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QUALITY

SOCIETY

KNOWLEDGE

SITE

AWE INSPIRING CONTEMPORARY

INNOVATIVE

DISCONNECT

ADAPTIVE

SYMBOLISM

EXPERIENCE

CIRCULATION

CIVIC & HUMAN RIGHTS

LIBERTY

ENCLOSURE

ICONIC

CLIMATIC

RESPONSIVE

LEGIBILITY

FLOW

EQUALITY

VALUES

FUNCTIONALITY

CITY LIKEABILITY

LANDSCAPE

REGULATIONS

USER INTERFACE

PERCEPTION

JUSTICE

CO-ORDINATOR: Prof. (Dr.) Aruna Ramani Grover DATE : 1st May, 2017

INTERSECT I N C L U SI V E

HORIZONTALITY

NATURAL LIGHT

IMAGE-ABILITY PERMANENCE

INTEGRITY

I N SPI RE

RECONNECT

TRANSPARENCY

PUBLIC

A X E S

DEMOCRATIC

DIRECTIONAL

ENVIRONMENT

RESPONSIBILITY

JUDGEMENT

RESOLUTION

PUNCTUATION

DECISION

GUIDES: Ar. Suneet Mohindru Ar. Rajeev Agarwal

TOWER

LAW

PROTECTION

WISDOM

SEGREGATION

CONTEXT

RIGHTEOUSNESS

SUN

ASPIRATIONS

BALANCE

THESIS 2017

UNBIASED

SUSTA I N A BI L I T Y

HIGH COURT COMPLEX LUCKNOW

Shriyak Singh A/2447/2012 B.Arch, 5th Year School of Planning & Architecture, Delhi


THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


DECLARATION

26th May, 2017

The thesis titled The New Lucknow High Court Complex a requisite of the Bachelors Program in the Department of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi – 110002, was completed by the undersigned in January – May 2017. The supervisors were Ar. Suneet Mohindru & Ar. Rajeev Agarwal (Design Guides) and Prof. Dr. Aruna Ramani Grover (Coordinator). The undersigned hereby declares that this is his original work and has not been plagiarized in part or full from any source. Furthermore this work has not been submitted for any degree in this or any other University.

A/2447/2012 Shriyak Singh 5th Year, B.Arch, Section-A School of Planning & Architecture, Delhi

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certificate

2nd June, 2017

We certify that the Thesis titledThe New Lucknow High Court Complex by Shriyak Singh roll no A/2447/2012 was guided by us in January – May 2017 and placed in front of the Jury by the candidate on 24-25th May 2017. On completion of the report in all respects including the last chapter by the candidate and based on the declaration by the candidate hereinabove, we forward the report to the Department to be placed in the library of the School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi.

Ar. Suneet Mohindru Ar. Rajeev Agarwal (Design Guide & Research Guide) (Design Guide & Technology Guide)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I have to begin by thanking my thesis guides, Ar. Suneet Mohindru and Ar. Rajeev Agarwal, not as a matter of official courtesy but because their confidence in us shined even through the sessions of severe critique. Your comments acted as a guiding light throughout this endeavour. Your inputs helped me shape the project better but always allowed in to be MY thesis. I am also greatful our studio director and thesis coordinator, Prof. Dr. Aruna Ramani Grover, along with Ar. Amit Hajela for their timely and insightful guidance. I have a special feeling of gratitude towards my resource persons, Justice A.K. Singh. Justice S.K. Sinha, Dua & Associates, and Adv. Rounak Nayak, who helped me through the dark times of program resolution by explaining the complexities and relationships of a highly complex project. I could also obtain critical knowledge about the existing building and functional relationships from Ar. K.K. Asthana, the architect of the current High Court. Without their effort, this thesis could not have reached its present form. My parents deserve a round of applause for silently and constantly supporting me throughout these months. Thank you for keeping the faith as I vanished, physically and mentally, for days and weeks on an end. I found inspiration in trusted friends and mentors, but also in unexpected sources. Thank you everyone, named and unnamed, for keeping me going!

Shriyak

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SYNOPSIS

The opportunity to design a High Court Complex as a thesis project is a very daunting yet exciting prospect. The project, in its own right, has a personality of its own. The designer hence is required to respond, with his architecture, to this added dimension also, along with all the aspects of site, context and function. This coupled with the complexities of the program itself were the brewing pots for a challenging journey, which could have had an invigorating product in the end. This can be considered as the basic motivation to choose to topic. Courthouses can be identified as two-faced complexes. One face is very exclusive and private, with almost no public interaction, while the other has an absolutely public interface. The thesis identifies this duality and tries to develop an architectural approach which seamlessly brings these two aspects together, without conflict. The issues of security were a primary concern, given the high profile nature of the project. Given the nature of the project and the social importance of the function, a High Court Complex has a potential to be an architectural icon and still maintain its social relevance. This was identified as a catalyst to promote humanitarian ideas like social equality, awareness and democratic values through this thesis. The ideas of inclusivity and permeability lie at the core of this architectural thesis. This project tries to find an architectural middle ground between the functional requirements of privacy & security and public inclusion within a court complex. This thesis also tries to explore a new architectural typology and vocabulary for buildings like a courthouse. This thesis book tries to encapsulate the Design journey — the designer’s thought process resulting in a designed intervention. Where the academic exercise ends, the interim product hopes to initiate further ideation and debate on the identified issues.

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सारांश

एक शोध परियोजना के रूप में हाईकोर्ट कॉम्प्लेक्स डिजाइन करने का अवसर एक बहुत ही कठिन और रोमांचक संभावना है । परियोजना का अपना स्वयं का व्यक्तित्व है | डिजाइनर को इस व्यक्तित्व के आयाम के साथ, साइट, संदर्भ और समारोह के सभी पहलुओं का जवाब देना आवश्यक है । इस कार्यक्रम की जटिलताओं के साथ मिलकर यह एक चुनौतीपूर्ण यात्रा के पालक थे, जो अंत में एक सशक्त उत्पाद हो सकता था। विषय को चुनने के लिए इसे मूल प्रेरणा माना जा सकता है । न्यायालयों को दो-सामना किए गए परिसरों के रूप में पहचाना जा सकता है एक चेहरा बहुत ही अनन्य और निजी है, लगभग कोई सार्वजनिक बातचीत नहीं है, जबकि दूसरे के पास एक बिल्कुल सार्वजनिक इंटरफ़ेस है । यह थीसिस इस द्वंद्व को पहचानता है और एक वास्तुशिल्प दृष्टिकोण विकसित करने की कोशिश करता है जो संघर्ष के बिना इन दो पहलुओं को एक साथ लाता है । परियोजना के उच्च प्रोफ़ाइल प्रकृति को देखते हुए सुरक्षा के मुद्दों को प्राथमिक चिंता है । इस परियोजना की प्रकृति और समारोह के सामाजिक महत्व को देखते हुए, एक उच्च न्यायालय परिसर में एक वास्तुशिल्प चिह्न की संभावना है और फिर भी इसकी सामाजिक प्रासंगिकता को बनाए रखा जा सक्ता है । इस थीसिस के माध्यम से सामाजिक समानता, जागरूकता और लोकतांत्रिक मूल्यों जैसे मानवतावादी विचारों को बढ़ावा देने के लिए उत्प्रेरक के रूप में पहचान की गई है । विशिष्टता और पारगम्यता के विचार इस वास्तुशिल्प थीसिस के मूल में हैं । यह प्रोजेक्ट गोपनीयता और सुरक्षा के कार्यात्मक आवश्यकताओं और अदालत परिसर के भीतर सार्वजनिक शामिल किए जाने के बीच एक स्थापत्य मध्य मैदान को खोजने की कोशिश करता है। यह शोध एक न्यायालय की तरह भवनों के लिए एक नई स्थापत्य शैली और शब्दावली का पता लगाने की कोशिश करता है। यह थीसिस पुस्तक डिज़ाइन यात्रा को पूरा करने की कोशिश करता है - डिज़ाइनर की सोची प्रक्रिया जिसके परिणामस्वरूप एक डिजाइन किए हस्तक्षेप होता है। जहां अकादमिक अभ्यास समाप्त हो रहा है, अंतरिम उत्पाद को उम्मीद की गई मुद्दों पर आगे की विचारधारा और बहस शुरू करने की उम्मीद है।

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CONTENTS

Candidate Declaration................................................................................(i)

Certificate....................................................................................................(iii)

Acknowledgements....................................................................................(v)

Synopsis (English).......................................................................................(vi)

Synopsis (Hindi)..........................................................................................(vii)

PART I : DESIGN INVESTIGATION

CHAPTER 4:

Site & Readings..................................................................61

4.1 Site Connectivity

CHAPTER 1:

Introduction & Research..................................................01

62

4.2 Site Surrounding

63

4.3 Accessibility

64

1.1 Introduction & Research Question

03

4.5 Context 65

1.2 Why This Topic ?

04

4.6 Site Photographs 66

1.3 Project Brief

06

4.7 Climatic Response 67

1.3.1 Critical Analysis of the existing block.......................................08

1.4 Proposition

10

1.5 Objectives

12

1.6 Areas of Research

13

CHAPTER 2:

Case Studies.......................................................................23

2.1 Delhi High Court, India (Primary) 2.2 Caen High Court, France 2.3 Haifa High Court, Turkey 2.4 Case Study Matrix 2.5 Conclusions

CHAPTER 3:

24 31 37 43 47

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CHAPTER 5:

Technology.........................................................................69

5.1 Sitructure

70

5.2 Fire Safety

71

5.3 HVAC

73

5.5 Rainwater Harvesting 74 5.6 Plumbing & sanitation 77 5.7 Electrical System 78 5.8 Solar Power Generation

80

5.9 Parking System 81

Program & Readings.........................................................49 3.1 Area Break-up 3.2 Functional Relationship 3.3 Area Program

50 51 52

CHAPTER 6:

Conclusions & Inferences..........................................................83

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Contents

PART II : DESIGN TRANSLATION

CHAPTER 7:

Design Evolution...............................................................89

7.1 Conceptual Response

90 93

7.2 Key features

Design Development........................................................95

CHAPTER 8:

8.1 Stage 1

90 98 99 100 101

8.2 Stage 2 8.3 Stage 3 8.4 Stage 4 8.5 Final Scheme

Portfolio...........................................................................103

CHAPTER 9:

Bibliography....................................................................126

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list of figures & tables Fig. 1 Old Lucknow: Architecture of the Nawabs. Bada Imambara & Rumi Gate 4 Fig. 2 New Lucknow High Court building (Judges’ Entrance) 4 Fig. 3 New Lucknow Airport Terminal building 4 Fig. 4 New Lucknow HC building ( https://www.isrgrajan. com/things-lucknow-short-visit.html) 7 Fig. 5 New Lucknow HC ( Google Earth) 7 Fig. 6 New Lucknow HC ( Source: Author) 7 Fig. 7 New Lucknow HC ( Source: Google Earth/Author) 8 Fig. 8 New Lucknow HC ( Source: Google Earth/ Author) 9 Fig. 9 New Lucknow HC ( Source: Google Earth/ Author) 9 Fig. 4 Proposition Diagram (Source: Author) 10 Fig. 5 Hierarchy Diagram: Judiciary (Source: Author) 14 Fig. 6 Institutional Relationship Diagram (Source: Author) 15 Fig. 7 Sunrise at the Salk Institute Courtyard (by Sameer Mundkur) 20 Fig. 8 Location and Connectivity : Delhi HC 24 Fig. 9 Figure-Ground Diagram 24 Fig. 10 Zoning and Site Plan 25 Fig. 11 Publicness of fuctions of the Delhi HC., and interrelationship of components (Source: Author) 26 Fig. 12 Site Zoning as per Publicness 26 Fig.13 Ground Floor Plan : Showing Public and Private circulation segregation. 27 Fig.14 Relationship Between Public areas-Court rooms-Judges’ areas (Source: Author) 27 Fig.15 Placement of C.R.P.F. security check-posts with the site(Source: Author) 28 Fig.16 Main entrance to the court-rooms block : Delhi High Court 29

