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RESEARCH WORKSHOP

Nature in the City

City in the Nature

2018.11.22-26

Kyoto Univercity Urban and Landscape Design Lab


The member of Kawasaki Laboratory

2018.10.22-26

Research Workshop in Paris -Nature in the City, City in the Nature-

Member  -Kyoto University

Architecture : Taji Laboratory Urban and Landscape : Kawasaki Laboratory

 -Ecole nationale supérieure d'architecture de Paris la Villette


Contents River Kamo River

2

Seine River

12

Takase River

22

Lake Biwa Canal

32

Petite Ceinture

42

Inflastructure

Promenade PlantĂŠe Cabal Saint-martin Slopes

1

Higashiyama

52

Montmartre

62


River Kyoto University Kawasaki Lab 吉武 駿 畠田 恵 鴨川は、京都市の中心部を流れる幹線延長 23km, 流域面積 210㎢の一級河川である。都市部 を流れる中流部は、丸みを持たせた石積み護岸と床止め功を連続的に配した直線的な河川で、 高水敷の公園整備がなされている。古くから都市における広場の役割を果たし、江戸時代に は能や歌舞伎の文化が生まれた。また、今も残る納涼床は夏の風物詩として有名である。 1935 年(昭和 10 年)の大水害を契機に、翌年から 22 年間のからの大改修が行われ、現在 の鴨川が形作られた。最近では、1987 年(昭和 62 年)に京阪電車及び疎水の地下化が完成 したことを受け、河道拡幅・護岸整備等が 1992 年(平成 4 年 ) から 8 年の歳月をかけて完 成した。豊かな花木に彩られ、四季を感じながら散策できる河川沿い緑地が広がっている。

Kamogawa River runs through the center of Kyoto city and its length is 23km. It has played an important role as open spaces in the city. The Noh and Kabuki culture was born in the waterfront in the Edo era. Noryo-yuka, wooden deck over the river is famous as a summer scene. After serious flood in 1935, the current riverside spaces formed by the great river improvement in 1935. Recently, revetment developed from1992 to 1999. There are a lot of green and people can feel nature.

2


Presentation 01

Kamogawa River

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River Kyoto University Kawasaki Lab 吉武 駿 畠田 恵 セーヌ川は流域全体がフランスに属しており、全長 780km の大河川である。パリの中心を 東西に横断し、島とされている中洲がいくつも存在する。フランスの首都パリは、それら島 の中の 1 つであるシテ島から発達した都市である。そのため、現在でもサン・ルイ島、チュ イルリー公園、コンコルド広場、エッフェル塔、ルーブル宮、自由の女神像などが残されて おり、セーヌ川とその周辺の河岸はパリ観光の中心となっている。 現在ではその川沿いが新たに Parc des Rives de Seine などの親水公園やプロムナードとして 線形にハード整備されているだけでなく、古くからある親水空間に砂を敷き、ビーチとして 利用するイベント Paris Plages など、短期的に利活用するプロジェクトが話題となっている。

Seine River runs in Paris from East to West through about 780km length. In the river, there are some riverbanks called as islands. Therefore, Seine River and the riverside are the center of sightseeing area, such as Saint-Louis island and the Concorde Plaza, the Eiffel Tower, the Louvre Museum, the Statue of Liberty. Also excursion boats offer sightseeing tours of the riverbanks in Paris, lined with top monuments. In recent years, some structural projects and temporary non-structural events are hold in the riverfront space. In 2016, Parc des rives de Seine has constructed completely as a sports facility.

12


*NQSFTTJPOBGUFSXPSLTIPQ <Shun Yoshitake> My summery in this workshop as Kyoto team, not Conclusion, is that people in Paris try to get wild-nature into the city. In Japan, we can feel wild-nature daily even if the nature is man-made or not. So the boundary between Nature and City in Kyoto is more ambiguous than in Paris. Certainly, I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t feel a lot of wild nature in La Seine., but manmade nature like tree pots gets greener than my expectation from my former research in Japan. So, I think La Seine will be Greener and get close to wild-nature in the future. Anyway, the origin of the city is very different between Paris and Kyoto. It is reasonable that the concept how to get nature into the city or to make riverside RSHQVSDFHLVGLYHUVH,QWKHĂ&#x20AC;HOGZRUN,VDZDORWRIDUWLĂ&#x20AC;FLDOFRPSRQHQWVEHVLGH the river surface like house boat, trees, sports and equipment. The risk that these FRPSRQHQWVPD\EHĂ RZHGDUHQRWWRRNLQWRFRQVLGHUDWLRQ2QWKHRWKHUKDQGWKH QXPEHURIJUHDWĂ RRGLQJLVLQFUHDVLQJUHFHQWO\,WKLQNWKHFRQFHSWRIRSHQVSDFH LQ6HLQHULYHUZLOOEHFKDQJH,¡PORRNLQJIRUZDUGWRWKHIXWXUHWKHFRQFHSWRIĂ RRG control and developing open spaces will cross. <Megumi Hatada> Before this workshop, I researched about Kamogawa River and Seine River, focused on manmade issues in the history and physical nature in the riverside space. Through discussion with La Villette members, they have researched regarding to quantity of Greenery in Paris. They thought contrast situation from us as this theme - â&#x20AC;&#x153;City in the Nature, Nature in the cityâ&#x20AC;?. I got surprised to know that itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s such a rare situation as Kyoto city to feel surrounded by wild nature. 2QWKHRWKHUKDQGDWWKHĂ&#x20AC;HOGZRUNZHFDQVHHPDQ\KRXVHERDWVZLWKGLIIHUHQW looks as ground houses in Seine River. I questioned to teammates if they are dangerous just in emergency case, they answered that they have never thought about that before. From the topographic viewpoint, Paris is flat and Seine River is running gently. This point is different situation from Japan. That may be why Parisian donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have sense of crisis about riverfront space.

