//URBAN SPACE COMMUNITY CENTER
Subterranean nodes for smart living
This thesis project is the culmination of five years of irregular effort,backed by the steady panick of last minute deadlines, and though it might not be the best product, requiring a lot of tweaking to be made upto mark - it is the end product of five years here in NIT Trichy, having festered and moulded my thought process. Stutters and a constant evaluation and re-evaluation of choices have characterised my years in college, the fallout of which have been borne by many, whom I have had the privilege to meet. In numbers , I would like to first and foremost , thank my parents for their constant motivation,support and zeal to provide me with everything that I could ever have asked for. Jheel for her constantly motivating prescence and My batch mates in the hostel of Pearl for their constant companionship and putting up with my many eccentricities, duly in procrastination, and appreciation - equally in the face of substandard or quality work. The Department of Architecture has been a constant guiding element in terms of experience, knowledge,friendship and opportunity. The study of architecture has opened my mind to the possibilities and scope of the subject in bettering the quality of human life and helped promote a -hopefully lifelong- interest in its multifaceted standards. All the faculty in the department have provided great value to my learning curve. In particular, I would like to thank Professor Prem Kumar for his mentor ship and guidance during this final project and otherwise. Prof Subbaiyan , Prof Jaikumar for their valuable input. Kennedy Anna , Pandi and Jose Anna for their support over the years. My seniors, Prashant.M , Manoj Kumar, Achyuthan, Sai Roshan for involving me in their many endeavours providing great experience. And at the culmination, my juniors - , Sunil, Shubash, Vimal ,Ishaan, Akshay, Akash , Krishna and Roopendra for helping me save face and a grade point average, one too many times.
CONTENTS 0.INTRODUCTION narrative objectives design proposal scope methodology
1. RESEARCH theory and design principles psychological effects of underground living advantages and disadvantages examples factors
2. STUDY AND ANALYSIS spatial perception survey case study special study environmental perception and cognitive maps site study
3. CONCEPT AND SCHEMATICS concept development spatial programming connectivity and zoning schematic design development
4. THE DESIGN Narrative Abstract Objectives Design Proposal Scope Methodology
can urban open space be better conserved?
how do we approach architecture for community integration? can we develop spaces that incorporate pedestrianism and bicyclism as primary modes of transport?
are underground buildings viable for large scale buildings of socio political typology? how can urban design better serve human passive engagment? what are the strategies to be adopted for changing spatial perception & cognition?
EXPERIENTIAL NARRATIVE A SUMMARY OF THE WORK DIARY. The progress of the design project has been very closely aligned with itâ€™s typology, which is a largely recreational space with not much pertinence on optimal functionality as opposed to say something like a hospital. The focus was and continued to be on developing spaces for better passive engagement. Greater input and effort was taken in the initial stages of the project - design development & research and case studies. Project input and interest waned in the schematic stage to only pick up again in the final weeks before the final presentation stage.
TIMELINE OF PROJECT : NOVEMBER - DECEMBER - Selection of Project backed by justification and purpose. Hard to arrive at a topic with a sufficient scope. Faculty interest in the topic selection is minimal nor is an option provided to choose or talk to guides. Scope continues to be extremely large such that our emphasis on design detailing is diminished and the entire focus is on simply submitting a large project. JANUARY - Case study stage. Provided valuable insight into the different design standards of various famous projects and how they were achieved. Primary emphasis was on quality of space and less on the quantified functional standards. Jury verdict was the same but a seven minute timed review does not provide enough opportunity for the complete evaluation of the work done. FEBRUARY - Concept Development and Site Study . Â Large amount of work was undertaken to study the same. Provided data as to how to proceed with the project but hiccups emerged in combining the parameters together. Discovered that, unqualified to approach the design of projects of such large scope because of no prior experience in doing the same. Jury verdict was positive in response but was unable to explain the full content of my work because of time.
MARCH - APRIL - Schematic Stage. Project Purpose is revisited upon advise to convert it into a semi underground space rather than a completely submerged project. Minimal work undertaken because of hectic college extra-curricular schedule - reduced quality of progress ultimately affecting the final design based on revision and input. Large amount of redressal to have been undertaken by the student side. MAY- Two weeks prior to final presentation, work is on schedule. Attempt to compile all previous work into this report. Not completely satisfied with the final output since it is a largely individual hurried effort with very less feedback rather than what is received in the short jury verdicts.Focus on completing a basic functional design rather than the exploration that it was initially meant to be. CONS IN DEVELOPMENT STAGES: Service Planning, Material Exploration, Improper Work Ethic/Schedule PROS IN DEVELOPMENT STAGES: Realisation of importance of every stage of design process, study & development in quality of space and understanding of levels and massing in spatial perception.
ABSTRACT / ARCHITECTURAL ISSUE, CIRCUMSTANCE
Community centres in India are usually targeted for rehabilitation or some specific user group communities. This is ill-equipped to foster the kind of community bonding that is lacking now in modern day cities , found in older indian societies. Urban spaces in India lack facilities fo recreation , group activites that are not privately funded . This further alienates communities, and thereby it justifies the necessity for a building of such typology increasingly identified as of paramount importance in North European Cities with the following objectives1..Supporting and encouraging participation for the development of community-led activities to improve local environments. 2..Equipping local residents with the skills and motivation and facilities to improve their life leisure and recreation through volunteering. Community centres are public locations where members of a community tend to gather for group activities, social support, public information, and other purposes. They may sometimes be open for the whole community or for a specialized group within the greater community. Examples of community centres for specific groups include: Religious Centres,rehabilitation centres, youth clubs etc.
Cities in India today are plagued by a large number of problems- high density developments result in increased pressure on local resources; low density development results in the loss of ecology, loss of tracts of agricultural land and unregulated sprawl. Recreational spaces of extremely high importance in human character development are also lost.Also in question is the uncompromised necessity for artificial cooling and heating that is prevalent world over. Dry Ecosystems suffer from scarce rainfall necessitating stringent water conservation and extremely high diurnal ranges necessitating cloaking and climate response. Although viable and excellent vernacular designs have developed within in reaction to the above, how do we translate the same success to mammoth public buildings that earmark the success and might of modern day settlements? Do we retain the tested, or develop an alternate typology, old as the day, but whose feasibility is greatly magnified by the technological plough of the 21st century? Underground Structures are non-weather responsive, in the sense that they are not dependent, largely, on weather fluctuations. The countryside is right above, eliminating the divorce from nature that modern, especially Indian, cities experience. Subsurface temperatures are always regulated eliminating the need for artificial cooling or heating. Subsurface would mean less exploitation of the super surface environment - preserving the ecological balance, and on the whole, a largely environment sensitive and energy efficient way of living.
â€œTo create a state-of-the-art community center to promote and embody the spirit of community involvement.â€? To provide a comprehensible research based design solution with the following detail objectives Building Use & Priority
To promote and encourage Community bonding and civic responsibility and Tourism by creating an Urban Center accommodating a Market (Commerce)/ Convention Center with auditoriums, exhibition halls , museum , galleries /Library,and an Urban Plaza (Community Involvement).
User - Activity
To understand theimportance of the relation between the individuals of a community and civic amenities.
Structure & Typology
To study and understand how Underground Structures may be utilized for architectural and infrastructural development.
To engage in intensive Site-Responsive Design and develop a typology for a resource scarce & dystopian future to build upon (and) provide an alternate solution for extremely dense overcrowded, energy starved settlements.
Study Indian Vernacular Feats in Underground Development with Contemporary technological Possibilities.
Smart City Initiative
To capitalize upon the Governmentâ€™s initiative to build smart cities that are energy responsive,sustainable and are future driven in nature.
â€œTo create a state-of-the-art community center to promote and embody the spirit of community involvement.â€? This design problem proposes to embody spaces with an ideal; an ideal that is based upon its role in the facet of character development. All these spaces are designed to instigate human interaction, in a world increasingly lonelier due to the presence of high tech because of which community learning takes a back turn. It is envisioned as a socio-political building with several separate spaces coming together as one building typology. Daily regular usage and comprehensive patronage from all age groups are the main objectives and to increase community bonding in the modern urban context. The different components include: Spaces that allow the user to bring about his creative side and to receive approval from peers and community folks. An opportunity to be approved translates to a motivation to belong. Auditoriums, Exhibition Halls, Practice Rooms. Express:
The community forum must provide material to gain knowledge from. As a community building, it must provide faciltites fro the indiviual to enrich themselves and educate the self. Library. Learn:
feel integral to a comunity when they are provided an opportunity to take the socio-cultural and functional aspects of the locality in their own hands. To discuss, debate, complain, argue, enhance sense of self and sense of responsibility and keep the community safe and enriched. Community Forum Hall, Committee Rooms, Activity Rooms. Engage: The urban community center must provide spaces in which people can relax,
pursue hobbies, engage in strenuous or leisurely activity in urban centres increasingly wrested out of valuable open space and activity zones that cater to human needs. Sports Faciltites, Activity Rooms. Contemplate: Nature must take precedence beyond all. Open land cover and garden spaces are increasingly at risk in urban India. Open Plazas where people can interact, meet new people, engage passively with fellow members of the community. The design has been kept underground with this as one important factor- to preserve valuable surface land. Plazas, Market Space.
preliminary scope The following are the pre-determined spaces in the Urban Space Community Center Architectural Program.
Scope : The following are the spaces in the Urban Space Community Center Architectural Program Convention Center Block Auditoriums Amphitheatres Meeting /Conference Halls Community Halls Congregational Halls Library Reading Rooms Formal Reading Space Children’s section Children’s play area Issue Stack General Section/ Reference Section Multimedia Book storage & archives Administration & Offices Attached Features Stage Seating Green Room Rest Room Control Room Rehearsal Space Multipurpose Area Circulation
Urban Plaza Landscaping Lighting Walkways Restrooms Waste Disposal Amenities Indoor Recreational Facilities Table Tennis/Badminton/ Chess/Carrom yoga and meditation center changing rooms drinking water facilities Public toilet facilities
Display Block Museum & Display Galleries Reception Lobby Gallery Spaces A/V Rooms Storage Spaces office spaces record rooms maintenance services courtyards multipurpose hall Exhibition Spaces Permanent Temporary
Administrative areas Circulation spaces Service spaces -generator -transformer & DG Rooms - central HVAC -central waste disposal Parking Facilities -Two wheelers -four wheelers -PRT’s
methodology Given below is the intended trajectory for the complete design process.
community center theory and design principles The following are some of the design guidelines that have been deemed necessary by several research papers. Mixed use: Cause for safe and mobile environment in building scale and site scale.Degree of social control. Input: Residential , Work, Recreational and Commute need to be combined. Diversity in Public space commodity: Many opportunities to be provided for interaction that are not uniform but varied so that people can choose based on their preference and comfort. Input:Different infrastructural options such as in seating. Form: Forms of the center matter as organizing and ordering elements while scale creates varied perceptive notions of comfort. To transist or stay is defined by form. Functional Diversity: Multi - usage of the community center. Input: Multifunctional Options. Visibility: A communtiy center is meant to engage therefore visual accessibility is necessary to open and permeate the space. Input : Open Plans and Designs.
When peopleâ€™s quality of life and social interaction begin to disappear, so does the sense of belonging to a local community. These are especially under duress in high urban stress times ad high population densities.
Sustainability the economic-environmental-social performance indexes of a community are interdependent on each other therefore effort needs to be undertaken to create spaces that promote all of the together. Design Input: Development of typology programme and material palette.
Security Security is the second important tier on Maslowâ€™s hieararchy of human needs. This can be re-interpreted into mental and physical aspects. A community bonds a group of people together. When a sense of community is lost, the individuals become vulnerable to feelings of insecurity and danger.
Gathering Center: Important in bringing large groups of people together to celebrate with or without purpose.Input: Both open-air and closed spaces.
Design input:Spaces need to stress on interaction.