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

Fig.17 3D massing of the Delhi HC (Source: Author) 29 Fig.18 Showing key learnings under five distinct heads. Rating out of 10 (Source: Author) 30 Fig.19 View of the Caen Law Courts from the adjoining canal 31 Fig.20 Google Earth view showing connectivity through road. 31 Fig.21 Figure ground study of the Caen Law Courts. France(Source: Author) 32 Fig.22 Site plan of the Caen Law Courts (ArchDaily,2012) 32 Fig.23 Caen Law Courts Ground floor plan (Source: www.archDaily.com) 33 Fig.24 Caen Law Courts First floor plan (Source: www. archDaily.com) 33 Fig.25 Relationship Between Public areas-Court rooms-Judges’ areas (Source: Author) 34 Fig.27 Central Atrium of the Caen Law Courts (ArchDaily,2012) 34 Fig.28 Image showing the exterior facade of the Caen Law Court. A modernist architectural expression 35 Fig.29 Showing key learnings under five distinct heads. Rating out of 10 (Source: Author) 35 Fig.30 Showing key learnings under five distinct heads. Rating out of 10 (Source: Author) 36 Fig.31 Main entrance plaza of the Caen Law Court (ArchDaily,2012) 36 Fig.32 View of the courthouse along with the new Public Library (ArchDaily,2012) 36 Fig.33 View of the Courtrooms corridor (ArchDaily,2012) 36 Fig.34 Haifa Courthouse SW facade (Archdaily.2013) 37 Fig.35 Google Earth image showing connectivity 37

Fig.36 Figure ground study of the Haifa Courthouse, Israel(Source: Author) 38 Fig.37 Site Planning of Haifa Courthouse (Source: Author) 38 Fig.38 Ground Floor plan of Haifa Courthouse, Israel showing zoning of spaces (ArchDaily,2013) 39 Fig.39 Section showing the public thoroughfare, Haifa Courthouse, Israel (ArchDaily,2013) 39 Fig.42 Section across the courtrooms and basement 40 Fig.40 Relationship Between Public areas-Court rooms-Judges’ areas (Source: Author) 40 Fig.41 Section across the courtrooms and basement 40 Fig.43 The North end plaza entrance 40 Fig.46 Haifa Courthouse : Judges’ Library (www.flicker. com) 41 Fig.44 The protruding 4 floor high atrium 41 Fig.47 Haifa Courthouse : Courtrooms (ArchDaily, 2013) 41 Fig.45 Public Entrance Atrium (ArchDaily,2013) 41 Fig.48 Showing key learnings under five distinct heads. Rating out of 10 (Source: Author) 42 Fig.49 Area Break-up Chart (Source: Author) 50 Fig.50 Functional Relationship Diagram (Source: Author) 51 Fig.51 SITE connectivity diagram (Source: Author) 62 Fig.52 Figure Ground : Site (Source: Author) 63 Fig.53 Landuse Plan : Site (Source: Author) 63 Fig.54 Accessibility via road and public transport : Site (Source: Author) 64 Fig.55 Precinct level context (Source: Author) 65 Fig.55 Part of Bar Association block under construction (Source: Author) 66 Fig.56 Corporate Office Tower (Source: Author) 66

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Fig.58 Lucknow High Court : From the adjoining road (Source: Author) 66 Fig.60 Part of Judges’ block under construction (Source: Author) 66 Fig.57 Government Office (Source: Author) 66 Fig.59 Audit Bhawan (Source: Author) 66 Fig.61 Human Rights Commission Office (Source: Author) 66 Fig.62 Diagram showing structural systems (Source: Author) 70 Placement of Fire Escape; OHT; FHC in tower block 71 Placement of OHT at site level 71 Placement of Fire Escape & FHC at site level 72 Placement of Chiller plant and Major load zones 73 Fig.63 Rigofill Rainwater harvesting system (Source < http://rigofill-st.com/>) 74 Placement of RWH tanks 76 Fig.63 Table showing water consuption per day (Source: NBC,2005) 77 Fig.63 Flow diagram for power distribution (Source : Author) 78 Fig.64 Distribution diagram in a large building (Source: < https://www.archtoolbox.com/materials-systems/electrical/electrical-power-systems. html>) 78 Fig.65 Tables showing sizes of Substation and Generator rooms 78 (Source : NBC,2005) 78 Fig.66 Distribution diagram for Solar power generation (Source: < https://www.archtoolbox.com/materials-systems/electrical/electrical-power-systems. html>) 80 Fig.67 Smart Car parking system by DongYang Menics (Source: < http://dyps.co.kr/html_en/products02. php>) 81 Fig.69 Conceptual Evolution of Tower Block 90 Fig.70 Zoning DIagram 90 Fig.71 Orientation Diagram 91 Fig.72 Identification of axes 92

xiv

list of abbreviations • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

HC Jc Adv C.R.P.F. P.A. P.S. Adm. func. NH28 G.C. F.A.R. GF FF SF TYP Elec. A.H.U. M.T. F.T. F.H.C. J.B. C.R.B. L.B. P.B.

: High Court : Justice : Advocate : Central Reserve Police Force : Personal Assistant : Personal Security : Admininstration : Function : National highway 28 : Ground Coverage : Floor Area Ratio : Ground Floor : First Floor : Second Floor : Typlical : Electrical Room : Air Handling Unit : Male Toilet : Female Toilet : Fire Hydrant Cabinet : Judges’ Block : Court Room Block : Lawyers’ Block : Public Block

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


Chapter 01 :

INTRODUCTION & research

This chapter is essentially the preface of this Thesis. It talks about the importance of the Judicial Institution. It points out the basic pursuits of this endeavour. It lays emphasis on the proposition and the areas of research which went into the designing of the undertaken project. The chapter revolves around the identification and understanding of the questions posed and areas of research. This chapter is about the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;WHY?â&#x20AC;&#x2122; of this thesis.

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1.

INTRODUCTION

J

ustice as concept has formally been around since the 5th century BC, in Greece. The early philosophies about justice were given by the famous Greek philosopher, Plato in his book, ‘The Republic‘. However, ‘Justice‘ is understood and interpreted differently in different cultures. The interpretation of the term has evolved over time. There are various ideas and philosophies about it. Nonetheless, all of them have a focus towards equality and the protection of human rights. The judicial system in its various forms and iterations has been the protector of the same, and the courthouses provide the stage for it. Courthouses are the institutions for justice. These are arenas for the enactment of the law.

1.1

How can explorations in design typologies & styles in judicial architecture help in creating a more conducive environment for the court to perform its functions, along with making it more inclusive to the general masses, thus help towards creating a more informed society ?

Thus, it can be safely said that the basic function of a law-court is to ‘Institutionalise Justice‘. The judicial system is the spine of a democratic setup. People lookup to it for protection of their rights. It has always had a special position in the human society. Without a system to perform this role, social life as we know it would not exist. Their importance can never be overstated. They also perform a function of educating the society about certain values of life. This gives courthouses a unique position of power as well as relatability with the public. And hence, the Research Question :

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1.2

WHY THIS TOPIC ?

THE PROJECT

THE CITY

We take great pride in calling India as one of the biggest democracies in the world. However, it was after great struggle that such a stable and empowered democratic governance could be established in India. Our constitution lies at the center of this democratic system. It was through the constitution that an independant judicial system has arisen, which hence lies at the core of this system. It is one of the drivers of a smooth democracy. Hence, Judiciary is important for democracy. Such a function, hence calls for architecture which does justice to its stature.

Lucknow is the capital of one of the most populous states of the country, Uttar Pradesh. Being a capital of a state such as U.P. puts the city at the forefront of many peoplesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; imagination. This is evident by the annual increase in the migrant population, which comes into the city with hopes of a better life and a prosperous future.

The concept of democracy and institutions like the judiciary, postal services and railways were all introduced in the country during the British Raj. It was acceptable then, that all the buildings (which include most of the courthouses of the country) reflect their architecture and ideology. However, it has been almost 70 years since that became history. India has now well and truly surfaced as a country with great ambitions and prospects. So, it would not be a very wrong desire that the architecture should also showcase a similar character. This project hence gives me an opportunity to design something on similar lines, which is Important and desires to be Iconic.

Lucknow is one of the cultural capitals in North India. The bygone regime of the Nawabs in the city is best remembered for cultural extravagance. The Nawabs of Lucknow were the patrons of art, culture and architecture. The current image of Lucknow architecture is drawn from the monuments they left, like the Imambaras and the Rumi Gate.

Fig. 1 Old Lucknow: Architecture of the Nawabs. Bada Imambara & Rumi Gate

Fig. 2 New Lucknow High Court building (Judgesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Entrance)

Lucknow, being the center of power for the state has been the at the focus of development initiatives taken by the state government. With time, the face of the city is also changing from the city of Nawabs to a growing metropolitan, largely due to the architecture. The new Lucknow Airport Terminal is one such example of a new and modern architecture, and truly acts as a gateway to a new Lucknow.

Fig. 3 New Lucknow Airport Terminal building 4

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1.2

Lucknow is a city with growing aspirations. It is striving towards becoming a thriving metropolitan. With the advent of the Lucknow Metro and various other infrastructural projects, Lucknow hopes to achieve newer levels of development with every passing year, and truly become a mega-city, with its roots in its Heritage and its focus on Development. With such aspirations in mind, there were many hopes from the new High Court Complex coming up in Lucknow. It was expected to break the archaic order and produce an Iconic building, which the new generation of citizen could relate to and except. This, however, was not the case. The new High Court building, which became partially functional in the month of November 2016 can be claimed as one of the most recent imitations of the imperialist style of architecture.

Even though it is a very a new building, the choice of architectural vocabulary does not particularly talk of its time. It doesn’t do justice to the growing aspirations of the city as a thriving metropolitan. There are some other design decisions which should also be questioned. One such decision was to go for high ground coverage with low-height blocks. The site available was a lot more than sufficient as per the requirements of the proposed high court. Going with a massive 4 storey block, covering almost 40% of the available ground, along with parking and other requirements lead to only a small amount of landscaped green areas, both for the permanent users ( judges and lawyers) as well as the general public of the city. This could have been avoided with some judicious use of space.

The decision of building almost to the edge of the site is also one which could e scrutinised. This has actually reduced the legibility of the building from the outside, i.e., from the road and across the street. The building in-fact becomes more imposing onto the viewer rather than inviting. Why does a courthouse need to be inviting? Because it is place intended towards social reform and encourages the people to be better citizens. This cannot be realised if the general masses don’t feel connected or welcomed into the place. This defeats the deeper and a more overarching function of the courthouse, which is enabling social change towards good and it remains a place for judgement and scrutiny.

“Architecture should always tell a story of its’ time, but yearn for timelessness” -Frank Gehry

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1.3

Client : Government of Uttar Pradesh

PROJECT BRIEF

The Lucknow bench of Allahabad High Court had outgrown its 100 year campus at the Quaisarbag commercial district in Lucknow, by the end of 2009. It is due to this lack of space that the construction of the new Lucknow High Court was sanctioned in 2010. It was a very ambitious undertaking, both for the Judicial circle as well as the architects who were entrusted with the job.

This includes the Judges’ chambers, library and personal spaces, where the security protocols are very strict, the lawyers’ and staffs’ recreation / resting areas, the records rooms, etc.. However, there are also spaces which have high public interaction. This, in-turn informs us about the possible nature and expression of the spaces in consideration. Also, there are instances of intersections of spaces of conflicting nature, like courtrooms.

After acquiring a large piece of prime real estate in the heart of one of the city’s growing centres, the opportunities were many. The court had decided to increase its bench from 25 to 53. This subsequently meant a substantial increase in the number of courtrooms; from 29 to 57. Such an increment in the program reflects in all other allied functions of the building as well. A high court is a fairly complex building, both functionally and programmatic-ally. A high court complex comprises of various individual components with varying functions, requirements and degrees of publicness. A court always has a strict system of hierarchy and protocols. These need to be adhered to while designing as well as developing the program. The area allocation is not only dependent on the occupancy or function of the space, but also on the user of the space. Thus, it can be observed that a substantial portion of the built-up space will eventually be used by very few and specific people. 6

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


1.3.1

CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EXISTING HIGH COURT

“If we don’t change, we don’t grow. If we don’t grow, we aren’t really living.” -Gail Sheehy

Fig. 4 New Lucknow HC building ( https://www.isrgrajan.com/things-lucknow-short-visit.html)

Fig. 5 New Lucknow HC ( Google Earth)

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

Fig. 6 New Lucknow HC ( Source: Author) 7


1.3

JUDGES’ ENTRY / EXIT The construction of the new Lucknow High Court was comissioned in December 2010. The chief design team was from UPRNN (Uttar Pradesh Rajkiya Nirman Nigam). The project was declared completed in October 2016 and has started functioning since November of 2016. It is still partly under construction with a fare portion of the lawyers block still under final finishing phase.

ABOUT THE PROJECT • • • • • •

SITE AREA: 40 ACRES PERMISSABLE GC.: 35% ACHIEVED GC. : 30% PERMISSABLE F.A.R.: 1.5 ACHIEVED F.A.R.: 0.68 TOTAL BUILT-UP: 1,10,860 sqm

The building plan is symmetrical about the East-West axis. It is based on a courtyard typology. The new Lucknow HC enjoys a very large site, which provides for great opportunities. The absence of area restrictions (as permissible total builtup is far greater than the actual project requirements) along with no height restrictions create a good setting for impressive and iconic architecture. This could be the opportunity to design a court block which could set precedents for the future.