1st presentation

Meeting

Poster

FIeldwork

2nd presentation

After ďŹ nal presentation

13


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Presentation 01

Takase River Kyoto University Kawasaki Lab MOE TAKABAYASHI, KOUKI HIRAMATSU  高瀬川は京都伏見の豪商角倉了以によって建設された人工運河である。1614 年の建設以後、 大正時代まで京都と大阪をつなぎ、物資を運搬していた。かつての舟運は、陸運よりも主要 な交通インフラであった。往時は酒蔵が軒を連ねている伏見を経由して大阪の大川に到り、 海まで繋がっていた。鴨川の傍流のみそそぎ川から取水されたあと、かつて角倉了以の別邸 として使われていた遣水庭園を経て高瀬川本流となっており、河川を段階的に人間の生活に たくみにとりいれたことから自然観を見ることができる。現在は運搬の役割は終え、観光客 が多く集まるエリアとなっている。

Takase River is an artificial canal constructed by Suminokura Ryoi, who was a merchant in Fushimi. After the construction in 1614, Kyoto and Osaka were connected by the canal and goods were transported until the Taisho era. At that time, the canal reached the Okawa River via Fushimi, where the brewery stood, and connected to Osaka Bay. The water of the Kamo River flows to the Takase River via the Misosogi River and Takase River Headwaters Garden, so it is said that the water of the river is skillfully incorporated into human life. Currently the role of transportation is over and it is an area where tourists gather a lot.

22


Takase River Headwaters Garden

31


HUMANIZED INFRASTRUCTURE

Kyoto in 1892

Takase River is an artificial canal taken from the side of the Kamogawa river and was constructed by Suminokura Ryoi in 1614. Until the Taisho era Kyoto and Osaka were connected, carrying goods. A long time ago, transportation by boats is more important than landtransportation. At that time, the river reached the Okawa via Fushimi where the brewery stood, and connected to Osaka Bay.

23


The Takase River at Fushimi in 1843

Fushimi, which was a atopover point for Osaka to Kyoto, has a lot of brewery, and when the canal was abolished, it faded. However, now it is crowded as a tourist destination.

to Osaka

http://www.gekkeikan.co.jp/enjoy/ kyotofushimi/fushimi/fushimi06.html

Okawa benran(1843)

Modern Fushumi

Sake brewery along the canal

A sightseeing boat

The streets of Fushimi

The Influence of the Takase River on Kyoto City Planning

Originally, the Takase River was built outside of Odoi-the wall that once surrounded Kyoto-, but boat transportation brighten up Kiya-machi. As a result, people gathered in the eastern part of the city of Kyoto, Odoi that impeded traffic was removed, and the city of Kyoto spread.

Heian Joto East South Kita-cho Honoyo Figure(17c)

Pictorial diagram(1704) Modified Kyomachi picture map(1831) TAKASE RIVER

KAMO RIVER ODOI AREA

URBAN AREA

Expansion of urban areas

ODOI

Odoi is the wall that was O d o i w a s r e m o v e d , t h e built in 1591 to protect the Takase River was built, and urban area of Kyoto from the warehouses were built foreign enemies and floods. along the river.

24

Urban areas expanded with the increase in the number of ships passing through the Takase River.


VILLA CULTURES AROUND TAKASE RIVER

the ямБrst funairi

by Fire insurance Figure in Kyoto 25


Places to turn ships

The ship was drawn into the coast from the Takase River where the river width was narrow, and loading and unloading of goods was done. They were called "funairi". At that time there were several funairis. Most of the funairis are landfilled, and now only the first funairi near the source line remains.

Water that passed through the source garden passes under the road, and the Takase River starts. Here is the start point.

Fuget. When the canal was used the boat was turning here.

Fish restaurants around funairis From the pictures, fish restaurants along the Takase River were famous for fresh fishes. There were also ducks and copper pheasants, and they were prepared for cooking and served after the customers ordered. The name of a town Ikesu is a trace at that time.

Fresh fish restaurant by Illustration map of the Kyoto

Fresh fish restaurant at the first funairi by Illustration map of the Kyoto

Villas around Takase river

This is Interior view of the restaurant located in Takase River Garden. It was used as villa of Suminokura and others.

26


CONVERSION FROM NATURE TO CITY -Takase River Headwaters Garden The Misosogi River was constructed by taking the water from the Kamo River, which had formed urban framework. Also, the Takase River was constructed by taking the water from the Misosogi River. In this process, wild nature have been brought in a city gradually. In addition, there is Noryo-yuka above the Misosogi River, there is a garden at a sluice gate, and there were fish restaurants along the Takase River. These uses of the infrastructure have produced the areas of human scale and the attractiveness of the city. The waterside of Kyoto have been fulfilled several functions.

