Page 1

Sikhs in U.S.A and Canada Issue

The Sikh Sansar USA - CANADA

QUARTERlY

VOL 1 .NO.3

JOURN~~

OF THE S.IKH FOUNDATION

I>EPT.EMBER 1972


PATRONS

LOCAL REPRESENTATIVES

H. H. Yadaliiildra Singh, Th. Maharaja of Patiala

Mr. Kjrat Singh Sethi Dr. I. J , Singh New York

S. Hardlt Singh Malik New Delhi

S. Kirp.' .1Singh Nirong Vice·Chancelior Punj!lbi UniversitY EDITORIAL BOARD

Dr. Narinder Singh Kapany, Cl)ief Editor Dr. R. K. Janmeja Singh

Ajaib Singh Sidhu

Prof. Hari Singh Everest

Dr. Gumam Singh Sidhu

Prof. Bhai

Harba~

Lal

Prof. Bhai Harbans lal Massachusetts

Mr. Harbans·Singh Grover Buffalo, N.Y.

Sham,her SiQgh Washington, D.C.

[Jr.

Mrs. Satinder Kaur Kapany

EDITDiUAL ADVISORY BOARD Prof. N. G. Barrier (Missouri, U.s.A,)

Prof. W. H. McLeod (New Z""land)

Prof. Karamiit Singh Rai Illinois

Mrs. Gail Sidhu San Francisco

Dr. Mohinder Singh Randhawa (Chandigam)

Prof. Ganda Singh (Pati.ala)

Dr. Kartar Singh Lalvani (London)

Prof. Harbhajan Singh (New Delhi)

S. Khushwant Singh (Bombay)

P<of. Harbans Singh (Patiala)

Mrs. Manlit P. M. Wylam (London)

P,ro.f. Hail Singh Everest Yuea City

Dr. Beant Singh .Ontario> . Canada

Mr. G. S. Deal Vancouver. Canada

THE SIKH SANSAR: Sansar moans univorse. Traditionally. the material unive...

Dr. Kosar Si ngh

was cohsidered an "illusion" (Maya) . The Sikhs con.sider the material universe as a

Alberta, Cana9a

ma~ifeStation of cosmic Spirit. This jour~1 yvill ;lSPeets of Sikh lif••

pr~nt

the material and spiritual

THE SIKH SANSAR Is owned and managed by the Sikh Foundation, P.O. Box 727, Redwood City, California 9~, whicl! is a [!on-political, non-profit organiza· tion iledicated to dissemination of knowledge about the history, literatur., art, cull\lre. and religious pt:....,ts of me.Sikhs.

Prof. Amariit Singh S!fthi Ottawa, Canada

Mr. A. S. Chhatwal ~ndon


CONTENTS

Page Editor!~.

. . . . . . . . . . . ,

. 66

l'he Gb~ Movement (lI.Mooocemtllt;) ,

67

I1ir; S~$ in c;aIifo.mia. Dr, C. H. Lodilin

68

The N'cw Sikh. Vlkram Singh . . .

n

Char.acter Prome. o,lilics L ..Jl2rrier

75

An Episode in the ~ for Amertcan Cjrizen<bip. Dr. Wm>Jd S. Jacoby

76

Future I~es of the 'SOO:l Sl'.NSAR

• •

79

Map df Siid! S.ertiemmti in U.S.A. and canada

80

Sikh Organizations in U.S.A. and Canada, Api!; Singh Sidhu

82

Sikh Organization Forms . . . . . . . , .

8·3

fntemacionai Puiijabi Society,. 4th A.m:iiv~

86

LoCil,I NC$s.• D.!'. G. S.Sidhu

88

·!,.llners to the. Editor

90

• .

. .

Boo~ ~eview•.I:I. S. Ev= and Rev.. C, D. Madicson

9,


Editorial

Members of the Sikh Community are to be found in all parrs of the world today and this is not a mere accident. Sikhs not only make their presence felt in aU walks of life but also demonstrate a passion for adventure and exploration. Travelling to distant parts of .t he world and converting adversity into opportunity has come to be known as a Sikh trait. However, this should not be too surprising when we recall that even the founder of the Sikh Culture-Guru Nanak-himself travelled long and wide five centuries ago and made a profound impact on strange and distant cultures. The story of the settlement of Sikhs in the U.S.A. and Canada begins at the turn of this century. It is full of episodes of trauma, intense hard work, poverty, sacrifice and dedication. Faced with an unsympathetic immlgration policy and lack of economic opportuniJ:ies in a strange land, the early Sikh sertlers persevered with faith . In spite of these severe limitations they did not lose dedication to their homeland and made historic contributions to the struggle for India's independence. The establishment of the Gbadar parry, the Kama¡Gata-Maru episode and the suffering of numerous jail terms are but a small portion of the testimony of the effortS of the American and Canadian Sikhs to free india. With their dedication and toil, the early Sikh settlers transformed themselves from farm laborers to ranchers, from tepants to landlords, from taxi drivers to cab Gompany owners, from clcrical staff to businessmen, in less than a qUarter of a ceorury. While playing their role in this system of free enterprise, they attempted to maintain their cultural ties with Punjab. However, intermarrying with women ofWestetn background, bringing up their children away from the Indian cultural atmosphere and usual pressures for assimilation have caused some of the usual problems encountered by most immigrant communities. The prcssures for a "complete assimilation" of the Sikhs into the American scene are not only misguided, but could well lead to a loss of the unique contribution that the Sikh culture can make to the U.S .A. and Canada.

66

THE SIKH SANSAR Volum~ I, Number 3 Sqnembet' 1972

"There is no basis for leaping to the conclusion that the East Indians are 'unassimilablc' because assimilation has not yet taken place. In a very real sense, there are no people wholly 'unassimilable' and even if we were to establish a scalc of 'assimilability,' the East Indians would undoubtcdly stand very higb on any list of the people of the world. So there is no basis for judging them to be too different to be allowed here. "Nor is there any justification for insisting that some greater measure of assimilation, integration or amalgamation ought immediately to be pressed. There is no evidence that these people are the less emotionally linked to America by rcason of their tendency to enjoy curry, speak Punjabi with their friends or worship at the temples of their fathers. Nor is there any certainty thar their loyalty to America would be enhanced by forcing them to join Western clubs and lodges or marry only with persons of non-Indian background. Loyalty is an inward thing, demonstrated not by the clothes people wear, the language dialects they may usc':" or even the oaths they are compelled to sign-but by the whole bent of their personality and character. In this regard, there is lirtle today to indicate that the East Indians are less entitled to the name 'American' than are any of the rest of us."¡ The true American and Canadian Sikh must preserve his culture and tradition and yet participate wholeheartedly in the social, economic and national sphere surrounding him. The politico-economic climate in the U.S.A. and Canada are particularly suited to the charac¡ ter and abilities of the Sikhs. Although very small in numbers today, our record is outstanding. In this land of opportunities the scope for our growth and sucoess is unlimited. However, each of us must shoulder the responsibility of a true and dedicared "ambassador of the Sikh culture" and try to disseminate Sikh values through every action in our social, professional, national and religious aaivities. Only in this manner wiu we be able to make a meaningful contribution to the Western culture and gain our rightful recognition. "Prof. Harold S. Jacoby, May 23, 1956.


THEGHADAR MOVEMENT No pundits ormulJanl 40 we need, No prayt!'TS of litanier we need rer:ite, T h<se wi// only scuttie t>Ur boat. Drrzwtlre sword; 'tis time IQ figlrt.

GHADAR HISTORY PROJECT BEGINS Beginning this sununer, the Center for South and Southeast Asia Studies will be making a special effort to collect materials relating to the Ghadar movement-a militant movement for India's independence, which was based in the United States in the earlier part of this century. Plans are being made for a special "Ghadar History" section to be located in the library of the Center for South and Southeast Asia Studies, which has one of the largest South Asia collections in the United States. The special "Ghadar section" will be truly unique; there is no other similar collection of materials anywhere else in the world. It is especially appropriate for these materials to be collected in the Berkeley library, since the Ghadar movement was based near Berkeley. The movement's headquarters were in San Francisco, and much of the support for the movement came from Punjabi and other Indian residents of the adjoining San Joaquin Valley of California.

From KJuulawtml $i",II , GW,# 1915

,wala Sing"

AN APPEAL FOR INFORMATION ABOtJT HISTORICAL MATERIALS

RELATED TO TIlE GHADAR MOVEMENT If you know where these materials rdated to the Ghadar movement may be found: --pamphlets such as Glradar-di.GODn;, lIan·i· lang, Naya·Zamana, The Balance Shea of

British Rule; -magazines such as Glradar, Desir Sewak, Khalsa Herald, Aryan, Sansor, Hindus'ani, CQfUldaana india, Yugantar, Swaraiya, Nav

p

shakti, Blror,i; -newspaper clippings and magazine articles rci2ted to Ghad.,. -lctters of participants -picturcs of Ghadaritcs, -posters

- records of meetings Or if you know persons who wc:re involved with the Ghadar movement,

PLEASE CONTACT: G hadas History Project Center for South Asia Studies University of California Bcrkdey 94720

67


THE SIKHS IN CALIFORNIA DR. C. H. W 'IlHLIN" Tbe Sikhs have long been noted for their ability to adapt tbc;mseJvcs to circumstances beyond their conaot. Their practical optimism and freedom from apathy bav'e led them t(J acCept whafever befalls them in the Providen~ of God and to try [0 tum it to their own advantage.. They showed this ability in the luml?ering il)dustty of 001J2da and in die orchard culture of California. After vicissitudes ~ won the respect of the AmeriCans by thclr patience in adyemty and their hard and inteJIigent labor on their farms. The Sikh. are highly ~pprecialiy.e of die opportunitieS America offers.

The Sikhs seem to have iIlherited the pioneering spirit of their ancient Aryan forebears wh'o I~t their home in central Europe and migrated thousands of miles southward to Persia and finally eastward to the plains of northern India. The Sikhs are today found in communities all over the world. We shall take a brief look at them as they have settled in California. The tITSt question then is, "Wh.ere are they to be found in California?" The great majority are fanners, settled in the three central valley regions of the State. First, in order of settlement, is the San Joaquin Valley in central California where they are found within a strip froD;l Sacramento southwards beyond Fresno, approximately 160 miles long and 40 wide. Near the center of this Strip their t1TSI Gurudawara was built at Stockton in 1915 by the Khalsa Diwan Society of the United States. The seoond area is in the extreme south, from EI Centro on the Mexican border north to the Salton Sea in an area 50 miles long by 40 wide. Here a Gurudawan was opened in 1948 by remodelling a Buddhist temple. The third area is the SacramentO Valley in northern California. It is 'about 100 miles long by 40 wide. "Dr. C. H. LoehIin setY.ed in the Punjah Mission of the Presbyterian Church from October 1923 to April 1968, at Moga, LLldhi.na, Jullundur City, Fcrozepore, Tarn Tarant Amritsar, and the last ten yc:axs at Bata1a 'in the Baring Union Christian CoUtgt. Along with Dr. Ram Singh, Principal. and Dr. W. H.McLen¡d he belped found the Christian Institute of Sikh Studies, a nsearch depan:ment of tbe College, open to ill Many Sikhs used to uke advantage of the fine researeh library there. AIter forty y.... actUally in the Punjab he rcrired 'to live among the Sikhs of California. H. is gr;oteful to all the Sikh friends who have helped bim understand and appreciate their faith. His-pubIic;atio~ include "Tbe Sikhs and Their Scriptures." 1964, liThe Granth of Guru Gpbind Singh and the Khalsa Brotherhood," 1971, and numerous articles in the ,magszines of India, including the "Sikh

Review."

