


Hijjas Kasturi


Kasturi, Hijjas Bin was born on September 26, 1936 in Singapore. Arrived in Malaysia, 1966


Career • Head design and architecture school Mara Institute of Technology, Selangor, Malaysia, 1966-1970. • Senior partner Akitek Bersekutu Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 1970-1977. Chairman Hijjas Kasturi Associates SDN, since 1977, Komputa Bina Sendirian Berhad, Kuala Lumpur, since 1982. • External examiner Mara Institute of Technology, 1984-1985 • External examiner, faculty advisor University of Science of Malaysia, Penang, since 1984. Professional Education • Bachelor of Architecture (University of Adelaide) • Bachelor of Architecture (University of Melbourne) • Diploma in Town and Regional Planning (University of Melbourne) • Doctorate in Architecture Hon DArch (Universiti of Malaya) 2008 • Degree of Doctor in Humanities and Social Sciences, Architecture (University of Adelaide) 2008 • Degree of Doctor of Architecture (honoris causa) in University of Melbourne, 2008 • Honorary Doctorate of Architectural Innovation in Universiti of Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 2010

Awards in Malaysia • Asean Energy Efficiency Award for Securities Commission Headquarters, Bukit Kiara • Pertubuhan Akitek Malaysia’s Gold Medal Award, Sept 2001 for outstanding works and invaluable contribution in architecture. • Award in Urban Redevelopment, Conservation and Restoration for Kampung Glam, Singapore by Pertubuhan Perancang Malaysia, 2001 • Vocational Excellence Award for the recognition of outstanding achievements in the field of Architecture by the Rotary Club of Metro Kuala Lumpur, 2002. History 1956 – 1959 Architectural Assistant with Singapore Housing Trust preparing the Master Plan for Queenstown, and low-cost flats for Singapore.

transportation terminus study, planning for Ministry of Internal Defence Headquarters and City Development. 1969 – 1977 Founding principal partner of Akitek Bersekutu, subsequently Akitek Bersekutu Malaysia.

1959 – 1961 Architectural Assistant with South Australian Housing Trust preparing the Master Plan for 1977 Elizabeth Town, South Australia, and various Founding principal of Hijjas Kasturi housing schemes. Associates, Architects and Planners. The following list covers principal projects 1961 – 1963 (excluding housing) completed since 1977. Architectural Assistant with Brown & Davis, South Australia, working on hospital 1998 planning, commercial and religious buildings Hijjas bin Kasturi’s work is recognised and housing. internationally. He received the Tokyo Creation Award 1965 – 1965 Architect with Hume Proprietory Ltd., 2001 Melbourne, Australia planning the Hijjas bin Kasturi receive the Malaysian construction of factories, warehouses and Institute of Architects Gold Medal district offices. 2005 1966 – 1967 He was also awarded an Honorary Architect/Planner with Urban Renewal Doctorate from the Universiti Malaya .In Department of the Singapore Housing and addition to being a Member of the Development Board, in charge of the central Malaysian Institute of Architects and Malaysian Institute of Planning. He has made a significant and lasting artistic, environmental, technological and professional contribution to architecture and identity in Malaysia.



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Religious Areas Education Centres

Business Centres Main Road

Map 1 shows the zoning of areas surrounding Menara Maybank



building construction

Menara Maybank is located at the heart of Kuala Lumpur, where it has great proximity of tourist attractions, main headquarters of different companies, historical buildings and etc. It is seated above a hill and serves as a landmark of the city. The Maybank Tower remained as one of the most important high rise building in Kuala Lumpur. The intersection of 3 main roads increases the building’s accessibility.





Figure 1 sh


BUILDING ACCESSIBILITY Menara Maybank is situated at the central connection between Jalan Tun Perak (south-west), Jalan Pudu (south-east), Jalan Raja Chulan (north-east). It is near to a Light Rail Transit (LRT) station (Plaza Rakyat station), located at the south from the tower. It is also close to the Puduraya bus station.

Entry from Jalan Tun Perak (1)


Entry from Jalan Pudu Lama (2)

There are mainly three roads which direct vehicles iinto the Maybank compound. Vehicles from Jalan Tun Perak (1) will have to go up the ramp to reach the tower. Access from Jalan Pudu Lama (2) leads to the basement parking while cars entering from (3) will have to park outdoors.

Figure 1 shows the entry and exit of vehicles hows the entry and exit of vehicles in the Menara Maybank compound

Exit to Jalan Pudu Lama (1)

Exit to Jalan Pudu Lama (2)



The entrance stairs connecting to the lobby area

Figure 2 shows the entry points of pedestrian access



The entrance escalator connecting to the lobby area

PEDESTRIAN ENTRY POINTS Due to the many entrances towards the tower, people can choose to enter the building from different directions, thus showing convenience of entry into the compound.



Modes of transportation

Bus stop at the opposite of Jalan Tun Perak



Plaza Rakyat LRT Station

Motorcycle parking area along the exit to Jalan Pudu Lama

The tower can be accessed with motorcycles, cars and bicycles. Even so, due to the close distance to Puduraya station and Plaza Rakyat Station, where both are connected by a pedestrian bridge across the road, employees and visitors usually travel by bus or LRT.


16 Menara Maybank LRT Line

Bus Station Main Road

Map 2 shows the LRT line, the main roads and the bus station near the tower.




PEDESTRIAN PATHWAYS With the large cross road situated outside Maybank compound, the zebra crossing can be found on these junctions to allow pedestrians to walk about the area with ease and safety.

There are many pathways connected to the building as it has great accessibility with the neighbouring bus stations and LRT stations.

18 The pedestrian bridge connecting the tower towards UTC (Puduraya Bus Station)

The surrounding of the Maybank Tower within it’s compound comprises a series of trees that were planted to provide shade above the walkway that connects to the building. This encourages more people to pass through the area, at the same time attract their attention towards the building,







View towards Confucian Secondary School, Wesley Methodist Church, pedestrian passageway towards UTC (Puduraya bus station)

View from Maybank tower towards Wisma Lee Rubber

View from Maybank tower towards HSBC Building

Situated in the heart of the city, Menara Maybank is surrounded by high rise buildings such as offices, hotels while the neighbouring mid-rise buildings consists of schools, shop houses and religious buildings.

SURROUNDING BUILDINGS To have a further understanding of the site context, the list below are a few surrounding buildings that are selected to be elaborated: Image 1: Plaza Rakyat Station Plaza Rakyat LRT Station is located at Jalan Pudu, with a proximity of 4 minutes walking distance from Menara Maybank towards the South-East. The station is located behind Plaza Rakyat, a large mixed-use development project that was halted in 1997. It is embedded into the building, with thick, raw concrete columns and ceilings, and exposed pipes. Columns were painted to soften the coarse look of the station's interior.