Takase river

the misosogi river

a lake in the garden

Kamo river

27


KAMO RIVER

MISOSOGI RIVER

Split flow of Kamo riber

⑤ ⑥

③ ①

Black bamboo

④ Water sounds well

It is remarkable not only to convert from the river to the canal but also to make a stream flow through the garden. The amount of water is plentiful and water flows constantly because the water is not taken only in order to lead a stream. The fresh leaves and firefly light are beautiful in summer, and the colored leaves in autumn. At one time, there was a residence of Suminokura Ryoi here, who had been managing the Takase River, and a garden w a s m a d e b y Ko b o r i E n s h u . When a separate residence of Yamagata Aritomo Daini Murinan was built in the Meiji era, the garden was improved by Ogawa jihee 7th. At present, there is an elegant Japanese restaurant.

TAKASE RIVER

Place to stop ships formerly

28


DESIGNS & ACTIVITIES OF THE CANAL The Takase River have been managed by a neighbor even now and we can access to water. The composition of the Takase River area is realized by surveying.

USES AT USUAL

A bank made of stone

Cherry blossom leaves above the canal

A street musisian laying the guitar in front of TIMEZ.

popular Pizza restaurant

A Drinking beer on the bench

B

An open space near the canal

Elementary school to a library

Sitting on a stone chair

USES AT FESTIVAL

Floating handmade lanten

kids on a -Takasebune ship

29

A lot of lanterns with hopes


SECTION A

SECTION B

30


Presentation 01

Reintroducing Nature in Kyoto Kyoto University Kawasaki Lab RIKU TANIGAWA, KAZUYASU YOSHINO 琵琶湖疏水は、滋賀県の琵琶湖を水源として明治期以来京都市に水を送り続けている人工水路で ある。舟運や灌漑機能の他、水力発電の採用によって電力面で京都の都市形成に影響を与えた。 計画・設計・施工のすべてを、お雇い外国人技師の助力なしに日本人のみで完成させた琵琶湖疏 水は明治期の日本の土木技術の到達点であった。輸送手段としての利用は途絶えて久しいが、近 年では歴史的インフラを観光資源として活用する動きも活発化してきており、周辺の緑道整備が 進められている。 Lake Biwa Canal is an artificial water way supplying water from Lake Biwa to Kyoto City. The aim of this canal was transportation, irrigation and hydraulic power generation. It was epoch making that all process form planning to implementation was made only by Japanese engineers, without any foreign advisers in Meiji period. Though this canal is no longer used for transportation, it is attracting attention as a tourist attraction recently. The green way along the canal is also being redeveloped.

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33


Source: Google Earth

1881 The governor of Kyoto City got an idea of Canal connecting Kyoto City and Lake Biwa 1885 The first phase of construction of Lake Biwa Canal was started 1890 The first phase of construction of Lake Biwa Canal was completed 1891 Operation of Keage Power Plant was started 1895 Operation of Kyoto Electric Railway was started 1892 Construction of Oto Canal was started 1894 Construction of Oto Canal was completed 1908 The second phase of construction of Lake Biwa Canal was started 1912 The second phase of construction of Lake Biwa Canal was completed 1935 The Kamo-gawa River flood disaster occurred 1935 Operation of ship transportation going down to Fushimi was discontinued 1936 Operation of ship transportation going up to Otsu was discontinued 1948 Operation of Keage Incline was stopped 1959 Operation of Fushimi Incline was stopped 34


Changes of Operational Planning

1883 Lake Biwa Canal project was originally aimed at creation of manufacturing district which uses power of waterwheel along waterway. Advanced projects of manufacturing district development and waterwheel utilization in America was referred. Following topics were examined in order to operate ship transportation. ・consecutive open channel ・gentle gradient ・accessibility to waterfront

1884 Department of Interior planned to divide canal into two waterways, for irrigation and ship transportation. On the other hands, the role of waterway for utilizing water-power became more and more important as demand for energy increased. After all, bypass plan for ship transportation was revised and new plan utilizing look gates was deterimined.

1890 Sakuro Tanabe, chief engineer of this project, thought that hydraulic power generation might be better than waterwheel generation in terms of amount of electric generation. During the inspection in America, Tanabe was certain of hydraulic power generation s efficiency. He determined to revise the previous plan and build new power station.

The second phase of construction of Lake Biwa Canal was completed. As the car industry grew and railway constructed, the function of ship transportation declined gradually. Lake Biwa Canal also played an important role in terms of flood control function.

It is said that the damage from the typhoon in 1935 was minimized thanks to Lake Biwa Canal. Certain part of the canal was converted to covered conduit in order to make flood control function of Lake Biwa Canal more efficient. When we see the waterfront of Lake Biwa Canal, we can feel long history and accumulation of experiences between people and waterfront as infrastructure. In the context of the history, we should find out and give new value to Lake Biwa Canal. Reference: Tanaka, Naoto and Masashi Kawasaki(2000), "Process of 35 the Navigation Systems Design in the Lake Biwa Canal Project", 土木史研究 Tanaka, Naoto and Masashi Kawasaki(2001), "historical research on the waterfront planning of shirakawa-river and lake biwa canal", 土木学会論文集


from Lake Biwa A

From outside the tunnel

Slope greening

B

tunnel Shade of tree

The trees with mountains in the background

Lake Biwa Canal Boat at Funadamari

Rest under the roof

Colors of the season

Anshubashi Bridge

C

tunnel D

tunnel E

to Okazaki

The view of Yamashina Basin

F

Kujo-yama 100m

grove of the village shrine

Source: Google Earth

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Walking in the green


A. This is the west gate of ďŹ rst tunnel, where the water supplied from Lake Biwa firstly appears on the ground. Frontage road is about 10m above the surface. You can catch a glimpse of canal though fall preventive fence and street trees.