Aesthetics: Attractive frontages, lighting , material palette are necessary to attract people to stay and participate and utilise the space.
This is defined as the feeling of relative comfort , that an user is subject to when using a public space or realm. This does not mean they interact , but that they feel safe carrying out any activity of their choice.
Rest Areas/Convex Spaces: Points of leisure in the middle of busy activity spaces for engagement. Input: Careful attention to site detail.
Design input:Spaces need to maximise and define opportunities for people to gather and zoning done accordingly. Increase opportunity for passive active engagement.
Preservation Visual impact. A fully or partially underground structure has less visual impact than an equivalent surface structure. This may be important in siting facilities in sensitive locations or when industrial facilities must be sited adjacent to residential areas. The increasing requirement for utility services to be placed below ground is primarily a visual impact decision. Interior character. An underground structure can provide an interior character quite different from that of a surface structure. Combinations of tunnels, chambers and natural rock structures in a quiet, isolated space have inspired many religious expressions. At the other end of the spectrum the hustle, noises and smells of a busy subway system also can provide a memorable aesthetic experience. Environmental Advantages Natural landscape. This is similar to the limited visual impact mentioned earlier but specifically relates to the preservation of a natural landscape in keeping with the local environment. Ecological Preservation When natural vegetation is preserved through the use of underground structures, less damage is inflicted on the local and global ecological cycle. Plant life, animal habitat and plant transpiration and respiration are maintained to a greater extent than surface construction. Rainfall Retention Results of the preserved ground surface are that the percolation of the rainfall to replenish ground water supplies is encouraged and storm water run-off is reduced. This reduction in run-off permits smaller storm water sewers, detention basins and treatment facilities and also reduces the potential for flooding. Land Use Efficiency The ability to place support facilities below ground and present the land surface for uses requiring the surface environment is an important benefit. With surface development, urban sprawl replaces farm land and recreational areas. Suburban factory development often covers large land areas with windowless buildings and parking lots. The sprawl itself requires more land area to be devoted to automobile and truck transportation because development densities are too low to support adequate urban mass transportation systems. Transportation / Circulation Efficiency The ability to infill buildings, provide underground connections and improve urban densities contributes to compact development that can allow efficient transportation and circulation patterns to be developed. Energy Conservation Beyond the immediate financial impact to a building user or developer, energy conservation has implications for national security, economic development and the balance of trade. Reduced Surface Disruption The construction of new underground systems or facilities can be organized to disrupt the existing area less than equivalent surface construction. This is particularly true of facilities that can be excavated with only limited surface access. Cut-and-cover subway systems in urban
Advantages: Thermal. In most regions of the world the temperature within the soil or rock at depths of less than 500 meters represents a moderate thermal environment compared with the extremes of surface .These moderate temperatures and the slow response of the large thermal mass of the earth provide a wide range of energy conservation and energy storage advantages. Conduction losses from the building envelope in cold climates are reduced. Heat gain through the exterior envelope from both radiation and conduction is avoided in hot climates. Earth-contact cooling is possible in hot climates. Energy requirements are reduced for tempering air infiltration. Peak heating and cooling loads are reduced due to large thermal inertia. Severe weather. Underground protected from hurricanes, tornadoes, thunderstorms, hail and most other natural phenomena. The most vulnerable portions of the underground structures are the surface access points for entry, light or view. Underground structures can also resist structural damage due to floodwaters, although special isolation provisions are necessary to prevent inundation of the structure itself. Fire. Underground structures provide a natural protection against external fires. The ground is incombustible and provides excellent thermal isolation to the structure beneath. Access points are again the most vulnerable. Earthquake. Underground structures have several intrinsic advantages in resisting earthquake motions: The ground motions at the ground surface are amplified by the presence of surface waves. Structures below ground are usually designed to support significant ground loads and hence earthquake loadings may not provide massive increases in loadings Structures below ground are constrained to move with the ground motion, so there is not the same opportunity for amplification of ground motions by structural oscillation effects as there is aboveground. Noise. Small amounts of earth cover are very effective at preventing the transmission of airborne noise. This attribute can be very important for structures located in exceptionally noisy locations such as those adjacent to freeways and major airports. Surface openings provide the major transmission path for noise to the interior. Vibration. Major vibration sources in urban areas include road and highway traffic, trains, subways, industrial machinery and building HVAC systems. High technology manufacturing systems require environments with increasingly stringent limits on vibration amplitudes, velocities and accelerations. Explosion. As with noise and vibration, the earth will absorb the shock and vibrational energy of an explosion. Arching of the soil across even shallow-buried structures greatly increases the peak air pressures that a structure can
Mentioned Below are some of the Buildings that are partially or completely below grade and known for their design principles and approaches and which were referred to. Some of these buildings were designed by famous contemporary architects. Friedrichstrassse , Berlin Museumplein, Amsterdam Le Carrousel Du Louvre, paris Glass Temple, Kyoto Tempelliaukio,Helsinki Panoptican Prison,Breda Adalaj ki Vav, Ahmedabad Philharmonic Hall, Cologne
Limitations: Human Occupancy Probably the most pervasive drawback to the use of underground facilities for non-service functions is that a large majority of people express a strong dislike for working in underground or windowless spaces. Coupled to this psychological resistance are concerns for whether an underground environment is healthy for long periods of occupancy. Designing facilities to provide a pleasant and healthy human environment in underground space is the central issue in this book and is examined in detail in Part II. Only an indication of the problem areas is given here. Psychology / Physiology. For most people, the idea of working or living underground elicits a negative reaction. Negative associations with underground space generally include darkness combined with humid, stale air. Among the most powerful associations are those related to death and burial, or fear of entrapment from structural collapse. Othe negative associations arise in relation to feeling lost or disoriented since normal reference points such as the ground, sky, sun and adjacent objects and spaces cannot be seen. Also with no direct view of the outdoors there can be a loss of connection with the natural world and no stimulation from the variety of changing weather conditions and sunlight. Physiological concerns with the underground primarily focus on the lack of natural light and poor ventilation. Continuing concern over placing people underground indicates that some of the historic images of dark, damp environments linger in our minds even though modern technology has overcome many of these concerns. The generally negative reaction to underground space has forced designers and researchers to attempt to overcome these perceptions.
The research in this topic are focused majorly on the different design objectives for designning a building undergroudn and also several strategies to mitigate them. Less focus has been provided to theoretical background such as the History, Needs and Necessities,classifications and configurations, existing Buildings etc. The folowing pages talk about the characteristics of Building Design albeit from an underground perspective. Some of the topics feature as part of the special studies that were undertaken and have been detailed in later sections of this report.
In Underground Buildings there are a few criteria that have to be focused upon to produce an innovative product. These have been mentioned below. Functionality Urban Development Perception and Cognition Engineering & Construction Energy and Interior Climate The User-Spaces of my given project matched particularly with the buildings that are generally developed subterranean.Some of the popular typologies include:1.Interpretive Center/Visitor/Museums 2.Libraries 3.Office Buildings 4.Educational Institutions 5.Special Use Facilities 6.Parking In addition to this , some of the spaces that i have subpoened include 1.Market Space 2.Urban Plaza 3.Auditoriums
psychological and physiological effects of underground space 1.Most artificial lighting lacks the characteristics of sunlight, which raises physiological concerns in environments without natural light. 2.Underground space may sometimes have poor ventilation and air quality. 3.High levels of humidity, which have potentially negative health effects, are found in underground spaces that are improperly controlled. Utilities and storage underground, whereas they are extremely important for functions that are highly people oriented such as offices or hospital rooms. However there are facilities that are well suited to an enclosed windowless environment that are intentionally built that way such as theatres, museums, libraries, gymnasiums, laboratories and manufacturing plants. 2.Occupancy patterns and freedom of movement The effects of an underground environment are mitigated by the amount of time spent there. Greater concern is raised for office workers or hospital patients who have little or no freedom of movement, compared to a museum visitor or an executive who spends the day moving around. 3.Type of Activity The acceptance of underground windowless space appears to be related to the type of activity. Basically people doing monotonous work seem to complain about lack of windows that those doing simulating work. 4.Social contact and simulation of internal activity The inherent lack of simulation underground is offset to some extent by social contact and dynamic activity. For example windowless space of a department store does not seem to bother people so much as with other functions due to the continual contact with people and constant activity. 5.Size of space Smaller spaces such as offices and hotel rooms give the feeling of confinement underground. Larger spaces on the other hand are likely to be less claustrophobic and contain more activity. 6.The degree to which the building is underground Generally underground spaces can be classified as near surface or deep. In deeper buildings entered through shafts, the negative feelings of being underground are likely to be greater and opportunities to provide for light and views are diminished. In some cases near surface facilities are also windowless, however near surface buildings may be connected to the surface in various ways such as hill side exposure or sunken courtyards that largely overcome the negative perceptions. 7.The quality of interior spaces Many of the studies on people in windowless and underground facilities have been conducted in settings with marginal conditions of lighting and ventilation with little or no attention to interior design. Obviously the level of furnishing, lighting and other amenities will influence perceptions. 8.Individual perceptions Most studies of people in underground structures indicate a range of responses.
Design Objectives 1. Provide appropriate levels of illumination to enhance visual clarity and facilitate all activities. Spaces should be well lighted to offset associations with darkness in the underground. 2. Provide natural light whenever possible. 3. Design artificial light systems to stimulate the characteristics of natural light. 4. Use lighting to enhance feelings of spaciousness. 5. Use lighting to create a stimulating, varied environment. Lighting patterns should help define and reinforce social spaces. Design Patterns Natural Light through Windows and Skylights. Whenever possible, provide natural light through windows and skylights in underground facilities. Transmitted and Reflected Natural Light. When natural light enters an underground building through windows and skylights, reflect it off surfaces and other devices to maximise its penetration and distribution in space. In deeper more isolated spaces, use systems that transmit or reflect natural light into the building through shafts, conduits or cables. Artificial Light with Natural Characteristics Design artificial light with natural characteristics. Patterns of Light and Shadow Create varied patterns of light and shadow in underground buildings to provide visual stimulation, to define social spaces and to highlight pathways and landmarks that will aid in orientation.
layout and spatial configuration Design Objectives 1. Create an interior layout that is easy to understand, thereby enhancing orientation as well as emergency egress. 2. Arrange space to create a distinct image within the building to compensate for lack of image outside. 3. Develope a layout and spatial configuration that contributes to creating a stimulating, varied indoor environment to compensate for a lack of windows. This simulating environment should also cater to the people passing through. 4. Provide visual connections between the interior and exterior environments whenever possible. 5. Arrange space and building circulation to enhane a feeling of spaciousness through the facility by providing extended interior views as much as possible. 6. Design each space to enhance a feeling of spaciousness by manipulating room size and shape. 7. Arrange spaces to provide spaces as much as possible.
life safety Design Objectives 1. Minimize hazardous, combustible materials or separate them from occupied areas. 2. Construct a fire-resistant building. 3. Construct an earthquake-resistant building where appropriate. 4. Provide systems for early detection of emergencies and alarm systems with directive information for occupants. 5. Remove smoke from the area of the fire and suppress or extinguish it as quickly as possible. 6. Provide for the efficient evacuation of people from areas of danger to places of safety (either within or outside the facility). Design Patterns Clear Internal Organisation and Egress System. Provide a clear emergency egress system by using a simple, understandable layout. When possible, egress paths should correspond with familiar circulation patterns used to enter and leave the facility. When unconventional or unfamiliar egress routes are required, they should be clearly highlighted and explained. Safe Vertical Egress-Stairwells, Elevators and Escalators. Design stairwells, elevators and escalators to maximise safe vertical egress. Make egress stairwells enclosed, smoke proof, ventilated and open in the centre to provide visual access. Elevators used for egress in deeper facilities require enclosed area.