PUBLIC ENTRY / EXIT

COURTHOUSE BLOCK

However, the current design of the Lucknow high court seems to have ignored such possibilities in order to achieve functional, though non imapactful architecture. Looking at a different approach to the same problem might help in exposing the unexplored possibilities of the site and the program.

LAWYERS’ BLOCK

LAWYERS’ ENTRY / EXIT

UNDER CONSTRUCTION

BROAD ZONING OF THE CURRENT HC 8

Fig. 7 New Lucknow HC ( Source: Google Earth/Author) THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


1.3

Certain issues have been identified with the current Lucknow High Court which could help in guiding the new design: •

Inspite of having the opportunity of designing on a large site which could allow for larger open spaces, the designers have chosen to have Excessive

coverage.

Due to the design approach, there are no large number of people every day.

The design tends to ignore the orientation of the site, which is a very big strength of the site. Climatic response is weak.

Opaque edges with building blocks which come right up to the setback limits create an imposing and unwelcoming expression.

The building is very closed and confined which could be avoided, especially given the avaible site.

The archietcts failed to acknoweledge the importance and impactfulness of the function they are designing for. Exploitation function could lead to a more appropriate design for a HC.

ground

public open spaces around the built block which could be highly useful, especially because the court caters to a very

of this strength in the

PLOTTING PUBLIC ACCESSIBLE GREEN AREAS WITHIN THE HIGH COURT COMPLEX Fig. 9 New Lucknow HC ( Source: Google Earth/ Author)

PLOTTING GROUND COVERAGE W.R.T. SITE EDGE Fig. 8 New Lucknow HC ( Source: Google Earth/ Author)

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

9


1.4

PROPOSITION

“We shape our buildings and afterwards, they shape us” - Winston Churchill

Court complexes are intrinsically seen as highly public buildings. Court complexes are the theatres 10

So c DEMOCRATIC &

iconic "InstituTionalise justce"

NC

I

Breaking out of the imperialistic and archaic architectural philosophy and hence viewing Courthouse architecture in a new and modern light. The final product is expected to be an instrument of driving Innovation into various ambitious Govt. projects of similar stature.

"Palace of justice"

i li t y

Redefining Iconic in the context of democracy. High Court, by virtue of its function and importance alone, is one of the most identifiable buildings of a city. Architecture can use this platform to propel the ideals forward, while constantly adding value to the function itself.

inab

These can be regarded as “DEMOCRATIC VALUES”

UES L A lV sta

Equability Social Responsibility Liberty Respect for Human and Civic Rights Respect for Environmental Rights, etc..

Su

• • • • •

ia

Delving into the philosophy of Architectural Determinism, exploring how architecture can educate towards better social values. Given the functional typology of a High Court Complex, the architectural endeavour should evoke social values like:

LU

SIV

I T Y / T R A N S PA R

C EN

Y

Fig. 4 Proposition Diagram (Source: Author) THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


1.4

for the ‘Act of Justice‘, as it takes center stage. During the Greek ages, courts were celebrated places, where general masses used to spend quality time with family and friends. Its expansive lawns were the city’s picnic spots. It served its functions as a ‘Protector’ as well as an ‘Educator‘. Even public functions like post offices etc., were also associated with the court complex. However, the current day court complexes seem to have lost that quality. They stand as isolated zones / buildings, with no particular character or expression. It doesn’t evoke emotions of warmth and acceptance, but of judgement and resentment. Eliminating the sense of dissociation for the public with a building like the High Court hence becomes a major part of the proposition. Making the building inclusive could affect the public perception of the building and its ideals. This can take the idea of an improved and educated society further to the people This can be achieved through inclusive Functions/ Program ; Spaces; Design Interventions for integration; Relationship with the surroundings etc.. Since a court complex can be looked at as an educator for the society, the building must tackle issues of sustainability, as it is the need of the hour. It goes without saying that all buildings coming up now need to be sustainable. A building of this scale and stature can be a pioneer towards putting a word for sustainability HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

across. It should be able to educate people towards a sustainable way of life, along with itself being a marker for sustainable design & building practices.

Creating architecture with meaning. Architecture is most enjoyable and affective if it has a certain language and has some inherent meaning or a direction of thought towards which it points. Buildings are a means of communication for the architect and his architecture. These ideas, meanings and ideals of design, along with the functional requirements should form the core concept of the building.

Public buildings often accurately reflect the beliefs, priorities, and aspirations of a people. … For much of our history, the courthouse has served not just as a local center of the law and government but as a meeting ground, cultural hub, and social gathering place.

All of these design drivers contribute towards creating an Iconic building, which is not only sustainable in its ways of construction and operation, but also shows potential towards creating a society with better social and democratic values. This could also change the way buildings like the High Court are perceived by the masses. It could give back the charm which the courts once used to have. The courthouse of the last century was a cornerstone of the community, a source of local pride and the nexus of social life and ritual. But today, courthouses and the public spaces that often surround them are, for the most part, physically and programmatically disconnected from public life, even though they regularly occupy central property in a community. Citizens don’t visit their courthouses unless compelled to do so, and very few court spaces serve as public destinations – their artificial disengagement from the public realm, due in part to their inaccessible design and single-purposed programming, causes an unfortunate disservice to their history and potential role as cornerstone institutions. (Levy,2009)

— Justice Lewis F. Powell, Jr. (United States Supreme Court, 1972–1987)

11


1.5

OBJECTIVES

To understand the functioning of a court complex; inter-relationship of issues like security, accessibility & circulation in a complicated courthouse building.

Learning how architecture can help educate the society inculcate respect towards human/civic/environmental rights

spaces; & handling

about democratic values and

• Redefining the iconic imagery associated with judicial architecture, by breaking out of the imperialistic and archaic architectural philosophy.

12

Considering and responding to the socio-cultural context of the city while designing in Lucknow. Allowing the high court to contribute towards the city’s urban fabric and the cultural identity by making it more connected and accessible to the general masses.

Establishing a visual connection to and from the site to make the building’s presence felt. This symbolically celebrates the importance of the High Court as a building.

Using architecture as a tool to explore the opportunities to address the quest towards a better and empowered society. The main objective is to explore the spacial quality of a particular building type (i.e. the HC), along with the innate symbolism of the same. It also looks into the relationship of the project with the city and hence the people / society.

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


1.6

AREAS OF RESEARCH

Research about court-house design and its inter-relationship the surroundings and the city etc..

of spaces, its integration with

Understanding ‘Justice’; Meaning & functioning of ‘High Court’ for the Judicial society as well as the public.

• Inclusivity in Judicial Architecture : Architecture of the court of law, currently, doesn’t inspire a

sense of social responsibility and respect. To be able to do so, it needs to be more inclusive towards the society.

The topic and scope requires me to delve into the subject of ‘Architectural Determinism’. This idea talks about architecture or the built-environment being a very strong and sometimes the sole driver of social behaviour.

• Transparence & its manifestation in architecture

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

13


1.6.1

INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE The Judiciary interprets the Constitution as its final arbiter. It is its duty as mandated by the Constitution, to be its watchdog. (Bhanu,M.P. (2002) ) The Judiciary has a special place in the Constitution. It has a completely independent position, immune to pulls or pressures exerted by other branches of the state, citizens or interest groups. And crucially, independence of the judiciary has been held to be a basic feature of the Constitution. The Indian Judicial system is a federal judicial system. This is a mixed law based system, i.e. based on parliamentary legislature, court laws, customary & religious laws as well, i.e. based on parliamentary legislature, court laws, customary & religious laws as well. The Judicial structure in India is a unified structure.

The Supreme Court, High Courts, District Courts and Lower Courts form a single judiciary. Broadly there is a three tier division: Every district or metropolitan area has a District Court, and every state or union territory has a High Court. The Supreme Court is the apex court. Decisions by the Supreme Court are final. Contrasting to common belief, the functions and the procedures at a High Court do not include live testimony from witnesses or accused etc.. This is taken care of in the District and Lower Courts. A courtroom in a Hight Court has no function for spaces like witness and accused boxes. High Court is an appellate court.

Supreme Court

High Courts (24 HCs in India) District Court (1 in every District/ Metropolitan area)

Lower Courts / Sessions Courts / Panchayats

HCs are the highest courts of the state. There is always only one high court in each state or union territory. This emphasizes on the significance of a high court, both functionally and architecturally. Fig. 5 Hierarchy Diagram: Judiciary (Source: Author)

14

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


1.6

ARCHITECTURAL IMPLICATIONS The functioning of a court requires 4 major zones of spaces. These are: •

Courtrooms Block

Judges Block

Bar Association Block

Administration & Records Block.

These blocks essentially belong to the four major functions of the institution. The working of the judicial system is based on the interactions between the judges and the parties in dispute; represented by their lawyers and records keeping of the same. A high court passes judgements on appeals both criminal and civil. Also, a system of a PIL (Public Interest LItigation) is present to deliver prompt social justice. The inter-relationship of these spaces is primarily driven by functionality of the court. The access of public is highly restricted to only a certain zones, largely because of security reasons. Also, the general public is not really required to be present at certain zones within the court complex. However, since the functioning of the court needs to be transparent (both ethically and legally), forcibly limiting public access to certain areas, which includes only the Courtroom and Lawyers’ Blocks should not be encouraged. HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

COURT BLOCK

JUDGEMENT

LAWYERS

JUDGES

(Representatives)

Records Keeping PILs

ADMIN

Criminal Appeals

Civil Appeals

PUBLIC

Fig. 6 Institutional Relationship Diagram (Source: Author)

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1.6.2

ARCHITECTURAL DETERMINISM

Architectural determinism is a theory which claims that the built environment is the chief or even sole determinant of social behaviour. -Paul Alan Johnson Architectural determinism poses the idea that people can adapt to any arrangement of space and that behaviour in a given environment is caused entirely by the characteristics of the environment. This perception of built space, however, seems to be a bit too extreme. Architecture after all is a derivative of human needs and behaviours, and not always vice-versa. Also, there is no possible way of distinctly recording the exclusive effects of built environment on human behaviour and drawing distinct experimental conclusions about it. However, delving to the roots and origins of this philosophy, one realises that there might just be something in it. Steen Eiler Rasmussen, a well renowned Danish architect, urban planner and a professor at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, expressed in his books, Experiencing Architecture, “No other art employs a colder, more abstract form, but at the same time no other art is so intimately connected with man’s daily life from the cradle to the grave.” (Rasmussen, 1959) This is a very true reflection on architecture. A normal human being in the present world has a constant interface with architecture throughout his life.

16

“No other art employs a colder, more abstract form, but at the same time no other art is so intimately connected with man’s daily life from the cradle to the grave.”

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


1.6

From the day he was born (in the Hospital) to the day he dies, he is constantly surrounded by architecture, to such an extent that it almost becomes like a constant background noise, just existing; without any relevance to him or any other passer-by. That is what happens to ‘just buildings’ and that is what ‘architecture’ tries to evade. It is said about architecture that its end product, the building, is very often very sterile and cold. It seems to be impervious to human feelings and emotions as it is to the forces of nature. Nonetheless, architecture is not just about the building. It’s about the inherent meaning within the built form, the research and the concept behind it. Anthropology plays a major role in architecture too. Architecture is virtually a crib for society, an arena where life plays out. It is by virtue of its omnipresence that it gains the power of actually affecting people and their lives. There are only a few inanimate things which can have such a lasting impact on human life as architecture does. Thus, it becomes important for architects to be mindful about this calibre of their work. As a matter of fact, its gives the architects an opportunity to make a change which matters. It makes it possible for the artist of such inexpressive art to convey a more meaningful conversation with its users. One which they naturally sense in the form of the emotions or feelings the space evokes in them. There are certain key features of architecture, out of which scale, rhythm, harmony and balance are a few. HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

Experience is a derivative of all these factors. It is through interplay of these factors that the architect tries to achieve expression in his work. It is through the thoughts given to such interventions beyond the functionality of a building which adds value and meaning to design and hence can expect to evoke a certain emotion in the subject. With this arsenal now the young architect embarks on a journey to change the world, or at least so he believes. Stumbling on this path and falling down from his highground, the architect realises that behavioural change is not something which just happens like enlightenment. It is not through entering a certain kind of space that a person would have an immediate change of heart. It is also not possible to always evoke a certain variety of thoughts in the minds of every user experiencing that particular space. It is by virtue of the inherent characteristic differences in human beings. This is what leads to the subjectivity and opinions. This is what makes the world an interesting place. Hence, the essence of the space is actually felt as a secondary influence on the daily life of the user. It can nonetheless evoke emotions of amazement and surprise every so often. But these are neither permanent feelings nor direct drivers of major human behaviour. For e.g. the scale of the enclosure will definitely have a lasting impact on the daily user. An office with large volume spaces and windows which flood the interiors with light will definitely lead to a more happy working population with better productivity. 17


1.6

Strong visual cues, coupled with the overall essence of the space, which lie incidentally in public thoroughfares, can have a quick and affective impact on the psychology of the user.