68

It has the heaviest concentration of Sikhs in California, in the Yuba-Sutter County area. Here a handsome Gurudawara seating 100.0 with a La:ngar Hall to match has been built at T,ierra Buena, a suburb of Yuba City. The groundbreaking <;eremony was held on November 19, 1969. thus celebrating Guru Nanak's SOOth birth anniversary. The Gurudawara was oompleted and dedicated on DeCemb~ 20, 1970. A fluctuating !luinber of Sikh students and an increasing number of business and professional people are to be fQund in and around San Francisco and Los Angeles. In each of these cities Gurudawaras are being built. The total number of Sikhs in California in 1969 is coDSel'V3tively estimated td be about 7000. 1 The new "Register of the Sikhs in the U.S.A. and Canada" will prove invaluable in getting accurate informatio.n as to numbers and locations. The First Edition is especially help,ful fonhc: Sacramento Valley and San Francisco areas. It is interesting to note the preference of the Sikh farmers for the flat river v.alleys. These would most resemble their Punjab homeland both in topography and climate. Water for irrigation is plentiful Here the Sikhs are fahners of diversified crops, specializing in orchards of peaches, plums, grapes, walnuts and almonds. The Yuba-Sutter area has the reputation of growing more peaches than any other comparable area in the world. Around Yuba City-Marysville and southw:l.rds rice is extensively cultivated. Why did they rome and when? Here again definite information is sdlnty. Khushwant Singh says that Sikh immigration to the U.S.A. was a "spillover" from Canada about the turn of the .cenrury, when from 1904 to 1906, 600 came. The 1907 tiots against them in Bellingham, Washingron just near the Canadian border, when 600


American lumber mill work~s raided 400 "Hindus" (as any people from Hindustan were called) and drove them from the city, would seem to show this southward migration. The Sikhs had gone from one lumbering area to ano.ther. The labor riots, albeit on a much smaller scale., at Live Oak, California on January 25, 1908, and St. John, Oregon on March 21, 1910, would seem to indicate their continued southward migration. 2 Severe economic conditions, due to drought and crop failures in the Punjab, are also mentioned as causes fOr emigration. Jacoby mentions contacts with Westerners while in the British A\"my and Police. Some came via Canada or the Philippines, many direct, or from Mexico . Jacoby divides Sikh immigration into California intO three periods: (I) 1904 to rJte beginning of World War I in 1914 when the "Old Timer.s" Ol.me as farm laborers. In [914 the Co.mmissioner General of U.S. Immigration said there were 20,000 to 30,000 East lndians here, mostly illegally. This was obviously due to mistaken identity, for Jacoby puts the total number then at 7000. (2) In the period 1918 to 1930 "students" and illegaIs came. Many came under student quotas, but stayed on inconspicuously to avoid detection, and later furnished an educated Ieadership for the Sikh community. During the period 1920 to 1930 it is estimated that at least 3000 Hindus and Sikhs entered illegally, mostly via Mexia>. (3) With the passing of the Luce-Cellar Bill by the U.S. Congress in 1946, the Sikhs could obtain American citizenship, bring over their families, and own land . The quota for India was only 100, but as families and relatives were allowed beyond this quota and the law was interpreted liberally, many more than that entered legally. 3 The rOlld to full citizenship had been rough. At first, many Hindu.stanis had been admitted as "Caucasia.ns" and so could become citizens. However, in February 1917 the "Barred Zone Act" was applied to India, along with Siam, Indo-China, Siberia, Mghanistan, Arabia, and the Malayan [slands. This act was reinforced by a Supreme Court decision which stated that "a Hindu is not a free white person" and hence was not eligible for U.S. citizenship. Not only was further naturalization barred for them, but citizenships granted in the fifteen years after 1908 were revoked. 4 It seems likely that after the huge influx of Chinese and Japanese laborers during the railroad

building era of the late 19th century, with the problems arising therefrom, the few hundreds of Sikhs became targets of this racial ill will. The Sikhs were conspicuous with their ¡turbans and beards. They were lampooned in the American press as "The Turbaned Tide" and "The Rilg Heads. 'oS However, th.e ir patience in advertisy and ¡t heir hard and intelligent farm labor won the respect of the Americans, and with the passing of the Luce-CeIlat Bill in 1946 the lot of the Sikhs in the three Califomia valleys has become, on the whole, a happy and prosperous one. There seems now to be a movement to bring over Punjabi wives and families with the evident intention of making California their home. ASSIMILATION TO AMERICAN UFE

The Sikhs have long been noted for their ability to adapt themselves to circumstances beyond their conttol. Their practical optimism and freedom from apathy has led them to accept whatever befalls them in the Providence of God and try to rum it to their own advantage.

An indian historian remarks with admiration an "the elasticity of character, the power to adapt themselfJes" oftbe Sikhs. Thei, vigor of body and mind enabled them to withstand the chanlfes of a rigorous climate, so that "the burnmg sun, heavy rains, freezing winters and rough weather exercised no deterring influence on them. .. EfJen persecution, the df!struction of their homes and sacred buildings, and the enslafJement of their women and children did not succeed in crushing tbeir spirit. 6 In Canada, too, the Sikhs showed this ability. They not only adapted themselves to a new climate and a new civilization, but to new occupations ;IS well. Gaming from the farms of the I\mjab, they got construction jobs on the Canadian railways. Later they turned to the lumber industry, so that one authoriry says, "These farmers from th.e P.unjab have not only adapted themselves to work in the moist forests of western Canada, but have mastered the mechanized skills of the more intricate mill work." Two of the largest lumber mills are now owned and operated by Sikhs-the Kapoor Mill near Vancouver, owned by Kapur Singh, and the Mayo Mill on Vancouver Island near Duncan, owned by Mayo Singh.7 Even in 1920, before the Sikhs could buy land in California, the Chief Sanitary Engineer of the State Commission of I mmigration and Housing

69


has this 路to say of their land hunger and pr.ogressive spirit: Our experience in labor camp inspection sh(Jws that Hindus' are rapidly leaving the employed lis~ and a~e beco7!'g empl'!yers. p'artitularl;; is tbrs true In the nce growing sectlon of California, in Yolo, Colusa, Glenn, Butte, Sutter and Yuba Counties, also in the cotton district of Imperial County . . _ In Fresno, Kings, Madera and Tulare Counties we jind Hindus employed in some orcbards 'and vineyards; also in the sugar beet section in Yolo County and the SaliMS Valley. Toe number is rapidly growing less, for tbe change from employed to employer or l~ssee is,~apr(Jly placing ,~he Hin~u in t~e positron of 'lrttle landlord. . Tbe Hrndu wzll not farm poor land. He wants the best and will pay for it. Consequently the American owner who can get a big rental [or his land desires tbe路 Hindu_He wiJl pay. 8 Their su~ as orchard agriculruralists ("ranchers" they call themselves) is seen in the peach farming in Sutter County. In 1966 they owned 20% of the farms, but produced 35% of the peach tonnage. Peach cultivation is an intricate process involving spraying for insect control, cultivation for weed control, ferti1ization, irrigation, thinning, pruning, cover crop planting, and harvesting. Several own and operate the most modern machines for shaking the trees and catching the peaches or plums on canvas aprons, then by conveyor belt to huge bins for transportatiO\1- by tractor to the sorting stations of the big canning companies. Most of these farmers now live in modem houses with plumbing, electricity, and gas for cooking and heating. This is far different trom the living conditions of the early setders, who often slept on the ground around open fires or in barns in the hay; their cooking was over camp fires, their food the simplest. They work-ed ten or twelve hO.UTs路a day for a dollar and a half, and yet mey managed to save to send back to the Old Country. Their adaptability, their determination to save pm of their income, however meager, along with hard work and the "Khalsa spirit" of helping ODe another out with the lending of tools and equipment, have all contributed to the prosperity of the Sikh farming community.9 With regard to 'assimilation, Dr. Jacoby, who has made a thorough study of the Sikhs in California, sums up his findings as follows: e"Hiildu" beats the usual American geographicaJ interprc:t:ation-anyone from Hindustan is a Hindu. H(Te it obviously means "Sikh."

70

At this halt-centllry in the life of tbe East Indians in tbe United States it is appa.r ent tbat acculturation is dejinitely taking place, hut it cannot be s'lid tbat assimilation bas as yet heen accomplisbed.. ln terms of several aspects of theIr way of life, they are stIll IdentifIable as being from India. In terms of tbe social o'rg<mizational structure of American society, tbe Hilst Indians are even less an integral part f)f American life. Andjinally, in terms of their b.lOlogt~al mergmFJ mto the SITeam of A mertcan life, tbts process rs even less Itkely (or the immediate future than it appear..! to be a decade or so ago . .. Nor is there any justification for insisting that some greater measure of assimilalion, integration, or amalgamation ollFJbt immediately to be pressed. There is no evrdence that tbese people are tbe less emotionally linked to America by reason of their tendency to enjoy cury, speak Punjabi witb their friends, or worsbrp at the temples of their fathers. Nor is there any certainty that their loyalty to America would be enhanced by forcing them to join Western clubs and lodges, or marry only with persons of non-Indian background_ Loyalty is an inward thing, demonstrated not by tbe clothes people wear, tbe language dialects they may use- or eve1l tbe oaths they are compelled to sign- but by tbe whole bent of their pers07tlliity and character. In tbis regard there IS little today to indicate tbat the East Indians are less entitled to the name "American" than are any of the 路r est of us. 10 THE OUTLOOK FOR THE FUfUR.E

On the b3$is of their adaptability and enterprise in solving the problems of setding in new environments in the past, there seems to be no reason to believe that they will not continue to do so as they face the problems and opportunities of a new day. The Sikhs are traditionally a devout people. Their religion encourages a close fanilly life, worldly success, and social responsibility, obviously values that have helped their progress. Sikhism centers around Nam (worship) and Sew (scrvjce). The people of Sto.<:kton noticed this spirit of service:

Althougb the Sikh Temple was built in the modem period, it is a proneer c~urch of . unusual mterest and should be mduded m th.is history. The Sikh Temple, located at 1930 North Grant Street, was dedicated November 21, 1915 . . . A priest was in charge of the Temple to attend to the wants


oftbe members at any time o{day or m.ght. Chanty was practISed by the members and no man app{jtillg for shttlter ot food was ever tumeii away, regardles. of who pe was: The hobos passing by on the Soutbern Pacifie tracks, just in rear oftbe Temple, would always be fed from a kitcben dining room, and a tiorm~tory located on the ffJ.ound floor woula provide sleeping quarters. A problem that will be increasingly urgent is likely to center around the attitudes and occupations of the coming generations. In addition to new arrivals, many childre.n of Sikb families will be born and brought up in California. They will have little difficulty in adopting American ways and values. Can they also be taught to pre-' serve the ideals of their parents in the hectic swirl of American life, with its emphasis on "dollar prestige"? Their family solidarity, simple living, thrifty saving, and hard, honest labor need emphasis today in American civilization. The Sikhs see in edut;ation the hope of the future, and their children are enrolled by the hundreds in the excellent schools and high schools oJ the'Yuba"Sutrer area, and this is probably true of any ,area they live in. Professor Charles Berrier, Faculty Advisor for the Indian Students' Associatidn of Yuba College, sotinds a heartening note in his apprajsal of the 'Pnnjabi-American students (mostly Sikhs) a,t the College. Among other traits he noted: He is proud, but se/d.om arrogant. He is usually conscientious as a student, as be recognizes .lbe sacrifices others have made faT hIm. He I;stablisli/fs strong pt;TSonal alt(ances. which witbin a club ledlis to tbl! creation of factions. He has strong emotions, wbicb may even cause tbe sparks to fly between, th.e fa,ctio71S; hut he also possesses the strength to resolve these internal conflicts hefore tbey get oUt of hand. He has 'an intens.e self-discipline' and an urge toward upw/!r4 s.ocial mobility. (Like most American immigr«7(ts befotehim, he and his family have come to A meriea with little more than the shirts on their backs ., . A study of his /ife usually restorcs qne's ffIith in the Amerit;lln dream ofself-t:ealizatir;m and a margin of happiness for' those who wO'rk hard, earn and spend less.) He is not given to idleness nor to dissiplCtion. I am not saying that be has 1Iot taken a few sWl/ows 01/ a gala occasion, but he usual/y .does so in mod'etiition'. And [ have y.et to meet all ISA

member who i:; high on drugs. (Spee. h given at the ;!nnual ikmquet of the IS;! of Ylib. College, held on March 21 , 1971.. Signed "Cbarles L. Bema,A dviso.r L'>A")