exterior and entrance design Exterior and Entrance Design Design Objectives 1. When appropriate to the building function, create a distinct overall building image. Articulate building boundaries and exposed architectural elements to clarify the buildingâ€™s location and extent. 2. Avoid permitting the building services (ventilation shafts, loading docks, fire escape doors) to create the dominant building image. Separate the pedestrian ntrance, vechicular drop-off and service entrances as much as possible. 3. Provide a clear, legible entrance (or entrances) that can be recognised from a distance along major paths of approach. 4. Give the entrance a sense of place by creating variety and complexity in the entry approach that stimulates curiosity and heightens experienxe. 5. When the underground facility is entered through adjacent above- or belowgrade buildings, create a distinct entrance or demarcation where people cross into the facility. 6. Provide a graceful transition to lower levels. 7. Make the entrance area and vertical circulation spacious and well lighted. 8. Use the entrance to establish a visual connection between the exterior surface environment and the building interior. 9. Provide barrier-free entrances for mobility pressed individuals. Make these entrances part of the main entry sequence, not a separate secondary path. Entrance through Large Above-Grade Building Mass. Enter an underground facility through an above-grade building mass â€“ either an adjacent building or built as part of the underground structure. Open Stairways, Ramps and Escalators. Place stairways, ramps and escalators in open multistory spaces to enhance orientation and improve the transition from above to below grade. Glass-Enclosed Vertical and Inclined Elevators. Place glass-enclosed elevators in multistory open spaces to enhance orientation and relieve feelings of confinement. Use glass-enclosed inclined elevators alongside escalators to improve accessibility, orientation and security.
bibliography * Malcolm puller, Deep Excavations : A Practical manual, Thomas Telford Ltd.,2003, 2nd Edition . * Minoru Wakabayashi, Design of Earthquake Resistant Building, McGraw Hill book company,1921. * G.W.Houser and P.C.Jennings, Earthquake Design Criteria, 1982, ISBN # 0-943198232, 140 pages. * Anil K. Chopra, Earthquake Dynamics Of Structures A Primer,2005. * Lymon C. Reese, Shin- Tower Wang and William M.Isenhower. Analysis And Design Of Shallow And Deep Foundations, Wiley 2006. * Herbert L Nichols, Moving The Earth: The Workbook Of Excavation, McGraw Hill. * Earthquake Ground Motion And Its Effects On Structures: AMD-Vol.53, American Society Of Mechanical Engineering , Copyright 1952. * S.K.Datta, T.Chakraborty and A.H.Shah, Dynamic Response Of Burned Pipelines And Tunnels. * Earthquake Effects On Reinforced Concrete Structures, U.S.- Japan Research Foundation Programme , 1941. * Nainan P. Kurian, Design Of Foundation Systems: Principles And Practices, Narosa publishing house , 1992, ISBN 81-85198-47-0 6. Retaining Structures 122-161 8 . Individual Footing 8.1. Soil Pressure 202-204 * Alvar Alto, Library of Contemporary Structures, simon and sbaster.N.Y, notes by George bond * Wanda Jankowski, Best Of Lighting Design, Hearst Books International, 1987, ISBN 0-86636-017-4 * Periscope, Iconoscope And Telescope: vision system, University of Minnesota (civil and Mineral Engineering Building) * Larry Klein , Exhibits: Planning And Design, Madison Square Press, 1986 * Architectural Record V by 2017 Plazers And Places (two museums) * Thomas Thiis-Evensen, Archetypes in Architecture, Norwegian university press, 1987, ISBN 82-00-07874-4
SEC//2 STUDY AND ANALYSIS
34 SPATIAL PERCEPTION SURVEY
SPATIAL PERCEPTION SURVEY appraisal of parameters To appraise the quality of underground spaces under experiential factors of , lighting , safety , comfort etc. Inferences: Most categories fall under the range of good - moderate. In terms of natural lighting , the response is majorly poor. Inferences are based on perception of majorly services and not designed spaces.
Theory: Key Words: Indoors, Air Conditioned, Artificial Lighting, View, Enclosure. Sense of claustrophobia supports the sense of fear of the underground space negated by natural views. Users with greater exposure to daylighting respond negatively to moving underground.
35 SPATIAL PERCEPTION SURVEY
Theory: Exposure to air conditioning and increased indoor living adds to sense of enclosure but sensitizes and man adapts to the same.
40-60 have provided poorer evaluations of parameters and are less likely to move underground. Main issues include qualities of lighting-safety
Spaces with the target user space need to be zoned and provided environments with more surface level simulations.
No conclusive data with equally distributed responses.
Gender based activities do not need to be specially segregated in zoning excepting cases of privacy and safety.
High Density Urban dwellers are more affable to moving underground. Provide a direct link to quality of natural living and environment in their surrounding. Low density dweller numbers insufficient to come to conclusions.
Surface level activities to preserve and enhance quality of site with recreational activites at close proximity to the surface and surface elements. Introverted activites can be closeted. Unsavoury elements subdued.
Office workers and passive engagement workers respond favourbaly since their work environment does not engage the surface exceedingly .In theory,Negatively impacts performance.
Spaces that do not required prolonged exposure can be artifically treated inverting the scheme of things.
Critical. Users with greater than 2 hours of exposure alll responded negatively to provided parameters.
Daylight integration is a necessity as far as possible based on design depth and must be considered in design of all spaces.
Favourable response for users with 8-34 hours of exposure. Factor of closeted work environments.
Natural Ventilation not a criticial factor when it comes to non active engagements.
one third respondents unable to decide but confirmed respondents negative assessment.
Size,shape, levels of safety in terms of entry-exit visibility have to be considered to combat claustrophobia.
Those with a view of a man-made enviroment more favourable but inconclusive due to varied responses.
Visual accessibility is a necessary quality of natural elements. Indoor Gardens, large atrium spaces can be designed accordingly.
36 SPATIAL PERCEPTION SURVEY
TARGET USER GROUP The following categories explore the demographics of the survey group. Inferences: Most categories fall under the range of good - moderate. In terms of natural lighting , the response is majorly poor. Inferences are based on perception of majorly services and not designed spaces.
willingness 48% of surveyees have responded positively to the question. Inferences: Underground living , when considered in the country, is being seen as a viable option citing examples from the west. Respondents with experience offer more favourable opinions. Majority of Surveeyes are in their 20â€™s. No conclusive information can be extracted from the same. Provides information as to the future viability and usage since this age group forms the largest age group in Indian Society.
Majority of Surveyees are Male with 1/3rd female representation. No conclusive information can be extracted from the same.Purpose is to co-relate appraisal with gender.
Majority of respondents are from the Information Technology and Student Sectors.
Supports the target group. Majority of respondents are from metropolitan cities. This aligns with the objective of evaluating underground living to improve open and green cover and decongest urban sprawl and high density development.
37 SPATIAL PERCEPTION SURVEY
Experience & opinions The following categories explore demographics of the survey group.
Inferences: Most categories fall under the range of good - moderate. In terms of natural lighting , the response is majorly poor. Inferences are based on perception of majorly services and not designed spaces.
Objective: To evaluate target user groups based on quality of living and underlying psychological response to the associated factors. Validity: With a core response group of 200, an error leeway of 7% either way is expected.
38 CASE STUDY
PALIKA BAZAAR Signage: Heavily incorporated. other than general signs , shop boards themselves serve as wayfinding devices in an otherwise confusing layout. User Circulation: Unordered and haphazard proceeding along the route till it reaches the central cupola. Free Flowing population creates a lot of traffic Goods Movement: Shared by consumer and shopkeepers alike making circulation difficult . Gate 3 reserved for goods entry.Separate timing for goods movement is proposed.
Typology : Market Built : 1979 No: of Shops : 306 + 74 Location: Connaught Place, New Delhi Site Area: 8000 Sq.m
Artificial lighting alone is provided for the illumination of the space. and the height difference between entry and space does not allow for natural light
Structure: Barrel Vaulted System with supporting arches along lengths along some corridors and central junction.
39 CASE STUDY
Gate no. 1: Main gate. Faces Connaught Place Central Park, with F Block on the right and Palika Underground Parking on the left. Staircase entry.
Analysis of Space & Perceived Space The ratio of height to effective width of the bazaar makes the space seem perceivably smaller thereby inducing a sense of confinement and also transition heights inconvenient.
Gate no. 2: Faces Palika Underground Parking. Handicap ramp entry. Gate no. 3: Not in use. Faces Palika Underground Parking. Closed to the public.
23,000 visitor load for a designed capacity of 15,000 makes the space more crowded and uncontrollable
Gate no. 5: Spiral staircase entry with two doors. One door faces Janpath, N Block
Encroachment on circulation space and access routesby Gate no. 4: Spiral staircase entry Gate no. 7: Gate no. 6: shopkeepers and their wares with two doors, one not in use. Handicap ramp Staircase entry. reduces circulation space Door in use faces Parliament entry. Faces F Faces N Block making the space narrow. Street, Regal Building. Block. and F Block.
Services: Ducted hidden HVAC systems for
central air conditioning of the entire mall with exhausts above ground. Fire safety is served by Dry type fire extinguishers, Not availabe at regular distances and only at nodes. Plumbing lines run below the market at a lower level for water supply and sanitation.
Parking Underground capacity - 120 cars & 250 Bikes. Two Entries on radial roads 1 & 2 insufficient in demand.
It has been provided at a separate spot underground in the next lot of Connaught place.
Roadside Two Wheeler Parking a growing menace.
40 CASE STUDY
Typology : Market Built : 1979 No: of Shops : 306 + 74 Location: Connaught Place, New Delhi Site Area: 8000 Sq.m Movement Framework :Fast and natural motion is induced by directionality in the floor plan enhanced by pattern and texture.
41 CASE STUDY
Material : Broken waste China ceramic mosaic is highly reflective and insulative making it highly temperature resistant. Analysis of Space & Perceived Space
Lighting: Diffused & Soft.North facing skylights and cut outs on roof with hollow glass blocks as primary devices. Skylights appear as built mass protrusions. Entry movement is highly diagonal so as to offer continously changing views and discovery. Built Form :Free flowing play of levels and organic landscape (water bodies, amphitheater) with the visible built form perceived only in the form of vaults . Vegetation is introduced as a major portion of the built form.
The ratio of height to effective width of the bazaar makes the space seem perceivably smaller thereby inducing a sense of confinement and also transition heights inconvenient. 23,000 visitor load for a designed capacity of 15,000 makes the space more crowded and uncontrollable Encroachment on circulation space and access routesby shopkeepers and their wares reduces circulation space making the space narrow. Form: External walls are nearly a meter thick. Additionally hollowed out to provide storage and act as air insulation.Building is largely buried underground to provide natural insulation. Extensive use of vaults allow for wind channeling by allowing convective currents to dissolve hot air pockets enhancing site directionality.
42 CASE STUDY
HUSSAIN DOSHI GUFA Concept The structure’s contemporary architecture draws on ancient and natural themes. The domes are inspired by the shells of tortoises and by soap bubbles. The mosaic tiles on the roof are similar to the roofs of the Jain temples at Girnar, and the mosaic snake is from Hindu mythology. The Buddhist caves of Ajanta and Ellora with circles and ellipses, while Hussain’s wall paintings are inspired by Paleolithic cave art. The interior is divided by tree trunks.
The program includes a Guard Cabin, Caretaker’s house, Auditorium, Gallery Space, New Gallery since the Gufa is a non functional space
Movement Free flowing circulation to project easiness and allow the user to experience the space without restrictions.
43 CASE STUDY
Entry of Light along different lines
Shades thrown by natural light
Blob of light at entry
Light & Sun Path
Form and Structure The gallery space is below ground level. A partially hidden staircase leads to a circular door which opens into a cave-like space. Though designed to display paintings, the cave has no straight walls, instead using a continuation of the curved dome structure which extends down to the floor. The domes themselves are supported by irregularly shaped inclined columns, similar to those found in natural caves, resembling the trunks of trees. The entire design is made up of circles and ellipses.