Significance of the station towards Menara Maybank Due to its proximity to Menara Maybank, many of the workers in the bank use the public transport to reach the tower. The access to the tower is further eased by the pedestrian bridge which connects the tower and the station. This will also further increase the crowd’s usage of the pedestrian bridge as well as the LRT station.

Significance of Chinatown towards Menara Maybank Workers from Menara Maybank can have a taste of Chinatown’s savoury local dishes during their lunch break without going through a hassle as Chinatown is just nearby. The close distance also allows tourists or the locals to visit the tower for certain transactions such as currency exchange. This increases the people’s usage of the tower, thus maximizing the purpose of the tower, which are money related transactions.

Image 2: Chinatown Situated at Jalan Petaling, Chinatown can be reached within 6 minutes of walking distance from Menara Maybank towards the South-West. The street houses many restaurants and food stalls, serving local dishes such as Hokkien mee, asam laksa and curry noodles. Traders made up of Chinese, Indian, Malay, and Bangladeshi sell imitation products to attract tourists.






BRIEF INFO Jamek Mosque is placed towards the North-West of Menara Maybank, which can be reached within 5 minutes of walking distance. The mosque is one of the oldest mosque of the city, with its architecture inspired by Mogul influences. It served as the main mosque before the National Mosque was built.

22 Significance of Jamek Mosque towards Menara Maybank Muslim workers from Menara Maybank benefits from their workplace’s strategic location, where the mosque is within reach. The comfortable distance of going to the mosque allows the workers to offer their prayers without having to rush from their workplace. This in turn also reduces cars to the Jamek Mosque, thus creating less traffic jams in the area.





Figure 3 shows the area of greeneries, position of the sculptures and placement of the cafeteria (Laman).


The presence of the greenery and sculptures surrounding the Maybank tower brings liveliness into the area, where it is mostly surrounded by skyscrapers and man-made structures. Going up the slope to reach the tower, plantations are found to be welcoming the people who enter the area.

24 The pathway towards the cafeteria (Laman) with trees planted alongside.


There are 2 sculptures in the compound, one located near the main entrance, the other located near the cafeteria (Laman).

The sculpture at the main entrance - a symbolic representation of the unity between members of the Maybank group and their commitment to the prosperity of the nation and people.

The sculpture near Laman attracts people to go through the lush green area to view the sculpture before heading to the cafeteria.


PLANTATIONS The existence of plantations around the Maybank compound contributes to replace the concrete and tarmac roads which are heat conductors. The trees provide shade to the exterior and at the same time filters some of the polluted air in the city.

The greenery that are located at the transition between the tower and the cafeteria (Laman) allows the workers to rest their eyes and appreciate the environment while going to have their meal.



The vegetation along the stairs directing to the main entrance invites the people as they pass through the area. This decreases the feeling of being tired while going up the stairs.

Palm trees planted along the escalators give a sense of cheerfulness around the area, creating a better mood to the workers and visitors.

WATER FEATURE The water feature near the entrance serves as an indication to reach the tower as cars drove by the area for pick up or drop off services.


The pleasant sound of the water gushing down also induces calmness while the employees or visitors rest around the area.


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RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS Since Menara Maybank is located at Kuala Lumpur, the building is constructed with response to the city’s climate, which is mainly hot and humid. The warmest month is during April while the coolest month normally falls on September. The wet season for the city is during October to November. Even so, the western monsoon hits the city during the month of March to April, resulting in more rain in the city. Due to the city’s frequency of rainfall, it has a relatively high humidity.






The entrance pathway leading towards the building is made up of 2 escalators per direction as the building sits on top of the hill. The pitched roofing covering the escalators are layered according to the slope to allow better ventilation to the building. The pitched roof also allows better drainage system and is more stable to be built on the slope. It also resembles the vernacular buildings in Malaysia which uses pitched roof in its design.

Although the building uses long, slanted strips of glasses, the material used, which is tinted glass decreases the heat entering the space while allowing more natural lighting into the interior spaces. The windows are also further shaded with translucent curtains to reduce the entry of light and heat into the space.




The use of marble-like flooring also allows a cooling effect in the interior spaces while the interior spaces are air-conditioned as well.

For the exterior flooring, rough textured ceramic tiles are used to prevent slippery surfaces due to the high frequency of rain in the city.

The lush green landscape along the slope is also designed to prevent mud slides around the building during rainy seasons as the slope is quite steep in the area.


architecture layout

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architecture layout

Figure 1, Menara Maybank

paln to sectiĐž and

elevatiĐž analysis . arrangement of the ground floor has minimal utilization of The curtain window structures along the surrounding. The parcel, divider and others circulatory-hindering components are either composed or kept inside the central axis of the ground floor.

Figure 2, Menara Maybank banking office

35 Figure 3, Main entrance of the banking hall

The structure and layout of the floor plan in Figure 4 uses a free flowing arrangement and also connected to the upper floor. The main connection of the whole building is in a vertical flow, which is situated at the intersection points The elevation of the building consists of geometrical element, which can be identified on the facade. The interior stack bearing divider are utilized through the volume of the space in the building. The building stands around 3 to 4 levels high with a void between the foyer area and banking hall, from floor to ceiling. Other than that, the Maybank Tower is symmetrical balance in both horizontal plane and vertical plane.


Figure 4, Main entrance of the banking hall

Figure 5, First Floor Plan

architecture layout



Figure 6, Section


circulatiĐž to use-space

37 Figure 7, Circulation

Figure 8, Entrances

The circulation of the whole building is crucial to provide multiple entrances to a large number of occupants. There are two types of circulation show figure 7, the red line show the circulation used by public. However, the blue line shows the circulation for private office personals only. Examples, bankers, security and employees. The main entrance leads to the main lobby and banking booths. The right side of entrance leads occupants to the event hall. Next, the speed gates restrict the accessibility of the public toward the vertical central core. However, escalator and lifts are used on the vertical core, which leads to the floors above. Escalator brings people from outside the building to the main entrances. The lifts, which are connected to the upper floor are used by the employees to reach to the office. In figure 8, it shows the entrances in the building. There are two types of entrances which is the public entrance (red lines) and the private entrance (blue line). Public entrances are link from the outside of the building and use by public. It can also link to the foyer area and banking hall. The private entrances are only for employees to enter thru and fro through the restricted speed gates.



Figure 9, Roofing of the escalator

Figure 10, First part of escalator

The main entrance covered by the gable roofs. The roof emphasize on its repetitive pattern. The increasing height of the roof shows hierarchy and creates a mystery that leads people to access through. The escalator separates into two parts. The first part is able to link to other entrances, which allow people to view on the ’50 years’ sculpture on the left side. The second part of the escalator allows direct link to the foyer area. Most people will use this entrance because it is directly link through the banking hall and it’s located near the bus stop.

architecture layout

Figure 11, Second part of escalator

Figure 12, Left side of the escalator. The ‘50years ‘ sculpture will be the focus point.