With regard to the opportunities for- advancement here, Dr. Guizar Singh Johl, the well-knewn eye Surgeon ofYuba CitY, is equally optimistic. In an interview with a neWs reponer, he is quoted as saying:

! saUl it was either me.¢icine or farming, or hotb. It's bard to explain wby. Farming's just in my veins. It's become a way of life. Most people aim t'! own their o'wn la.nd. MoSt of tbem are saVIng their money for a down payment OT something. And aI/ our people wam to stay in fqrming. The ki4s sometimes think aboutge.tting this' or that kind ofIi jok, hut they stay in farming, They have some'thinl5 to start with. Anyone can appreciate just bemg he,re in this country. Where else could you buy .. . land without payi1]g a penny out of your ' pocket? You pay for it, of course, you pay a lot mou, but you can work the land like it was your' own even if it isn't your own, and . hope someday it will be YOUT own. This is the Qnly place. Ifyou don't want to talk to somebody, you don't have to. I/you need help, tbere s always help available: If we need advice in our orcht!Tds, George Post is there, You can't eV{!n huy help in litherlllaces. Here it is sup· plies to us just fat the asking. But 'the main thing is opportunity. If a person wants ,to advance htmself, he, can. And if ve doesn't. it's /Jis o'l»n fault, 12 Acculturalization needs to be selecrive.. The Aryan forefathers w.ere adventurous pi"neers. They also e1<hibited a tent:\e'ncy tOward d ivisiveness. This probably had a share in develQpi'1g the caste system of India. with its continual division into sub-<:asres. Factionalism. with its accompanyinginrrigne, has often been a problem for rhe Sikhs. Witness the proliferation ofMissats, or party factions, before and aftcr Maharaja Ranjlt Singh. Today the Sikhs need to be on their guard against the qu'rent power-politics evident all over America, including therr own comrni1nity. Anothe.r crait of rhe Aryan elder~ was a fondness for the intoxicating liquor of Ihe Sbmq plant. In the face of rhe inroxit;ating Ilq uors and drugs so abundantly available in affluent and permissive America, the lessons of me past give clear warning againsr assimilation inro rhe prevalent American "drug _culture/ ' As someone has put it-,

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"Alcohol and gasoline just don't mix." Acculturalizatioil to th!, American way of life will doubtless go on; but Sikh cultUre must also be preserved to make its contribution, in the words of their Congregational Pray~r, "for the wdf:iJ;e of all." To this end Gurudawaras are being established, and libraries of Sikh literarure, and study rucks organized. As mor~ Sikhs become U.S. citizens and voters, no doubt their interest in American politio; w.ill increasingly find an outlet. A few years ago Dalip Singh Saundh of the Imperial Valley was elected to .t he U:S. Congress. The Sikhs' have seen the ~llle of pO,litieal influence in the passing of the LuteCell? Rill. The old Khalsa ideal of a democratic theocracy might be transformed intO dedicated American citizenship activity on the part of a small but able minority. America is still a land of opportUnity. Perhaps some day we may even have a.Sikh as Governor of California! REFERENCES 1 laWrence A. Wenzel. The Rrnal Puniabis of Califo,.,,". jn "Pbyion. A ReView of Race and Culture," Atlanta University. 1965.

ZKhushwant Singh. A History of tbe Sikbs, 18]9· 1964, 173-74. Princeton University Pres" 1966. lHarold S. Jacoliy, A Half·Cclltury Appmi$al o/EMt Indians in the U.S .. University of the Pacific Faculty Research !.ccture. May 2·3 , 1956. 4Wenzd. op. cit. "Phylan," p. 2SQ . . SKhushwant Singh, op. cit .• p.168.A1so compare: Irving Stone. Men to Match My MottntQin~. p. 180, Doubleday... New Ydrk. 1-956. 6C. H.l.oehlin. The Sik!>~ and Their Scriptures. p. 22 ~quotc's H. N. Gupt•• Hisrory of the Sikhs. p. 175). Lucknow Publishing House, LU9<0dw, India, 1964. 7Ma..rian W. Smith,Sikh S~tlJers in Ca"adp . in '~Asia, and rhe Americas." August 1944. pp. 359-364. 8EdWard A. Brown. Hindu Housing, in uCalifornia and the Oriental." Stockopn. 1920. 9Wenzcl; The Identijicxuion rmd Analysis of Certain Valu!! Orientations ofTmo Gennations of East Indians in Ollifornu. IlDpu!>lisbe<j doctoral dissertation, University olme Pacific. Stockton. 1966. lOJacoby,op. cit. (3). pp. 32. 33. llStockton Album througb tbe Y ......s. Stockron. California. 1959. 12Sacramcnto }ke. India" Sikhs Contribute to tbi! Econo'my o/Sutter COlt"",. issue-of November 5'. 1965 (also checked wich Dr. Guizar Singh Johl-C.H.L.)

pp.

English monthly magazine from The Sikh Cultural Centre, IB/I-A, Chittaranjan Avenue, Calcutta-12, India

THE SIKH REVIEW l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 8.

Explains the mission of the great Guru Nanak. Upholda the -traditions and prcs~ige of Sikhism. Contaii:J.s contributions by the highest authorities on Si.k h r:eligion and culture. Orfen a challenge to today's youth. Its articles have broad and rational views. It affords: food for ~ought for educated people of aU religions and all nations. Iu articles are of a high literary standarq an.d always bring you something new. It appeals not only to Indian nationals but to others as well.

A I'e'plUcntitive in United States: Professor Harj .Singh Everest

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THE NEW SIKH VIKRAM SINGH路 For the first time in our SOO ye... old histo<y the teach路 ings of the Gurus have been made available on a large

scale in ID1IIy countries outside of India. Across the United Sta.... in Canada, and Mexico, in England. Hoi路 land, France and Belgium, an incredible phenomenon is

taking p1aa:, Young people of those countries arc wearoing turbans, letti,ag their hair grow and taking, the name of Singh or Kaur_ They arc risi~g at thr~ or four in the morning, bathing and redring the Holy Name of God. They find it a wonderful and exciting experience to beeome familiar with the great strength and spiritual power of Guru N.nak.'s teachings.

i\cross the United States, in Canada and Mexico, in England, l:lol1and, France and Belgium, an incredible phenomenon is taking place. Young people of those countries are wearing turbans, letting their hair grow and taking the name of Singh or Kaur. They are rising at three or four in the morning, bathing aiJd reciting the Holy Name of God. They have forsworn alcohol, tobacco, the use of drugs and even the eating of meat. They live righteously, respect their women (and everyone else's) and are ready to share with their brothers and sisters as well as those in need. These are the new Sikhs of the Westall Hemisphere following the light given to us by Guru Nanak. For the first time in our 500 year gld history the teachings of the Gurus have been made available on a large seale in many countries outside of India. Many of the so-called lost youth of the U.S.A. are turning away from rlr)Jgs to follow the noble way of life. Of courSe, the Sikh way is not the only Eastem religion that is becOming popular With the American youth. In the past the sikh dharma has a.rtracted negligible attention in the We.st; now rhousands of young people are interested in the Sikh heritage. Guru Nanak's standard bearer in this mission of truth is S. Harbhajan Singh Yogi, known to all in the U.S. as Yogi Bhajan. Born in a village near Lahore 43 years ago, S. Harhhajan Singh }i was from early Childhood in the cOmpany of sain~, sadhus a,nd holy men of ;.very description. His grandfather, a qevout Sikh, was a very saintly man wirh a great reputation in that area. For this 路Vikram (Victor) Singh hails ftom tbe United Kingdom. He is a.n ardent 'follow~r and student of the ~ikh religion and well verSed in Shlzblzd Kirton. He has delighted audiences in different pa.rts of the Western Hemisphere with his excellent re.citatlons.

,eason any holy mart t;ravelling in those parts would visit rhe family home for darshan of his grandfather. S. Harbhajan Singh began to study >he scieh~e of yoga, in all its aspects, at a very early age, studies which lasted over twenty years. After graduating from the University in Dc:lhi, where his family had moved to after partition of India, he entered government service. He also married and had three children. But he always had a vision in his mind rhat the Sikh path, the most noble and manly of all the world's religions, should become available for all, not just those who were born .into it. He had discovered for himself, through his yoga studies, that a man whose body and mind are healthy will be that much more abk to become attuned to love in rhe service of God and Guru. Thus, at the end of 1968 he resigned his commission with the Custonis seIYice, made arrangements for the wc:lfare of his wife and children and left Delhi for Canada and then to the U.S.A. He came with less than five dollars in his pocket, trusting only in Guru to guide him_ His lug"aage was lost at London Airport. Knowing that young people would respond to yoga practices, he began to teacll classes in yoga. He taught in YM.CA. 's, in the Los Angeles East West Culture Centre and even in an antique store. Mostly young people would come to his ciasses_ But even rhey could not know the effect these simple yoga exercixes would have on their lives, They wonld fed their bodies changing, a spiritual awareness beginning to unfold within their minds. At the point when they were ready for more than just exercises, asana and pranayam, then Yogi Bhajan told them about Sat Nam, the true Name. He told [hem of Guru Nanak and his humble, devoted way of lif". He explained how the Guru's followers became to be ealled Sikhs. Then he