A study in New York conducted by Charles Montgomery, a Canadian writer and urbanist, showed that positive human emotion in people, which was the result of the then interactions with the built environment and the other people, resulted in a distinctively humane and kinder response to a certain set of questions, for which New Yorkers in general had a more harsh response. (The happy city experiment : Charles Montgomery, 2014) Thus, it can be considered that the built environment, by the means of its interactions with the people, has the ability of guiding the society towards one with better social values. This influence however is very subtle and secondary. The experiment also throws light on how the more apparent senses of vision and hearing can have a much more immediate impact on the people. (The happy city experiment : Charles Montgomery, 2014) Hence we can reflect, strong visual cues, coupled with the overall essence of the space, which lie incidentally in public thoroughfares, can have a quick and affective impact on the psychology of the people. Architecture is not an issue that stands alone, but a part of nature and human culture. Conversely, the architecture also needs to take a stance or give a response in accordance with natural conditions, and what happens in the order of peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s minds. Therefore, architecture is not free of values. A form of architecture is the implementation of a set of attitudes, preferences, responses to the problems or challenges, both to the function of the building itself and all the elements involved.

18

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


1.6.3

ARCHITECTURAL SYMBOLISM

Architecture is not simply the ‘design of buildings’. Those are mere physical enclosures. On the contrary, architecture is an expression of thoughts, preferences, beliefs and emotions represented in the built form, symbolically communicating and imparting relevance to its users. Architecture without meaning isn’t architecture at all. Architecture, like other forms of art, to have relevance, needs to have a meaning which it can communicate. It is important for ‘Architecture’ to connect with its users, for architecture in isolation from its users is merely an enclosure. The transmission of meaning through the architectural medium is essential to both the use and the enjoyment of architecture. Architects are essentially communicators of thoughts and expressions and the forms, colours, spaces and other qualities of their architecture are the media through which architects communicate. (Hershberger, 1988).

Do architects and laymen share a similar perception of symbolism in architecture? Are they affected in the same way by their representations and perceptions of these meanings? Are their resultant evaluations and behaviours similar? These questions are really important to answer. The answers to most of these questions are NO. The way a building is looked at, evaluated and critiqued by an architect is dramatically different from that of laymen. This difference, however, is the key in understanding the success or failure of architectural symbolism: whether the intended user actually receives your message, intentions and expressions clearly and then develops a certain emotion towards it.

Late architect Eero Saarinen was perhaps the most emphatic about the communication function of architecture: “I have come to the conviction that once one embarks on a concept for a building, this concept has to be exaggerated and overstated and repeated in every part of its interior and exterior, so that wherever you are, inside or outside, the building sings with the same message.” (Nasar, 2013)

sage. They are direct portrayals of images, ideas or symbols In their truest , which communicate the message and are not truly open to subjective interpretation. Examples are seen in churches where direct Christian imagery can be seen along with symbols like the cross etc. This can be traced in the building plans and other design elements. Similarly, in Indian temples, the presence of symbolism is one of the key features and entire planning revolves around sacred geometry and symbolism. It given a clear and unhindered message to the user.

Apart from all this, we need to ask a few straight forward and relevant questions. Is there any close correspondence between the meanings that the architects try to convey through their buildings and the meanings laymen attribute to them? HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

Architectural symbolism can be in two broad forms. 1. Through direct imagery or motifs, which unswervingly convey the idea or mes

19


1.6

2. Through abstract ideation and philosophy which is not directly apparent to the user

but he/she might experience it while in the space, and even more when he/she is consciously aware of it. This type of symbolism is generated through concept and can be inherently experienced throughout the complex. Since it’s not direct and is open to interpretation, it can have a deeper intrinsic meaning which could have a lasting impression on the person experiencing it. Louis I. Kahn expressed his views about meaning and symbolism in architecture when he talked about his design of the Salk Institute in California when he said “I

didn’t want anything pretty: I wanted to have a clear statement of a way of life.” (Hershberger, 1988)

Kahn designed the complex to express an underlying sense of spiritualism, fusing influences from both the International Style and Brutalism anchored by a gently flowing river through the center of the design. This is especially true during sunrise every day, for which it is said “Watching the sunrise over Louis Kahn’s Salk Institute for Biological Sciences is arguably one of architecture’s most transformative experiences.” (MacLeod, 2015) Fig. 7 Sunrise at the Salk Institute Courtyard (by Sameer Mundkur)

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THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

21


22

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


Chapter 02 :

case studies

This chapter revolves around the studies of various case examples of court complexes around the world. This chapter is very important as it entails various takes on court design, across the world. It helps in figuring out the functional and symbolic requirements of a court complex, along with giving a fair idea of methods and philosophies of judicial architecture across the world.

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

23


2.1

delhi high court / india (Primary)

T

he Delhi high court is situated within the heart of the national capital. It is placed along the Shershah Road, a major arterial road, which connects the Outer India Gate Circle to the Mathura Road. It is bound by roads on all sides, which allows for multiple access points. Such a setting enables the architects to have segregated and secured entry and exit points to and from the court.

2.1.1

Connectivity & Context Major Dhyan Chand National Stadium sits across the road, while India Gate is in close vicinity too. This makes its location contextually rich. The fact that the High Court has been given such a prime spot in Delhi’s map lays emphasis on the importance of the building and its function. The Delhi HC also has many significant buildings abutting its edge. It has National Gallery of Modern Art towards the W-NW & Air-force Officer’s Mess on the S-SW. Structures of historical significance too lie in the neighbourhood, with the Shershah Gate on the East, and Old Fort across Mathura Road. Being a part of Lutyen’s Delhi, a distinct open to built relationship is visible in and around the precinct of the Delhi HC. Most of the surrounding neighourhood shows an Even-Texture; Fine-Grained 24

urban typology. However, the Delhi HC shows a more consolidated building typology. It comprises of large masses, predominantly dedicated to one or two particular functions. This allows for efficient segregation of circulation along with reducing security concerns which come with block disintegration. This leads to the creation of large consolidated open spaces as well, which are suited for a function like a high court. The figureground provides a clearer picture of the same.

Mathura Rd.

India Gate

on ag ex H C-

Major Dhyan Chand Stadium She rsh ah Rd .

National Gallery of Modern Art

Air-Force Officers’ Mess

Old Fort

Delhi High Court Shershah Gate

Fig. 8 Location and Connectivity : Delhi HC

Having large open spaces in and around a high court building solves the purpose of providing spill areas for the excessive number of people who are expected to visit the high court every day. It allows for the pressure on the indoor waiting areas to be reduced. Hence, open & semi-open spaces form an integral part of the design of such public buildings. Also, the planning of a building is an important factor in order to cause or prevent overcrowding. Having a common waiting area for a large number of courtrooms seems to create a problem of overcrowding. A large amount of open space is dedicated to the excessive parking requirement of the Delhi HC, which would be same for any high court building. Fig. 9 Figure-Ground Diagram THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


2.1.2

Multistoreyed Parking (Under Construction)

ZONING & SITE PLANNING •

Zoning of the HC campus is efficient and simple. It is based on basic functional relationships of components and their accessibility for the public. The public and private entry/exit points correspond to the physical placement of these functions on the site (or vise-versa)(Fig 8). The site can hence be divided into three distinct parts based on the publicness of the functions. (Fig 9.)

Judges’ + Admin Block Public Entry Judges’ Entry

Court Block

Security & Support Functions

Currently, there is only surface parking available, which has been positioned in the most public zone (near the lawyers’ lock). This parking is highly inadequate. It was envisioned as a parking for both lawyers and public, but it can accommodate only lawyers’ parking requirements. The public parking is across the road. Hence, the construction of the new multi-storey mechanical parking system becomes imperative. The rear end of the site is efficiently used for services as well as for extension blocks for the court and lawyers’ chambers.

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

Parking

Lawyers’ Entry Lawyers’ Block

Admin. Block

Fig. 10 Zoning and Site Plan

25


Publicness

Low Minimal Public Access

High

Restricted Public Access

Unrestricted Public Access

Administration

Courtrooms Block Judges’ Chambers

Lawyers’ Block

2.1.3

Security

RELATIONSHIP WITH PUBLIC

Services

Fig. 11 Publicness of fuctions of the Delhi HC., and interrelationship of components (Source: Author)

PRIVATE SEMIPRIVATE

Since public access is restricted and regulated within a court complex, the zoning of spaces also strongly reflect this functional requirement.

The site planning of the Delhi High Court shows spacial distribution of blocks according to the public and private entrance points into the site.

The degree of publicness of each function governs the placement of blocks. Fig. 11 shows the publicness of every function and the interrelationship of these functions

PUBLIC

Fig. 12 Site Zoning as per Publicness 26

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


2.1.4

Internal PLANNING & Relationships •

The internal planning is simple and is dedicated to segregation of the two types of circulation : Public & Judges’. The central atrium provides light and spaciousness to the main public waiting area. This triple hight space also has the information about the scheduled cases displayed.

The courtrooms are aligned with the judges’ corridor on one side and the public waiting on the other. This relationship continues through all floors.

There are 34 courtrooms in total, in which 24 are civil courts and 10 are criminal courts.

The waiting areas are insufficient, especially at the upper two floors where 14 courtrooms open in the same space. This coupled with overloaded basic amenities (Drinking water & toilets) can result in a highly taxing experience.

The central waiting space is well lit and ventilated because of the atrium.

Administrative functions like offices, records rooms, notary, etc., are placed in separate administration blocks and also in the extension block The segregation between the judges’ and public circulation has been managed very efficiently. There are absolutely no points of intersections between the two.

Public Circulation Judges’ Circulation

Fig.13 Ground Floor Plan : Showing Public and Private circulation segregation.

Judges’ Circulation Courtrooms

Public Circulation

Fig.14 Relationship Between Public areas-Court rooms-Judges’ areas (Source: Author)

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

27


2.1.5

services & safety •

The placement of the public and judges’ cores correspond to the zoning of the functions efficiently. However, the public core is highly overloaded with only two passenger lifts.

Non air conditioned waiting areas since well ventilated limit the use of air conditioning only to the courtrooms and judges’ chambers.

Fire safety can be an issue since the building has very high occupancy and lacks designated fire staircases. However, the fact that the building is only 3 floors and has a central ramp solve the issue.

Other blocks, which include the courtroom extension block and lawyers’ block show a similar dearth of fire safety, along with overloading, which aggregates the problem

SECURITY • •

C.R.P.F. Checkposts are present at every entry point of the site. Every individual, other than the lawyers, judges and the admin staff is required to have a pass made to be able to enter the court complex. Even with a pass, every person of the general public is required to go through a rigorous security check before entering into any built block, every time.

28

Fig.15 Placement of C.R.P.F. security check-posts with the site(Source: Author)

C.R.P.F. Security check-posts at site entrance level

C.R.P.F. Security check-posts at building entrance level

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


2.1.6

SYMBOLISM & ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION •

The Delhi HC doesn’t have a really strong symbolism attached to the building concept.

Apart from the two murals on either side of the entrance to the main block and the central fountain in the porch, which abstractly depict justice and law, no other reference of any symbolic element could be found.

In the bigger picture, as a complex, the Delhi HC has a sense of dominant presence. It gives a sense of stability amongst chaos.

The first experience with site was underwhelming, because one of the main accesses to the complex, which is the lawyers’ entry, has been ignored and is overcrowded.

The main courtroom block does have an impressive sense of entry, partly because it sits on podium and partly because of the central triple height space.

The atrium does provide natural light but it needs to be substantially supported by artificial light. Also, the courtrooms are totally artificially lit and have no penetration of natural light. It creates a closed and disconnected setting inside the courtroom. The lack of windows addresses the security issue, but the architectural manifestation of the idea doesn’t seem appropriate.

The open space in front of the main block is underutilised.

The complex also lacks public open areas which can hold the large amounts of people flocking in everyday.

The major materials used are reinforced concrete, along with stone cladding on the exterior walls.