There are two staircases on the left and right of the main entrance. Both of the staircases are wide and create a spectacular feeling for the public to access. The left side of the entrance is near the parking zone and main road. A ‘50 years’ sculpture can be seen when they pass through the staircase. The users are able to admire the sculpture before entering the building. The right side of the staircase is located near the bus stop. It is surrounded by plants and directly links to the foyer from the street.. The users are able to access to the food court using this staircase. Left side entrance

39 ’50 year’ sculpture


Plants surrounding the stair


Basement parking

There is another entrance that is located inside the building. The users that usually park underground mostly use the escalator beneath to enter the building. At first glance, the users will be able to see through the Menara Terrance, which is the event hall of the building.



The purpose of this entrance is to lead the guest directly to the Menara Terrance when an event occurs. Other than that, it also serves as an entrance and exit for customer. There is an additional entrance at the right side of the escalator situated in the banking hall.

architecture layout

Stair to even hall

Event hall

The entrance of banking hall

lobby The elevators are located at the central core. The elevators allow access to the upper floors and different elevators can access through different levels of the building. This private entrance only allows employee to enter the office. The authorized personal are only allowed to use the center of the elevator.

lift to level 3-13 lift to level 14-24 lift to level 25-35 lift to level 36- 45 lift to level 46- 51

Circulation of elevator Elevator



Foyer area


Entrance of banking hall

Entrance of lobby

architecture layout

View from the open foyer area

One of the things that are unique about the Maybank Tower is that it provides an openfoyer area. There are a few numbers of resting and siting area provided at the foyer. Furthermore, a coffee shop is situated at the corner of the foyer area. The foyer has a go ventilation due to the positioning of the building that is situated uphill, and also provides good view, as the people there were able to have a good view of the busy streets from the foyer. There are several ATM machines located beside the entrance of the banking ha It can be easily identified and provide convenience for the people.

banking hall

43 The spiral stairs inside the banking hall, which is, connect to another office area. The circulation of Maybank hall is in a L shape. The ‘L’ shape circulation leads user to different counters.


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The second entrance of banking hall


Fire escape stairs wereconstructed at two sides of the vertical core, which were concealed by the corner walls . The fire escape stairs can alsobe seen from the exterior.

44 Key access points architecture layout

3 main flight of stairs located inside the vertical core.

These stairs were incorporated within the vertical core, creating path for occupants duringpeak working hours. Not only that, the stairs is used by workers to transport items easily during the renovation period of the building.

OrganizatiĐž analysis Spatial organization

45 foryer area

private spaces

banking hall

public spaces


The green area of Menara Maybank is located along the entrance to the tower and also from the tower to the cafeteria. It can also be viewed from the building. The garden creates a linkage to the cafeteria where employees can take a walk and rest before heading for lunch. The presence of the basement parking allows the employees or visitors to enter the building through an escalator. Menara Maybank that is located on top of the hill-slope resulting a horizontal circulation. Private and public spaces are important in any buildings as to create a clear and distinctive transition between different spaces while retaining the internal privacy of the occupants.




architecture layout

The floor plan of the tower consists of two square-based blocks that interlocks one another at one of their corners. Each of the two block features a roof and lower base that slant at a direction opposite the other block, while the mid-section stands in a perpendicular angle. The main access points of the tower are at the two corners of the structure that feature a space formed from the combination of the structure's two blocks, covered by tiered triangular roofs. Its also applies additive transformation in the form itself.


Symmetrical The section of the whole facade is balance symmetrical, as its show the symmetrical line at the center of the building


repetition Repetition of line. The verticality of the structure emphasize on its visual height. Its protruding structure is further strengthen with its combination with the long vertical glass wall.

Repetition of pattern. As a cover of the air conditional . It is also the support of the vertical structure.


architecture layout

Repetition of patternForm the exterior structure and the window film

Repetition of patternThe entrances roofing.

geometry The plan is made up of overlapping rectangle.

The building structure implements geometry metal trusses for roofing. It comprises of multiple intersecting triangle.


Geometrical form can be seen from the exterior faรงade.

Geometrical structure applied in the roofing structure .

building construction

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COMPARE The Two Prudential Plaza Chicago Two Prudential Plaza soars 920 feet to the beginning of its 75-foot spire, and at the time completion was the world’s second-tallest reinforced concrete building. Prudential requested that this tower be designed to recall the One Prudential Plaza in colour and vertical expression. The building’s north and south facades display gable-shaped recesses with skylights at 42nd and 52nd floors. The one-acre terraced and landscape plaza features fountains, waterfalls, and flower, and provides and inviting outdoor sitting for tenants, visitors, and passersby.



52 floor paln of the two

architecture layout

prudential plaza chicago Floor plan reflecting the building’s geometry of multiple cantilevered corners, this will provide more office spaces for those offices that are located at corners. Based on the output results , it shows that these two building has a similar architecture layout. However they are presented with different component through their respective sections and floor plans. .


Both of the floor plan shows the office that is situated beyond the center core of the building. The main entrances of both building are also located at the right side of the floor plan.


Menara Maybank have applied the additive transformation in their floor plan, which shows in figure20. Two squares that are combined together forming another geometry plan. The Two Prudential Plaza, Chicago uses the subtractive transformation in the floor plan and forms another unique geometry plan.



architecture layout

Both of the section shows that the building is balance symmetrical as the symmetrical line at the center of the building is clearly shown.


The massing of Menara Maybank tower consists of two square-based blocks that interlock each other at one of their corners. While the massing of the Two Prudential Plaza Chicago is a repetition of form and overlapping it against one another.

architecture style analysis

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56-63 architectural design of building structure architectural design of facade architectural design through local influences chang jing jun 0326762

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Architecture Style Analysis


building construction

Influence of modernism After the independence of Malaysia, most of the architects were exploring the modern architecture style in the building design, which is vastly influenced by the western art. The buildings in Malaysia were designed by implementing fusion of the elements of Islamic and Western architecture that formed an unique Malay modern architecture. At that time, many architects were also combining both the Islam and Malay culture elements in their future designs that represented the ideal design of the identity of Malaysia building. The traditional concept was applied in the modern architecture building. It can be seen from the structure and elements that were implemented into the design during the construction of the building.

Maybank Tower has several similarities with the architecture style of the pure modern buildings from the west. The modernism of architectural style was globalizing from the building structure to the design element, especially the major changes shown from the height, it’s purposes and the massing of buildings, creating the characteristics of an International architecture style. From the west, one of the famous building, which is the Two Prudential Plaza, is located in Chicago. The building is a representation of modernism in architecture, which has the similar characteristics as the Maybank Tower.