B. You gradually it gets closer to the water. Promenades are layed out on both sides of the canal, and it is used as a walking course for the residents. The promenade is located on higher level than roadways and trees such as cherry blossoms are planted on the borderline. It makes people feel the quiet ďŹ&#x201A;ow of water without thinking about traďŹ&#x192;c.

C. The waterway gets wider at the entrance of Moroha tunnel. [hunedamari] means a waiting place for ships coming and going. It has redeveloped with the surrounding squares as the entrance for the passenger in the tourist ship project which was started in 2006. The other side of the square is thick forest; you can realize how close the place is to mountains. D. Anshubashi bridge area is well known for beautiful cherry blossoms. Rape blossoms are planted and maintained on the promenade along the canal, mainly by residents. Rape blossoms hide the fence and are seen in harmony with the mountain in the background for the scenery. E. It is a tranquil space surrounded with natural trees on the mountain side and with trees planted along the promenade, far removed from roadways and houses. The field of vision suddenly expands near a cottage (Azumaya). The planted, the urban district and the mountain range can be seen in one screen.

F. Moving through the greenway along the ridge of the mountain to the west, you reach a conspicuously thicky wooden area. Imperial Tomb of Emperor Tenchi lies on the left side of the canal, and trees almost overhanging the greenway provides the shade of trees. Benches and tables are set up on the wider right side, however, they are rarely used and moss-covered recently.

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Source: Google Earth

Waterflow System in Nanzen-ji neighborhood

In the Nanzen-ji area, there are many gardens that have water flowing through the garden from the Lake Biwa Canal. This garden also uses water from the Canal. The view of nature held by the Japanese is embodied in this garden.

http://www.city.kyoto.lg.jp/kamigyo/page/0000012559.html

Since it was widely known that expositions would yield benefits, cities began to launch activities to win the right to host such events. The host city of the fourth National Industrial Exhibition was Kyoto, which wished to overcome its sluggish conditions generated after the transfer of the Japanese capital to Tokyo. The venue was located to the south of Heian Jingu Shrine, with a total venue area of 178,000 ㎡ , and a total structure site area of 47,000 ㎡ . Although the exposition was somewhat controversial, it came to a highly successful end, drawing 169,098 items from 73,781 exhibitors, as well as welcoming 1,136,695 visitors. For the event, streets and accommodation were improved, providing the basis for Kyoto's establishment as a sightseeing destination.

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Murin-an Garden

h

The garden was realized by the Japanese master gardener Ogawa Jihee. The garden's central point is the Higashiyama Mountains with a spacious and bright open lawn area. Also, the water flowing in this naturalistic scenic garden is from the Lake Biwa Canal. This aesthetic garden has received high ratings ever since it's creation. This grand residence was a pioneer in creating the cluster of private residences in Okazaki and Nanzen-ji Temple neighborhood in Kyoto.

In contrast with the peaceful mood of the pond, the waterfall is very powerful.

The stepping stone describe a gentle are in the stream and lead to lead waterfull.

A shallow pond looks larger than a deep one.

Reference: Yamada, Keijiro, Yoshio Nakamura and Masashi Kawasaki(1999), " Study on Hierarchical Network of Landscaped Water Flows", 環境システム研究 Yozaburo, Shirahata (2008), "UEJI, The Genius of Water and39 Stone", 京都通信社


Conversion of infrastructure functions At the planning stage, we aimed at the development of cities by utilizing waterwheel power and improving ship transport, but the main purpose conversion occurred at the planning stage due to the increase in hydraulic demand. As a result, the first hydrophobic water utilizing hydroelectric power generation was completed. Cities planed further development and increasing hydraulic demand. The prototype of Kyoto was formed by the three major projects of the Meiji era based on the second hydrophobic maintenance.

The infrastructure made to follow the terrain is closely related to the background mountain ranges. The city has developed under the benefit of the water of Lake Biwa surrounded by mountains,. Although some functions have been replaced, we will continue to engage in nature and find new value in the past experience of history.

Conversion of Boat functions The history of Jikkokubune ship is old and dates back to the Edo period. It originated in the ship having carried liquor, rice, supplies and passengers from Fushimi to Osaka. It has revived as a sightseeing ship of the pleasure boat for about 20 years. Jikkokubune ships depart from the Nanzenji boat pier and return via Ebisugawa Dam to the pier.Today, ships are in operation carrying sightseers, in the midst of full blossomed spring flowers. In addition, boats through Lake Biwa Canal Waterway that draws water from Lake Biwa to Kyoto is revived for the first time in 67 years in the spring of 2018. The shipping service operates nine flights between Otsu City and Kyoto City in 35-55 minutes a day. In this way we are tying waterways to our lives in accordance with the context of history.

Boats for Transportation

http://www.city.kyoto.lg.jp/kamigyo/page/0000012559.html

Boats for Sightseeing

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The Philosopher s Walk The Philosopher s Walk was created in 1890 when the Lake Biwa Canal was completed. The path was officially named the Philosopher s Walk in 1972 after prominent philosopher Kitaro Nishida, as he would often take walks along the path. A water conduit was added along the waterway, and a walking path was set on it in 1969.