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insisted that those people who. came as his sru" uents ~hould be re~dy to go far and wide and t(~atb others like themse.lv:es bow to livJ: a healthy and God-fearing life. To mis end, an eduGational, rcligiolts and scientific ntmcprofit corpo.r.ation. was farroi'd kn-own as 3 H Q (Healthy ,Happy and Holy Qrg:lJlizllDOrr). . From.a bl!mble t;iegiruti'llg in a garage ih Hollywood, there '\fe now brancheS of this foundation half way around the world. Groups of young people live togethe.r in communities in 1 QO cities in rhe U .SA. fust to practice ·t his way of life. They rise at three or four in the morning, bathe and tnedidate on Sat N.. m until daybreak; then fh~y re.ci1:e Kirtan and go about their daily business. As these comtnunioti grow in size and number, people are marrying and having children. The family O<:s are becOming stronger. . In addition to the teiu:hmg of the SiKh way of life, the Organization is. spre;lding im.Q many other areas. Drug control is very important in this day and age and 'since many persons associated with 3 H 0 centres have experimented with drngs at SO(IlC time, many 3 H 0 centres are helping by t.eaching at drUg rehabilitation centres. Some cen" tres ~e OPe'Iling b·us.inesses such ·a s rest;turants, import arid expoft, brass bed manuf.:J,ctb.re, petfi.ll1)e, hc;alth fooc! r,iistribution, ett.. There are communitieS Iivir!g pu f;tQnS growing foo<;l to support themselvc:s an~ sell (0 others. Twp bpokj; have ali:ea!)y Been ppblished: Peace Lagoon, somt Banis tend~ed in English, including lap;; Sl!bib, jap Sabib, Rebiras, Kinan SobiJa, /l.n.a114 Sahib, Bara Maba, etc" ·and Guru of'tbe Aquariq,n Age, the life and some sbabads of Guru Nanak.Saliib

in simple E:nglish. I·n 197'2 a gWllP of abOUt 80 Americans visiteci India with S. Harlihajan Singh. They. visited all historic shrines in the Punjab and were rhe gu.e sts of the S.Gl'.C. at Amritsar where S. Harbhajan Singh was presented with a 'sw.ord of honour . The S..G.P.C. also presented ;;0 eopiesof Sr. Guru Grantb S~liib, tr:insla.re!) iI)fo English by S. Mali Mohan Singh. . In several of the centres, ela.,.ses ·are being taught in Gurmukbi script so that the Holy Granrh may be read in its original tex.t . AlSo in Tucson, Arizona, the Guru Amar Das free kitchen 1)3.5 been set up so that anYbody may come and eat in a spiritual plac\:. Sometime in August, a similar ltitclieh will open in Berkeley, Californi:a . There are plans to open kitchens in -other cities across the United States. There i.s"aISQ a proposal to build a central Gurudwara and srudy centre as a place for retreat, learning.and pilgrimage. Thi.s too will probably be in California. To those of us who are kPown as the "new Sikhs" or the American Sikhs it is a wonderful and exciting experi"nce to become familiar with the great strength and spiritual power of Guru Nanak's teachings. The Sikh way. has always been a challenge for those wha would dare to follow it but it has nc:vi:r had a world-wide acceptance. Ycr the light of the Guru is a great light. By God's grace and will., GurU Nanak bas !=hQsen an appropdate time. to reVeal his teachings to rile wqrld as a whole, JUS[ as Dis corniilg to c;iIrtb Was at the perfect time. By Guru Nan,.k.'s grace and by God's mercy, may the Guru's work 151' Q'Ol1e.

Tbrougp Na.nak may irJVe for tbe Nam increase, And may all men prosper by God's grace.

74


CHARAcrER PROFILECHARLESL.BARJUER

Having served as faculty advisor to the Association for the past five years, I believe that I can make a few general comments about the character of the Punjab i-American stUdent who has attended Yuba College during that time. Many of you are already enrolled in an "Arts and Culture of India" course, thanks to the splendid coordination of Mrs. Alice Soderberg and the dedicated work of Mr. Hari S. Everest, Mr. Malkiat Johl, Mr. Grewal, Mr. and Mrs. Joginder Bains, Mrs. Wilkins, Dr. and Mrs. Loehlan, Mrs. L. S. Rai, Mr. B. S. Teja and ' Dave Tej'l, and several others. Some of you are even stUdying P¡u njabi to deepen your understanding of the Sikhs, and I congratulate you. In any case, you deserve to see the character profIle of the Punjabi-American who is attending the community college and who is convinced along with other Asian-Americans that the key to his future lies in receiving an education. He may be an outstanding stUdent, or he may be an average stUdent; yet, invariably, he has the following traits; A. He is proud, but seldom arrogant. (This trait, no doubt, derives from his culrural and religious heritage.> B. He is usually conscientious as a stUdent and is dedicated to the principle of self-improvement. He recognizes the sacrifice others have made for him. C. He has a democratic spirit and he is tolerant of other ethnic groups. (This is an important quality in any multi-ethnic nation.> D. He readily assumes responsibility and he is usually reliable. E. He estab.lishes strong personal alliances, which within a club leads to the creation of factions. F. He has strong emotions, which may even cause sparks to fly between the factions, but he also possesses the strength to resolve these internal conflicts before they get out of hand. G. He is an excellent businessman and recognizes the value of capital, and he does not expend his financial reserves wastefully-to this extent, he is a wise conservative. ¡Excerprs from a speech ddivered at Indian S[U ~cnr Ass0ciation Banquet. Yuba City. Calif.ornia, March 21.1971.

H. He has an intense self-discipline and an urge toward upward social mobility, (Like most American immigrants before h~, he and his family have come to America with little more than the shins on their backs. Through his own labor, austerity and personal sacrifice, he has h.elped create a new life in this land. A stUdy of his life usually restores one's faith in the American dream of self,realization and a margin of happiness for those who work hard, earn and spend less.>With the present rate of inflation, one bas to qualify the statement. L He recognizes that happiness comes from hard work and overcoming the obstacles which have fallen in his way. J, He is often an inspiration to his classmates and other ethnic minorities-and th.is is true even of ,English Literat\JTe. K. He is not given to idleness nor to dissipation. I am not saying that he has not been known to take a few swallows on a gala occasion like the anniversary of Indian Independence, but he nsnally does so in moderation. And I have yet to meet the ISA member who is high ou. drugs. Keeping in mind the wide range for indiVidual differences, I can still say that most of these general traits form the character outline of the Punjabi-American at Yuba College. [t is a profile that pottrays a philosophy of endurance born of the conviction that inner strength will overcome hardship, that advantage and disadvantage are only temporary conditions which will be overcome by strength Of character, constant and purposeful travail and the determination to accomplish one's defmed objectives. We alI1earn in life that happiness lies in surmounting ignorance, prejudice, indifference and vulgarity in all of its forms. Having achieved his basic needs of food, shelter and affection, man will strive toward moral perfection and in the striving he will find happiness. This thought is SO eloquently expressed in the greeting of t he Sikh people; SAT'SRJ-AKAL!, SAT-SRI-AKAL truth-magnificent and everlasting! Thank you.

75


AN EPISODE IN THE QUE'ST FOR AMERICAN CITIZENSHIP HAROLD S. JACOBY, PhD." "White persons" . .. nrc words of oommOQ speech a.nd not of scientific origin. The word "Caucasion t. not only was not employed in me law. but was prubably wholly unfamiliar to the original fram~$ of the statute in 1790.

In 1920, wh~n Bhagat Singh Thind applied for United States citizenship, he had no reason to believe it would not readily be granted; and certainly, he had no way W?~ts.o~ver. of knowing that it would be the declSlon In his case that would effectively bar all other Indians, for a .. period of more than two decades, from acqUlrmg citizenship in this country. . . Thind had come to the Umted States In 1912, and after working in the northwest I.umber industry, served for six months in the United States Army during the latter part of World Wa:( 1. By reason of this military service, he was eligible to apply for citizenship under the War Powers Act, which guaranteed citizenship to all persons who had served honorably in the armed services. I Instead, .he elected to apply under the general naturalization laws-an action that carried some risk inasmuch as the courts were not in agreement with respect to the eligibility of natives of India to acquire citizenship. The basis for this disagreement lay in the disputed interpretation of the Naturalization Law of 1790 which limited naturalization to "free white persons," and of an amendment, passed in 1870 which extended citizenship privileges to , of- African nativ.ity or persons of Ai'ncan "aliens descent." Despite some exceptions, lower courts in general had held that persons .of Chinese and ]apa!)ese nationality were ineligible for citize~­ ship under this law,2 bur the status of the. Indians remained in doubt. The opponents of their naturalization-chiefly the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service and such private groups as the Asiatic Exclusion League of San Francisco-looked upon them as "orientals" and hence not "white" persons. This was also the "Dr. Harold S. Jacoby is Professor of Sociology, University of the Pacific, Stockton, California. He has condu'etc<! deu.iJcd studies of the sociological and historical aspects of the Sikh i.,.migran~ to the U.S.A. His two significant publications on th.e subj~ct ar.e I I A Half-CCntury Appraisal of the East Indians in the United ¡States" and uMore Thind Against than Sinning. n

76

position taken by United States Attorney General Charles]. Bonepane in August 1907, in a letter to the United States Attorney in San Francisco in response to the latter's inquiry: In reply, I beg to inform you tb<lt it seems to me clear thaI IInder no constnlctioll of tbe /<lW can natifles of British Illdia be reg<lrded lIS. white persons withill the meaning of SectIon 2169 R.S. 3 The Indians and their supporters, on the other hand, pointed out that 'in the main they were of the same maj.or racial classification as Europeans -namely, "caucasian"-and their status, therefore, should not be the same a~ those orientals 'classified 'as "mongoloid." Despite the disagreement over the interpretation of the law, the risk of being denied citizenship did not seem to be t.oo great. True, Veer Singh 's applicatio.n for first papc;rs in 1907 h,!d been rejected, but that had I\othing to do with the interpretation of the law. According to a newspaper account at the time, Singh, in accordance with his Sikh religious principles, had refused to doff his turban while being sworn, and the County Clerk of Alameda County (California) thereupon declined to accept his application. 4 But the following year, two Moslem IndiansAbdul Hamid and BelIal Hussain-had been gtal}ted citizenship by the U.S. Discrict Court in New Orleans,S and between that date and 1923, at least siXty-seven other natives of India acquired citizenship by action of no less than thirty-two courts in seventeen different states. 6 Undoubtedly there were numerous instances in which applications were denied~just how many it would be impossible to guess- but the sizable number of successful petitioners would seem to indicate that Bhagat Singh Thind had little to worry about as he submitted his application. Although his application was challenged by the Immigration and Naturalization Service, he was initially successful. In commenting on the issues raised by the opposition, Judge Charles E.. Wolverton, of the Oregon DiStrict Court, made blS


position clear: / am not disposed to discuss the question as one offirst Impression whether a high-dass Hin.du, comi1!1{ from Pun;ab [sic! is ethnolo&,ca/Iy a whIte person wit.hin the meaning oJ Section 2169 of the Revised Statutes . .. I.am content to rest my decision of the questIOn upon a line of cases of which [n re: Mohan Singh and U.s. v. Balsaraare illustrative. I am aware there are decisions to the contrary but am impressed that they are not in line with the greater weight of authority. 7 This point of view, moreover, was given strong encouragement by reason of the decision of the United States Supreme Court in 1922 in the case of Ozawa v. U.s. In this case, involving a Japanese, the court officially equated the words "white" and "caucasian," and while the decision definitely closed the door on the naturalization of Japanese, it seemed to assure the acceptance of "caucasians" from India as candidates for citizenship.8 The Immigration and Naturalization Service, however, did not give up. The issue now was not merely the granting of citizenship to persons already in the United States, but the admission of persons from India as immigrants to the United States, for in ~917 Congress had made ineligibility to ci~nship a basis for immigration exclusion. 9 Devoted to the principle of excLuding all "orientals," the Service was desperately anxious to have the Indians declared ineligible for citizenship. For this reason ir appealed Judge Wolverton's decision granting citizenship to Bhagat Singh Thind to the United States Supreme Court. Nor were its efforts to go unrewarded, for in an extraordinary dea.sion delivered by 1ustiee George Sutherland, the Court, in 1923, announced that not all "caucasians" were "white persons."