Maybank Tower(Menara Maybank)(left) inherited the architecture style from Two Prudential Plaza(right)

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Architectural Design of Building Structure Maybank Tower, which is also called Menara Maybank in the Malay language, was designed with the unique structure to ensure that it was shaped and varied in views from different angles. The main concept was to develop the idea of the traditional Malay dagger, also known as the keris, into the form of the building. The Maybank tower gradually narrowed and slanted towards the top of the building. The floor plan of Maybank Tower was designed with two squares interlocked to one another, that forms another space in the intersection point, leaving the rest of the spaces separately as an independent wing. The repetitive pattern can be seen through the floor plan of the Maybank Tower and also on the facade itself. The interlocked area is then separated again into four square layout in their respective floor plans. The building structure and designed plan were harmonized to ensure the angles varies from different perspectives, giving the building a structural and sculptural quality. The building fully incorporated with various architecture elements which has proven how Hijjas served the final concept with his adequate skills and critical inspiration.


The main entrance is covered by canopies, which the layered roof that shows the pattern of repetition



Architectural Design of Facade The vertical windows with girders was implemented in the Maybank Tower as the facade of building, which was also applied to the Two Prudential Plaza, but it was combined with horizontal girders that the facade forms a grid layout. The verticality strongly emphasized modernism and provided structural vision of modern art on the building. This repetitive pattern seen on the building structure creates a harmonious visual appearance by applying the concept design of the building. Hijjas perfectly played with the materials that pose an emphasis towards the alternative usage of concrete and glass windows on the facade design, resulting the ornamental view at different angles. The verticality was applied on both facade that represented the indication of modernism element

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architecture style analysis


Typical canopy of traditional Malay house used for the front entrance of Maybank Tower

Architectural Design through Local Influences The local culture is the main influence towards the architectural design of the buildings that were located in Malaysia, in terms of form and impression of the building structure. These various elevations and angles imitates the design of a canopy roof which is based on the traditional Malay architecture - the layered roof.


ct Various elevations highlight the influences of local architecture design

The building was designed with the concept of the sheath of traditional Malay dagger, as known as keris. The building is designed more towards to the fusion of modern and Malay architecture style that can be seen from the facade and the shape of the tower, with the addition of traditional Malay architecture style canopies that covers each of the corner. The vertical details and multi-layered roof showed the reflection of traditional Malay houses, which is by applying the stepped levels in the Maybank Tower, one of the commonly used design in traditional houses.

Architectural Elements

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64-76 Girders Windows Comparison Chan Koon Qi 0322000

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Figure 1

68 Figure 2

Architectural Elements

Load TransFer On the façade, the tower is separated into three parts by a horizontal girder. The girders serve no aesthetic or design function but purely for practicality. As the tower is 53-storeys, the girders acts as a function to transfer the load from the beams to the columns. From the section and elevation drawings, the girder is 2-storeys in height.

FiGirders gure 1highlighted on the elevation. FiHeight gure of2 the girder shown. Diagram 1 Comparison of Maybank Tower’s zigzag girder and conventional zigzag girder.

69 Pattern Majority of the girders that are used in buildings are in a conventional zigzag or slanted pattern, but the Maybank tower has an irregular zigzag pattern. Irregular


Diagram 1

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From the exterior view, windows are an important element that influences the building’s facade. It can affect the massing, visual weight, scale and articulation of the building form.

Architectural Elements

Not only does it affect the physical appearance of a building, it also influences that experiences people have from the interior. Windows provide natural lighting, ventilation, view potential and provide weather tight seal for the interior.

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Curtain Glass Wall

Architectural Elements

Modernism Style In the era of 1990s, Malaysia architecture is going through a period whereby modernization of Kuala Lumpur occurs, at the same time it retains some of the culture elements from our own country. The curtain glass wall was a popular feature to be implemented on buildings. Other than that, the cost is lower when using a curtain glass wall compared to a solid concrete wall.

The curtain glass walls on the Maybank tower have many vertical strips to enhance the verticality and height of the building. This is to reduce the visual massiveness of the building and gives a slimmer visual appearance due to the site that is located within many low-rises, and to avoid the application of brutalism style in the building’s architectural style Diagram 2: Vertical vs Horizontal.

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73 Digram 3: Window’s corresponding with the form vs not corresponding On the top of the building, the windows correspond to the slanting of the building’s roof, which also acts to enhance the distinct form of the

The glasses used for the windows are visually translucent from the interior but invisible from the exterior. This is to allow natural lighting to illuminate the building and filters the sunlight. It provides high level of privacy for the building, with response to the function as a bank company.

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Two Prudential Plaza Elevation

Maybank Tower Elevation

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Architectural Elements

Comparison TWO PRUDENTIAL PLAZA Architectural Elements

The girders in the Two Prudential Plaza are not visible compared to the Maybank Tower. As both building is built in the same era, a common trait can be identified through the ap curtain glass wall as one of the design element. The columns of the Two Prudential Tower a as seen on the Maybank Tower.

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Visual Enhancement

pplication of are visible, like

The strip windows and the form enhances the height of the Maybank tower while the form and the spire of the Two Prudential Plaza, enhances the height of the building.


Architectural Elements

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The main facade is made up of two building blocks interlocking with one another, combined on a perpendicular block in the center, which is the core of the Maybank Tower. The two building blocks has a leaning angle at the top, both slanting towards opposite sides of the core. The two blocks uses a continuous strip glass that is attached throughout the exterior facade of the building. As for the core of the building, it uses a flat roof.

Architectural Elements

At the highest level of the Maybank tower, which is where the walls are angled in towards the apex of the whole structure, is the location of the bank’s executive office. In the original design of the Maybank Tower, there was a staggered roof line implemented in the design of the building. With the addition of the helipad on the roof, the staggered roof was discarded, and the center core was extended towards the highest level. But overall, the design of the building still remained the staggered angles.

80 Retrieved From:

Figure 4.3 Indication of the front entrance roof in the elevation of the building.

Figure design Tower.

2: The initial of Maybank


front entrance roof The two escalators under the front entrance roof forms a grand ,ceremonial entrance for the people, covered by the high -pitched roof above. The canopied entrance to the Maybank Tower hides the facade of the building from people arriving, but gradually transition them into larger spaces..

Architectural Elements


The entrance of the Maybank Tower is connected from the busy streets. The roofed escalator that was built applied designs of the traditional Malay vernacular architecture, which also increasingly seen in other buildings that were constructed during the period between 1970s to 1980s. The tiered roofs are interpretations of the vernacular architecture, but it is smaller in scale and has a close proximity with the ground. The act of implementations of the vernacular architecture aim was to solidify the Malaysia’s architectural identity. Malay Architecture is influenced by the local climate. Thus, the front entrance roof was constructed with the canopy rises high above a large space, on a steep hill, wide and overlapping one another as it ascends towards the main entrance of the Maybank Tower. The multi-layered roof was also a representation of prominence and wealth.

82 The construction of the frames that supports the roof is a combination of various types of organic materials, such as wood, tiles, or palm thatch. The different materials blend in well as one, embracing a warm fusion of traditional and modern design. The way of constructing it is a way to provides shade and also protection towards the tropical weather. The roof spaces were ventilated due to its well positioned support of joints during the construction. This way, the roofs keeps cool of the space.