4350

500

1870 0 165

3000

The Philosopher's Walk(in autumn)

A water conduit wa added along the wate way, and a walking pat was set on it. (1969)

The Philosopher's Walk(in spring)

Keage Incline

Keage Funadamari

http://www.city.kyoto.lg.jp/kamigyo/page/0000012559.html

Keage Incline

Due to the 36-meter difference in elevation between the upstream dam and its terminus, an inclined plane was built, which allowed boats to travel on land via the use of a ďŹ&#x201A;at car on which they were placed. 41


Presentation 01

Reintroducing Nature in Paris Kyoto University Kawasaki Lab RIKU TANIGAWA, KAZUYASU YOSHINO MOE TAKABAYASHI, KOUKI HIRAMATSU  Petite Ceinture、Promenade Plantée では、鉄道の廃線跡地を利用した緑道整備が進んで いる。地上の車交通を阻害しないために多くの区間が高架橋や開渠構造となっており、人工 的な起伏による独特な景観が形成されている。人々は散歩や憩いの場として利用する他、市 民農園に隣接するエリアでは食育と絡めた活動も活発になりつつある。生物多様性の観点か ら緑の整備にあえて程度差を残すなど、単なるインフラ再利用ではとどまらない手の込んだ 工夫が随所にみられる。サンマルタン運河は主に飲料水の確保と舟運のためにナポレオンに よって建設された総延長 4.5km の短い運河である。近年では、絵画、小説、映画の舞台にな っており、観光用クルーズも運行している。また、ノミの市が開かれることもあり、市民も 集まる場所となっている。

 Petite Ceinture and Promenade Plantée are known as green way developed on dead track site surrounding the city of Paris. In a lot of sections, they have viaduct or open ditch not to disturb the car traffic. We can enjoy unique scenery from Petite Ceinture and Promenade Plantée due to these artificial undulations. We can also see people using this green way as an open-air class of dietary education and people deliberately managing the nature in same area to different extent from the perspective of biodiversity. Canal Saint-Martin was constructed to secure drinking water and transport goods and now many tourists and citizens gather there.

42


Impression after workshop <Riku Tanigawa> During the workshop, I was surprised to see many people who were actively using public space. In terms of nature in Kyoto, I remember the scenery of Mountains surrounding Kyoto City. In Paris, small green was managed well by the administration and citizens. I was able to ascertain the relationships of street trees, flower pots on verandahs, and colorful plants at citizen farms. Also, I felt it was a pleasant town when I was walking, as there were architectures and bronze statues built like art works.

<Moe Takabayashi> First of all, thank La Villette students for guiding us around Paris. What I discussed with them is the best fruits in this workshop. It was a very hard days because I walked around Paris every day and discussed difficult questions in English. I was investigating the canal San-Martin. I envy the proximity of the distance to water. I also discovered a different way of using nature with Kyoto. I will keep thinking about this big question on the basis of hints I got in the workshop.

<Kazuyasu Yoshino> During the workshop, I found various types of utilization of infrastructure legacy. What most impressed me was “La Recyclerie”, where we saw people trying to manage the “edible garden” along one side of railway to offer vegetables in restaurant in the renovated station building. In the other side of the railway, there is also a shared garden managed by the city of Paris, which is well maintained by community residents. It was so interesting that two different gardens are connected by the old infrastructure. This example may suggest one of possibilities of reuses of abandoned infrastructure.

<Kouki Hiramatsu> I was interested in “humanized infrastructure” before visiting Paris. I thought that the reason why they gathered there was the preciousness of nature in the city. In Paris, I was able to see a lot of types of uses by location. I thought that people in Paris took care of nature in the city and were enjoyed in each place. It seems to be a common point between Kyoto and Paris and this is the unexpected point for me.

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● Buttes-Chaumont Park

● Tuileries Garden

● Promenade Plantée

Arrangement of the street and the terminal station in the French Second Empire Main Street Other Street

Plaza Castle Wall

Railway Line Terminal

City Boundary

City aesthetic and transportation Terminal stations are distributed in Paris. Paris City and the state considered that pleasant view of the city is important, while Private railway companies which had constructed and operated suburb railways intended to expand their earnings. After all the plan of railway extension into the center of Paris City didn t realize. A lot of problems related distribution system occurred because the terminal stations are isolated. In terms of passenger transportation, streets and carriages were selected as a method of dealing with the huge traffic demand rather than railways and locomotives. In terms of distribution system, a small circular rail way (Petite Ceinture) was constructed which connected existing lines. The distributed stations gave the Paris whole urban space subtle centripetal power.

These are timelines of nature in the city planning. In 1600s, nature in city planning was for kings. Line of trees is straight and this garden has beautiful vista. In 1860, Many natural style gardens were made by Haussmann. Buttes-Choummant is a good example. The quarry in Paris is renovated for natural garden. It was designed for citizen. From 1820 to now, there are different types of aitificial nature. For example, in Petite Ceinture and Promenade Plantee, nature in Paris is designed in existing urban structure.

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French garden

Tuileries Garden(1600s)

http://parismuseescollections.paris.fr/en/node/126672#infos-principales

Tuileries Garden(2018)

Tuileries Park is the oldest garden in the city of Paris. Originally there was a simple Italian garden, but in the 17th century it was transformed into a typical French garden symmetrical by the landscape gardener Le Nottle as the garden of the Tuileries palace. The designs of Le Nôtre are still intact today. Visitors can walk on the road created by the original landscape architect. The many chairs today is free available to walkers who like to sit there near one of the ponds during pleasant weather.