"White persons". .. are words of common spel!ch and not of scientific origin. The word "Caucasian" not only was not employed in the law, but was probably wh().lly unfamiliar to the original framers of the Statute in 1790 . . . in this country, during the last half century especially, the word (wh,te person) by common usage has acquired a popular meaning not clearly defined to be sure, but sufficientlY sO to enable us to slly that the popular, as distinguishe~ from its scientific application, IS of apprecrqbly narrower scope . .. Tbe words of the statute are to be interpreted in accord· ance witb tbe understanding of the common man from whose vocabulary tlJey were tllken. 10

Vindicated by this decision, the Immigration and Naturalization Service, acting through local United States Attorneys, immediately set about to secure canceUation of such citizenship awards as had already been made, charging that they had been obtained by fraud. By' 1926, successful cancellation proceedings had been co'ncluded in connection with forry-two of the siXty-nine instances in which citizenship had been granted to East [ndians.'1 At this point, however, the government received a setback in its campaign. A Los Angeles attorney, Sakharam Ganesh Pandit, who had received his citizenship in 1914, decided to oppose the proceedings against him on the plea of res judicata, holding that his acquisition of citizenship was a closed issue and ought not to be reopened. The District and the Appellate Courts both agreed with this reasoning, and denied the government's request for cancellation. 12 The government thereupon sought to secure a Supreme Court ruling, but this highest court declined to review the case, which in effect upheld the Apellate Court dePsioh, and insured Pandit his citizenship.13 Two years later, in 1928, any remaining dO\lbr in the matter was removed when the Supreme Court ruled on the case of Shankar Laxman Gokhale, a General Electric research engineer whose citizenship had been cancelled by Disrrict and AppeUate Court actions. Accepting Gokhale's request for a re¥iew, the Supreme Court tersely reversed the lower court actions, and ordered the Disrrict Cqurt to dismiss the bill of complaint originally entered by the government. l • After this there were no further efforts to cancel existing citizenship certificates. Spurred by a feeling that an injustice had been done in the case of those whose citizenship had already been cancelled, Senator David Reed of Pennsylvania, in 1926, inrroduced a joint resolution into Congress asking for the ' 'ratification and confirmation" of the naturalization of those persons "of the Hindu Race" who had lost, or were being threatened with the loss of their citizenship as a consequence of the 1923 Thind decision. ls The only open opposition to this action came from the American Federation of Labor and the California Joint Immigration Commission, but it was sufficient to insure the death of the resolution in committee. Despite special efforts that were made from time to time to secure legislation that would restore the' privilege of naturalization to East Indians in the United Stares, no change in the

77


situation occtIrt"ed 'untiI1946, when the LureCeller bill was passed. eliininaring all racial qualifications for naturalization. Sin.ce then. numerous members of the East Illdian population in the United States .have availed themselves of the privilege.of citizenship. But nei~her tl!is O"Or any other legi$Ia! ioil ;proVided for the automatit . restoration o( citizenship to those wnose cetm; kates \iVere ~cclIed following the T~d decision. A niJinber' of them continued tll live jp tli'e United :>cat~. some of whom regained their loSt; citizenship by goijlg thr.ough the naturapZiltioi:t pr,ocess a s¢eond time. But others, 'in quiet dig'nity.. :p refecr¢d to f~in. disfranchised. O.teply hurt by their expc;ti~na;s, they were not.able to bring ihemselv~ to lI!a;ke heW applications for citizenship. They pro.!>itbly would nave accepted reinstatement of theit previQusly held .citizenship. but beyond 'this Utey preferred nono go.

I }t. Res. 19 Oct. 1-9.111. 40 St~t. L., l014. 2Davie, M. R" Wor"! ll!lifJigratiiJn, r936, p. n8. 3Photostar copy 'of this letter tn file$ of the writer. 4San FranCisco Cbronicle. J.anuaty·l3, 19.07. ~ "Ratification and ConIIrmariQD Qf NaQlraiiutibn of CctUin Pc:aQ~ of me Hindu _Race l " Hem-ing.s; 69th Cong,. bid Sess.• Was/ting1;on. O.C.. 1926"p, .J. 6/biiJ •• pp. 1-2. 7in r. Bbaga. Singh Tbi1Jd.. 268 F 683 (D. Ore. i 920). 80"" .... v, U.S .• 260 U.S. 178 (19.22,), 9l!.ct of Feb, 5, 1917. ~9 Stat. L .• 8·7!!-. ~OUS, iI. Bhagllt.Singh t!nnd. 261 U.s. 204 (1;92~). 11 "Ratif;catio"n a:nd -e.onfirmation:' op. cit .. pp. 6..7'. 12.u:S. v. Sakbar~m G4nesh !';'1!4it. IS F.2nd 28S (9th

eire. i94l1). 13"273 US. 7S9 (I!iZ-n, 1:4S~!lklZT l;axman Gokl1a/. v, U,S.,2·78 u.s. 662 (1}l28). "lS IfRarifipti9n and COnfJJ:IPat:'oi'l," 'op. cit., pp. I-2.

THE SIKH COURIER Quarterly-Established 19&0 (IN~GLlSH)

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YOIl

E4!torial . . , . . . . . • , . Po.~ by

Mrs. S.Ka:pany

a,nil abol!t Bhjj Vir Sil!gli..

SlsctcltoJ Hhai V,ir Singh . Tribute'to Bhai Vir Singh Solitude . . . . ,

.'

.1.5" Bew

.

.

MtS, S.Kapa!lY

Hhai Vir Singh!s Poetry

, Dr. G:Qbind SIngh Mansilldiani

In tbe~. Futbte IssUes of TliE SIKI'I SANSAR preVH)llS _-. ' .

issue

Dr. 'Gopal Singh

aha,i Vir Singh-;-PQet ofEtemity. . lritrod,ucrion To. Im~mational P:unjabi Society

"

.... ... '

The Age of Bhai Vir §injlh .

Profe$$or H;gblli!Ss'ingh

Xbout ihe Sikh Founitatl,ort

. . . Dr. N,

Book 'Re\<iew

. . . . . .

$, Kapany

. AjaJb 'Singh 'S idhu" Hari Singh Ev:erest

Ca!1 To All Sikh O~i~lJtio'Ils 11\ Can~da :(",d Unit~d S,tites

. . . . .

Po¢ttts . . . . .. . . , . . . .' . _ . . . Klapit, Bhai Vir Singb

79


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~--------~~~--------~I SIKH SETTlEIo!EHTS IN U, 5 •.4.. ANO CANADA

SIKH SOCIETY ORGANISED

GURUDAWARA ESTABLISHEO

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SIKH ORGANIZATIONS IN THE U.S.A. AND CANADA There is an urgen£ need ro create better undersame available to yoU through the! pages of this journaL standing and establish communication among The list is incomph;.te ,and we request you to the different Sikh carrrmunities in the U.S.A. send complete information about your local and Canada. Our problems are similar, we face Sikh organization by filling the sketch form the same difficult.ies, but we have no united on pages 19 and 20. front and co,mmon forum to communicate Kindly impress upon the secretary of your among ourselves and fmd solutions to these association to fill the fprm and send a detailed problems. report of thj: activities. We can learn from earn With this in view, we are making a humble other's experience; your success can be an effort to collect informa,t ion about all the Sikh ipspiration to others. ,organizations and their a,ctiviti~ and make the -AJi',IB SINGH SIDHU Si~h

Society, Calgary, Alberta, Caoada>

Alberta Sikh Research Cciltcr"

The Sikh Foundation, U.s.A. P.O. Box 727 Redwood City, California 94064 Phone: (415) 361Hl962 Sikh Society, Saskatoon, Saska~chcwan', Canada'

Sikh Cultural Society, Bo~oo> Sikh Cultural Society, Chiago' Sikh Diwao Society 453 Commercial EI Cciltro, California Phone: (714) 352-9343

Sikh Temple, Pacific Coast Khalsa Diwan Society 1930 South Grant Stt<ct Stockton, California 95206 Phlloe, 463-9352

Golden Triangle Sikh Association GoderiCh, Ontario., Canada· 'Sikh Cultural Society, Hartford>

l.Qndon Sikh Society t London, Ontario. Cana~·· Los Ang~cs Silfb StudY'Circle i~66 North Vermont Avenue Los Angeles 26, California Phone: (213) 66S-33IO

The Sikh Center, San Fraocisco Bay Area P.O. Box 9292 Berkeley, California 94709 Guru Nanak Inst. Trost, Saskatchewan, Canada' Sikh Temple, Toronto 269 Pape Avenue Toront9. (:ana.da.

Sikh Dharma Brothcrh,o od 1620 Preuss Road Los Angeles, California 9003S Plione: (213) 273-9422

Khalsa Diwan Society. vancouver, B.C., Canada" All Canada Sikh Fedcntion, Vancouver, B.C., Canada"

TIle Sikh Cultural SOciety, Micbigan"

Sikh Study Circle, Vancouver. B.C., Canada >

The Sikh Cultural Society, Inc. 39 West 19th Street New York, New York 10011 GurU Nanak Roundation (Canada Branch), Ottawa S9-2300 Ogilvie Road Ottawa Xl] 7XB, canada Phone: 749-1789 Canada Sikh Rescaicb centte clo Prof. Amaljit Singh Sethi University of Ottawa, Scbool of Health

Adminim:t.tion Ottawa 2, Canada Btl!och Officc: c/o Mr. B. S. Rai, GeneraJ Sec;tctiry 313 Argyle Street . Renfrew,Ontar1Q Phone: 432-5337 P;,ldi Khalsa Diwan Society P.O. Box 7

Paldi, Duncan, B.C., Canada Phone: 748-8227

Sikh Cultural Society of Metropolitan Windsor clo Apt. 504. 2225 Uni'Rrsity West, Windsor-ll, Onario, Canada Phone: 253-1787 Intcrnational Sikh Brotherhood, Windsor, Ontario, Canada·

Gut:D Nanak-Foondation of America In". P.O. Box 101 Washington, D.C. 20044 The Sikh Cultura1;iociety. Inc. 2306 - 38th Stteet, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20007 Sikh Temple of Yuba City P.O. Box 13S3 Yuba City, California 95991 Location: Comer of Young and Tierra Buena Road, Yuba City

~Detailcd iQiormation itot received.

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Why is your orga.ni~ation not on the map? Gall t.o all lotta! Sikh organizations in U.S.A. and Canada I

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'Vgu ~e ctarnestly req.uested to fill this form. or tpe On~ o.n q,e !1:eXt pag\;. whicifeyer i~ p:ettinerit~nd mail at-your c.atliesr convenience. This will pnsure that yout local Sikh orgaI'!iiatiol) is app,ropr.jately c~edited in t he future issues, Address: SIKH SAI\ISA.R. Box 127. Redwood City. Calif'ornia 94Cl64. . , ,

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GURUDAWARASKETCH

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A Brief Historical Sketch O,Iuilcb-shee' .if necessQr:j)

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Please Enclose Pierures of. the f;;urudawaraL

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and white photos of high claritยฅ shm'ling. different "iews) C;:urr:e'rit Number of Adult Sangat 'Members _ _ _ _ _ _ __

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Name of the Respondent ----_---------------------~

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LQ.CAL SI KH Q..RGANJZAndi\l ~KE:rCf.l 1.

Name 'o f the Organizaiion _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ _ __ __ _ _ _ __

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.Ad~~ _________,~~--------------------~~~--------------N"mb~r

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Telephone,___ _ _ _ _ __ State'

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Date of Irtauj!U!l!'tib.n _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ _

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A Brief Histor.iq,l Sketch (!'I.as~ atlMlb sb~(t it .n~~ssary')

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Rrescnt Nilinbfr oLMejtthets

6.

'Is the Membership .by the F.amilY or Ii}, E~~h Adult Indjvid~?

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Ii-possible; ,please·endose a copy of the.constitution and by-laws of-your organization.

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Any Other In(Qnn~1i'on ___________________________----------------------

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Name of the .Resp.o ndent _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ _ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ _

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An InvItation to pou

to join us in our efforts! A unique opportunity for you tlJ participa~e in the. dissemination of.litet:arure on.Sikh c(J.lt\lI"e, history and religion in the United SUtes and Canada, ... through subsc;ription to THE SIKH SANSAR. We also seek your nell' financially (send subscription), intellectually (submit articles), ,a nd through community participation (send news items and ~dvice). You can 'renew your membership on a y.e atly basis. The supscripr;i'on is only $5.00 'a year. It entitles you to: a) all the is$ues of the st~ SANSAR during your membership b) a 25% discoun.t on all hooks published by th,e Sikh Foundation during¡your membership, including the REGISTER OF SIKHS IN THE U.S.A. AND CANADA, and c) 10% discoi!Jtr on !!II oilier materials, such ,as musical albums and art, reproductions, etc. produced or distributed by the Sikh Foundation,during your membership.