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Stairs The Maybank Tower has four windowless sides. The addition of the fire escape stairs were added into two of the windowless sides, one directly above the front entrance and another directly opposite it. The fire escape stairs emphasized the corner angles of the facade, which gives a strong vertical emphasis. There are two stairs that were provided as an alternate route to the floor below the main entrance of Maybank Tower. One of it is located at the mid of the escalator, where the stairs were added at both sides to divert the path towards the lower floor.

Architectural Elements

Another stairs is situated at the two corners in the front of the building allowing individual to enter the compound of the building directly from the streets.

Location of the fire escape staircase.

Elevator The floor plan is made up of intersection on a corner, which overlaps two squares. The intersection point is the core of the Maybank Tower, which functions to house the elevators. The core was segregated into four sections, which has elevators that functions for their respective areas. Thirty-three lifts are located in the four sections, one in each respective sections in the divided core structure. Nearly all the tenanted areas are column free and the focus of the services that are concentrated in the core section provides a high efficiency in the Maybank Tower. This way, it also minimizes the usage of corridors used for the accessibility of each spaces.


Cham Zheng Chee 0322317

Retrieved From:

85 Case Study ComparisĐž


Architectural Elements

The building is built on an octagonal base with the implementation of the pyramidal roof features with materials such as bands of granite and reflecting glass positioned in an alternating sequence. It eventually forms an arrow-shaped pattern on the sides of the roof. It makes the whole facade appears distinctive in the skyline. The roof of the Two Prudential Plaza building has similar characteristics as the Maybank Tower, in terms of its leaning angled features. The main difference between these both building is that the massing of the facade of the Two Prudential Plaza was built as a whole, without the application of interlocking. The roofs from all sides are slanted towards the core of the building, giving the top of the building a spectacular spire.

Octagonal base of the facade.

The roof features and the elements on the facade.


Two Prudential Plaza The floor plan illustrates how the core of the building houses 30 automatic elevators. It applies the similar concept as the Maybank Tower, centralizing the access point of the building at the core of the plaza in order to have a smooth circulation using a vertical expression.

Retrieved from:

86 The floor plan which shows the location of the elevators placed at the middle of the building.

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Super-structure CĐžstructiĐž Building Construction The super-structure that Menara Maybank has implemented into the building itself includes, (1) outtrigger and belt truss system , (2) tube-in-tube structure system, (3) perimeter columns, last but not least (4) curtain wall system. On the other hand, super-structure that are included in the building technology implemented into Two Prudential Plaza are (1) curtain wall system.



91 Outrigger &

Belt Truss System building construction

Advantages of Using Outrigger & Belt Truss System 1. No trusses in the space within the building centre and the exterior of the building. 2. There are lesser requirements on the location of exterior pillars. The need to find vast exterior pillars where they can be straightforwardly connected with the outrigger trusses by stretching out from the core. 3. The troublesome association of the outrigger trusses to the core is dispensed with. 4. Core overturning moments can be minimised through the invert moment connected to the centre at each outrigger association. 5. Exterior framing can comprise of straightforward and simple pillar, also column surrounding without the requirement for rigid-frame-type connection, in this manner diminishing the general cost. 6. Lessening or disposal of elevate and net pressure strengths without the column and the foundation system.


The Concept of Outrigger The Use of Outrigger and Belt Truss System The outrigger and belt truss system is often utilised as one of the lateral resisting system in which the external columns are attached to the central core wall with solid outriggers and belt truss at one or more levels. Likewise, outrigger and belt truss system is additionally one of the structural system to adequately control the inordinate clump by cause of parallel load, so that amid little or medium horizontal load because of wind and other loads, the danger of structural and non-structural harm can be decrease.




South East Elevation


93 A detail drawing shows how the belt truss bound with outrigger.

The Concept of Outrigger building construction

The Use of Outrigger and Belt Truss System

The belt truss bound with the peripheral column of the building while the outriggers place them with primary or central shear wall. The purpose behind this strategy is to minimise hamper space contrasted with the ordinary technique. For high-rise buildings, especially in seismic progressive zone or wind load dominant, this system can be picked as a proper structure. The floor space is normally free of columns within the centre and the external columns, in this way expanding the useful proficiency of the building. The exterior columns restrained the core wall from free revolution through outrigger arms. Outrigger and belt trusses, attached planar vertical trusses and exterior frame columns. Outrigger system can lead to exceptionally effective utilisation of structural materials by activating the axial strength and the solidness of exterior columns.


TYPES OF OUTRIGGER TRUSS SYSTEM On the basis of integration of centre to exterior columns, outrigger truss system may be split into two types : 1. Virtual Outrigger Concept (The virtual outrigger has no truss diagonals reaching out from the core to the exterior of the building) 2. Conventional Outrigger Concept (The outrigger trusses or girders are connected directly to shear walls or braced frames at the core and to columns located outboard of the core.)


Types of Outrigger Truss System

Virtual Outrigger system Menara Maybank applied the virtual outrigger system rather than the conventional outrigger system. In the virtual outrigger, the similar exchange of upsetting from the building centre to the building elements detachable with the building centre is accomplished. However, without a direct association with the outrigger trusses and the core. The essential thought behind the virtual outrigger concept is to use floor diaphragms, which are normally hardened and solid in their solid in their own particular plane.

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The utilization of belt trusses as virtual outriggers keeps away from large portions of the issues that connected with the utilization of conventional outriggers. The standard is the same as when belt trusses are utilized as virtual outriggers. Some division existing apart from everything else in the center is changed into a horizontal couple in the floors at the top and the base of the cellar.





Unlike conventional outrigger. Virtual outrigger has no truss diagonals reaching out from the core to the exterior of the building.


In this manner, the use to detect outrigger pillar where they can be efficiently connected with the trusses by spreading from the core is exterminate. In addition, the complex truss-to-core association is invadilate.


Differential shortening or settlement between the core and the outboard pillar does not influence the virtual outrigger system since the floor diaphragms, however solid in their own plane, are extremely adaptable in the vertical, out-of-plane heading.

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Tube (Vertical Core)

97 2 Conjoined Form


Tube In Tube Structure System

Tube in tube structure system also known as hull and core. This variation of the framed tube contain of an external framing tube which called the “Hull,� in sync with an inner lift and administration core. The plurality gravity and horizontal burdens are typically taken by the external tube due to its higher rigid. The Hull and core act mutually in opposing both gravity and lateral loading. The external framed tube and the internal core combine perpendicular as the shear and flexural parts of a wall-frame structure, with the advantages of expanded sidelong solidness. The structural tube generally embraces a very powerful part due to its much greater structural depth.

The exterior and interior pillars of a tube-in-tube structure are joint so firmly together that they does not only appear to be strong & rigid, however they also go as a solid surface. Besides, the whole building acts as a gigantic hollow tube with a minor tube in the centre of the building. Horizontal burdens are shared between the internal and external tubes.