Fig.16 Main entrance to the court-rooms block : Delhi High Court

Fig.17 3D massing of the Delhi HC (Source: Author)

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

29


2.1.7

LEARNINGS DIAGRAM

PROGRAMMATIC CONTENT •

Site Area : 60,000 sqm

Ground Coverage

: 17,600 sqm (30%)

Total Built-up

: 64,000 sqm (Approx)

FAR Used : 105%

No. of Floors

No. of Courtrooms

Area of Courtrooms : 60 sqm (180 sqm for Chief Justice Court)

Occupancy of Courtrooms : 30 people

Parking : 421 within the site (Approx)

The diagram is a graphical representation of the contributions of this case study towards the development and ideation of the thesis project. The learnings have been divided into 5 broad categories : •

SITE PLANNING

:4-6

FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS

: 34

SYMBOLISM & CONCEPT

PROGRAM

ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION

The contributions have been rated out of 10. Hence the area covered by joining each point can help plot the learnings drawn. Information and cues about SITE PLANNING, PROGRAM & FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS can be drawn from the Delhi High Court.

2.1.8

KEY LEARNINGS & CONCLUSIONS •

The site planning of the Delhi HC gives cues about zoning of functions with respect to the accessibility and publicness of the functions.

The interrelationships of functions, along with the adjacency of functions could be understood.

The project lacked any particular concept or symbolic markers which could be studied or analysed

The program is smaller than the one at hand in this thesis. However, space allocation and sizes of these spaces could be inferred from the study.

The architectural expression is bold and is appropriate for the function being served. 30

The courtrooms were also very small and cramped, without any natural light. It produced a congested and intimidating environment inside the courtroom.

The strong adherence to security protocols and presence of security troops throughout Architectural the site, along with their basic conveniences Expression hints towards safety and security being a strong design driver.

Site Planning

Program

Functional Relationships

Symbolism & Concept

Fig.18 Showing key learnings under five distinct heads. Rating out of 10 (Source: Author) THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


2.2

caen law court / france

T

he law courts of Caen redefines a new domain of urban planning in the centre of the City. The shape of the building agrees not only with the tradition but of course with the more complex duties of law courts in the 21st century. (ArchDaily, 2013) The law courts at Caen are not equivalent to a High Court, hence not many programmatic or organisational inferences can e drawn. However, it can inform about the interpretation and architectural manifestation of Justice and a courthouse in contemporary times.

2.2.1

Connectivity & Context

Fig.19 View of the Caen Law Courts from the adjoining canal

The accessibility to the court is clean and simple. It has two main roads abutting the site on the north and south side.

Pierre Brethlot Avenue

The south side road, Rue Dumont Avenue is the main public approach road and the north road, Pierre Brethlot Avenue provide the secured access to the judges. (ArchiExpo, 2013)

The surrounding context is predominantly socio cultural. This rings the courthouse right amongst the public realm and helps with the reconnection of the public with the judiciary. A public library is also a part of the same project.

The Caen Canal which runs along the north edge of the site is a venue for the annual rowing competition and other water related social events. The court building becomes a backdrop for these events, thus making it an inseparable part of the festivity.

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

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ven

tA

n mo

200

Fig.20 Google Earth view showing connectivity through road.

31


FIGURE GROUND •

The figure ground shows a clear intent of the architect to design a building which sits in a garden. (Lomholt, 2012) The surrounding context shows a contrasting patterns with a more Coarse grained and fine textured typology.

They lack consolidated open spaces.

2.2.2

ZONING & SITE PLANNING •

Due to the design decision to keep one consolidated lock for all the functions on the court, the site planning becomes simple and efficient.

The front edge of the site (South side) is dedicated to public entry, both pedestrian and vehicular.

The rear end (North side) is reserved for the secured entry and exit of the judges.

The internal functions too are zoned accordingly.

According to the holding capacity of the court, the public parking is sufficient (110 cars)

Judges’ parking is provided inside the building lock.

The public and judges’ circulation both are very short and direct which makes them more efficient. The internal planning corresponds to this.

One end of the site also has a public library which is also the part of the same project. These blocks share the public green. 32

Fig.21 Figure ground study of the Caen Law Courts. France(Source: Author)

Judges’ Entry / Exit

Landscaped green For Public Public Parking

Pedestrian Entry Fig.22 Site plan of the Caen Law Courts (ArchDaily,2012) THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


2.2.3

internal planning & relationships

Due to the institutional structure of the judicial system, the judges’ circulation mixes with the jury’s circulation and hence calls for the creation of restricted areas. The court lacks any kind of lawyers’ chambers.

An orthogonal pattern constitutes the base for the internal organisation of the law courts.

The main rooms are adja­cent to the facades and the corridors throughout the building always end up at the facades, resulting in good lighting and comfortable working areas.

The first floor is marked by the protruding glazed horizontal band. The floor accommodates the two storey high court rooms but it is also surrounded by an external and comfortable layer for the attending audience of the court.

The passive and active strategies ensure the building to achieve low energy consumption: a very compact volume, a double skin façade system and a bioclimatic atrium helps to reduce heat loss while increasing thermal inertia; geothermal heat pump brings both heating and cooling by using renewable energy. (ArchDaily, 2013)

From the main entrance, there is an axis leading directly to the middle of the building. The circular centre spans all 5 floors and it is the heart of the law courts: a landmark and a parameter for the interior area.

Courtrooms

Fig.23 Caen Law Courts Ground floor plan (Source: www.archDaily.com)

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

Fig.24 Caen Law Courts First floor plan (Source: www.archDaily.com) 33


2.2.4

PROGRAMMATIC CONTENT • •

Site Area : 9,000 sqm Ground Coverage : 2,100 sqm (23%)

Total built-up

FAR Used : 105%

No. of Floors

: 5

No. of Courtrooms

:6

Area of Courtrooms

: Varies

Occupancy of Courtrooms : Varies

Parking : 250 cars

: 9,500 sqm

There is a major difference in the scale of this project and the one at hand in this thesis. There is also a difference in the institutional structure of both the court complexes. The lack of any sort of lawyers’ block is one of the major differences. Hence there could be no strong learnings derived in these respects. The difference in scale is reflected in many other facets and hence becomes a major point of concern before considering any design move. Public Circulation Courtrooms

Judges’ Circulation

Fig.25 Relationship Between Public areas-Court rooms-Judges’ areas (Source: Author)

Offices

Court rooms & Delieration rooms Public Areas

Fig.26 Section of the Caen Law Courts (ArchDaily,2012) 34

Fig.27 Central Atrium of the Caen Law Courts (ArchDaily,2012) THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


2.2.5

SYMBOLISM & ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION •

The building tries to depict the concept of a “Building in a Garden”

The simple form corresponds to the fundamental need of jurisdiction. The cube underlines by its form the importance of jurisdiction by the means of architecture.

A horizontal band highlights the first floor where the court rooms are located. In so doing, this new law courts communicate a message both to its users and to on-lookers: transparency and balance.

The stringent shape also signifies stability and order.

The central atrium which lies at the heart of the building flushes the entire central space with light. The tree at its centre provides a calming influence in the space.

The building appears light and floating because of the extruded floor and the facade treatment.

The courtrooms are flooded with light from the sides. This tends to lighten up the entire courtroom.

This move is good for promoting transparency and infusing a sense of ease, but it is also distracting in certain ways. Strategic use of light, especially daylight, could evoke other emotions like responsibility, focus and commitment.

The courtrooms also show symbolic imagery depicting justice, law and the institution.

A large open public space on the Western side of the lock is of great significance. It maintains a social connection between the court and the people. It materialises the past image of the court when people used to relate to the court and its functions and used its green lawns to play and relax.

Materials used are concrete, glass and metal.

Fig.28 Image showing the exterior facade of the Caen Law Court. A modernist architectural expression

The combination of an opaque facade and a transparent glass protrusion gives a sense of disconnection between the two parts of the courthouse : the public part which includes the courtrooms and the administrative parts. Fig.29 Showing key learnings under five distinct heads. Rating out of 10 (Source: Author)

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

35


2.2.6

KEY LEARNINGS & CONCLUSIONS •

Major learnings from this case examples revolve around the aspects of architectural expression and symbolism

The lack of coherence of the program limits any inferences which can e drawn in the subject.

Site planning hints towards how public space can be interwoven with more restrictive and secured functions of a courthouse.

LEARNINGS DIAGRAM Judging by the analysis diagram, the major contributions which can be drawn from this particular case study are in the realm of ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION AND SYMBOLISM.

Site Planning Fig.31 Main entrance plaza of the Caen Law Court (ArchDaily,2012)

The simplicity in the form and its Architectural relationship with the idea of jurisdiction is Expression one of the major derivatives from the study.\

The presence of a public library within the precinct of the courthouse hints towards a more inclusive program. It is a function which is dedicated to the public within a more closed function of a court. This could go a long way in integrating the public realm with the otherwise opaque and cutoff fucntioning of a court.

Program

Functional Relationships

Symbolism & Concept

Fig.30 Showing key learnings under five distinct heads. Rating out of 10 (Source: Author)

Fig.32 View of the courthouse along with the new Public Library (ArchDaily,2012)

Fig.33 View of the Courtrooms corridor (ArchDaily,2012) 36

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


2.3

Haifa courthouse / israel

H

aifa is the main northern city of Israel, situated on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea, on the slops of Mount Carmel. The courthouse in Haifa is the highest court for jurisdiction in the district. It is designed by Chyutin Architects. The architectural expression is strong and gives the complex visual weight: something one relates to a court building. The building is treated as an organised “Law Factory”.

2.3.1

Connectivity & Context •

The building site is located at Haifa’s downtown area, between two roads that define its boundary. The lower avenue serves as a main city thoroughfare, linking the city of Haifa to the northern part of Israel.

The topographical situation is unique as the topographical soaring of Mount Carmel begins at the site’s longitude parallel. As a result, the building’s positioning is “double faced,” i.e., one side facing the mountain and the other facing the sea. (ArchDaily, 2011)

The interior of the structure is designed as a covered urban system. The courthouse’s entrance space is the continuation of the external pedestrian street, which is defined by the office buildings and stores along its length. This design approach though contrasting with the courts functional requirements, brings in a sense of inclusivity in the space.

Since Haifa is a growing urban center, the site is surrounded by buildings which are under construction. The urban context of the courthouse, hence, is going to be very rich and active in future.

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

Fig.34 Haifa Courthouse SW facade (Archdaily.2013)

0

200

Fig.35 Google Earth image showing connectivity 37


FIGURE GROUND •

The figure ground clearly shows how the urban plaza connects over both sides of the building, going through the built block.

The Haifa courthouse shows coherence with the existing urban typology.

It follows a Coarse grained-Uneven textured typology.

2.3.2

Fig.36 Figure ground study of the Haifa Courthouse, Israel(Source: Author)

ZONING & SITE PLANNING •

A consolidated built block provides a suitable response to a small site.

The central public thoroughfare connecting the East and the West plazas is the main feature of the design.

Its creates an enclosed urban environment within the court block.

Basement parking has been provided for all the cars coming into the site. This can however pose a security threat.

The public thoroughfare has the courtrooms on one side and the admin offices on the other.

The building shows proper climatic response in the way that the longer west side of the building consists of very less openings. This reduces the heat gain for the building.

Also, the public plaza falls on the more comfortable East side. 38

Courtrooms

Admin. Offices

0

50

Fig.37 Site Planning of Haifa Courthouse (Source: Author) THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


2.3.3

internal planning & relationships •

All internal planning revolves around the central public space. It is developed like an enclosed unban plaza.

One one side lie the courtrooms and waiting areas and on the other side are the administrative offices.

The judges’ chambers lie on the subordinate floors above the public waiting areas.

Close relationship between the judges’ chambers and courtroom lock is maintained in order to simplify circulation. However, points of intersection between the two circulations can e found. These intersections can e avoided y regulating public movement.

Courtrooms

Judge Cores

BB’

Public Cores

Public Waiting

Public Cores AA’

Central Public Thoroughfare Admin. Offices

Jury deliberation rooms are provided between a set of two courtrooms. Fig.38 Ground Floor plan of Haifa Courthouse, Israel showing zoning of spaces (ArchDaily,2013)

SECTION AA’

Fig.39 Section showing the public thoroughfare, Haifa Courthouse, Israel (ArchDaily,2013)

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

39


2.3.4

PROGRAMMATIC CONTENT

Courtrooms

Site Area : 12,000 sqm

Ground Coverage

Total built-up : 50,000 sqm

FAR Used : 400% (Approx)

No. of Floors

: 11

No. of Courtrooms

: 73

Area of Courtrooms

: 85 - 90 sqm

Occupancy of Courtrooms : 40 - 50

Parking : 5 Basement levels (approx 1300 cars)

Judges’ Circulation

: 9,000 sqm (75%)

Public Circulation

Fig.40 Relationship Between Public areas-Court rooms-Judges’ areas (Source: Author)

SECTION BB’

Fig.41 Section across the courtrooms and basement Courtrooms

Parking

Fig.42 Section across the courtrooms and basement 40

Fig.43 The North end plaza entrance

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


2.2.5

SYMBOLISM & ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION •

The building has been foreseen and developed as an abode of light. Natural light has been allowed to penetrate into all of the courtrooms. A flush of natural light on one of the side walls of the courtroom provide a un-nerving experience in these areas.