Google Map

The tree is pruned and the lines are aligned

People use chairs around the pond

"Natural" Style

Buttes-Chaumont Park(before 1864)

Buttes-Chaumont Park was built in 1864. Originally the place where the quarry was located became a garbage dumping site, and it was called "Chaumont" as a stenchable place. Napoléon Ⅲ and Haussmann converted garbage hills into parks over three years. This park was made with the shape of the rocky mountains, so it has been reborn as a park with many slopes.

Buttes-Chaumont Park(2018) 1997.6.16 "NIKKEI ARCHITECTURE"

Promenade Plantée(before 1859)

Slope planting

Many People exercise in this park

"Reintroduceing Nature" The Promenade Plantée is a 4.9 kilometer straight corridor park built in the viaduct in the 12th arrondissement in Paris. It was created in the waste trace of Bastille line. Paris City bought a viaduct possessed by SNCF in 1986, and the two architects changed the old viaduct to a green promenade. Today people walking in this park can enjoy walking without being conscious of cars at all.

Promenade Plantée(1600s)

Space surrounded by green

People sitting on the crossing viaduct

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Parc de la Villette

A A

Bessin de la Villette

mk2

renovated cafe

ship's bollard as a bench

Jardin Villemin

B Parc des ButtesChaumont

C

B C

The sun leaves through the watergate

Jardin Villemin

D E

D

overpass

The step is 30 cm.

Morning market where fresh foods line up

tents lined along a culvert

An open walkway

Beautiful architectures lining opposite shore

E

Seine

F

F

46


A.The water of the canal is taken from Bassin de la Villette. The width is very wide and a lot of people around the pond enjoy chatting, walking and so on.

B.The distance from a bank to the water is one meter. There are many people who chat or read books on the riverside.

C.The width of the canal is narrow, but the scene is magniďŹ cient when a water level is regulated at a lock gate undertrees.

D.An arch bridge is one of highlights in the canal. A diďŹ&#x20AC;erent scene is shown on the bridge.

E.There are holes for lighting in the park. A market is sometimes held in this park. This is one of various patterns of use. F.A range of view is clear near the mouth of the canal. The width of the canal is wide.

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A

Flower garden over viaduct

Gate and flower bed

B

Sunlight filtering through trees

Commanding open space

C

Bridge

Reuilly Par k

Vista

Wall greening

D

E

Moat as green road

Tunnel

F

Green road along the par k

48


A. Going up a flight of inhuman stairs from the Bastille square, you can see the green gate and here starts the promenade. The flower beds on either side make a space covered with green. Going up onto the Promenade Plantee, you can enjoy the aerial walk without thinking about traffic.

B. From the promenade you going down a flight of stairs to Hector Malot garden, then a pocket park which is planted like Bosque comes into sight. People enjoy reading books and taking a naps in the tranquil place with filtered sunshine.

C. You see the promenade cleaves an apartment and suddenly gets wider. Thenthe stairs to Reuilly park comes into sight. The planting is successfully adopted to make the steps more similar to humanscare.

D. Cross the arched bridge in Reuilly park and walk the Vivaldi path. In the middle is a treeline, then the path leads you to the former Reuilly station. The center of the track is covered with a lawn, and is a place where the residents can relax.

E. When you pass through the Reuilly street, you step forward a road cut through hilly terrain. covered with trees and flowers, it is like hiking in forest or mountain.

F. Passing through the metro and Picpus street, the road gets higher. Passing a little wooden cabin, the promenade gently curves to the right side and finally reaches the top of semicircle place in Square Charles Péguy.

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Historic evaluation of infrastructure Infrastructure development that opened up nature created terrain (height diďŹ&#x20AC;erence) in the city

In order to develop the industry, railroads are laid and areas will be densiďŹ ed

The functions of infrastructure are replaced and the remaining land becomes wasteland

A suburban area away from the center of the city

underground (open) ground level

Height diďŹ&#x20AC;erences which Infrastractures made

embankment

In Petite Ceinture, viaducts, tunnels, and embankment have usually been used in order not to interrupt roads. This characteristic structures and the surrounding nature is now considered to be a new possibility of Petite Ceinture reutilization

viaduct

unerground (close)

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Jardin Partage "Jardin partagĂŠ" is a garden owned by the city of Paris. In the garden, people who are registered to manage it do the gardening. Basically it is only for members to put in the premises, but the ďŹ&#x201A;owers and harvested goods brought up here are not only for to members. They share with members or neighbors. People who want to contribute to the surrounding landscape is enrolled and enjoys in thought. In the 18 arrondissement, Shared gardens and farms managed by restaurants(la Recyclerie) are managed using open spaces beside La Recyclerie(In the 18 arrondissement) tracks.

Station Building

Park

Jardin Partage in Paris https://opendata.paris.fr/explore/?sort=modiďŹ ed

Jardin Partage beside Petite Ceinture

The railroad was arranged three-dimensionally so as not to divide the road. How will we work to convert the margins left behind into a space for people?