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THE SIKH SANSI\R A~SO ANNOUN 'CES

Lite MeIllbership Privileges All p.ersOns interestei:l in the di~~atioh of Sikh ideals and culture and a better understanding of Sikhism are invited to become Life Members by remittin~ a sum af $150. a) a c.o py of all issues of the SIKH SANSAR 11) a copy of the r~ter SIKHS IN U.s.A . & CANADA c) a copy of all special isS\l.~ and brochures published by the SIKHSANSAR d) a 25% discount on all books published by the Sikh Foundation. and, e) a 10% d.iscouhr on all otherm';lterWs (e.g. musical, 'a r,t reproducti9.I!S, ~buni~, tape~, etc.) produced or distributeil by the Sikh FOUndation, Kindly sc:JId your silbS!:fu>rig n (check$ or money orde{) to, T.HE SIKH SANSAR POSt

office 80l< 727

Re!lwood Ci'iy. C.a lifomia 94064

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FOURTIt ANNrvERSARY CELEBRATfONS OF INTERNATIONAL PUNJAB.! SOCIETY, NEW DELHI

Birth of the SoddY .. Punjabis have fuade their mark in all walk~ pf life and in all COlj.n tries of the world. It is no exag. geration to say that Pu.njabjs have a distinl't name in India and abroad. In this co.ntest. it is most befitting thata society should have beel'l to knit the Punjabis as an international community in all the ~ountries of the world. This !l!=ed has been fulfilled by the formation of the International Punjabi Society i.n the year 1968. This Society creates a pro.per atmosphere of brotherhood and provideS a forum where.all the mc;mbers feel at h.ome wherever and whenever. they happen to visit distant lands across the seas. This also. prov.ides ·a forum to the Punjabis in the Capital where they breathe fresh fragrant air o.f Punjabi cultur.e~ Punjabi artists are provided a platf'orm where they can show their talent and enhance the prestige of Punjabi fo.lk dangs and melodies. During the sh·o.rt period of four years. branches of the Society have been formed in counmes like U.S.A .• U.K .• Japan. Hong Kong. Canada. Singapore. Malaysia and Thailand. Fourth Anniversary Observed International Pilnjabi Society celebrated its Fourth Anniversary o.n July 9, 1'9.72. ar Kamal}i Hall• .one of the b.e~ thea tres in the Capital. The function was inaugui"ate"d by S. Hukam Singh. Ex-Go.vernor·of Rajasthan. and presided over by the Honorable Mr. Justice I. D. Dua. Judge. Supreme Court of India. S. Hu~ Singh. Patron. and Giani Gurmukh Singh MuSa{ir. President of the Society. briefly spoke abo.ut the ~udable aims of the Society. Sardar Meharban Singh . Dhupia. Honorary General Secretary. I.p..S..•.W.ho is the moving spirit behind the Society. outlined the objects of the Society and proposed a vote of thanks to the eminent persons present from abroad like Df'. D. S. Ambwani.• San Francisco (USA); Mr. J. S. Sethi, Bangkok, (Thailand); Dr. Prithplll Singh. Alexandria (UAR) ; Mr. Pritam Singh. Ontario (Canada); Mr. Kanhaya Singh.

Manitoba (C.anada); and Mr. Kuldip S. Sikand. Washingtol'l (USA) . A cultural. programme followed in which leading artists of the cquntry participated. The programme opened with a song-"The Land of My Punjab" -of Prakash Sa·athi. which was rendered by a group of artists led by Sufinder Kaurand Asa Singh Mastana. The song dep'i cted the richness of Cllltllral heritage of the PUl'ljabis. Shri K. Panna Lal impressed with Kati of Bulleh Shah. Age could not affect the resonant voice of Parkash Kaut . who rendered a song of B. S. Deepak. Shiv Kurn.ar Batalvi is famous for his songs depicting deep emotions. and when sung a.s duet by Surinder Kaur arid Dolly it could virtually create poeti!! atmosphere 'before the .c,iistinguished audience. Interesring and attractive was the song pleading ·a case of conflict between husband and wife before one who is hard pr$!ssed to do Justice being sis~er of one and sister-in-l?-w to the other. Another duet was pres.e nted by Surinder Sethi and Kuldip Parwana in traditio.nal tune and costumes . .It was a good attemp.t to present a poem of Prof. Mo.han Singh in the form of Qwali with Shri K. PannaLalleading. The pfogrlUnme came to a close with improvised Gidha and Bhangra in whim apart from leading artists, Davinder Singh. Kokli Pradhan. n·i mlaKapoor. Harjinder Ka\1f also contributed their talem. Artistic Souvenir The'souvenir of the Fourth Anniversary deserves to be preserved as a memento. It contains the blessings of the Vice President of India. Shri G. S. Pathak. and articles of t6pica.l interest by Giani Gul'Illukh Singh Musafrr. Shri M. S. Randhawa, Vice Chancellor. Punjab Agricultural University, Padma Shri Smt. Prabhjot Kaur and Shri Bairaj Sahni. IIi this article. Lala Yodhraj. Patron of the So·ciety. aptly ·remarks: "When I accepted the, patronship of the fnrernationa! Punjabi Society. it was with the faith that its main orgiUliser. Sardar Meharban Singh Dhupia. who was well


The picture gives a view of "Punjabi Bhangra" performed at a function ananged by the International Punjabi Society

on the occasion of the Fourth Anniversary of the Society on July 9,1972.

known to me, will be able to put life into the Society." S. Meharban Singh Dhupia highlights the various activities of the Society. Another article revives the memory of Pearey Lal Sood, popularly known as Chacha Sood. A profile of Padma Bhushan Lt. Col. V. R. Mohan, M.P., shows the active interest evinced by him to promote the cause of Punjab is. Various plates and portraits provide a visual familiarity with those who have been nurturing the Society. A Bright Future With its laudable aims and solid achievements, International Punjabi Society has earned a name. The Society would shortly be compiling a Who's Who of the members. Efforts are also being made

to have a cultural centre in the Capital. The Chief Minister of Punjab, Giani Zail Singh, announced at a reception held by the [nternational Punjabi Society that a Punjabi Bhawan would soon be constructed in Delhi on the premises of Jind House and a Punjabi Cultural Centre at the Sikandra Road. To be sure that such a common place is literally available for the cultural and literary pursuits of the Punjabis, S. Gurdial Singh Dhillon, Speaker, Lok Sabha, urged in a letter to the Chief Minister, Punjab, that the Punjabi Bhawan should not be made only a rest house for officials but should also accommodate Punjabis coming from abroad during their stay in the Capital. Thus a live to every need of the Punjabis. International Punjabi Soci ety holds a bright future.

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Local News SAN FRANasro. CALIFORNIA

Exhibition of Optical SCl!lptures at rhe Palace of Fine Arts A major exhibit of the I!uiql!e optical sculptures by Dr. Narinder S. Kapany opened for an extended run in rhe Exploratorium Division of the Palce of Fine Arts in San Francisco. Dr. Kapany'ssculptures, which include kinetic and stationary pieces, are made of various combinations of crystal, glass and plastic. The laser beams crea.te the ill!1sion of movement in many of the works as rhe colors change at a predetermined rate. Dr. Kapany, a noted 1aser expert, is the president of Opties Tcchno.logy, an optical electronic fIrnl on the San Francisco peninsula. Inaugural Dinner and Meeting of rhe Intetnl!tional Punjabi So:c;iety Under rhe sponsorship of the Sikh Foundation, it gathering of abolit forty Punjabis was conveIied by Dr. Curnam S. Sidhu ;lot his residence on April IS, 1972, to organize a regionlll branch of the InternationaIPunjabi.Society. Subsequent to the adoption of a reso.lution to eStablish rhe regional bran!!h, a committee consisting of seven was 'selected to formulate plans for the various activities on behalf of the Society. The meeting was followed by a ·Punjabi dinner and a Punjabi cultural program. Those elected to the committee are: Mr. Moin Iqbal, President; Mrs. Jagit Kaur Sidhu, Secretary.; Mr. Jaspal Singh Rao, Treasurer; Dr. Jagan Narll Ahuja, Vice President; Dr. N. S. Kapany, Dr. R. K. Janmeja Singh, and Mr. Suijit Singh G'ureya, P.R. Techniea1 Book by Dr. N~rinder S. Kapany As a research physicist, Dr. N;ltinder S. Kapany has been wQrking at rhe forefront of·the field of optics. His previous book on fiber optics was received e)<ceptionally well by research sc;ientists, professors and advanced Students in the scientific community. Now his new book, Optical Waveguide, has been published by Academic Press. The following is the first seIitence of the book's desaiption by Academic P.re~: "Here is an aut~oritative and comprehensive treatment of opneal waveguidenhat will prove an indispensable reference work in connection,w.ith the

88

development of optical waveguides for use in fu.rure optical communications, data processing, and computer and recognition systems." This book is intended for optical, computer micro· wave and communications engineers and researchers, and graduate and undergraduate physics and engineering students. Gursikh in the U.S. Army S. Jagit Singh Boparai i.s back in San Francisco Bay area afrer serving an 18 month hitch in the U.S. Army. J agit Sihgh is one of the many Kesdhari Si~s who have served in the U.S. Army, some havmg even gone to Viet Nam. ASked if he encountered any problems, J agit said that his treatment was excellent and he was given special food since he is a vegetarian. He also said that as a draftee he could not opt for service in either the Air Force or the Navy because of the ~cgula­ tions against "hair" in iliose services. His job WaS to repair helicopter tutbine engines. He is now with Kaiser Engineers in O~k1and, California. YUBA CITY, CAUFORNIA

Honors for H. S. Everest A well-known educator of this area, S. Hari Singh Everest, has been chosen for indusion in the 1971 edition of Personalities of.tbe West and Midwest, by the American Biographical Institute, Raleigh, Norrh Catolina. He was selected to appear in the 1971 edition in recognition of his "past achievements, outStanding ability and service to community and Sta~e." Prof. Everest is also a member of the Editorial Bo;ltd of the SIKH SANSAR and a member of the advi~ry panel of the Sikh Foundation. Bachan Singh Teja Lea4s County Democrats The Democratic Central Committee of Sutter County has chosen Bachl!l1 Singh Teja as chairman. Mr. Teja is the father of the District Attorney of Sutter County, G. Dave Teja, who became a familiar figure in California while he had the responsibility of conducting the proceedings in the highly publicized Juan Corona ca~. Baldev Singh A Delegate . A McGovern for President supporter, Mr. Baldev Singh participated in a McGovern campaign coordinating meeting for Northern California in


San Francisco. Mr. Singh is a memba- of Yuba County Steering Committee and a delegate to the McGovern slate. A SUch Deputy Sheriff Appointed Malkit Singh Johl, the f1l'St pa-son ofPunjabi descent, has b,ecn hired by the Stitter County Sberiff's office as a deputy. Mr. J ohl was one of the top competitors taking the examination for deputy sheriff. He is the son of Dr. and Mrs. Guizar S. Johl of Yuba City and is the only Punjabi-5peaking local law enforcement officer. Paramjit S. Eva-cst Represents Yuba County in Math Competition Paramjit S. Eva-est waS recently selected as one oJ the outstanding students to represent his county in the Cenual Valley Math Quiz. He is the son of Prof. Hari Singh Everest of Yuba City. The winner of this contest will receive a $1000 college scholarship. Balbinda- S. Bains Memorial Scholarship The untimely death of Balbinder Singh Bains has been a grievous loss to all relatives and friends. Ht: was an outstanding member of the Yuba College stUdent body and the president of the Indian Students Association. The Indian Students Associatio~ of Yuba College has set up a memorial ,trust fund which would prQvide a scholarship in the name of Balbinder Singh Bains and will be awarded annually to a Yuba College student of Eilst Indian ancestry. WASHINGTON, D.C.