The judges’ library and the central public plaza also enjoy similar well-lit environments. Glass atrium at both ends do the trick.

The Haifa courthouse has a distinct brutalist architectural expression which goes well with the function. The interiors are contrastingly well lit and have low visual weight.

• •

The public functions open into the central space, like opening into an urban plaza or street.

Fig.45 Public Entrance Atrium (ArchDaily,2013)

Fig.44 The protruding 4 floor high atrium

Materials used are concrete, glass, wood, metal and stone cladding.

Fig.46 Haifa Courthouse : Judges’ Library (www.flicker.com)

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

Fig.47 Haifa Courthouse : Courtrooms (ArchDaily, 2013) 41


2.3.6

KEY LEARNINGS & CONCLUSIONS Site Planning

Architectural Expression

Program

Functional Relationships

Symolism & Concept

Major learnings from this case examples revolve around the aspects of architectural expression and symbolism

The lack of coherence of the program limits any inferences which can e drawn in the subject.

Site planning hints towards how public space can be interwoven with more restrictive and secured functions of a courthouse.

The simplicity in the form and its relationship with the idea of jurisdiction is one of the major derivatives from the study.

Fig.48 Showing key learnings under five distinct heads. Rating out of 10 (Source: Author)

LEARNINGS DIAGRAM The major contributions which can be drawn from this particular case study are in the realm of SYMBOLISM & CONCEPT ; ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION

42

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


2.4

case study matrix DELHI HIGH COURT, INDIA

CAEN LAW COURT, FRANCE

HAIFA COURTHOUSE, ISRAEL

SPECIFICATIONS

Site Area : 60,000 sqm G.C. : 23% Built-up : 64,000 sqm F.A.R. used : 105 % No. of Floors : 4-6 No. of Courtrooms : 34

Site Area : 9,000 sqm G.C. : 23% Built-up : 9,500 sqm F.A.R. used : 105 % No. of Floors :5 No. of Courtrooms : 17

Site Area : 60,000 sqm G.C. : 75% Built-up : 50,000 sqm F.A.R. used : 400 % No. of Floors : 11 No. of Courtrooms : 73

CONCEPTUAL UNDERPINNING

Solving the functional needs of an overloaded judicial system, along with estalishing an individual image of the HC .

Redefining the domain of urban planning with a novel approach to court house planning. The form of the uilding corresponds to the local eliefs along with handling the new age duties of a law court.

A systematic approach to courthouse planning, regarding the structure as a “Law Factory”

SITE PLANNING

BUILDING TYPOLOGY

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

43


2.4

SITE IMPACT

DELHI HIGH COURT, INDIA

CAEN LAW COURT, FRANCE

HAIFA COURTHOUSE, ISRAEL

Site allows segregated entry/exit points as per user groups.

Site allows segregated entry/exit points as per user groups.

Site allows segregated entry/exit points as per user groups.

Limits the possibility of open public spaces.

Large public open areas are provided

Building orientation is governed by the site

Building orientation & form are independent of the site

No public green areas possible on the site. Public spaces are incorporated within the site as urban plaza.

Building orientation & form are along site lines.

Responds to the urban typology: Coarse grain-Uneven Texture

Since a part of a growing urban center, it lacks significant context.

Function independent of functions in the context.

CONTEXTUAL RESPONSE

Responds to the urban typology: Coarse grain-Even Texture

Architectural expression corresponds to the context of Lutyen’s Delhi

44

Function independent of functions in the context.

Non-responsive to the urban typology: Fine grain-Uneven Texture

Architectural expression tries to break away from the existing ways. Responds to the idea of jurisdiction.

Function independent of functions in the context.

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


2.4

DELHI HIGH COURT, INDIA FUNCTIONAL ORGANISATION

CAEN LAW COURT, FRANCE

HAIFA COURTHOUSE, ISRAEL

Judges’ Circulation

Public Circulation

Courtrooms

VERTICAL ZONING

INCLUSIVITY IN PROGRAM

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

Ground Floor : Courtrooms ; Public waiting ; Lawyers’ Library Upper Floors : Courtrooms; Members’ Lounge ; Public Waiting

Offices Court Public

All Public functions on the Ground Floor

Public street on the ground floor along with Courtrooms on all floors

Courtrooms : First Floor

Basement : Parking

Offices

Public central space around an atrium

Integration of urban plaza within the block

Large green open space adjoining the structure.

Public functions have a feel of being a part of an urban plaza.

: Upper Floors

No special feature or consideration which could highlight this aspect of design.

45


2.4

DELHI HIGH COURT, INDIA

CAEN LAW COURT, FRANCE

HAIFA COURTHOUSE, ISRAEL

The form is dominant which suits the function of a HC

Clean rectilinear form symbolises the order and stability of the judicial system.

The pure geometric form of the structure establishes a relation with the fundamental order of the judicial system.

Presence of natural light has been given special significance in the design of this courthouse.

The symbolism in the form corresponds to the European ideals of justice and judiciary.

The use of the protruding glass floor gives an impression of a floating block along with symbolising segregation.

Brutalist design expression looks dark and imposing from the outside, but the interiors are well lit and are devoid of such a feeling. In fact its inviting and pleasant.

The material finishes provide an extra dimension towards ensuring that the building has substantial visual weight. This does justice to the function the structure is serving.

SYMBOLISM & EXPRESSION

Lacks direct symbolic imagery.

The architectural expression gives an impression of permanence and rigidity.

The architectural expression shows low regard to the existing built environment.

KEY LEARNINGS SITE PLANNING

ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION

PROGRAM

46

FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS

SYMBOLISM & CONCEPT

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

47


48

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


Chapter 03 :

Program analysis

This chapter is built around the project requirements and its brief. This chapter is about the analysis & readings of the program. Tangible design drivers have been extracted at the end of it which would be major contributors to the overall design scheme. It details out the scope and project profile, along with the institutional structure and relationship diagram for the project.

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

49


3.1

area break-up PERMISSIBLE

CURRENT

PROPOSED

Site Area

40 Acres (1,61,874 sqm)

40 Acres (1,61,874 sqm)

40 Acres (1,61,874 sqm)

Ground Coverage

35% (56,665 sqm)

33% (53,419 sqm)

19% (30,700 sqm)

F.A.R. 1.5

0.68

0.7

Total Built-Up

2,42,811 sqm

1,10,850 sqm

1,11,687 sqm

Max. Height

Not Applicable

20-24m

80m-85m

The program for a High Court Complex is very extensive and diverse. It is a complex project by virtue of its functionality and relationships. There are 5 main functions/components (as prescribed by the brief for the new Lucknow High Court): • • • • •

The Main Court-house Block The Judges’ Block The Bar Association Block Public Conveniences Block Services & Parking

However, this program has largely ignored a very important stakeholder, the common public. Since the birth of the judicial system, during the Greek period, courthouses have been public spaces. Courthouses were celebrated as symbols of justice and freedom, protection and liberty. They were often situated with other public buildings like post offices or banks. Their lawns became picnic destinations during holidays. This is no longer a scenario. There is a strong disconnect between the people and the institution, and architecture is doing its part in widening the divide. The high, drab and depressing boundary walls, congestion and aimless waiting will definitely not do the trick. 50

To address this issue, a the program has been tweaked. A few minor components like a Public Library and a Legal Aid Cell, along with a living museum have been proposed. These will be supplemented by restaurants and dedicated open spaces for the people visiting the court and the city at large. These components aim to bring the public interest back to the courthouse and also try and inform them about better human, social and democratic values. Also, due to the excessive influx of people everyday, there is a huge parking requirement. Thus, conventional surface and basement parking methods would lead to wastage of large tracts of green areas. Hence a new Multi-level, robotic parking system has been considered.

AREAS (sqm) MAIN COURT BLOCK

39,715 sqm

44%

JUDGES’ BLOCK

5,510 sqm

06%

LAWYERS’ BLOCK

20,790 sqm

23%

PUBLIC UTILITIES

7,150 sqm

08%

LIBRARY & LEGAL AID

4,000 sqm

05%

SERVICES

3,300 sqm

03%

PARKING

32,120 sqm

11%

TOTAL

1,11,687 sqm Fig.49 Area Break-up Chart (Source: Author) THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


3.2

Fig.50 Functional Relationship Diagram (Source: Author)

Functional relationships

LAWYERS’ BLOCK

A High Court Complex is one building typology where functional relationship and resolution is of great importance. It comprises of components with very contrasting and varied user groups attached to it. The circulation and flow of these varied user groups has great implications on the design of the building and help in forming a conceptual framework for design. The relationships of these spaces within each component and between different components has to be give due importance. Also, strict protocols, both security and otherwise, have to be adhered to while designing a courthouse. Public access in a High Court building is very limited and segregated. Normal public is allowed at very limited places within a High Court. Thus, public circulation and zoning of such identified spaces along the movement lines of the public becomes essential. Similarly, the Judges’ block requires high levels of security and a completely segregated circulation patterns. Non Intersecting Junctions

Lawyers’ Lounge

Lawyers’ Entry

Parking

Lawyers’ Library

Chambers

Meeting Halls

Cafe/Canteen

Intersecting Junctions

JUDGES’ BLOCK

PUBLIC BLOCK

From Staff Parking

From Staff Parking

Drivers’ /PA/PS Lounge

Different for all user groups

Judges’ Parking

Judges’ Lounge

Judges’ Arrival Lounge

Judges’ Chambers

Judges need to have a completely segregated & secured entrance

Directly Accessible for the public

Cafe/Canteen

Admin & Offices

Judges’ Library

Records Room/s

Secured Access

Courtrooms

Restaurants/ cafe

Notary/Typist

Reception/ Info. Center

Legal Aid Cell

Public Library

Public Entry

Different Access Points

Meeting Halls

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

Writ Section

Public Parking

Public Utilities

51


3.3

area program & Analysis S. No.

Activity

Spaces No. of Units

Total Area (sqm)

Judges' Court

55

130

7150

Judges' Chambers with Waiting Area

55

54

2970

Toilets

55

9

495

P.A./P.S.

55

24

1320

A1

Courts & Chambers for Judges

TOTAL

OPEN SPACE RELATION NO

Direct

Indirect Not Req.

Courts & Chambers for Sr. Judges

11935 Court Room

1

180

180

Chambers with Waiting Area

1

100

100

Toilet

1

9

9

P.A./P.S.

1

36

36

Visitors

1

25

25

Meeting Room

1

80

TOTAL A3

YES

COURT BUILDING

A

A2

HVAC

Requirement Area/unit (sqm)

Court & Chamber for Chief Justice

Court Room

1

300

Chambers for Visiting Judges

TOTAL 52

300

Office

1

24

24

Chambers with Waiting Rooms

1

120

120

Toilet

1

10

10

P.A./P.S.

1

16

16

Visitors' waiting areas

1

48

48

Conference Room

1

300

300

Dining

1

500

500

Sitting Room for Judges

1

50

50

Residential Suite for Chief Justice

1

150

150

Resgistrar General Office with toilet

1

35

35

TOTAL A4

80 430

1553 Chambers with waiting area

10

54

540

Toilet

10

9

90

P.A./P.S.

10

24

240 870 THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


3.3

A5

Judges' Library

Reading Area for 50 people

1

100

100

Stack area for 3Lac Books

1

2400

2400

TOTAL A6

Reception

A7 A8

2500 Reception with waiting area

1

50

50

Information Center

1

50

50

P.B.X. Room

1

40

40

TOTAL A9

Computer Center

140 Computer Room

1

300

300

Backup (U.P.S.) Room

1

30

30

Waiting Area & Staff Area

1

30

TOTAL A10

Meeting Hall

Meeting hall for 500 people

1

750

TOTAL A11

Advocate General

Governtment Advocate

750 750

Chamber with ante room

1

30

Toilet

1

5

5

P.A./P.S.

1

16

16

Waiting for officers

1

15

15

TOTAL A12

30 360

30

66 Chamber with ante room

1

30

30

Toilet

1

5

5

P.A./P.S.

1

15

15

Waiting

1

10

10

Computer room

1

15

15

TOTAL

75

A13

Chief Standing Counsel

Same as Above

2

75

150

A14

Additional Chief Standing Counsel

Same as above

4

75

300

A15

State Law officers

Chamber with waiting area

60

20

1200

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

53


3.3

P.A./P.S.