Material and Construction Computer Assisted Planning was used to envision the unorthodox form. Floor - Wire Mesh + Mortar Walls - Ferrocement + Wire Mesh + Mortar Finish: Broken Ceramic and Crockery TIles Light and Texture Light arrives though snouts, creating spots of light on the floor which move around as the day progresses, intended to create a mystic atmosphere that plays with the changing texture of the surfaces to create unique images through the year.
44 CASE STUDY
BHARATH BHAVAN Architect : Charles Correa Typology: Public Building Built Area : 11000 Sq.m Site Area: 15000 Sq.m Client: Legislature of Madhya Pradesh Year:1979-1982
Location: On the outskirts of Bhopal in a rural setting overlooking a lake on a gently contoured site , they provide an aural privacy with the abscence of vehicles and also the cool resonating character of the lake nearby.
Alignment:It is aligned along the northwest-southeast direction
taking advantage of the view of the lake and the onsite wind direction of the cool breezes from the northwest. Auditorium
The â€œNonâ€? building is not a visual engagement , thereby preserving the visual sensitivity of the site, negating the conventional construction quality.
45 CASE STUDY
Construction The following construction
Form: In the shape of squares and rectangles juxtaposed on the slope to create interesting spatial configuration levels.
techniques were employed - Flemish Brick Bond Masonry & Ashlar Stone Masonry for Facades.R.C.C Shells for Cannons that illuminate the interiors.
Using macro level visual strategy to arrange the space in the form of Bhopalâ€™s town layout. The terraces form the main floorlayer as gardens while the courtyards are the circulation levels containing access to all the
Light flowing through main entrance
Easy to manipulate mazes thereby providing functionality but visual variety around every corner , showcasing Correaâ€™s obsession with internal street complexes.
Bhajrang auditorium view
Antharang Courtyard Levels inspired by the Varanasi Bathing Ghats
46 CASE STUDY
The Antarang Court - It houses entrances to all the Amphitheatres and the gallery of modern art and library and also the sculpture court.
The Tribal Art Courtyard- Houses the library of poetry, gallery of tribal art and administration block.
Only ground Floor with several level differences slope specific. All functional areas are arranged around the courtyards in a definite hierarchy based on location.
The Fountain Court Lobby Space that has all the public utilities such as water cooler and toilets.
47 CASE STUDY
Circulation Patterns When Mapped between Displays -no easily comprehensible flow pattern was arrived at. Courtyards were designed to act as accumulation points.
Program : Tribal Art Gallery ,Modern Art Gallery
,Auditoriums,Museum ,Workshops,Administration ,Library ,Store ,Print Shop .Green Rooms,Theatre, Toilets
48 CASE STUDY
Space with natural illumination through daylight cannons.
Sunken Open Spaces - Courtyards Rough Natural Slope Lines receding towards the lake treated to form interesting levels
Comparative levels with heights 1 greater than 2 greater than 0
49 CASE STUDY
Lighting: Is only accessible through the courtyards and
this ha necessitated the use of artificial lighting fixtures. An addition to improve natural lighting includes the lighting illumination cannons that act as light wells.
Artifical lighting is diffused by placing it within the coffers creating a soft ambience and the display walls are enhanced by the use of spotlights.
Materials The courtyards act as a heat sink and the terraces as a roof radiation reflective trap with the planters acting as buffers. Shivpuri Stone/Sandstone Cladding with Masonry Blocks in some places
Openings Shutters are made of teak wood. Two sets of shutters - one panel for lighting and ventilation and another for security.
Depends heavily on artificial ventilation and there are no fenestrations except the courtyard entrances. This has been done to prevent dust accumulation within the galleries.
50 CASE STUDY
CEPT NEW LIBRARY
Location: CEPT Campus, Amdavad Built Area: 3200 Sq.m Year: 2017 Client: Lalbhen Trust Architects: Rahul Mehtrota Architects Typology: Public Building
Site Factors Central Location : The library site has been chosen such that it is centrally located with easy visual and movement access and to determine its position as the hub of learning.
Access: The library is in close proximity to all departments so as to play a pivotal role in choice based pedagogy.
Orientation : Neutrally oriented with separate and equal entrances on all directions to provide easy access
Alignment: The library has been positioned such that it is aligned with the existing planned fabric of the CEPT campus.
51 CASE STUDY
Site: The character of the site is established to promote interaction and discussion and consists of a quadrangular extension on all four sides to act as a frontal lobby .
Urban Design Context: The library form has also been extended till two floors up to create a uniform visual line along with the rest of the campus buildings.
Massing & Volume of Spaces: The library consists of a depreciated three storey subterranean portion that also extends two storeys above through built mass with a central cubical mass that contains the reading rooms and book storage.
52 CASE STUDY
Louvre Facade Movement: The
following are the orientations of the louvres that can be used to control the amount of light falling within. Also provided are the details of the louvres and the structural system
90 - Parallel
View of Louvres from 45 - Slanted
180 - Closed
View of Louvres from
Light to the undeground third basement has been brought out through glass blocks visualised as shown above. The quality and perception of light varies and one is able to appreciate light in its true form.
53 CASE STUDY
Carrels for dust removal
Ventilation: The building circulation spaces
are naturally ventilated through the use of movable louvre screens, but the central core is artificially ventilated to enhance comfort MS Steel Rod
Dowels for Manoeuvre
Treated Teak Wood Board Weather Resistant
Glass Blocks to diffuse light to basement floors
Materials: The main material consists of
exposed concrete along the retaining walls and glass and steel frames for the core with black glazed tiles and a wood and steel louvre system. Cut out skylights to bring natural light to recessed mass
54 CASE STUDY
Architectural Perception of different zones The first and second floors project itself to multiple experience through verandah access to the active facade and spacious reading rooms emerging airy and light from the strong load base of the basements. Palette- Steel+ Glass + Bright Light
Parking has been provided at site level to reduce vehicle number inside the campus but emergency vehicles can access through the 5m wide setback on all sides Circulation: It has been categorized according to the activity of the space that it embodies. An effort has been to crate a structured organization for the formal setting The second and first Basements has been designed as a strong base , reading and discussion space with easy access to all archives but disengaged to prevent disruption. Palette: Teak Wood +concrete + Soft Light The Third Basement with its minimal mystic appearance and excellent acoustic qualities acts as an alcove for serious formal reading and an euphaism for burial. Palette : Exposed Concrete + Soft diffused Light
Book Core - Parallel
Levels - Central offset staircase
Periphery & Site Quadrangular
Reading Rooms - Axial
55 CASE STUDY
Program: Axonometric View of the library with special emphasis on the functional spaces at each level .
Second Floor : Reading Room
Reception & Lobby
First Floor : Reading Room
Administration Ground Floor: Reception & Exhibition
First Basement: Book Core, Librarianâ€™s office, General Section
Second Basement : Book Core , Formal Reading , Seminar Space Service Core: AHU, Lift, Toilet, Staircase. Third Basement : Archives & Storage
Buffer Transition from natural ventilation to artificial
Reading Rooms with Seating. Book Core with Stacked Shelves.
56 CASE STUDY
Below seen is a timeline model of the construction of the building to illustrate how the building has been created. The building process involves excavation , construction of floors and retention walls and ensuing column system to support the upper floors.
Stage 1 :Excavation and Soil Retention 15 days RCC Slab - Basement 2 - 15 days
RCC Columns -Second Book Level - 7 days
RCC Slab - Second Book Level - 7 Days
Stage 2: Main Footing - 10 days
Columns + Walls - Basement 3 - 15 days
57 CASE STUDY
RCC Columns - Basement 2 - 10 days Similar proportional construction for first and second floors and louvre walls and pitched roof
RCC Slab - First Book Level - 7 days RCC Slab- Ground Floor - 15 days
RCC Columns - First Book Level - 7 days
RCC Columns- Ground Floor - 10 days
RCC Columns- First Basement - 10 days
RCC Slab- First Basement - 15 days
Section showing Section showing Section showing Book Circulation Core Mezannine staircase Core & Reading Spaces. with staircase and lift connections. shaft.
Section showing Central Building Core & triple height space around
58 CASE STUDY
Location : Situated at Campal, Panaji along the banks of river Mandovi. Architect : Charles Correa Building Type : Institution Site Area : 6.3acres Client : Govt. of Goa The Kala Academy is a centre for the arts that hold international film festivals, teaching spaces and auditoriums for the development of ifne art , folk art , literature , drama etc.
Volume & Massing The interplay og straight parallel line MS Rods and the haphazard form of the main tree is seen here.
Zoning & Floors
Low height of the building and relatively low masses provide for a more relaxed feeling. Correaâ€™s principle of interior streets similar to that seen in Bharat Bhavan is also seen here.More horizontal than vertical giving a rather settlement style vibe. The parapet walls and the pergola above the foyer further enhance horizontality.
The building is divided into three zones: 1- public, 2-administration, and 3-academic They are provided at different levels so as to avoid conflict between these zones. The first and second floors include academic and administration facilities.
Second Floor - Academic First Floor - Admin Ground Floor - Public
59 CASE STUDY
Access & Circulation:
The site is flat, except for a gentle slope at the river edge .the total site area comes to around 6.3 acres. The site is divided into main building service building, muktangan, parking area, the exhibition space.
There are four entries to the site. Boat jetty provided on the river side. The coverage is about 40% the pedestrian and vehicular systems are well defined. The active area includes the cafeteria, the garden and the amphitheatre.
Services: The service buildings (ac plant and generator room) are provided on the western corner of the site no way disrupting the normal functioning of the building. A loading deck has also been provided here The septic tank is provided underneath the garden
Two separate service entries have been provided. One to the generator room and the other on the eastern corner of the site. The eastern entry caters to the need of the amphitheatre and the canteen.
Parking facilities is provided on the southeastern side. Nearly 300 public parking are provided including staff parking and an area of 2000 sq.m
60 CASE STUDY
The open air amphitheatre with its double herringbone shape is used for public gatherings and meetings. It has a direct entry from the restaurant and lobby area. It can seat a total of 3000 people
Acoustics are good as the seats block out noise from the road side and the stage blocks out noise from the river side.
The mini open air theatre can seat around 300 people. It is mainly used for the academy students for discussions and meetings. It has excellent sightlines.
Transparent false ceiling enables acoustical changes to be made by manupulating the absorbant materials placed within inner compartments hidden from view above this ceiling Mechanised Curtains systems installed, Lighting Frames installed on the ceiling of the Procenium with adjustable luminosity, controls behind the performance stage.
Ducted HVAC systems used to Air Condition the auditorium that are visible in the circulation routes.
The auditorium allows a variety of acoustical conditions ranging from speech, plays to sitar recitals and orchestral arrangements Behind the figures in the boxes real curtains may be pulled to reduce reverberation time in space.
61 CASE STUDY
Drama, theatre, western music, concerts, The Black Box is the orchestra, lectures and meetings. are the standard conventional programs conducted here. Rectangular shape used for experimental purposes like recording, amateur performances, music concerts etc.
Walls are completely covered with absorbers made of a layer of plywood and double layer of foam and wool cloth is pinned on top to completely nullify any echo or noise.
General Lighting arrangement here is with one halogen/flood of 1000w with dimmer.The floor also is carpeted which acts as an absorber in case of a recording session
The interior is completely clad with Black Particle Board for optimum acoustics as well to match its namesake â€œBlack Box.
A Sound Control room is provided in the rear of the arrangement. The Side Walls are Jagged to reduce the Reverberation Time inside the space
62 CASE STUDY
Program Ancillary Spaces
63 CASE STUDY
The beautiful lawns form the main part of the site. Trees Are provided aptly at the front side of the building. Specially designed benches and lamp posts line the path along the river side.
Lighting Lighting has been provided through Skylights coupled in fours with soft light diffused through plastic domical diffusers. This allows for a certain degree of natural light penetration.
Texture & Material
The use of Wafer Slabs/Cofferdams to create column free long spaces especially in the intermediate transitions. Indigenous laterite brick masonry has been used in places and column beam construction.