Introducing the Washington, D.C., Sikh Community , Washington, D.C., our nation 's capital, is the home of some 700 Sikh men and Women, mostly professional people involve<\ in bus,iness, the World Bank, Indian Emb'!ssy, medicine and teaching. As in most large cities, the community is spread out in all directions. Therefore, in Washington two major Sikh ol'ganizations have arisen , One is the Sikh Cultural Society and the other the Guru Nana,k. Foundation, which has purchased a hO\lse to use as a guru<\awara. Both groups hold monthly

meetings and occasional Kirtans. Visitors during the past year have,included Dr. Gobind S. Mansukhani, Gyani Gurmukh S. Musaflr and Dr. P. S. Gill Cyclist Ragbir Singh paused there on his way around the world, and the presence of California Sikhs Dr. N. S. Kapany, Dr. G. S. Sidhu, and Dr. A. S. Marwah added a spirit of broad community concern and cohesiveness. NEW YORK

Intense fund-raising efforrs during the past several years coupled. with an unprecedented growth in the size of the Sikh community in metropolitan New York has finally culminated in the acquisition of a Gurudawara building. Initially, the founder·members of the Sikh CuI· tural Society of New York periodically organized religious gatherings at each other's homes. How· ever, it seemed imperative that the Society seek a permanent home fot which fund·t'aising efforts were earnestly undertaken. In the meantime, the sikhs of New York City continued to celebrate their religious services for five years at St. Michael's Parish School, through the courtesy of St. Michael's Catholic Church. The Sikh community of New York owes a debt of gratitude to the Parish. The gurudawara building was purchased for $65,000. The Sikh Foundation also contributed toward,S this monumental fund-raising project, which was mostly achieved by small individual contributions. The gurudawara was inaugurated with the Baisakhi celebration on May 7, 1972. It is one of the largest gurudawaras in the U.S.A. and Canada and can accommodate about 1000 devotees. Since the building was previously used as a church, 'it has an ample kitchen and other facilities for a library, classrooms and a dining area. The Society expects to remodel portions of the building to rendec it more appropriate in appearance and atmospha-e to a gurudawara. The gurudawara is lqcated at ·95-30 - 118th Street, Richmond Hills, New York. Weekly programs are held every Sunday from 10 a.m. to 12 noon.


Letters to the Editor

A PLEDGE OF COOPERATION

Dear Editor, I am glad to know you have compiled a register of the Sikhs settled in U.s.A. and Canada. I have seen a copy with Mr. M. S. Dhupia, and I have also seen your magazine SIKH SANSAR. You are really doing very good work for the promotion of Punjabi culture in States and I assure you my full cooperation for this noble cause . In fact , it is the duty of the Punjab Government to collect all such data regarding our people who have gone abroad and well settled there. I hope you will keep me in touch with the various activiries of your Foundation, and keep on sending me the literature compiled from time to time. With regards, Yours sincerely. Umrao Singh Education Minister. Punjab Chandigarh, India

A HAND OF FRIENDSHIP ACROSS THE ATLANTIC

Dear Editor , Thank you very much for sending me a copy of the inaugural issue of the SIKH SANSAR along WIth a copy of the register of Sikhs in the U.S.A. and Canada. The undertaking of the Sikh Foundation is extremely laudable. As a student of comparative religion , I can testify that this world just cannot rid itself of the misery, pain and suffering unless it fo llows the path shown by our great Gurus. I have gone through the copy of the SIKH SANSAR and I feel that your efforts to show this path are extremely creditable and deserve full support from Sikhs all over the globe. I feel that the SIKH SANSAR has fulfilled a long-standing need of the Sikhs of America and Canada. May Satguru Jee bless the members of the Foundation with the grit, grace and the gumption to carryon this much needed work with an exceptional zeal so that this Foundation is soon able to support the magnificent edifice of Sikhism on the American continent .

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We in this country are doing our own sb<:II work. We started The Sikb Missionary Socidll the 500th birthday of Sri Guru Manak De? ~ is still a humble organisation with no offia: , own . Funds are hard to come by but we p<:!1II and have distributed about 75,000 books alll Sikhism free of charge. Please feel free to tdI our services for the SIKH SANSAR or the Fa. tion in any way you like. May we hope thairJ will keep us informed about the work at yc.'II With hearry congratulations on produciBf extremely good magazine, Yours sincerely , The Sikh Missionary Society, U.K . Kent, England

A NOTE OF APPRECIATION

Dear Editor, My congratulations to you and to the sif Foundation for the excellence of your wod.ll In the SIKH SANSAR, the North Ameri~ Sikhs have a journal professionally put to!Jll that sbould provide the Sikhs an appropn... organ in studies of comparative religion a:nI theology. We can confidently look forwanll. its continued growth in both qoalitative . quantitative terms. The directory of Sikhs also performs an .extremely useful function . Perhaps by the... edition more of us will cotrect our oversigb not havmg sent you photographs in time. _ photographs as you now have certainly emiIlII the directory 's utility. Needless to add that not only have I ...... scribed through your local representative ... I also wish that more of us would do so. work indicates that tbe immigrant Sikhs,_ other immigrant groups, have finally fo~. niche and have come of age in a new land. With best wishes, I remain Sincerely yours, r. J. Singh, D.D.S., Ph .D. Research Scientist New York University Dental Center New York


_""a.nuLATIONSI ~or,

of all, I want [0 thank you for your S 5 s in sending me copies of the Sikh Regof the inaugural issue of the SIKH I feel greatly honored by this act of . . _;; fulness . I want to congratulate you and your -::~: of the Sikh Foundation on the very • quality of these publications. The RegEculd be most useful in maintaining a _ ~ of community among Sikhs here - 'ted States, and the SANSAR should .1!r:1l_ ~·fi- cant force for maintaining pride in ~:::~ heritage and contemporary contri, of the Sikhism. fifteen years ago I prepared and pub• •%!2 sbort monograph appraising the position -"East Indians" in the United States; and ...._ -.in" I had evety intention of comp leting ....ork, relating in more detail the tribu_ _ .;mol accomplishments of these Americans . Other duties and responsibilities, "'t:.:,-. intervened- including a year's stay in "~ 1t8J three years in Mississippi-but I have ~~:~~;a;bandoned my interest in this longer • the establishment of the SIKH be the encouragement I need [0 ~::::, thiS study. ]J I am most happy [0 send you here. meek for seven dQllars [0 cover a year's "'::i.lllio'n to the SANSAR.