Tube-in-tube technology The slip-shaped core demonstrates the utilisation of the tube in tube technology as in inclination walls, framing the exterior tube lean incline toward the interior tube, which building the vertical central lift core.




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Perimeter Columns

The perimeter walls involved dense grids of vertical steel pillars and horizontal spandrel plates. In the simplest incarnation of the tube, the perimeter of the building exterior comprises of firmly dispersed pillars that are entwined with deep spandrel beams through moment associations. These, alongside the core structures, upheld the building. This gathering of pillars and beams shapes a rigid frame that sums to a thick and solid structural wall along the exterior of the building.

Perimeter Columns

Building Construction - superstructure



Detail drawing indicating the installation to show the joineries.

Construction of Perimeter Columns The construction of the perimeter-wall frame made broad utilisation of measured shop prefabrication. When all is said in done, each exterior wall module comprised of three pillars, three stories tall, interconnected by the spandrel plates, utilising all-welded construction.

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Detail drawing of the perimater coloumn

Detail drawing to show the installation of perimeter columns onto the vertical core.

Top plates were given at the tops as well as the bottoms of each pillars, to allow blasted association with the modules above and below. Access holes were given at the inner face of the pillars for joining high-strength bolted associations. Connection strength varied throughout the building, running from four jolts at upper stories to six jolts at lower stories. Close to the building base, supplemental welds were also utilised.

102 Side joints of adjacent modules comprised of high-quality bolted shear associations between the spandrels at mid-span. Except for the base of the building structures as well as the mechanical floors. Level joins between modules were stumbled in rise so that not more than 33% of the units were grafted in any one story. Where the units were altogether joined at a typical level, supplemental welds were utilised to enhance the strength of these associations.

Function of Perimeter Columns Beside to upholding gravity stacks, the perimeter walls solidified the building against horizontal burdens, particularly those due to winds. The fact that these structures were on the exterior of the building made them particularly productive at carrying horizontal burdens.

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Menara Maybank & Two Prudential Plaza

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Wall Facade A curtain wall is the faรงade component that structures the climate boundary for a building without supporting the building structure. In addition, curtain wall can have a wide range of aesthetic appearances, however ordinarily has closely separated into vertical and horizontal mullions (a vertical component that structures a division between units of a window and others) with metal, glass, stone, either composite panels. At the point when composed legitimately, it is beautiful and exceptionally practical in keeping the components exteriorly as well as the mild environment interiorly. The wall shifts horizontal wind stacks that are matter upon it to the central building structure through the associations at floors or the pillars of the building.



Curtain Wall

Menara Maybank & Two Prudentia


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Infill panels There are a large variety of possible infill panels for curtain wall systems : 1. Vision Glass (Double/Triple glazed, Low-e Coatings, Reflective Coatings & ETC) 2. Spandrel Glass 3. Aluminium or other metals 4. Stone veneer 5. Fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) 6. Louvres or vents

al Plaza

Menara Maybank applied low-e glass as the infill of the curtain wall. Besides, it is upheld by the perimeter that is built of concrete. The capacity enforced on the curtain wall will also be upheld by the perimeter as well as the core of the building structure through the anchors, and connect the perimeter column to Menara Maybank building structure, which is different with the curtain walls of Two Prudential Plaza. In contrast, Two Prudential Plaza used spandrel glass as the infill of the curtain wall. Spandrel glass is used to placed in between the eyesight areas of windows, also to hide all the structural pillars, slab as well as walls. The curtain wall that Two Prudential Plaza applied is opposite with Menara Maybank, because Two Prudential Plaza only applied the curtain wall in the middle of each side of the building facade.

subject Outrigger and belt truss system is one of the lateral loads resisting system in which the external columns are tied to the central core wall with very stiff outriggers and belt truss at one or more levels.


& Two Prudential Plaza


Menara Maybank


Curtain Wall Facade infill panels

building construction

A curtain wa building struc

There are a large variety of possible infill panels for curtain wall systems : 1. Vision Glass (Double/Triple glazed, Low-e Coatings, Reflective Coatings & ETC) 2. Spandrel Glass 3. Aluminium or other metals 4. Stone veneer 5. Fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) 6. Louvres or vents

Menara Maybank Outrigger and belt truss system is one of the lateral loads resisting system in which the external columns are tied to the central core wall with very stiff outriggers and belt truss at one or more levels. The belt truss tied the peripheral column of building while the outriggers engage them with main or central shear wall. The aim of this method is to reduce obstructed space compared to the conventional method. The floor space is usually free of columns and is between the core and

Menara Maybank applied low-e glass as the infill of the curtain wall. Besides, it is upheld by the perimeter that is built of concrete. The capacity enforced on the curtain wall will also be upheld by the perimeter as well as the core of the building structure through the anchors, and connect the perimeter column to Menara Maybank building structure, which is different with the curtain walls of Two Prudential Plaza.

The external columns, thus increasing the functional efficiency of the building. Exterior columns restrained the core wall from free rotation through outrigger arms. Outrigger and belt trusses, connect planar vertical trusses and exterior frame columns. Outrigger system can lead to very efficient axial strength and stiffness of exterior columns. Outrigger system can lead to very efficient axial strength and stiffness of exterior columns. Outrigger system can lead to very efficient axial strength and stiffness of exterior columns. Outrigger system can lead to very efficient Outrigger system can lead to very efficient


all is the faรงade component that structures the climate boundary for a building without supporting the cture.

Two Prudential Plaza In contrast, Two Prudential Plaza used spandrel glass as the infill of the curtain wall. Spandrel glass is used to placed in between the eyesight areas of windows, also to hide all the structural pillars, slab as well as walls. The curtain wall that Two Prudential Plaza applied is opposite with Menara Maybank, because Two Prudential Plaza only applied the curtain wall in the middle of each side of the building facade.


109 Curtain

Wall Facade

building construction

A curtain wall is the faรงade component that structures the climate boundary for a building without supporting the building structure.

Unitized & Stick System

110 Menara Maybank Menara Maybank used the stick system for the curtain walls framework. Stick systems is one of the curtain wall system that are put in piece by piece on site, with the coating embedded into the frame from the inside either outside relying upon the conditions.

Two Prudential Plaza In contrast, Two Prudential Plaza used unitised frameworks, and these are pre-fabricated in modules off-site and delivered to site in panels. Unitised systems have more advantages, because of the manufacturing conditions , quality control and it requires lesser installation time on site.


PRos & Cons Of

Curtain Wall Advantages facade :




Implementing thermal protection and maintaining a strategic distance from cold bridging as well as condensation. Implementing flame, smoke as well as acoustic detachment. Especially a little bit troublesome at the joints between the curtain wall system as well as the interior walls and floors.


building construction

Shifting loads back to the main structure of the building. Besides, making a boundary to water diffusion. Accommodating differential development and bending. Keeping panels from dropping out from the frame.




disAdvantages Of Curtain Wall Facade : 1 2

Maintenance is needed regularly.