The exterior of the building is of laterite, creating a beautiful texture which is further accentuated in the sun inspired by the weathered laterite walls of Goa.This, when contrasted with the smoothness of the concrete beams & pergolas, creates an interesting interplay.
Visual Perception There are walls which have been given depth & life through realistic perspectives of arcaded streets, of projecting balconies, of staircases, of windows, of doorways. Here, the boundary between reality & illusion by Goan artist Mario Miranda. The interior walls are painted with pictures mostly depicting konkanise culture and create illusion that helps extend the space making it seem larger than it is.
64 CASE STUDY
LOW LINE Concept Typology: Park Space The Lowline is a plan to use innovative solar technology to illuminate an historic trolley terminal on the Lower East Side of New York City. The vision is a stunning underground park, providing a beautiful respite and a cultural attraction in one of the worldâ€™s most dense, exciting urban environments.
Site : Williamsburg Bridge Trolley Terminal, just below Delancey Street on the Lower East Side of Manhattan Year: 2015-2017
Lighting Device & Mechanism
Optical devices which track the sun throughout the sky every minute of every day, optimizing the amount of natural sunlight we were able to capture. The sunlight was then distributed into the warehouse through a series of protective tubes, directing full spectrum light into a central distribution point. A solar canopy, spread out the sunlight across the space, modulating and tempering the sunlight, providing light critical to sustain the plant life below The following is an example of the use of artificial lighting technology to illuminate an underground space using a collection, transmission,dispersion device
65 CASE STUDY
Site Sensitivity & Flood Protection The Centre is located in an agricultural area susceptible to flooding and earthquakes, and whose low-bearing soil has a low bearing capacity. As a result, an embankment has been constructed with a water run-off pumping facility. Rainwater and surface run-off are collected in internal pools and the excess is pumped to an excavated pond, also to be used for fishery
The ‘Ka’ Block contains the reception pavilion, offices, library, training/ conference rooms and pavilions, a prayer space and a small ‘cha-shop
The ‘Kha’ Block, is for more private functions and houses the dormitories, the dining pavilion and staff and family quarters. The laundry and drying shed is located on the other side of the pond.
66 CASE STUDY
FRIENDSHIP CENTRE Location: Gaibandha, Bangladesh Client: Friendship NGO Architect: Kashef Mahboob Chowdhury/Urbana Design: 2008-2010 Size: Site area: 9â€™210 Sq.m; Built area: 2â€™897 Sq.m Completed: 2011
The entire complex is naturally ventilated through Function: The complex functions as the centre for a charitable organisation. It the use of courtyards and offers training programmes for the poorest individuals in Gaibandha, pools which ciruclate cool air and earthen roofs with no a town where most of the community are employed in agriculture. mechanical ventilators.
Lighting Large openings in the mazelike quality allow natural light to enter and create a soft glow in the light pollution less environment of the area. the entire lighting is through LED and energy efficient lamps.
67 CASE STUDY
Visual Quality: In order to preserve the agricultural quality of the char lands and its people, the site has been built one level below ground to preserve its pastoral quality.
SOUTH (ROAD SIDE) ELEVATION
Form & Volume : Each building within the complex is constructed from a uniform brickwork, creating a maze of pavilion-like structures. Each block has the same height and every rooftop is covered with grass. As eries of collonades create nave and intricately weaved linear forms
Structure & Materials
Reinforced Concrete structure with finishes of timber and stone and brick cladding.Constructed and finished primarily of local hand-made bricks .
The spaces are woven out of pavilions, courtyards, pools and greens, corridors and shadows. Archways are used as the connecting element .
68 CASE STUDY
WHA CAMPUS CENTRE Location: No11, Daeyungdong, Seodaemungu,Seoul,Korea Architect: Dominique Perrault Architecture Year of Completion- 2004 Built up Area - 70,000 Sq.m Site Area - 19,000 sq.m
Circulation:The central 250m wide concrete ramp serves as the main circulation space in this building. Circulation corridors are all parallel to each other, with the interior space connected by parallel staircases and corridors punctuated by perpendicular connectors. It also connects itself seamlessly with the existing road fabric
69 CASE STUDY
Movement Framework for garden space
Visual Quality & Strategy A fusion of earth and built themes.Jagged partitioned appearance with stainless steel fins punctuating the curtain glass wall. Rebuild the site’s original topography, a hill with a slope , by bifurcating it with a constructed hillside- then covering it with earth to create a garden space on top, redefining the concept of the building as a whole. Conceptual visualization of line of sight to determine form & understanding of depth in relation to length .
A campus valley where nature, sport grounds, event locations and educational buildings mix, intermingle and complement one another. A long asphalted strip, delineated at one end by a race track, and, completely surrounded by nature. Arranged nature where pear trees and topiary reign
Urban Design The character of the project demands a “larger than site” response, an urban response, a global landscaped solution which weaves together the tissue of the EWHA campus with that of the city. Along with the Project - a sports strip is combined that blends seamlessly with the expansive garden space • An entry court, from which access to the various departments exist, • A node, or point on a trajectory to another destination, • A forum for the exchange of ideas as students gather after class to discuss their views, • A piazza, with the cafeteria spilling out creating a real “place” to stop and relax, • An outdoor theatre, as the stair can be used in an amphitheatre like fashion, • A sculpture garden, where indoor gallery events can push outwards
70 CASE STUDY
COMMERCIAL PROGRAM 5 700 m2 2 screen cinema, audience capacity, 162 seats shops (library, stationery shop, etc.), 1 723 m2 - bank, 100 m2 - post, 300m2 - fitness club, 1 000 m2 - theatre, audience capacity, 750 m2 underground car park, 750 vehicles capacity ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAM, 2 300 m2 office space service area ACADEMIC PROGRAM classrooms, 3 600 m2 2 amphitheaters; audience capacity, 90 seats 2 amphitheatres, audience capacity, 200 seats library, 2 000 m2 computer rooms, workshop space and study hall, 6 000 m2 4 amphitheatres; audience capacity, 80 seats hall and common use space, 15 000 m2 OTHERS chapel, 200 m2 student plaza, 1 000 m2 student theater exhibition hall, 1 000 m2
Car Parking & Service Floors
Lift & Emergency Shaft / Staircase
Majorly makes use of natural lighting to illuminate. Mirrored stainless steel fins reflect light into the lower floors. Incandescent tubes and Led Lights are used for artificial illumination and lowlight hours during winter months. The depression was envisioned as shown in the conceptual diagram to bring light within.
71 CASE STUDY
Detail : The following diagrams illustrate the joinery detail of the stainless steel fins and glass panes. The fins are bolted to each other and the glass panes slide into prefabricated slots in the fins.The construction was carried out in factory.
Ventilation and Services: The interior spaces are all completely mechanically ventilated and heated. Service details have been planned accordingly.
Serial Vision - Interior Spaces
Construction: R.C.C Column Beam Trabeated Structure is utilised through out the entire building and staircase systems are cantilevered.
Project Sangath, Amdavad
Function Architecture Office
Qualitative Analysis Energy Efficiency
Amdavad ni Gufa
Art Gallery/Meeting Space
Lighting & Form
Circulation & Psychological Comfort
Multi - Art Complex
Program & Site based design strategies
Program & Correa Design Principles
Library & Academic Hub
Program & General Features
Campus + Park
Program + Urban space design
Inference Efficient Design Strategies can be used to reduce energy loads on a building that include materials / site planning/ microclimate manipulation/ Earth- berming etc. ALso of note includes movement framework and construction methods. Relation between concept & form development & character of space. The importance of natural lighting in determining the character of a space in its interplay with texture / color / form etc. Importance of free flow circulation in experiencing art Circulation should be unhindered due to encroachment or goods movement Ratio of breadth / height should be appropriate to allow for more psycholgical comfort. services - fire , waste management , toilets should be evenly spaced out to distribute load. 1.Gallery & Museum Planning - Lighting levels are absolutely crucial in determining character 2.Since it involves experiencing art- flexibility in circulation and movement is necessary. 3.visual obstruction should be removed to create easy sightlines 4.Aesthetics of building should not overshadow that of the exhibits. 5.Design should be site responsive to get the maximum out of stunning natural features and by being minimally invasive. 6.dust accumulation should be minimised 7.spaces for dialogue and discussion should be incorporated to promote intellect 1.Auditorium Planning - Good acoustic design principles must be incorporated to get the maximum out of the auditorium experience 2.Design standards for seating should be followed to accomodate large gatherings 3.Service planning and fire safety codes must be adhered to strictly 4.material selection is important in achieving good sound design 5.circulation spaces around auditoriums must be designed to accomodate crowds and should be well planned with easy manouevre and guidance 6. flexible theatres of different capacities are necessary to attract different user groups in community centres 1. easy access necessary for learning centres 2.reading spaces should be delineated to allow users with different intentions(formal,informal,children) to peruse the library along with segregated storage 3.spatial configuration is useful in establishing hierarchy of space use 4.dust accumulation should be removed through proper planning 1. Modern Technology for light collection and dispersion within. 2. Strong sense of pro - active community involvement required to maintain such projects. 1.Understanding site conditions to design responsive architecture. 1.Urban spaces must have proper movement framework with access to traffic circulation routes. 2.Proper segregation of served and service areas necessary for easy management.
Area Inference D.M Kalamandir :1300sq.m a,Total Seating :977 b,Proscenium Stage Opening :9.6Mts c,Expandable :11.4Mts d,Proscenium Height :4.5Mts e,Depth From Curtain Line :12.6Mts f,Appearance Stage Depth :2.7Mts g,Orchestra Pit :7.2 X 2.1Mts h,Stage Height From First Row :.8Mts 2. Open Air Auditorium :1750Sqm a,Seating (Chair) :1312 nos b,Seating (no Chair) :2000 c,Proscenium Opening :15Mts d,Appearance Stage Depth :2.7Mts 3. Mini Theater (Open Air) :340sq.m a,Seating (Chair) :215 nos b,Seating (No Chair) :300 nos c,Tread :.85Mts d,Riser :.45Mts e,Aisle Width :1.2Mts f,Steps (Tread) :.28Mts g,Steps (Riser) :.15Mts h,Stage :7.5 X 7.5Mts I,Farthest Seat :6Mts 4. Black Box :175sqm a,Seating (Chair) :150 nos b,Seating (no chair) :200 nos 5. Preview Theatre :45sqm a,Capacity :24 nos 6. Administration :500sqm 7. Rehearsal Hall :150sqm a,Seating (chair) :100 nos b,seating (No Chair) :200 nos 8. Meeting Room :7.3 X 6.15sqm 9. Library :135sqm 10. Cafeteria :450sqm 11. Guest Room :53sqm 12. Art Gallery :150sqm a,Running Wall Space :48 X 1.5Mts b,Mobile Display :4.2 X 1.5Mts (3nos) 13. Class Room :8.6sqm a,Vocal Class Room :1.1sqm/Student b,Instrumental Class Room :1.8sqm/Student 14. Car Parking :2000sqm Shops - 306 No. Circulation Spaces
reception pavilion offices library training/conference rooms a prayer space cafetaria dormitories dining pavilion staff and family quarters Permanent Museum Library Book Shop Gallery of Tribal Art Gallery of Modern Art Circulation Courtyards - Court of Antarang/tribal art/ fountain Auditoriums - Antarang Green Rooms Studio Theatre Changing rooms open air amphitheatre - Bahurang 1.Administration a.Librarianâ€™s office b.office 2.Public: a.Reception b.Lobby c.Exhibition Space 3.Semi- Public a.Reading Hubs b.Formal Reading c.Casual Reading 4.Storage a.General Section b.Reference Section c.Book Storage d.Archives 5.Services a.Staircase b.Lift c.AHU d.Toilets
76 SPECIAL STUDY
UNDERGROUND LIVING What is Underground Living
There are various ways to develop structures for underground living -
Underground living refers to living below the groundâ€™s surface, whether in naturally occurring caves or in built structures. Underground dwellings are an alternative to above-ground dwellings for some home seekers, including those who are looking to minimize impact on the environment. Factories and office buildings can benefit from underground facilities for many of the same reasons as underground dwellings such as noise abatement, energy use, and security. Many shopping malls are partially or totally underground, in the sense that they are below grade. Though not as exotic as the other underground structures, those working in such urban underground structures are in fact living underground.