60

15

900

Toilet

60

5

300

TOTAL A16

Library

2850 Reading area for 60 people

1

120

120

Stack for 1 Lac books

1

600

600

TOTAL A17

Office

720 Office Space for 200 people

1

1000

General Record Room

1

50

TOTAL A18

Meeting Hall

Copying

50 1050

Meeting Hall for 60 people

1

90

Canteen

1

100

TOTAL A19

1000

90 100 190

Space for 80 people

1

250

250

Electrostat Machine Room

1

50

50

Printing Press room

1

50

50

Stores

2

25

TOTAL

50 400

A20

Record

Record Room for 3Lac files

1

2500

2500

A21

Nazrat

Area for 10 Nazirs

1

60

60

Assistant Nazir

1

6

6

Stores

4

100

400

TOTAL

2966

A22

Accounts

Cashier

1

75

75

A23

Adminstrative Department

Office

2

200

400

Records Room

2

50

100

Office

1

100

100

Records Room

1

50

50

A24

Confidential Section 54

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


3.3

A25

P.R.O.

10 Officials

1

50

50

Officer's room with toilet

1

20

20

Waiting

1

20

TOILET A26

Writ Section

Space for 1000 people

1

5000

5000

Filing for 6000 files

1

3600

3600

TOTAL

8600

A27

Common Hall for P.A./P.S.

1

90

A28

Cause List Section

1

90

TOTAL A29

Registrar

1

40

P.A./P.S. room

1

10

10

Drawing Room

1

15

15

Office

1

15

15

Toilet

1

5

5

1

15

15

Meeting room

1

20

1

A31

Joint Registrar

Chamber with waiting area Office

120

120

5

20

100

5

15

75

P.A./P.S. Room

5

15

75

Toilet

5

5

25

Chamber

10

15

150

P.A./P.S. room

10

10

100

Toilet

10

5

Total

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

20 120

Same as Above

Officer on Special Duty (O.S.D.)

40

Computer room

Additional Registrar

A33

90

Chamber with waiting room

A30

Assistant Registrar

90

180

TOTAL

A32

20 815

50 695

Chamber

1

15

15

P.S./P.A. Room

1

15

15 55


3.3

A35

Bench Secretary

Toilet

1

5

5

Office for 60 People

1

600

600

Head Bench Secretary

1

15

15

Toilet

1

50

TOTAL A36

General Toilets

50 700

Public Toilets (M&F)

10

100

1000

Staff Toilets (M&F)

10

75

750

TOTAL

1750

TOTAL FOR SECTION A

39715

JUDGES' BLOCK

B B1

Judges Club

Lounge

1

100

100

T.V. Room

1

250

250

Reading Room

1

60

60

Carrom / Chess

1

60

60

Toilet

1

50

TOTAL

50 520

B2

Recreation Center for Officers

Same as above

1

520

520

B3

Recreation Center for Staff

Common Room

1

100

100

Chess/ Carrom

1

60

60

Toilet (M/F)

1

40

TOTAL B4

Canteen for Staff

Dining area for 250 people

1

350

350

Kitchen

1

100

100

Toilet (M/F)

1

40

40

TOTAL B5

Dispensary

B6

Cycle Stand 56

40 720

490

Cycle/Scooter/Motor cycle Stand

1

200

200

1

3500

3500 THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


3.3

B7

Union Hall

Hall

1

60

Toilet (M/F)

1

20

TOTAL

5510

LAWYERS' BLOCK

C C1

Bar Association Hall

C2

Canteen

C3

C4

C6

20 3780

TOTAL FOR SECTION B

C5

60

1

2000

2000

1

490

490

Bar Library

1

2300

2300

Advocate Chambers for 500 Advocates

500

18

9000

20

50

1000

1

6000

Same as B4

Office for Govt. & Corporate Standing Counsel Lawyers' Clerks' Shed

TOTAL FOR SECTION C

6000

20790

PUBLIC UTILITIES

D D1

Post Office

1

100

100

D2

Bank

1

200

200

D3

Stamp Vendors

1

200

200

1

1500

1500

1

2000

2000

D4

D5

Typist Shed for 500 typists; Photocopying; PCO Litigants' Shed for 2000 people

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

57


3.3

D6

Canteen

D7 D8

Same as B4

1

500

500

Co-operative Stores

1

135

135

Parking

1

2500

2500

TOTAL FOR SECTION D

7135

ADDITIONAL PROGRAM COMPONENTS

E E1

Living Museum

E2

Public Library

E3

Legal Aid Cell

Galleries

N.A.

N.A.

Storage

1

200

200

Toilet(M/F)

2

50

100

1

2500

2500

1

1000

TOTAL FOR SECTION E

N.A.

1000

4,000

ADDITIONAL FACILITIES & SERVICES

F F3

Subinspector's Room

F4

Dormitory for 45 people

1

12

12

Sleeping Area

1

225

225

Dining

1

60

60

Kitchen

1

30

30

Toilets

1

40

40

F5

Security with Barracks at each Entry

1

500

500

F6

P.C.O.s

10

5

50

F7

Drivers' Lounge with Toilets

1

150

150

F8

Store

1

50

50

58

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


3.3

F9

A.C. Plant Room

1

1000

1000

F10

Generator Room

1

100

100

F11

Electric Sub-Station

1

200

200

TOTAL FOR SECTION F

2417

PARKING

G Parking for Judges

72

35

2520

Parking for Lawyers

600

18.5

11100

Pubic Parking

1000

18.5

18500

TOTAL PARKING REQUIREMENT

1672

TOTAL BUILT-UP AREA

The above area program table also contains analysis of these areas on the basis of whether they required HVAC : Yes / No and the relationship with OPEN SPACE : Direct / indirect / No specific requirement

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

32,120

111,687

Through this analysis one can figure out the HVAC load of the building along with the treatment of the facade, whether sealed or one with openings for natural ventilation. It also explains the placement of spaces with respect to open spaces. Open spaces refer to spaces not only at the ground level but also balconies and terraces at upper levels.

59


60

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


Chapter 04 :

site analysis site information

This chapter draws readings and inferences from the site and its surroundings in order to derive specific design strategies which will e suited specifically to this site. It contains information about the site at the precinct,

SITE AREA :

PERMISSIBLE FAR:

neighbourhood and city levels. This chapter

1.5

helps in drawing conclusions from the site

PERMISSIBLE BUILT-UP: 2,42,811 sqm

which could in-return facilitate towards a site

HEIGHT RESTRICTION: No Ht. Restriction

specific design.

SETBACKS :

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

40 acres

25m front ; 9m Other sides

61


4.1

SITE CONNECTIVITY •

The site for the new High Court is situated at a very prime location, bounded by a major highway and arterial roads on all sides, making it well connected from all directions.

The Gomtinagar Neighbourhood is one of the fastest growing areas of the city. Many ambitious and large scale projects in Lucknow are planned in and around Gomtinagar.

There are Bus-Stands at regular intervals around the site, which make it accessible even further. However, the public transport in the city is through auto-rickshaws or personal vehicles.

The highway (NH28 / Faizabad Road) is proposed to be 75m, however, under current conditions, due to encroachment and past constructions, the width is reduced to 30m

The site for the proposed high court is a lavish 40 acres, which will pose no hindrance in the design process.

The arterial roads present by the site can prove to be highly efficient in managing Secured Entrances & Exits, Service Entrances & Exits etc..

SHAH

EED

PATH

NH 28

GOMTINAGAR BY-PASS

PERMANENCE OF THE VIEWS INTO THE SITE

N

0 62

400

The connecting elevated highways on 3 sides provide a good vantage points for viewing the site. The low high context also proves to be helpful.

The views from these vantage points are rather permanent in nature because the blocks which lie between these points and the site are predominantly government buildings which have a strong tendency to remain so for years to come. The new, high rise developments will occur on the other side of the main Shaheed Path. Fig.51 SITE connectivity diagram (Source: Author) THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


4.2

SITE & SURROUNDINGS The site is surrounded by dense but low-rise development. The figure ground clearly shows the building typologies. Also, the built to open relationship can also be visualised. At the immediate neighbourhood level, it can be noticed that the built masses are small but densely placed, thus leaving out large common open areas. Across the main access road, NH-28,(towards the North side) there are groups unregulated settlements, whereas the site is surrounded by institutional and government buildings on the South and West side. Towards the East lies the Gomtinagar residential district, which has a distinct row housing character. The site, hence, is encountered by very contrasting urban typologies on all sides. This calls for a distinct response to the context on all sides. 100

0

N Fig.52 Figure Ground : Site (Source: Author)

Neighbourhood Land-Use •

The site lies in the ZONE IV developmental area as per the Lucknow Master Plan

The site is largely surrounded by Institutional land-use, consisting of government buildings. It has buildings like the Human Rights’ Commission Office, Audit Bhawan, Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital & Medical College, C.R.P.F. Office, IndiraGandhi Pratishthan, H.A.L. etc., as its neighbours.

However, the predominating land-use of the entire neighbourhood is Residential.

This residential land-use is divided into plotted housing on one side, scarce multistorey housing towers in between and unregulated/unplanned settlement of the other side (across NH28)

The area is also sprawling with umpteen commercial activities, with malls, retail outlets, L.S.C.s etc., springing up on both sides of the highway.

Studying the land-use can hint about the type of neighbourhood surrounding the site, thus informing the design of the building. RESIDENTIAL (Planned

Plotted Housing; Housing Towers; Unplanned/Unregulated Housing)

COMMERCIAL (Shops;

Malls; Private Offices; Theatres; L.S.C.s; Showrooms etc..)

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

INSTITUTIONAL (Schools; Col-

leges; Government Offices; Services; Hospitals & Health-Care etc..)

1000m

500m

0

300

N Fig.53 Landuse Plan : Site (Source: Author) 63


4.3

Accessibility

Probable public entry/exit points. Adjacency with the main public access to the site (NH28) will allow easy and open entry into the site. Public functions like restaurants and recreation areas, parks, landscaped courts etc., can be zoned around these areas.

N

gomtinagar bypass

BUS STOPS

nh 28

Judgesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; entry/exit and circulation is a crucial consideration. Security protocols have to be adhered to. A segregated safe access can be achieved through these points on the site.

pic up bhawan road service road

Advocate and litigants also enter from the north side of the site. shaheed path

0

100 Fig.54 Accessibility via road and public transport : Site (Source: Author)

64

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


4.4

DEVELOPMENTS ACROSS NH28

N

context

Human Rights’ Commission Office

Audit Bhavan Unregulated Settlements

SERVICE ROAD ALONG NH28

INDIRA GANDHI PRATISHTHAN

The precinct level context largely consists of institutional and government buildings, along with both planned and unregulated residential zones.

Such a context does not call for a strong contextual response for a building like a High Court.

Thus, the building can be designed with broader ideas and concepts which encompass a larger meaning, going beyond the limits of the precinct and its context.

The context also lacks any strong architectural language or idea which needs to be adhered to. This allows the HC to have an identity of its own and rather define an architectural language of the area. The new HC could itself become a strong context for the buildings to come up in the future

Commercial & Office Tower

Gomtinagar Plotted Housing PRIVATE OFFICE BUILDING Fig.55 Precinct level context (Source: Author)

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

65


4.5

SURROUNDING PHOTOGRAPHS

Fig.55 Part of Bar Association block under construction (Source: Author) 66

Fig.56 Corporate Office Tower (Source: Author)

Fig.57 Government Office (Source: Author)

Fig.58 Lucknow High Court : From the adjoining road (Source: Author)

Fig.59 Audit Bhawan (Source: Author)

Fig.60 Part of Judgesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; block under construction (Source: Author)

Fig.61 Human Rights Commission Office (Source: Author) THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


4.6

CLIMATIC RESPONSE & INFERENCES Due to the North-South orientation of the site, solar response becomes a strong criteria. For the same reason, an axis which is tilted at an angle of 60deg. From the normal is chosen, as it best suits the climatic and solar conditions of the region. This orientation affectively blocks the harsh setting west-northwest sun, along with preventing the harsh summer loos from penetrating through the site

N-S AXIS

STRENGTH • Regular and rectilinear shape of the site.

WEAKNESS • Varying context makes it difficult to have a distinct contextual response.

North-South Orientation of the site.

Good connectivity with the rest of the city.

Difficult to draw conceptual bindings from the site or the city.

Site area or regulations pose no hinderance in design exploration.

Site lacks any special inherent character.

Area is too much as compared to requirement

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

OPPORTUNITIES • Due to large site area, vast open spaces can be created, which can be used by the city at large. •

No height restriction.

The function and its importance gives an opportunity to build an iconic building.

THREATS • Site lies in seismic ZONE III. •

High commercial activity near the site. This is conflicting to the nature of spaces required inside the campus.

67


68

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


Chapter 05 :

Technology

This chapter highlights the major technology drivers of the program. It talks about various aspects of structures, services and sustainable practices which have been incorporated in the design of this project. It consists of load calculations and hence architectural space allocations for various services involved in the smooth functioning of the machine, which is the building.