Activity Meeting

Vehicle

Accessibility

Walking

Gardening

Walkway surrounded by trees

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Multigenerational Playground


Presentation 01

Slopes in Kyoto Kyoto University Kawasaki Lab 田中 椋 河北咲良 東山は、都市に近い山辺であり、京都の都市生活との関わりが非常に大きいエリアである。 都市と自然とのあいだに広がる東山エリアは、都市の受け皿という郊外地としての機能を果 たしながらも、起伏に富んだ地形によって表情豊かな自然景観が織り成され、山紫水明の地 としても楽しまれてきた。 現在では国内外からの観光客でにぎわう観光地となった東山の寺社仏閣では、長い歴史の中 でその豊かな地形を最大限に活用できるよう工夫がなされてきた。ここでは、東山の斜面が もつ特質に焦点を当て、大地形と微地形の両方から見ることで、斜面の利用の仕方と自然の 表れ方について調査を進めた。 Higashiyama is the area near both the city and the mountain, and it has the strong relations with the urban life in Kyoto city. Because the Higashiyama area spread between the city and nature, while it fulfills the function of suburb, the rich topography shows various natural landscapes, which have been enjoyed as scenic beauty. At historical temples and shrines in Higashiyama, which are now crowded with many tourists from around the world, the rich topography has been utilized during the long flow of history. Here, we focused on the characteristics as slopes in Higashiyama and investigated how nature appears, in terms of large/small scale of topography.

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Presentation 01

Higashiyama and Kiyomizudera Temple

53


HIGASHIYAMA FOR THE CITY OF KYOTO

UNTIL THE MIDDLE AGES about -1570

about 1870-1950

PART OF HIGASHIYAMA MOUNTAINIOUS AREA

Heian-kyo (ancient Kyoto), which formed the basic frame of the urban structure in Kyoto, was constructed east-west symmetrically between K a m o g aw a R i ve r a n d K a t s u r a g aw a R i ve r. However, the west side declined because it was wetland, and the east side developed to be the center of the city. At the same time, temples or shrines were formed to surround the city as guardians, and many of them were constructed in Higashiyama Mountain, which is located near the city area.

Among the common people, journeys which aimed not only pilgrimage but also to see "sights" had developed. Higashiyama also became a place of recreation and tourism because of the peripheral development by temples or shrines and publication of tourist information guides. Some paintings and folding screens shows scenes in Higashiyama crowded with thousands of guests.

MODERN AGES

URBAN AREA

EARLY MODERN AGES about 1570-1870

As urbanization progressed due to modernization, mansions or gardens of individuals were built in Higashiyama. People expected special moments (for example a large tea ceremony) for the area, which was ver y close to the mountain and had calm atmosphere. On the other hand, urbanization gradually progresses to Higashiyama due to the rapid development of urban areas, and the atmosphere of the city became stronger.

Higashiyama, with a lot of famous temples (including Kiyomizudera Temple), is one of the most famous area in Kyoto. Many commercial facilities such as restaurants, souvenir shops or hotels have opened, and there are full of tourists from all over the world. Residential areas and sightseeing spots are mixed in the same area, which refer to have become a part of the city.

54

CONTEMPORARY AGES about 1950-


Kyo-Oezu(1686)

PART 0F HIGASHIYAMA

55


THE ROLE OF SLOPES IN HIGASHIYAMA This area is the town which had developed in front of temples such as Kiyomizudera Temple and Hokanji Temple. However, there was a castle in the Middle Ages, and red-light district in this area after the 1SHIVR%KIW-RXLI¾S[SJLMWXSV]XLIWEGVIHEVIE[MXLQER]XIQTPIWERHGIQIXIVMIWLEWFIIRQM\MRK with the secular area complexly and changing organically. People have used Higashiyama area in the way applied to the situation of each age.

Kenninji Temple, 1202 Kodaiji Temple, 1606 Kamogawa River

Rokudo Tinnoji Temple, 836

Hokanji Temple (Yasaka tower)

Toribeno Cemetery

Otani Honbyo Temple

56


*

Whole map of Higashiyama(1864)[Karakumeisyozue] Panoramic view of Higashiyama from Kamogawa River. We can see temples standing on the slope and the roads formed toward the temples. It shows the relation between the city and the mountain though there was no way to look it over from above.

Jubuzan Kodaiji Temple(1864) * [Karakumeisyozue]

Mt. Ryozen

Kodaiji Temple built in the early moder n times creates var ious landscapes by placing gardens on the mountain side using slopes. On the slope there is a quiet tea room preferred by the master of tea ceremony, and under the slope banquets were held at the time of cherry blossoms and Hagi.

Ryozen-Syuami (1799) * [Miyako-Rinsenmeisyozue]

Ruins of Ryozen Castle

Kiyomizudera Temple, 778

Ryozan, the mountain which forms a part of Higashiyama, was seen as a sanctuary since Ryozenji Temple was founded in the ancient times. Because we can overlook the city of Kyoto, in the early modern times, zashiki-rooms with the panoramic view were mainly enjoyed.