1.Caves (Natural) have been used for millennia as shelter. 2.Caves (Constructed)/Dugouts are a common structure for underground living 3.Earth berm structures are essentially traditional homes that have then been buried, typically leaving at least one wall exposed for lighting and ventilation. The structures though need to be able to bear the load. 4.Culvert structures - Large precast concrete pipes and boxes a few metres across are assembled into the desired arrangement of rooms and hallways onsite. 5.Shaft structures incorporate a very wide and deep shaft, within which would be built levels for habitation, all looking in toward a hollow core topped with a huge skylight. 6.Tunnels, including storm drains, are used by homeless people as shelter in large cities.
Some famous developments underground
Le Carrousel du Louvre
Some of the basic considerations that are necessary to develop a design intervention of an underground space include Lighting,, Ventilation ,Structure & Construction ,Functions ,Materials ,above land usage,User perception, energy and interior climate.
77 SPECIAL STUDY
LIGHTING The purpose of this study is to understand how natural lighting can be introduced within underground buildings. The topic seeks to explore genral methods and specialised methods of achieving the above need. Day-lighting is the restrained introduction of natural light-direct sunlight and diffuse sunlight into a building to reduce electric lighting and thus save energy. Natural Sunlight is linked to our body clock cycle and therefore is imperative to human health. Day-lighting helps to create a perceptibly natural and generative environment for building inhabitants, reducing one-third of the total building energy costs. Skylights implanted horizontally in sloped or flat roofs provide a ceiling height of uniform level. Skylights are generally efficient for the lighting of horizontal tasks. The efficiency of skylights differs under clear skies or overcast skies.
Roof Mo nitors Roof monitor is a high rise structure running along the side ridge of a double sloped roof. Its own runs parallel with the main roof. Clerestory windows or louvers are constructed on the long sides of monitors to incorporate light or ventilate in the area under the roof.
A saw-tooth roof comprises a row of ridges with two pitches on either side. The sloppy surfaces are glazed. To protect workers and machinery from direct sunlight it is designed away from the equator. To provide even, natural light over a large space, without the issue of direct sunlight and its heat, the saw tooth roof is designed with its glass panels facing towards north.
A non-roofed exterior space present within the extent of a large building to enable light and ventilation to reach the area that would otherwise be a dark and poor ventilated area. Lightwells may be coated with glazed bricks to escalate the reflection of sunlight within the area
78 SPECIAL STUDY
Courtyard A confined area, often enclosed by a building or complex that is open to the sky is known as a courtyard. The north orientation should be the open segment to minimize glare and to reduce the necessity for sun control in partly encased courtyards.
Atria On a flat site, sunken exterior courtyards in underground facilities provide sunlight, view, a connection to the outdoors, and improve orientation within the facility. A huge open air or skylight covered area surrounded by a building is known as â€˜Atriaâ€™. Modern atria are generally several stories high and have a glazed roof or large windows. They are often located directly beyond the main entrance doors. It is used for introducing light and ventilation to the interior.
Creating multi-storey interior atrium spaces within underground facilities to provide extended views, visual stimulation, a sense of orientation, sunlight, and a focus of activity within a building. It is one of the most powerful and versatile design pattern available. With respect to orientation and image, the atrium space provide central landmark and is a part of a major circulation path.
STUDYrates in hospitals, Daylight improves learning in school, improvesSPECIAL recovery improves productivity in workplaces, and improves psychological well being nearly everywhere today.
Daylight improves learning in school, improves recovery rates in hospitals, improves productivity in workplaces, and improves psychological well being nearly everywhere today.
Because planning window are limited in underground spaces, a different approach is needed to introduce even illumination. Most Because planning window are limited underground of the building cases uses skylights, atriums,in and etc. in order to spaces, a different needed to introduce introduce light to theapproach center of the is building.
even illumination. Most of the building cases uses skylights, atriums, and etc. in order to introduce light to the center of the building.
Light diffusers are used in order to enhance performance. However, because windows can only Light diffusers areof used in order to be installed on the roof underground buildings, enhance However, upper floors areperformance. likely to benefit natural lighting performancewindows more thancan floorsonly on thebe lower level. because installed
on the roof of underground buildings, upper floors are likely to benefit natural lighting performance more than floors on the lower level.
80 SPECIAL STUDY
A tube or pipe used for carrying light to another area, reducing the loss of light, a transparent tube for circulation of light over its length, either for even distribution along the whole length or for limited light effusion.
Open Shafts This is the most primitive form of light tube. It is basically vacant shaft through which a beam of light can pass. Lenses are used to keep the beam concentrated, but light is diffused as it goes through each lens
Prismatic Shaft To save the weight associated with solid acrylic rods, the rod can be notched out and the prismatic side of the tube conduct light in the required direction
The fibre optic bundle made of glass or plastic, can have great transmission characteristics. Mostly between 3-16 percent of the light is dissipated per metre cable run.
81 SPECIAL STUDY
common spaces Common spaces, such as ventilation spaces and staircases, can be used to introduce and deliver daylight to deep surfaces in underground floors. As an integrated design approach, this plan also uses light diffusers and reflectors to send daylight through minimum and diagonal open spaces.
As the amount of light which enter through the ventilation space and staircases decreases in lower floors, light which are sent through diagonal open floors merges and brighten the center of the floor which gives an even lightness to the deep surface. Light reflectors tare installed on each floor to raise effectiveness.
82 SPECIAL STUDY
Biomimicry At recently created edges, light enters the forest diagonally, creating a bright zone beneath the crown canopy. The tallest trees are the emergent layer which mostly are broad-leaved, hardwood evergreens. Because leaves are exposed to direct sunlight, skin layers are thick in order to regulate high temperature. Trees are widely spaced which helps the vegetation in the lower layer. The canopy layer is the primary layer of the forest and forms a roof over the two remain layers. Leaves are oval shaped in order to drip rainwater to the lower layers.
Sunfleck Wind Flow
83 SPECIAL STUDY
VENTILATION Ventilation spaces in large buildings are installed to light and ventilate underground spaces. Lighting underground floors through ventilation spaces has limits in buildings with deep floors. The function of ventilation spaces can be supplemented by applying the principles founded in the forest canopy. Earth berming is another technique in which ventilation is achieved through the concept of earth acting as a massive heat sink. The temperature below the ground remains almost the same throughout the year . It reamins cool during summers and warm during the winters . Additional ventilation is also provided by air ducts and shafts .
Earth Air Tunnels
Earth air tunnels can be used effectively to ventilate underground spaces . Earth- air tunnels may be considered as special types of wind towers connected to an underground tunnel. A wind tower is connected to the underground tunnel, which runs from the bottom of the wind tower to the basement of the building. The wind tower catches the wind which is forced down the tower into the tunnel. It helps in maintaing the temperature underground.
84 SPECIAL STUDY
Ventilation in an underground structure should be a concern both during and after construction . Natural ventilation systems in which the tunnel air is displaced longitudinally by fresh air may not be sufficient during or after the construction . The replacement of underground air by external fresh air in the right amount and velocity must ensure the acceptable level of air quality .The quantity of fresh air required depends on the amount of carbon monoxide ., methane , hydrogen sulfide , smoke or other pollutants found in the air and also on the number of working persons , types of machinery used , the ddiameter of the tunnel and the excavation method used . In addition , actual requirement of the volume of fresh air is site dependant and depends on the atmospheric pressure .
Mining Ventilation The basic type of underground ventilation prevalent in most places if mine ventilation . Ventilation to underground mines for the workers is provided through ducts and shafts
To ensure adequate ventilation of a mine, provision is made for suitable paths (airways or aircourses) for the air to flow down the mine to the working places and suitable routes out of the mine when it has become unsuitable for further use.
The concept of windtowers can also be used to ventilate underground spaces . It has been used in earlier times by the Persian kindgoms . It has been effectvely used for refrigerating and also for natural ventilation in ancient buildings . It makes use of the evaporative cooling effect which is the highest in desert regions .
The windcatcher can function in three ways: directing airflow downward using direct wind entry, directing airflow upwards using a wind-assisted temperature gradient, or directing airflow upwards using a solarassisted temperature gradient.
85 SPECIAL STUDY
UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION Cut and Cover Method In a cut and cover tunnel, the structure is built inside an excavation and covered over with backfill material when construction of the structure is complete. Cut and cover construction is used when the tunnel profile is shallow and the excavation from the surface is possible, economical, and acceptable. Two types of construction are employed to build cut and cover tunnels; bottom-up and top-down.
Tunneling Method Tunnels are dug in types of materials varying from soft clay to hard rock. The method of tunnel construction depends on such factors as the ground conditions, the ground water conditions, the length and diameter of the tunnel drive, the depth of the tunnel, the logistics of supporting the tunnel excavation, the final use and shape of the tunnel and appropriate risk management. There are three basic types of tunnel construction in common use: 1. Cut-and-cover tunnel, constructed in a shallow trench and then covered over. 2. Bored tunnel, constructed in situ, without removing the ground above. They are usually of circular or horseshoe cross-section. Some concepts of underground mining apply. Modern techniques include Shotcrete used in the New Austrian tunnelling method, use of a tunnel boring machine or tunnelling shield. But still tunnes are constructed which are secured with pit props and shoring and then are steined or timer supports are set. Techniques known from barrel vaults are helpful. 3. Immersed tube tunnel, sunk into a body of water and laid on or buried just under its bed.
86 SPECIAL STUDY
Bored Pile Wall Method Bored pile wall construction is applied in basement construction, road/rail cuttings, underpasseses,cut-and-cover tunnels and portals, cofferdams,underground tanks , slope stabilisation. Large and small diameter bored cast-in-place piles are often used to construct efficient and economic temporary or permanent retaining walls. These walls are suitable for deep basements, underpasses, tunnel portals and other underground structures particularly where working space is limited and adjacent structures require support. They minimise bulk excavation and help to control ground movements and groundwater ingress. Three distinct bored pile wall systems are in current use: • Contiguous pile wall • Secant pile wall – hard/soft or hard/firm • Secant pile wall – hard/hard
87 SPECIAL STUDY
88 SPECIAL STUDY
ENVIRONMENTAL PERCEPTION AND CONGNITIVE MAPS
One of the major factors that determine our everyday experience of life , is the way we perceive it or in other terms our environmental perception. Perception is the use of our visual , aural , and other senses to determine our psychological and subsequently physiological response to a particualr stimuli. The response may be reflexive or more pensive in outcome but results are based on our perception of the particular situation. Perception describes the multiple ways in which people receive information from their surroundings, allowing them to know their environment. Cognition, or the way people understand the environment, occurs through immediate sensory experience coupled with memories and experiences from the past. In Architecture, perception is a highly determinative factor . Our assessment of a space is derived on our responses to the stimuli which are largely visual in nature. The visual stimuli include light, volume and mass- cardinal elements and others. The Underground is generally perceived as dark, damp and dingy and is the face of all that is inhuman in most mythical texts. As such through conventional learning, there is a deep distrust and fear of all that is underground. This is usually derived from pre conceived notions or ignorance in some cases , but is largely unfounded, especially with the advent of technologies in the contemporary building construction scene. Functional problems of underground living can and have been solved and in most cases sourcing activites underground can prove to be advantageous. We can safely conclude that user perception of the undergorund environment is one of the largely contesed obstacles to shifting below. Therefore , architectural solutions to counter the same is an interesting topic of study , that can be further applied to a design solution.