The maintenance is needed to stay away from the moisture and block the wind from getting inside the building, so the sealant must be sealed to the perimeter and this sealant have to change every 10 years.

The cost of the maintenance is high and also require a long time for the maintenance.

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Entrance Ro! Building Construction

The roofs of the entrance are gable roofs, also known as pitched or peaked roof, gable roofs are one of the most popular roofs. Gable roofs are easily recognised by their triangular shape. In addition, the entrance roof of Menara Maybank is a combination of few gable roofs, this is to allows good ventilation at the spaces between each roof.



Pros & Cons OF Gable Roofs Pros : Gable roofs easily shed off water and give more space for an vaulted or attic ceilings as well as it allow more ventilation.


building construction

The design of gable roof is simple so it is easy to build the types of roof. Also, this roof is more cheaper compared to others roof design. Cons : Gable roofs can be cryptic in high wind and windstorm areas. On the off chance that the rooftop casings are not precisely built with competent support, the rooftop might collapse. In addtion, high winds can be one of the major reason that caused the materials to rip off from the roofs.



116 Steel Truss Joint Steel Post The supporting material that Menara Maybank used for the roofs is steel trusses that are composed of ball & socket joints. Steel trusses structures a complicated space frame trusses. Steel trusses along the layered gable triangular roofs then upheld their weight onto steel posts on two sides of the hallway. In addition, steel trusses does not need internal load bearing for support.

Steel Trusses - Space Trusses The type of roof trusses that Menara Maybank applied in their entrance roof is space trusses. These trusses brings out 3D structure. The utilisation of space trusses is to upheld the entrance roof by associated with ball & socket joints. In addition, they add the steel bars to the actual joints then connecting all truss to one point to make them obtain.


117 Space


building construction

The type of roof trusses that Menara Maybank applied in their entrance roof is space trusses. These trusses brings out 3D structure.

The mass of the rooftop is circulated equally onto the steel posts that are situated at both sides of the roof. Space trusses that Menara Maybank used are prefabricated, effectively transported and assembled on site.

Design Patterns Menara Maybank used double layers grid as their roof design pattern, and double layers grid is typically used in space truss. Double layers grid are double layers, the elements of this pattern are organised in 2 parallel layers with both members at a certain length apart. Besides, each of these layers structures out a hexagons, squares or cross section of triangles in which the projection of the hubs in a layer may cover or be dislodged in respect to each other.

PRos & CĐžs Of Space Trusses Pros : 1. Space trusses are very easy the contract compared to others truss. In addition, the construction time is shorter and the costing is also lower. 2. The materials is very durable and the finishes of the roof trusses is very protective. 3. Construction is simple, safe and fast, and no site painting or welding is needed. Cons : One major disadvantages is space trusses can be very troublesome to engineer, it is not direct to complete how enforcement will allocate a structure that has a lot of redundant parts.

Ball & Socket Joint



Two Prudential Plaza

Pyramid Roof In Two prudential plaza, a pyramid roof is found. The pyramid roof has 4 slanted side and there is a spire extending from the tip of the pyramid roof. The interesting part is the pyramid roof in two prudential plaza are not constructed from the rectangular base. (Diagram A) Instead, it is extending from the pointed structure of the building.

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Pyramid hip roofs good in resisting strong wind. The shape of the roof are slender and pointed, and this form tend to react in an aerodynamic way in the wind. Unlike the flat roof in Menara Maybank, that remain the same volume on its roof, the volume of pyramid roof in two prudential plaza decrease while rising, and a spire is extended at the end of the pyramid roof.




1 Diagram a 2

Maintenance is needed regularly. The cost of the maintenance is high and also require a long time for the maintenance.


The maintenance is needed to stay away from the moisture and block the wind from getting inside the building, so the sealant must be sealed to the perimeter and this sealant have to change every 10 years.



Two Prudential Plaza Drainage

building construction

Capabilities Next, pooling and stagnant water are the enemy of all kind of roof. Let us take a look on the pyramid roof in two prudential plaza, it has 4 steep slope without a flat surface, this enables the rain water to flow off the roof efficiently. Therefore, leakage and mold growth are prohibited. Yet, in Menara Maybank, the drainage system of the flat roof might not be efficient as pyramid roof in Two Prudential plaza, as the surface of the roof is flat.

Function of

Pyramid roof By having the pyramid roof, roof if two prudential plaza function differently as the flat roof in Menara Maybank. In Menara Maybank, the flat roof comprises a functional space that cater a helicopter pad for helicopter landing. On the other hand, pyramid roof of the two prudential plaza is very steep and there is no space for human activity.


Maybank Tower Flat Roof

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123 Menara Maybank



Roof The roof that Menara Maybank used is a combination of a slanted roof as well as a flat roof. The flat roof is completely secured with concrete and the slated roof are built of strip glass that makes a strip line design on the roof.The roof was organised utilising steel framework and reinforced concrete. The slanted roofs are threw alongside with the walls and slabs to shape its own building structure. This concrete is inserted with steel support bars to reinforce the building structure.


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Building Materials Menara Maybank

Steel and concrete were used as construction materials for making the interior and the exterior of the structural support. Concrete was used for the walls, exterior flooring as well as the vehicles pathways. Other than structural support, steel are also used for gates as well as the fences. Pros & Cons Of Reinforced Concrete : Reinforced concrete has low maintenance cost due to its long service life. Reinforced concrete can be casted to take the shape required and it is widely used in structural components for most of the modern buildings. The compressive strength of reinforced concrete is high.



127 Glass

building construction

Panels The inter-layer lamination consists of a resin that provides substantial strength against brittle fractures of the glass plates. For a tall building, the application of the glass materials on the facade or exterior allow natural light penetration and it allows sunlight enter the interior. Therefore, it form spaciousness and also creates a reflective beautiful external view.

Paint The tones or shading arrangement in modern architecture are frequently described in a simplistic way. Most of the surfaces in the building are covered in white paint. Modern architects considered white as refined taste, as the approach during the period only focused mainly on functionality with minimal ornamentation.


Materials Used For Parking Bays

Mosaic Tiles

Outdoor and basedent parking bays are paved with tiles and mosaics which requires low maintenance and hence allowing the design of the floorings’ design to be assorted. Parking bays for motorcycles are paved with concrete floorings with painted metal railing installation for safety measure purposes.


Materials Used For Interior

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129 Ceilings


For the interior of Menara Maybank, asbestos sheet is a kind of construction material that is manufactured from asbestos cement and it used for ceilings interiorly.

The choice of materials that Menara Maybank used for their staircases are depends on the usage as well as arrangement in the building. Some area were marble tiles and its quite similar to the floorings with aluminium railing. In contrast, other staircases were mild steel floorings and protected with rubber sheets.