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Cordially yours, Harold S. Jacoby Professor of Sociology University of the Pacific Stockton, California "lliI~HB:OlllS FROM THE NORTH

~~~JWled[ge receipt of the inaugural issue of ~mll S.·\ NSAR. The organizers of this venture l1li' ::10 be congratulated for commencing a

[IlI!!r .lll:ftled publication effort in the U.S . and mncerning Sikh culture and faith.

I take this opportunity in bringing [0 your attention the existence of the Canada Sikh Research Centre (CSRC) with headquarters in Ottawa, Canada, which was founded in 1967 under the federal Canadian law . Many of the Sikh scholars listed in your advisory board (as well as others) are either co-founders or research advisors [0 the CSRC. There are several non-Sikh scholars and eminent personalities associated with the CSRC. During the past fo ur years CSRC has success· fully started a branch of the Centre in India under the direction of Dr. G. S. Mansukhani, an em inent educator and Sikh scholar. The Indian Branch is run by an executive committee comprising among others S.R.S. Bir and Prof. Harbans Singh (Patiala) . Two books were published during 1970 and 1971, both authored by Dr. Mansukhani and dealt with specific issues in Sikhism. A two-year long series of seminars was conducted in the Ottawa Valley on Sikh ism and Comparative Religions. The proceedings of these semmars are now in press under the title " Interfaith Dialogue", A branch of CSRC is in existence in the U.S .A. under the general direction of Dr. C. Moroney located In Los Angeles. In Washington, D.C., CSRC branch is run under the direction of Satpal Smgh, who was also the co-founder of Guru Nanak Foundation of America. The CSRC would be happy to offer its co· operation to your noble efforts in undertaking mutually agreed projects in order to interpret Sikhism for the Western aud ience. It is a major task, and I am of the view that efforts shou ld be coordinated. Several research projects are currently under way under the auspices of the CSRC dealing with Sikh values. I hope your efforts in the continuation and prosperity of your Foundation and the S IKH SANSAR are successfu l, and may the Great Guru bless these efforts. Yours sincerely. Arnarjit Si ngh Sethj Director-General, CSRC

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LET,fE'[{S-contlnued

A PI:.E:A FORiuNJAill TEA.CHER

Dear Editor, A friend just recently passed the first tWo issues of the SIKH SANSAR on to me. [ was so th~kfu,l to find that such a journal exists. For the past five years I have been searching for a pc;dodiYiI that woulCl provide inforrnatio,:, on Sikh cultu~c, a,nd most iDlportantly, provIde' a tie b~eel1 the Sikhs h'ere and in India. Now perhaps the sum ~s~ will be the means by whkh I ~:in -a,ccomplish another goal. On,b.ehalf pf myself and I\um~rous other American ladies married to Panjabis, l issue a aill for a qualified, enthusiasticPanj~i language ~ea'cher ~o step forward. We need $Ome"Ofle who WIth . dedication, and purpo.se will lead us to the pomt wl)ere we can join in acrivei¥ dwil)g ,gath~ngs wbiCh are of necessity conducted in Punjab;. Only I hay!' been ~o~~te enough to hav~ had sam,e f'mnal t:ra11l1l1g. m the language whIch allows me to c:9mprehend my friends to some degree. But I had to t[llVd 1500 !Tiiles to ~ew York for my training. The tnany other ladles are forced to make do with whatQ"¢t" books J have been able to find . . Ple-ase, will someone step forward? J can imago me no greater seryice to the ideals and aspira,r ions of Sikhism. I know that among Sikhs soml!Whete there-is someqile WJIO ean meet our needs. Si<>ccreJy, , (Mrs.) 'fhcresia Sandhu San Josef california

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THE ETERNAL FOUNTAIN As out of a single fire MiIl.ic)Os of sparks arise; Arise In separation -But come together again When they fall \lack in the fire. As from a heap ofd~ Grains of dust sw~pt li,p FiIl. the air, and filling it F.aIl in 'a heap of ·d ust. As out of a single stream Countless.'wa ves r-ise up And, being water, fall -Ba:ck in wata; again. So from God's foan emerge Alive'and inanimate thiqgs An!i smce they arise from Him T!).ey shall fall in Him again. t-kal Ustat •.87


Book Review

GURU GOBIND SINGH-REFLEcrIONS AND OFFERINGS By Prof. Puran Singh Published by The Sikh Cen<u of the san.francisco Bay Area., P._O..Box 9292, ;Berkeley I California, 1967.

90 p~ges. Pri«S5.oo.

Refiections·and Offerings is the first bOQk in the series of books whicl1 wer-e to be published by the Sikh Center on Sikh literature, philosophy and history. The manuscript was made available to the Sikh Center by the Vice Chancellor of the PU'njabi Univer.sity, Patiala, India. When Professor Puran Singh died in 1931, he had .already a sizeable body of published work behind him. It was little known ar the time that the paces bureau and boxes, pre.serv.ed by his· family, contained innumerable hew manuscripts and transcripts. Punjabi Univc,:rsiey acquired t\Us priceless -treasure ffej)1). the family. It wiU be quite some til,Ile before aU th'!.t came from his magical pen.sees the light of tbe day. M.e.a nwhile the manuscript, Guru Gobind Singh, found a propitious moment-the 300th birth· anni"ersary of the Tenth Master Guru Gobind. Singh-for itsIJublication. A coinciden~ pleasing to the soul of the poet! The book is printed on art paper and b<!autifnlly bound f<'it the COIDmem<lrarive occasron.lt;s a befitting gift. for all times. .. Tqe b.o·ok has two diStinCt parts: (1) Intr.odu·(}tory Essays by Dr. Darshan .Singh Maini, Pmfessor ind Head of Department of English. Punjabi University, Patiala, and (2') a sele"cdon of musings, outpourings and offerings by the poet. The five different sections of ,he poet's workWedding .Gifts from tbe Bridegro.om, TIJ'e Republic of the Soul, A School of Purables, The Sacred Successor ana Offerings are a harvesr of song and spark. Puran Singh., the man and the poet, belongs to the spiritual fraternit)' of sageslike K~Jalil Gibran, Whitman and Bhai Vir Singh. The poet Was often seen ~mbracing trees iJ.nd bushes. strangers and dutca'stts, bitds arid \)eaStS. Profe·ssor Puran Singh

portrays Sikh tradition in its personal, mystiml and devotional form, crystallizes the uruversaliry of itS spirit and its applicability to the dilemmas of the modem day Strife-rom imperSonal civilization . in his "MyStic Ha,ir" he writes:

Don't yo" knoTp thqt rbI'S!! tresses are the U!aves of tbe Sea of J/lusion? _.Gu~ GQiJinti Singh ga:thered tbe waves of tbe Oce~n of Consciousn.ess . as the mother gathers the hair of tbe cqild. What ·is man but an Ocean of Consciousness! roe Mqster washed them and bound them zit a knot as the v(,w of the jritu,te rrzil7Jb.ood wbich sball know no caste, no distirzcti.on ketween man and man, atld which {btlll work for the peace and amity of all ntank!nd . What better mes$g<; tpe rn,o".~m T!lan need_s today? This bO'Ok does inSpiz:e to eXplOre a w'!y to blissfullik -PR9FE5S0R HAIU SING.H EVEREST

UNlVERSAL SIKHISM By Prof. Amarjit Singh Sethi Published by Iiemkun[ Press, New Ddht., 197i.

P 6 p'!!(cs. Pric.e Rs. 20,00. Sikhism is on~ of ~he smaller re1igioM of the world in terms of numbers but its potential interest to Americans and Canadians may be great. The Sikh segment of our population is one of considerable si·ze and easily recognized because o'f the obvious nature of their religious 'identity (they wear turbans and beatds) . Any person who teads this book will want to know them bett'er. Professor Sethi i-s very well qualified to Write this book, which should serve a·s an introdu.i:tion to his reli'gion for Canadians and AJjlericans. Born in what is now called Pakistan, he has be.en educa·ted in In'd ia and the United Sr.a tes. He has bee~ employed 'by the Dam_inion Bureau of Statisti'cs, and presently by tlie. Univ.e rsity of Ott'a wa's School of He.a lth Administration.

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Sikh i ~m

is a wa" of lik to him and a concern

to which he is ,Iedi c"-tcd. The very fact that the

foreword to his book is written by an oblate fa ther and this review is contributed by a United Church minister is some tes timony to the sincerin° of his commitm~n[ to one ~f the basic

tenets of his faith . Sikhism is one of the several attempts in the world ro achieve a universaJ religion . It has its origin in the religious philosophy of Guru Nanak , who lived in the Punjab in the fifteenth century. Caoght in the pincers of the religious rivalries of the Moslem and Hindu religions and, at the same time, attracted and repelled by both, the Guru followed bis insights into a religious way of life tbat is somewhat similar ro each . Indeed , Sikhism has been described as a sect of each. In one of his poems, Guru Nanak has written:

I do not offer Hindu worsbip, nor do I cause Moslem prostrations to take place ; Taking tbe one who is Formless into tbe beart, I bow to Him there, I am neit!;er Hind 1/ nor Moslem; Body and life belong to Allah¡Ram. Professor Sethi portrays his religion as being one lIof cheerfulness, courage and wonder, having a

refined and noble quality." He involves his readers in his belief that "its teachings offer a stimulus for the moral and spiritual growth of man toward the understanding and love of humanity and his individuality. " Sikhism is obviously influenced by Hinduism,

94

but the

bc w ildcrin~

assomhl\' oj' Gods .t nd God

manifestations th ai: have co~fust:d students of

th e H inJu religion arc not found here . Instead

one confronts the concept of a Lovi ng: Cn'::Hor, familiar to the Judaeo-Christian world. Christians will be interested to find that J esus of Nazareth is recognized as having a prophetic v:llue, alth ough the thought of his , or anyone else's. inciuJing the Sikh Gurus, being the incarnation of God does not fit into the Sikh view of man-God relationsh ip. It is impossible to read this book without recognizing the profound influence Sikhism had on Mahanna Gandhi and Rabinderanath Tagorean influence that Professor Sethi recognizes and expounds. The wide interest shown in Eastern religions in many areas of the United States and Canada will attract readers to this book ; they will not be disappointed . For a Western reader, this book may be novel, but it is simple and understandable to anyone who reads it. Committed Christians will also find a special value here, quite apatt from the author's clear intention that it should be a medium of dialogue. As Father Danis expresses it, "They will admire many of the tenets of Sikhism, and their own faith in the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man will be strengthened." I would add that our longlost art of mystical meditation can properly be recovered if the Sikh faith experience of meditation is taken seriously and tried. -REV. DR. C. DANIEL MATHESON


GOLDEN TEMPLE, AMRITSAR


About the Sikh Foundation ....... .

Founded in the year 1967, the SIKH FOUNDATION is a non-political and non-profit organiza tion. The basic purpose of the SIKH FOUNDATION is ti> ~minate knowledge about the history, literature, art, culture and religion of the Sikhs. These objectives of the Foundation are undertaken by publication of books and journals, commissioning of artists, spon~ring of lectures and seminars, awarding fellowships to scholars, organizing religious functions, instituting awards and assisting in the establiShment of literary, art, cultural and religious centers. The Foundation is particularly proud in having the patronage of such eminent and dedicated Sikhs as H. H. YADAVINDRA SINGH, SARDAR H.S. MALIK AND SAR.DAR KIRPAL SINGH NARANG. The Board 01 Trustees manages the activities of the Foundation with the active assistance and advice of the Advisory Panel consisting of eminent Sikhs residing in various cosmopolitan cities in the U.S.A. and Canada. Furthennore, participation of Sikhs and Non-Sikhs is solicited in clficienrly executing the various authorized projects of the Foundation. Since its incept!9n, the Sikh Foundation, in collaboration with local Sikh organizations, has hosted visits and sponsored lectures, TV, radio and newspaper interviews by numerous Sikh scholars viz: DR. COPAL SINGH, PROF. GANDA SINGH, SARDAR H. S. .MALIK, DR. GOBIND SINGH MANSUKHANI AND SARDAR PARKASH SINGH BADAL. In the year 1969 the Sikh Foundation undertook with the assistance of the Pacific Coast Khalsa Diwan Society the publication of a 55 page 'QUINCENTENAR Y BULLETIN' covering the celebration of the fifth centennial of the birth of Guru Nahak Dev ii in various parts of U.S.A. Nearly 2000 copies of this publication

96

have been distributed ,free of cost. 111 1970 t,he Foundation announced t)Ie publication of a REGISTER OF SIKHS IN USA AND CANADA. This register consisting of apprpximately two thousand individuals residing in U.S.A. and Canada with a photograph of the head of the family has been published. Copies of this register are available and a second edition is planned in the year 1973-74. In the year 1971, the Foundation announced its decision to publish a quarterly journal-THE SIKH SANSAR. The inaugural issue of the SIKH SANSAR was published in March 1972. The Editorial Bo'ard of the journal has enlisted some of the greatest scholar-s of Sikh culture on its editorial advisory board. Furthermore, the Sikh Foundation has announced the publication of a book entitled THE HISTORY AND RELIGION OF SIKHS by PROF. GANDA SINGH. This book is scheduled for printing during the years 1972-73 . . During the past five years the Sikh Foundation has assisted various local Sikh communities on specific projects and has provided fmancial contributions to THE S'IKH CULTURAL SOCIETY, New York, niE SIKH CULTURAL SOCIETY, Washington, THE SIKH TEMPLE, Yuba City, THE PACIFIC COAST KHALSA DIWAN SOCIETY, STOCKTON, and SIKH CENTER, San Francisco. The Board of Trustees of the Foundation is at present embarked on developments of a five year plan and various exciting projects are under consideration. This five year pIan is scheduled to be formulated by the end of 1972. In its most ambitious and exciting hopes and plans of the Sikh Foundations, it earnestly solicits the adVice, assistance and fmancial contributions of all Sikhs and sympathizers. N, S, Kapany. President


Instructions to AuthOirs 1. All materials to I)e ~\lbmittcd fer publicaTion in SIKH SANSAR m.ust be origin~1 and pertain ro the fundamental 'religious precepts, th<: history, religion, and culrute of t/le Sikhs. 2. Th<: material should be: typ<:\vrinen, doubl<:spacw, preferably oll 路81h" X 11" paper. 3. The 路article should be about four to ten typewritt<:n pages. In exceptional circumstances lon~er articles would be CPQ~ldei'!:<I f()r s<:rialisation in consecutive issues. 4. All article~ must cOri~!lin an 'abs1;ratt whi'ch d.escribes in encapsulated form the cO!:ttents of the article, 5. References tJ> materi:d J>n which the contents of the article are based sO.o uld be included to enable the reader to locate related mate.ial. 'The authors shouie! take sp<:cial car.e to see thar as路 many pertinent publications as pos.sible are ref~renced.. 6. If a ph路o.t.ograph is to be included in the manuscript, two black and white g!qssy prints of higb contrast and clarity .must bCl s:upplled. 7. PUnjabi script portions of the manu.scripts ""bmiCteA must b.e typewrltJ:en originals of high quality. . 8. Acc<:ptance Of rhe tbiintls.c tipt will depend upon the originality, clarity of presllmation , and scholarly approach to tne Stibj~g. 9. At this time no payment is envisaged for the matedal to /Je publish~d in. SIKH '~ANSAR. 10. A brief biographical sketch of the author and list or his other publications should also be included. 11. All the original m~tcri::il publishcd in SIKH SANSAR will be coprrighted; accQ.ruingly, prior written permission would be necessary for 'reprinring elsewhere. 12. All manuscrlprs (original anJ a copy) musr be mailed ro ~h" ~hief Edjtor, SIKfI SANSAR; .P.O. Bo" 727 . Redwood qtr, Cal.iforni" 94064. U.S.A.

The Sikh Sansar USA-Canada Vol. 1 No. 3 September 1972 (Sikhs in USA and Canada Issue I)  

The Sikh Sansar USA-Canada Vol. 1 No. 3 September 1972 (Sikhs in USA and Canada Issue I) 1. Editorial P 66 2. The Ghadar Movement (announ...

The Sikh Sansar USA-Canada Vol. 1 No. 3 September 1972 (Sikhs in USA and Canada Issue I)  

The Sikh Sansar USA-Canada Vol. 1 No. 3 September 1972 (Sikhs in USA and Canada Issue I) 1. Editorial P 66 2. The Ghadar Movement (announ...

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