89 SPECIAL STUDY
Archetypes in Architecture -
The elements of Architecture whose manipulations result in different perceptions.
1. Using archetypes in architecture to counter the ubiquitous sense of Claustrophobia and fear of the underground. 2. To understand how visual perception can be utilised to enhance community involvement and facilities. 3. Specialised Study in Environmental Perception , particularly visual, to subsequently develop and apply architectural solutions in the design context. 4. To conduct a survey to determine the relation between living conditions and willingness to move underground. Theories in Architecture - Some other elements of architectural perception include parallax, kinesthetics , gestalt etc.
90 SPECIAL STUDY
Placement of openings on vertical elements and response to motif patterns.
Placement of openings & appropriate patterns of circulation & movement.
Characteristics of dome and appropriate feelings of enclosure.
91 SPECIAL STUDY
Staircase characteristics influencing response to move and height evaluation.
STAIRS OPENINGS & DOME
Placement of openings and overhangs on external walls and their induced spatial orientation.
92 SPECIAL STUDY
Floor & PATTERN MOTIFS
Floor Massing & induced psychological weight.
Motifs and Patterns on the wall.
93 SPECIAL STUDY
Floor Textures & Patterns
Interpretations of the cube on the floor.
94 SPECIAL STUDY
Movement & circulation
Boolean manipulations of different shapes on the psychological perception of built space.
Pathway textures and Patterns in inducing Motion.
95 SPECIAL STUDY
induced sense of verticality on wall elevations.
96 SPECIAL STUDY
wall & Scale
Methods of opening & closing and induced spatial orientation.
Manipulations of the wall to induce responses of enclosure, liberation and transition.
97 SPECIAL STUDY
Scale & its effect on human behaviour and spatial response..
98 SPECIAL STUDY
Characteristics of slope and guiding sightlines.
Urban level strategy for campidoglio.
Thickness on the psyche. Subconscious lines of enclosure.
99 SPECIAL STUDY
Spatial Orientation and their transformation into an organizing massing element.
100 SPECIAL STUDY
Levels & invisible floor lines and their effect on stability.
Effect of curvature on assessment of size of space
101 SPECIAL STUDY
Placement of elements on the horizontal plane and creation of depth.
102 SPECIAL STUDY
Arches their spatial quality & orienting characters.
103 SPECIAL STUDY
Three Dimensional Massing of the Roof and their induced sightlines.
Volumetric quality of flooring and Massing.
104 SPECIAL STUDY
perception of spaces
Spatial Perception is defined as the psychological response to a space that is generated due to its underlying characteristics such as scale,levels,pattern,motif,visual organizing elements etc. These effect the psychology in terms of orientation , perceptive levels of safety, clarity,physical and mental comfort,sightlines,movement and accessibility, Other studies include parallax , kinesthetics & gestalt. Spaces can be classified into : Intimate - closeted, wombed Private - enclosed but accessible Semi-Public Public- Scale, Magnanimity,openness Circulation - Movement & transition Each of the spaces above necessitate their space qualities to enhance their purpose and activity. space qualities are defined by the perception of their inherent architectural elements and their response to the surroundings. Considering the cartesian three dimensional plane, a space can be divided into, in essentials :Roof Floor Wall The objective is to analyse the various manipulations of the above essential architectural elements and their inclusive features in evoking psychological responses and their subsequent application to aid and guide the use and purpose of space through perceptive and cognition maps at the schematic
Direction of opening and ensuing subsequent orientation of eyelines.
105 SPECIAL STUDY
Mirrored Floors and their enhancement of assessment of space and volumetric extents
106 SITE STUDY
INTRODUCTION TO SITE “To design a CBD that will serve as a paradigm for Next Class city in terms of quality of life, infrastructure and ambience aiming to be highdensity and high-rise, treating land as a precious resource.” Area Elevation Population Weather Humidity Rivers Temp Rainfall Altitude
886 Acres 81 m (266 ft) Total 28°C, Wind E at 10 km/h, 40% 4(khari, sabarmati, vatrak, meshvo) 23* to 23.6* north (latitude) 72.3* to 73.7* east (longitude) 803.4, 7.5* C min, 45* C max 81m
Site Justification The development of CBD projects can be clarified Need: The Residential units will be of the as the following three types according to their integrated township format and thus are ripe characters: for the development of a planned community center to be utilized in the future. Office : Includes office and associated facilities Facilities: City wide projects such as district such as conference and exhibition cooling and Personal rapid taxi systems allow for incorporation of new technologies. Service : Including retail, restaurant, entertainment Site Sensitivity: Its natural location at a short and cultural facilities, hotel. distance from the Sabarmati Water front provides an aesthetic quality to the site and Residential facilities : Including apartment and will be advantaged by preservation. residential buildings Flexibility: Since the settlement is still uninhabitated and under development, a certain standard of flexibility is achieved in design development. Land - Use : According to the master plan , particular land parcels have been delineated for social facilities. Land Cross- section: Bedrock is not too deep and the water table far away with a favourable clayey soil composition that is suitable for underground development. Vision : the Vision of the development falls in line with the objectives of this project in terms of developing a building typology for smart living
107 SITE STUDY
Gujarat International Finance Tec-City or GIFT is an underconstruction central business district between Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar in the Indian state of Gujarat. It will be built on 359 hectares (886 acres) of land. Its main purpose is to provide high quality physical infrastructure (electricity, water, gas, district cooling, roads, telecoms and broadband), so that finance and technology firms can relocate their operations there from Mumbai, Bangalore, Gurgaon etc. where infrastructure is either inadequate or very expensive.It will have a special economic zone (SEZ), international education zone, integrated townships, an entertainment zone, hotels, a convention center, an international technology park, Software Technology Parks of India (STPI) units, shopping malls, stock exchanges and service units.
Location of Land Use Zone
108 SITE STUDY
GIFT is planned as a financial Central Business District (CBD) between Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar High Density Development is the proposed character of the city with highly integrated transport connectivity and sustainable development measures.
109 SITE STUDY
GIFT Master Plan reflects a sophisticated planning approach that integrates the intended program into the existing context of both the site and the region. The GIFT development is expected to become a contemporary model development in India, advancing the ideas of sustainability and ecology. GIFT, envisaged as an Eco-City, and will serve as the Vibrant Hub of Western India and as a habitat demonstrating business oriented, environmentallysensitive growth
Building Type Classification
30 Residential Building Blocks 125 Buildings - Central District 3 Schools & 1 Hospital 4 High - Rise Hotels Community Center & City Park
3 Skyscrapers comprising of office spaces with supporting facilities Transit Nodes - 205 Metres Crystal Tower - 276 Metres Diamond Tower - 405 Metres Gateway Towers - 350 Metres Other Buildings - 50 /150 Metres
Area-550 Acres/ 2.04 Sq.Km
Floor Area Ratio(FAR) : 3.65
Construction Scale: 8.48 million sq.m
Greenbelt: 517,821 sq.m
Location :12 Km from Ahmedabad 8 Km from Gandhinagar
City Designation : Smart City
Construction Stage: Phases 1-4
110 SITE STUDY
SITE : SERVICES INTEGRATED UNDERGROUND SERVICE TRENCHES All service lanes are provided sub-surface with dimensions ranging from 6.2 mt height uptill 8m and width varying from 8 to 11 mts . No services are appropriated above ground. Buildings will tap in on the services wherever its required. The Utility Tunnel will accommodate all the utilities including Power Cables, Raw Water supply pipe line to Water Treatment Plant (WTP) as well as treated water supply pipe line from WTP to various developments, chilled water supply from District Cooling Pipe (DCP) to various developments and return pipe line to DCP, ICT cables, Automated Waste Collection pipe line, Fire hydrant water pipe line, etc. From safety point of view the tunnel is divided into WET and DRY sections which are physically separated with each other.
111 SITE STUDY
WATER SUPPLY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS The water sources from which GIFT draws its water are (a) Narmada Main Canal, (b) Recycling and reuse of waste water, and (c) Rainwater Harvesting. â€œzero discharge cityâ€? is utilized in which waste water is treated and reused, which results in maximum utilization of water. Power is achieved through Solar Power Fields.
DISTRICT COOLING DCS distributes thermal energy in the form of chilled water from a central source to multiple buildings spread over multiple locations through a distribution network of pre-insulated pipes run through utility corridors for use in air-conditioned space.
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
ICT & POWER & FIre
Waste is thrown into disposal chutes and then through computer controlled monitors sucked at 90km/h to be plasma gasified to minimize human and space intervention. All technology provisions are interconnected in the city system through the interconnection of all transport, security, infrastructural facilities,healthcare,education,advertisement,automation, cmmunity centre and homes.
112 SITE STUDY
SITE : LEGAL CODES WAY TO GANDHINAGAR
WAY TO AHMEDABAD
BRIDGES OVER SABARMATI
CONNECTING ROUTES TO NH8
BRT SYSTEM CONNECTING TO AHMEDABAD
CONNECTING ROUTES TO AHMEDABAD
MAJOR ACCESS ROUTES(NH8-SH)
CONNECTING ROUTES TO GANDHINAGAR
CODES Fire: (Lift and Staircase easily accessible to exterior) External and Internal Riser Hydrant with separate electrical circuits and underground water supply and diesel generator as per NBC.
Safety : Min Wall Thickness : 23 cms Min Basement wall : 30 cms Min Floor Height : 2.8 mts
Parking: 1sq.mt for every seat 50% of building unit space reserved for cars slope - max. 1:7 access width : 3.0 mts
113 SITE STUDY
METRO & TRANSIT NODES There are four major transit nodes at either corner of the Central Business District for connectivity. This is further enhanced by connectivity to the Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar city Metro Rail Transport System and Bus Rapid Transport System.
PARKING MANAGEMENT GIFT Building Basements will have a total parking capacity of 85,000 Four Wheelers and the external hubs would have a capacity of 30,000 Cars.
surrounding land uses
Logisitics HUB 12 Acre Logistics hub outside the city on junction with NH8 for carrying goods traffic from outside to within the city
PERSONAL RAPID TRANSPORT SYSTEM,PEDESTRIAN Automatic personal transit service is a new method of transportation where Intelligent vehicle are available on demand 24 x 7 providing non stop travel direct to destination.
Access: Road Width(150 mts) : 9.0 mts (450 mts) : 18 mts Street Margins : 3.0 mts Junction Radius : 7.5 mts Emer. Approaches : 6.0 mts
Legal: Max.height : 50 mts. Plot Floor Space Index : 3.65 Distance from Water Course: Plot Setback: 3 mts (or) 0.3H 30.0 mts Max. BUA : 75 % Min. Area of Building Unit : 2000 sq.mt
114 SITE STUDY
115 SITE STUDY
SWOT ANALYSIS THREATS
Favourable Soil Cross-section and climate for moving underground. Design Objectives align with city-level smart vision. Catchment population within walkable distance. Riverfront for easy water drainage.
WIND & SUN PATH
Segregation of Vehicular and Pedestrian traffic. Linear Vistas offered of riverfront and clear skies and cityscape. Favourable S-W winds and microclimate. High Floor Space Index allows flexibility.
Minimal daylight penetration during morning hours.(Site is evening oriented) Noise concentration at South-Western frontage. Sparse existing vegetation. Limited overlay of activity polygon.
Flooding in times of uncharacteristicily heavy rain. Traffic piling at Southern front due to highway. Space corruption due to street hawking.
116 SITE STUDY
SITE BOUNDARIES/AREA 87522 sq.m 21.6 acres
117 SITE STUDY
The vegetation on site consists of sparse dry deciduous tree cover and previously ‘Castor Oil’ - Aranda Fields.