Pros & Cons Of Asbestos Sheet : It is fire resistant with good thermal insulation which are suitable for the tropics despite its durability and cost.

130 Floorings

Wa l l s

The interior walls of Menara Maybank are dream up with travertine tiles. Travertine tiles are natural limestone and it is a sedimentary rock as it settled down in many layers over many years. They usually counted as a marble tile as their appearance are quite similar. The floorings in the building are cream color as travertine tiles are usually in fluorescent colour.

Stone & Masonry The wall material that Menara Maybank used is stone and masonry.

Pros & Cons Of Travertine Tiles: Travertine tiles are visually appealing, easily installed, and have the ability to lower down the temperature of the interior.

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Building Materials Two Prudential Plaza Facade material of Two Prudential Plaza is quite similar compare to Menara Maybank. constructed using reinforced concrete and it is the second tallest reinforced concrete building in the world at 920 feet. The use of concrete was effective in handling the transition of load through the setbacks without the use of additional columns. Another advantage of concrete is the natural fireproofing ability that can reduce the cost over other material because there is no need to spray or fireproof structural members.



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CONCLUSION The overview of Kuala Lumpur, a city that is filled with eccentric mishmash of architectural styles, has been undergoing a regular transformation in the past two decades in response to the city’s economic fluctuations. Architects have been given the freedom to explore and experiment with new styles. These new skyscrapers that was created, merging the traditional cultural references with the economic agendas of their corporate clients, is what made each building embodies its own essence of background, stories, and meaning. russ system is one of the lateral loads resisting system in which the external columns are tied to the central core wall with very stiff .Outrigger and belt truss system is one of the lateral loads resisting system in which the external columns are tied to the central core wall with very stiff . Menara Maybank (1989) represents a clear elaborated themes of verticality and urban integration. The whole building reflects a fusion of Malaysian identity with a progressive, technology enhancing and financially sophisticated institution. Despite all the concepts and ideas that were put into account to make the whole project a reality, it did not neglect the natural elements in the environment. It preserved the existing landscape and added public gardens within the compound to incorporate nature into the workers life, stay connected with nature. The whole facade is beautifully sculpted, with the consideration of various aspects when producing the plan of the building- the two intersecting square volumes that surrounds the central axis, that comprises of the elevators and the circulation throughout the building.

The building is a combination of verticality, with the absence of horizontal banding, which creates an illusion that it is less mass and elongated. It stands out and avoids becoming the typical skyscrapers. The exterior of the building depicts a piece of monumental sculpture, but from the interior view, the experience is a transcendence into a cathedral atmosphere. The huge internal volume changes the building’s relationship with the ground, creating an intimacy of connection which would not have existed if the whole facade was solely built vertically.


The Maybank Tower has portrayed a great simplicity, allowing the whole building to stay unified, to be admired as a striking tower, attracting the attention of people and becoming a significant representation of our local identity in the urban landscape.

“ Buildings are often loved or hated purely on the basis of their looks, and despite all the sophisticated technical input that goes into their realization, without some spiritual interaction between the structure and its city and people, it can only be regarded as a failure. “ -Hijjas Kasturi, The Intelligence of Menara Maybank: A Case Study, 1988-


References References (Books)

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Binder, G. (2006). 101 of the world's tallest buildings. Victoria: Images Pub. 2. C. Y., & Yeang, K. (1987). Post-Merdeka architecture: Malaysia 1957-1987. Kuala Lumpur: Pertubuhan Akitek Malaysia. 3. DuprĂŠ, J. (1996). Skyscrapers. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal. 4. Lim, T. N., Sidhu, J. S., & Ariffin, A. N. (2010). Shapers of modern Malaysia: The lives and works of the PAM gold medallists. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Institute of Architects. 5. Loo, Y. M. (2013). Page 67. In Architecture and urban form in Kuala Lumpur: Race and Chinese spaces in a postcolonial city. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate. 6. McGillick, P. (2006). Concrete metal glass: Hijjas Kasturi Associates: Selected works, 1977-2007. Kuala Lumpur: Editions Didier Millet. 7. Terranova, A. (2003). Skyscrapers (V. M. De Fabianis, Ed.). Milan, Italy: White Stars S.r.l. Yeang, K. (1992). The architecture of Malaysia. Amsterdam: Pepin Press.



REFERENCES (WEBSITES) 1. Crawford, N. The pros & cons of flat vs. Pitched roofing. Retrieved November 19, 2016, from SFGate, 2. Barrington, K. (n.d.). Advantages and Disadvantages of Curtain Walls. Retrieved November 29, 2016, from 3. GmbH, E. (2000). Emporis. Retrieved November 15, 2016, from Emporis, 4. GmbH, E. (n.d.). Emporis. Retrieved November 29, 2016, from 5. Gunn, R., & Johnson, M. (n.d.). Emporis. Retrieved November 29, 2016, from 6. Image tags:united states, illinois, chicago, one prudential plaza, two prudential plaza, aon center, blue cross blue shield. (n.d.). Retrieved November 29, 2016, from udential-plaza-aon-center-blue-cross-blue-shield/id/221326/ 7. Malayan Banking Berhad. (n.d.). Retrieved November 26, 2016, from 8. Maybank Tower, Kuala Lumpur. (n.d.). Retrieved November 26, 2016, from 9. Menara Maybank. (2006). Retrieved November 7, 2016, from Wong, P. Kuala Lumpur Weather. Retrieved November 18, 2016, from Kuala Lumpur, 10. Menara Maybank. (n.d.). Retrieved November 28, 2016, from 11. Melbourne School of Design | University of Melbourne. (n.d.). Hijjas bin Kasturi. Retrieved November 28, 2016, from 12. Hijjas Kasturi Architect. (n.d.). Retrieved November 28, 2016, from 13. Welcome to Prudential Plaza's TenantÂŽ Portal. (n.d.). Retrieved November 28, 2016, from 14. WTC Perimeter Wall Construction. (n.d.). Retrieved November 29, 2016, from 15. Subscribe to downloadLong Street. (n.d.). Retrieved November 29, 2016, from 16. The Perimeter Walls. (n.d.). Retrieved November 29, 2016, from 17. Two Prudential Plaza - The Skyscraper Center. (n.d.). Retrieved November 28, 2016, from 18. Two Prudential Plaza, Chicago. (n.d.). Retrieved November 29, 2016, from 19. Two Prudential Plaza. (n.d.). Retrieved November 29, 2016, from


x Prepared by : Chang Huey Yi 0322898 . Cham Zheng Chee 0322317 . Chan Koо Qi 0322000 Chang May Chen 0322636 . Cherilyn Chia 0321986 .Chang Jing Jun 0326762 Taylor’s University X School Of Architecture, Building & Design

Menara Maybank (Culture & History II)  
Menara Maybank (Culture & History II)