Kiyomizu(1834) ** [Kyoto-meisyo] It has been a place of faith in Shimizu Kannon since ancient times, and also a sight of cherry blossoms and autumn leaves. It was crowded with guests who enjoy singing and drinking while watching the stage ¾SEXMRKEQSRKGLIVV]FPSWWSQW * ࢵ褬෭๜෈玕Ꮈ绗ψЀόЄ̴** 䩚Ղࢵ缏玡ᇔ記

57


THE WHOLE CROSS SECTION OF HIGASHIYAMA A'

View

View to the City View to the Mountain

Kiyomizudera Temple

A

Kenninji Temple

Kamogawa River

1.5

1.0

Urban Area B

Toribeno Cemetery

Toribeno Cemetery 58

B'


Higashiyama is the mountain close to urban area of Kyoto, and it has rich variety of change in topography. Peolple in Kyoto have been enjoying the view of Higashiyama, familiarizing as the place of faith, and making maximum use of the topography. Not only as slopes on hillside area but also topographical changes of ridges and valleys let us enjoy nature in the various ways.

w to the Stage

In Kiyomizudera Temple, main halls, Okumiya and tea house are located nearby surrounding the valley. Since the main hall is open to the valley side, the view let us feel surrounded by nature of the nearby ridge. Okumiya, on the other hand, is open to the mountain foot and is in a place where we can get a view of the city of Kyoto. The tea house located in the valley can look up the front of the stage.

View to the Mountain

A

A' Altitude (m)

Kiyomizudera Temple Kodaiji Temple

Hokanji Temple

A

131

B 100

50

0

Conceptual Diagram 0 (km)

0.5

Toribeno cemetery spreads the southern slope of the ridge and the slope opposite the valley is the natural mountain. Moreover, it is in the place which cannot be seen from the city area on the mountain foot due to the temple. Although it is a cemetery near the city, the ridges and valleys make it possible to separate spatially from urban areas.

Urban Area

Mountains

Toribeno Cemetery

B

Mountains

B'

59


THE PLACES WITH NATURE IN HIGASHIYAMA Daidokorozaka Slope Covered with the trees continuing from Kodaiji area, we can feel surrounded with the green. Overlapping trees and inclination limit the perspectives from the inside , which create the quiet atmosphere. Sanneizaka Slope At Sanneizaka (or Sannenzaka Slope, a three-year slope literally), there are shops, restaurant and many other s crowded with tourists. From the top of the stairs, we can see the roadside plantings nearby, the Higashiyama Mountain in the middle view, and Kitayama Mountain in the distant view, you can feel the connection of the green. Asahizaka Slope At Asahizaka Slope , there are restaurants, potter y experience classes, souvenir shops, and ar t galleries. The roadside plantings and the gardens of residence create the unity of the green, and the view of the city center and Nishiyama Moutain can be seen in far. St Yasakadori St Yasakadori, the approach of Hokanji, is curved in front of the tower of Yasaka and we can see it from head-on side. Moreover, the perspectives to the mountains let us feel connected with Higashiyama. Seiryuen Garden In the Seiryuen Garden, where the tea house was originally built, the garden made toward the mountain created a quiet atmosphere naturally surrounded. Nowadays, restaurants or souvenir shops are gathered, and anyone can freely come and go to the garden. 60

http://photo53.com/


Daidokorozaka Slope

St Yasakadori Seiryuen Garden

Sanneizaka Slope

Asahizaka Slope

61


Presentation 01

Slopes in Paris Kyoto University Kawasaki Lab 田中 椋 河北咲良 Aglaë Dubois Pierre-Julien Lee Ji Hyun Kim モンマルトルは、パリで最も高い丘である。1860 年にパリ市に併合されるまで郊外に位置 したモンマルトルは長い間、ブドウ畑と風車をシンボルとした農村であった。パリの都市化 が進むと、未だ残る農村風景を求めた芸術家が集まり芸術の街へと変化した。さらに関税を 避けたキャバレーなども集まり、歓楽街として活気付き始める。現在ではサクレ・クール寺 院もランドマークとなり、歴史地区として多くの観光客でにぎわうエリアになっている。パ リ市との距離が近づくにつれて農村、歓楽街、観光地と変化して来たモンマルトルでは様々 な斜面の利用形態がみられる。 パリチームのトピックは「農業」であったが、丘であるモンマルトルに唯一残るブドウ畑を きっかけに、地形に着目しながら調査を進めた。

Montmartre is the tallest hill in Paris. Montmartre, which was located outside of the city limits of Paris until 1860, was a rural village symbolized by vines and windmills. As the city of Paris was urbanized, artists gather at Montmartre, which remains the scenery of countryside and Montmartre came to be famous for arts. Moreover, many cabarets were opened at this area avoiding taxes, which led to be the entertainment district. Now this area with Sacré-Cœur as a landmark is historical district crowded with a lot of tourists. As the city of Paris expanded, Montmartre has been changing its role and has been utilized in various ways. The topic of the Paris team was "agriculture", and the only remaining vineyards in Montmartre triggered the investigation focusing on the topography.

62


Presentation 01

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Montmartre from Butte Bergeyre

Montmartre Cemetery

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Saint-Vincent Cemetery

63


WHAT WE DID BEFORE THE WORKSHOP KYOTO UNIVERSITY Before we come to Paris, we were interested in the topography, so we have investigated the slopes, Higashiyama in Kyoto, for example, activities, historical events, view, recognition and connection of green. ;I[ERXIHXS½RHLS[MX[SVOWMR4EVMWWS[IZMWMXIH1SRXQEVXVI

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WHAT WE GOT IN THE WORKSHOP TOPOGRAPHIES AS A TOOL TO GRASP THE DEGREE OF ARTIFICIALIZATION Topography hosting human installation = CITY IN NATURE City / new topographies as new biotopes to cultivate = NATURE IN THE CITY

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Profile for Shun Yoshitake

ResearchWorkshop 「Nature in the City, City in the Nature」 Kawasaki lab booklet  

ResearchWorkshop 「Nature in the City, City in the Nature」 Kawasaki lab booklet  

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