118 SITE STUDY
119 SITE STUDY
VIEWS & VISTAS
120 SITE STUDY
CLIMATE STUDY Beaufort Number
Specification for Estimating Speed
0 1 2 3 4
Calm Light Air Light Breeze Gentle Breeze Moderate Breeze
Less than 2 2–5 6 – 11 12 – 19 20 – 29
Smoke rises vertically. Wind Vanes Wind felt on face; leaves rustle Small twigs in constant motion; Raises dust and loose paper;
MAHONEY TABLE ANALYSIS AMT:26.2 AMR:29.2 High:40.8 Low:11.6 Total : 753 mm Air Temperature Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Monthly mean max 28.3 31.1 35.6 39.6 40.8 38 33.1 31.7 33 35.4 32.9 29.6 Monthly mean min 11.6 14.1 18.4 22.8 26.2 27.3 25.7 24.5 24 21 15.8 12.4 Monthly mean range 16.7 17 17.2 16.8 14.6 10.7 7.4 7.2 9 14.4 17.1 17.2 Relative Humidity % Average 49 43 37 41 47 62 77 81 71 53 48 50 Humidity Group 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 2 2 2 Rain and wind Rainfall (mm) 2 0 2 1 5 81 271 216 153 14 6 2 Diagnosis Monthly mean max 28.3 31.1 35.6 39.6 40.8 38 33.1 31.7 33 35.4 32.9 29.6 Day Comfort Upper 31 31 31 31 31 29 27 27 27 29 31 31 Lower 25 25 25 25 25 23 22 22 22 23 25 25 Monthly mean min 11.6 14.1 18.4 22.8 26.2 27.3 25.7 24.5 24 21 15.8 12.4 Night Comfort :Upper 24 24 24 24 24 23 21 21 21 23 24 24 Lower 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 Thermal Stress :Day O H H VH VH VH H H H VH H O Night C C O O H H H H H O C C Indicators Humid: H1 ü ü ü ü H2 H3 ü ü Arid: A1 ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü A2 ü ü ü ü A3
121 SITE STUDY
The Temp. within the ground is stabilised with very little fluctuations higlhighted in mauve green. The dry weather conditions support oving underground as a favourable option. Need to be Limited cloud cover provides views of the supplemented by dehumdifiers in the monsoon open sky and cityscape. months.
relative humdity x dry bulb
Jan Feb Mar April May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual Humidity 49 43 37 45 47 62 77 81 71 43 46 50 54.9 Avg.D.P.T 9.1 9 11.3 16.8 21 24.6 25 24.6 23.3 18 13 10.5 17.2 Intp. dry dry dry C C H H H H dry dry dry dry
Layout N- S Orientation ( long axis East - West ) Compact Courtyard Planning Spacing Open spacing for breeze penetration protected from hot winds. Air Movement Single banked rooms- permt. air circulation
Position of Openings N-S Orientation at Body Height Windward side Protection Exclude Direct Sunlight Rain Protection Drainage Adequate Rainwater Drainage
Openings Medium Openings (20-40%)
Walls Heavy External and Internal Walls
Outdoor Sleeping Space for outdoor sleeping required
Roofs Heavy Roof- over 8h time-lag
122 SITE STUDY
SUN PATH & SHADING Study The following are the shading analysis with respect to built environment to showcase daylight penetration onto the site. Surface & First & Second Basement (-10m) Summer: 60% (Noon till Evening) Winter: 70% (Noon till Evening) Third and Fouth Basement (-20m) Summer: (15%) Noon Winter: No Penetration
June 21 : 6.02 a.m
June 21 : 3.21 p.m
June 21 : Noon ( Basement)
June 21 : 10.20 a.m
June 21 : 12.14 p.m
June 21 : 6.07 p.m
123 SITE STUDY
Dec 21 : Noon ( Basement)
Dec 21 : 6.36 a.m
Dec 21 : 3.42 p.m
Dec 21 : 10.23 a.m
Dec 21 : 12.40 p.m
Dec 21 : 5.42 p.m
124 SITE STUDY
TOPOGRAPHY AREA CONTOUR MAP
Suitable Recharge Structures
Type of Well
Depth of Well
Percolation Tanks,Ponds, Wells,Shafts
Dug Well (or) Tube Well
30 - 100 Metres
Manual (or) Reverse Rotary
The Topography on site is of Four types 1.Camel Back Knoll 3. Corner Cust 2.Right Angled Saddle 4. Terra Formed shallow Gorge
125 SITE STUDY
SOIL ANALYSIS & HYdrology
DRAINAGE Silty Soil - 2 M Sandy Loam - 5 M Clayey Soil - 20 M Bedrock
SBC: 3.34 kg-cm2 The bedrock is situated at a depth of 20m with a sectional variance of loam. It is characterised as medium black soil and excessively dry. Chemistry Condition
Minimal Overexploited 200-300 Pervasive
Density(rho-cm3 ) 1.48
Forces on an Underground Building Other than Loading forces there occur wall penetrations like - sewer,water , electrical , gas & comm. lines & slab penetrations like elevator pits, sump pump, drain basins etc.
Conceptual Site Terrain
Thermal Pedestrian Vehicular Rain
Ground Water, Soil , Gas Dead & live Load, Parking
Liquifaction Loam is a combination of sand, silt and clay. It Soil, Gas, is dark in color and soft, dry and crumbly. Loam Ground is great for supporting foundations because of Water its evenly balanced properties - good water retention preventing liquefaction. Properties : They are non - calcareous in nature and neutral to alkaline in nature and do not contain any hard base chemical contaminants
SEC//3 CONCEPT AND SCHEMATICS
128 CONCEPT AND SKETCHES
129 CONCEPT AND SKETCHES
CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT Initial Stages in Design Development to generate ideas and principles by setting a list of disciplines to lay stress upon.
â€œThe major conceptual focus of this project was to enhance spaces in a community center so as to promote Passive Engagement over active spaces.â€? In order to achieve this , the following six principles were kept in mind and designs accordingly developed. The pages to follow contain conceptual sketches and ideas.
Volumetric Subtraction & Union Major idea to create converging points and breakout spaces to interact.
visual accessibility Helps magnify space and dimnish the idea of physical separation.
spatial configuration & perception To understand how spaces can be designed in detail to achieve desired perception.
community integratio n Spatial integration to enhance passive engagement.
Daylighitng As per necessity, to bring light to the inside spaces.
vernacular Taking inspiration from the vernacular architecture of the region.
1 2 3 4 5 6
130 CONCEPT AND SKETCHES
Space Syntax - Developing Movement & Slope generation to induce spontaneity and convex spaces along non axial lines
131 CONCEPT AND SKETCHES
Sketches Sketches to derive principles and to determine the intended quality of space. This page explore the different movement patterns that can facilitate the concept
Horizontal Movement Patterns
Vertical Movement Patterns
Patterns to determine the zoning of spaces according to a movement framework and also movement in the horizontal and vertical directions.
132 CONCEPT AND SKETCHES
Sketches Use of Elemental Resources and the Spatial Perception as per movement along the serial vision views. The water storage pattern inspired by the Adalaj Stepwells.
133 CONCEPT AND SKETCHES
Sketches Development of Form & massing on the exterior as well as the interior spaces.
Activity Map Generation to facilitate zoning for integration. The entrances are created fluidic to merge with the landscape of the subject.
134 CONCEPT AND SKETCHES
135 CONCEPT AND SKETCHES
Sketches Exploration of Daylighting,Shading and passive Design Strategies to improve energy efficiency and decrease sense of generated Claustrophobia.
136 CONCEPT AND SKETCHES
137 CONCEPT AND SKETCHES
138 CONCEPT AND SKETCHES
139 CONCEPT AND SKETCHES
Conceptual Models Block Models to understand how the design can be achieved through to the final stages in terms of volumes rather than sketches.(left) Urban Plaza. (right) Market Plaza.
140 140 CONCEPT AND SKETCHES
The roof structure is an important component in this project since it must allow ample daylight to filter in while at the same time ward off excess water in a rainwater harvesting effort. This is achieved by creating folds in the roof structure providing shade and daylighting at the same time. the Fluidity of the roof also allows it to blend in with the earthy character of the site.
141 SPATIAL PROGRAMMING
Entry Area & Youth Centre
Market space/ Plaza
spatial Programming Analysing the circulation and movement of different spaces at the site level and at the building level. This helps in positioning the spaces based upon proximity and other parameters and also mapping the movement patterns. Only a few examples are provided in this report of all the diagrams made.
142 SPATIAL PROGRAMMING
Rooms Work Space
Youth Centre Specialised Section General Section
connectivity & Zoning Zoning is utilised as a tool in positioning the spaces according to different parameters. Some of the different parameters utilised include :Privacy ,Daylighting,Circulation,Noise,Visual -Sensory,Scale of Buildings
Community Forum Auditorium Halls & meeting Spaces
Services & Storage
Sectional Zone Programming - Zoning along the section based on utility of given spaces and also based on the daylight factor for different tasks in different spaces. In some cases, Light is simply used in an attempt to create varying architectural effects(Community Forum) to impact upon the userâ€™s cognition.
Market /Plaza Vertical Plaza Site Sectional Zone Programming - To create a sense of varying scale to impact upon the userâ€™s perception the magnitude of verticality.
144 CONNECTIVITY AND ZONING
Proximity Analysis- Provides a means to understand the accessibility and distance between spaces that are required
CONVENTION BLOCK 10-60
MEDIUM 1000 SQ.M SITTING, WALKING, INTERACTION
10 - 22
MEDIUM 700 SQ.M
SITTING , WALKING , READING
10 - 20
URBAN PLAZA/PARK 10-60
MEDIUM 500 SQ.M
25 - 60
PLAYING , EATING
JOGGING , CYCLING
INTERACTION , WORKING
10 - 22
10 - 22
HIGH 8 - 18
145 CONNECTIVITY AND ZONING
SCHEMATIC DESIGN DEVELOPMENT Block Models and Plans and sectional drawings were undertaken to study different design outcomes and to receive appreicable critique of the same. The below is a design idea of a market space for local craftsmen. An important part of Gujurati Culture that acts as a Plaza and also as a market space. Pros: Interesting Vistas created and the levels allow for space to sit, ideate, contemplate and converse. The roofs are incorporated as part of the usable space. Cons: Shading is an issue that has to be addressed but is admissible under the User Space Activity Index. Another issue is to incorporate the idea of Habitable Circulation. Not to create barriers, but to allow vertical elements to act part of the design experience. Proper drawings with cut plans at every level werent provided for the space. The issue of flexibility of space was addressed and needed to be better represented.
Schematic Model of Market Plaza
Sectional Drawings for Market Plaza Roof Design Undecided. Up for Revision.
148 SCHEMATIC DESIGN DEVELOPMENT
Roof Design Undecided. Up for Revision.
Sectional Drawing along the longitude.
The following design features were incorporated within the schematic design of the Library. Zone with complete visual accessibility . Separate sections with separate material but without a physical separation, room by room. This is achieved by creating different levels sheared to create visual accessibility. The cons after the jury verdict were services allocation, greater separation - plan was too open and not much effort was taken in its drafting. The pros included a good understanding of levels for functional use, understanding of space requirements and innovative apporoach to zoning. the following are drawings to illustrate the same to be developed at later stages.
Cut Model of General Section interior.
149 SCHEMATIC DESIGN DEVELOPMENT
Ground Floor Plan of the Library.
150 SCHEMATIC DESIGN DEVELOPMENT
Typical Plan of the Top Floors. The Youth Hostel & Work Centre is positioned above ground to experiment with variations in scale across site . The elevation was kept in consideration while designing. The idea was to allow for as much collaboration as possible. therefore the Plan for the work space was kept open and for rooms to be of larger than necessary size to act as supplementary work spaces. The central Plaza acts as a convergence and a place to ideate.The Mezzanine acts as a transition. The design of the bed space and toilets were important drawbacks to be addressed at the next stage.
151 SCHEMATIC DESIGN DEVELOPMENT
Sectional Drawing cut Laterally.
The Rooms Module.
SCHEMATIC DESIGN DEVELOPMENT
Final Year Thesis Project Report detailing the design process. Final Design Drawings are unattached.