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

69


5.1

Structural system COURTROOM TOWER •

Hybrid structural system has been used.

Steel trabeated structure has been considered in order to achieve large cantilevers. (6m)

Shear cores have also been provided for structural stability and earthquake mitigation. Site lies in Earthquake Zone 3

Symmetrical placement of the shear cores has been maintained.

Site is suitable for construction and no special measures need to be taken, like deep pile foundations or treatment against corrosion etc..

OTHER BLOCKS •

Steel beams & columns is the preferred structural system for other blocks as well.

This is mainly due to possibility of larger spans with smaller member sizes.

Modular construction is also facilitated by this system.

The structural system is very simple and straightforward, largely because of large number of repetitive functions and their complex interrelationships.

There is a coherence in the design due to the structural system being same and simple.

Service floors are used in the judges’ and lawyers’ blocks to transfer shafts and change column grids 70

Fire staircase wells will act like binding shear cores on both sides of the tower. The core also houses Judges’ lifts.

Fig.62 Diagram showing structural systems (Source: Author)

650Mmx 650mm columns which are placed on a grid of 10mx10m support the structure along with shear cores.

6M cantilevers are projected in alternate directions, above and below the central floor of a three floor set, followed by a refuge floor.

The central shear core houses all the building services like AHU room, electrical room, toilets along with lifts for visitors and lawyers.

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


50m

5.2

N

fire safety •

Fire-Escape staircases have been provided within every 45m (22.5m radius for each fire escape.

This has been considered as the basic thumb-rule for the design of the judges’ and lawyers’ block.

The courtroom tower also satisfies the given condition.

FHCs (Fire Hydrant Cabinets) are provided with fire escape staircase at appropriate intervals

FHC dimensions : 1200mm x 750mm

OHT of capacity 20,000 lt has been provided above every wet riser (FHC). The capacity is as per NBC 2015.

The tank dimensions hence are 3m x 7m x 1m (21cum) above fire staircases.

Placement of Fire Escape; OHT; FHC in tower block HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

Placement of OHT at site level

71


5.2

50m

N

Placement of Fire Escape & FHC at site level 72

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


5.3

N

h.v.a.c. system •

Two types of systems are used :

VRV system for Judges’ Block & Lawyers’ chambers

Public waiting areas in the courtroom blocks have been cooled using passive techniques like stack cooling and by the use of jalis

50m

Central cooling system with water-cooled chiller plant in the basement (for courtroom block & large volumes in lawyers’ block)

COURTROOM BLOCK

VRV systems are placed on the rooftops of the blocks which need it.

RAMP TO BASEMENT

LOAD CALCULATION: As per standards, 1ton / 50sqm has been considered as loading for air conditioned spaces. (Ht. : 4.5m)

LAWYERS’ LIB. + LOUNGE

Hence,

PUBLIC LIB.

Total Built-up area with air conditioning : 30,000 sqm Total HVAC load :

INFORMATION CEN. + CANTEEN

30,000 / 50

600 ton Load on Central A.C.:

LAWYERS’ BLOCK PUBLIC ARE LARGE AREAS

390 ton

Load on VRV system.: 210 ton

AHU ROOM

AHU rooms have been provided in the center of the floors which require central air conditioning, along with the core. This is to ensure equitable distribution.

AHU room size : 5m x 4m

Duct Size:

750mm x 750mm

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

Placement of Chiller plant and Major load zones 73


5.4

RAINWATER HARVESTING SYSTEM A new generation water harvesting system named Rigofill has been proposed. It is a modular system which can be efficiently placed underground and provides extraordinary performance and storage capacity. It is 3 times more efficient than the regular concrete water harvesting tanks. It can store 402lt of water in the occupied space of 422lt. This will reduce the amount of area required for providing rainwater harvesting tanks. Efficiency : 95% The basic dimensions of one module are 800mm x 800mm x 660mm. After stacking, an impermeable membrane is used to prevent any king of leakage and infiltration. It comes with an in-built water filtration system as well. Landscaping and roads can easily be laid over this system.

Fig.63 Rigofill Rainwater harvesting system (Source < http://rigofill-st.com/>)

74

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


5.4

TANK SIZE CALCULATION Total Paved area : 96,000 sqm (Including Roof and hard paved areas) Runoff Coefficient : 0.8-0.9 Volume of rainfall on paved areas :

96,000 x 0.744

71,424 cum The coefficient for evaporation, spillage, first flush wastage, is considered as 0.8 Hence, Amount of water collected from paved areas : =

0.8 x 0.8 x 71424 cum

=

45,711 cum

Using the specified technology, volume of tank :

48117 cum

As per dimensions, considering stack of 3 modules, Height= 0.66x5 = 3.3m Hence, area required for the tank =

48,117 / 3.3

14,580 sqm Multiple tanks within the site shall be provided in order to prevent contamination and easy storage and transport.

TANK 1 :

4125 sqm

TANK 2 :

5000 sqm

TANK 3 :

4640 sqm

TANK 4 :

815 sqm

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

75


5.4

TANK 1 TANK 3

TANK 4

TANK 2

50m

N

Placement of RWH tanks 76

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


5.5

plumbing & sanitation SYSTEM WATER REQUIREMENT

STP CALCULATIONS

OCCUPANCY:

Total water demand (TWD) :

202.5 cum

Judges : 70

Estimating 90% Sewerage :

0.9 x 202.5

Lawyers : 550

182.25 cum

P.A. : 130

STP SIZE

Lawyers’ Assistants :

750

Security Staff :

1000

Consider Total Depth 3.30 Mtr Included Free Board 

TOTAL :

2500 pers.

300 MM (Standard Depth )

6000 pers.

Visitors :

Water Consumption :

(2500 x 45)+(6000x15)

Liquid Depth L = 3.0 Mtr

2,02,500 lt/day

Area of STP :

Water tank capacity : 202.5 cum

60.75 sqm

Considering height 2m, Area of tank = 101.25 sqm

~61 sqm

182.25/3

Using hydroneumatic system, the water tank can be placed in the basement, along with the STP

Fig.63 Table showing water consuption per day (Source: NBC,2005)

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

77


5.6

electrical SYSTEM The electrical room houses the distribution box for each floor, along with the elctrical shaft (900mm x 600mm). The electrical room may also have a separate LV shaft of size 900mm x 450mm. The LV shaft need not be closed, and is provided with a casing running through the shaft, where the wires can be clamped. The LV shaft needs to be separate due to interference issues.

POWER DISTRIBUTION IN LARGE BUILDINGS

Utility owned Meter

Fig.63 Flow diagram for power distribution (Source : Author)

Transformer Switch Gear Bus/Feeder Transformer Branch Panel Appliances 78

Fig.64 Distribution diagram in a large building (Source: < https://www.archtoolbox.com/materials-systems/electrical/electrical-power-systems.html>)

Fig.65 Tables showing sizes of Substation and Generator rooms (Source : NBC,2005) THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


5.6

HT PANEL ROOM

ELECTRTCAL ROOM 50m

N

LT PANEL ROOM

DRY TYPE TRANSFORMER ROOM GENERATOR ROOM

PLACEMENT OF SUBSTATION AND ELECTRICAL ROOMS

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

79


5.7

solar power generation Solar power generation is a viable option on the site since the entire site recieves ample sunlight throughout the day. Since there are no surrounding buildings which provide shade into the site, large areas of roofs can be used for solar power generation. Only mututal shading of blocks has to be avoided.

CALCULATIONS Total roof area for solar panels : 7,014 sqm Solar panel efficiency : 1KW / 100 sqm /day Total Power geneartion / day : 70KW

PLACEMENT OF SOLAR PANELS ON THE ROOF

50m

For efficient, sustainable and fruitful use of the power generated at the site, a hybrid system of distribution is considered. In this system the power generated is sent back to the grid through a reverse metering process. This reduces the need for storage batteries and allows the rest of the neighbourhood to use the power generated at the site. This also provides compensation for the amount of electricity given back to the grid by the site. The governemnt pays Rs. 5.4 /unit to Rs. 6.2/unit

HYBRID SYSTEM

Fig.66 Distribution diagram for Solar power generation (Source: < https://www.archtoolbox.com/materials-systems/electrical/electrical-power-systems. html>) 80

N THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


5.8

parking SYSTEM

Total parking requirement as per lucknow bylaws (2 per 50 sqm) = 1600 cars In this project, automated-mutistoreyed car parking has been employed. Advatages are: •

Create more saleable space by using Robotic Parking Systems

Space gained can be used for green space and open areas to meet LEED standards

Delivers faster retrieval times than other automated garages or ramp-style parking

Automated parking offers security for both individual and car

A Robotic Parking System gives users premium valet service without the valet

Automatic parking reduces CO2 emissions and other pollutants and greenhouse gases

Flexible design allows the automated parking garage to fit into any neighborhood or project

Robotic Parking Systems relieve traffic congestion

To avoid basement and wastage of valuable land for surface parking, a mechanised multi-storeyed parking system has been used. Its a highly efficient verti-park system when the user parks his car on the ground floor and it is then taken up and stacked by automated car lifts. This reduces the space required to park 1600 cars.

Fig.67 Smart Car parking system by DongYang Menics (Source: < http://dyps.co.kr/html_en/products02.php>)

Commonly known as cart type facility, this parking system is designed to automatically move and park vehicles by horizontal back and forth movement of the transporter (cart) and elevating movement of lift in multiple layers of horizontally arranged stack becks. (Menics, 2011)

The efficiency is doubly increased because this system allows for double stacking of cars withing the same area. The parking process is quick and efficient for the users. However, the retrieval time can be high. To prevent this, multiple bays and stations are provided which solve the problem HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

81


82

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


Chapter 06 :

conclusions

This chapter aims to bring together all the inferences

and

conclusions

drawn

from

each chapter and stitch them together as architectural design drivers for the program. It is a jist of all the applicable learnings from the previous research

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

83


6.0

key drivers for design

#1

#2

#3

Through such a design move for a High Court complex, a new urban typology of courthouses can be developed which are inherently more inclusive for the general population. It can rejuvenate the court complex and it can regain its social importance as an institution commanding respect and enabling social change for the better

A court complex must have a strong architectural vocabulary which does justice to its importance and stature. It should induce the feeling of stability and permanence in the minds of the visitor/user. The architectural expression should highlight the importance of the function. It should have a clear idea and message.

Also, the available site area allows for disintegration of blocks such that each of the components and user groups can enjoy their own open space, at multiple levels.

The design should emphasise on the presence of the HIGH COURT in the context

The size of the site is one of its greatest assests as well as weakness. It provides ample space for any kind of architectural exploration of the program. It can accomodate almost any typology which is suitable for the program. However, the site allows far more buiilt-up than acutually required by the program. The program however has a tendency to change and overshoot the prescribed requirements over time. Thus, the site also allows for future expansion. The site also gives the opportunity to provide for the city in terms of open green space for the public.

Freeing up the ground for public

84

Have a distinct vocabulary : Become ICONIC Exploiting site and the opportunities it provides

The orientation of the site is another major asset. It facilitates a climatic responsive design.

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


6.0

#4

#5

#6

Amongst all the experiential and symbolic explorations, the functional importance of a High Court cannot be ignored. It remains a highly complex program .It needs its due importance in terms of planning of spaces and the inter-relationship of components. The ideas of symbolism and expression should have coherrence with the programmatic requirements of the High Court.

The courthouse recieves multi types of population sets everyday. These have varied levels of security clearances, which is of great importance in context of a HIgh Court. Thus, the movement patterns of all of these groups have a strong implication on the overall scheme of a c

A Courthouse is a type of function which identifies security, within the compound and outside, as a major concern (Especially in Indian context). This essentially makes security a major design driver for the current High Court project. Case studies have pointed towards this conclusion too. Distinct examples for tackling the security issue can be traced in every case study. However, the concern is compounded in a country like ours.

Giving due importance to the function and its components.

Handling of such large numbers of transient as well as permanent population poses its own share of complexities which need to be addressed. The functionality cannot be ignored by any means.

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

The inter-relationship and movement patterns Security: A major design driver for the between blocks are of great importance fucntion.

This, however conflicts with the idea of free public space. Hence, measures of security have been developed in such a way that all requisite security protocols have be adhered to without letting them infringe with the unhindered public realm within the court complex. Security check-posts at every block entrance, along with periodical check-posts on the outer periphery could solve the issue. The main entrances into the site are also heavily guarded.

85


6.0

#7

#8

#9

The importance of natural light into the building blocks has been identified. Orientation of the blocks is such that none of the blocks are devoid of natural light, which penetrates into the block (which can happen for blocks oriented due North)

Even though the blocks have been disintegrated in order to provide for the required open space for each block, the movement of public needs to be simple and direct. This has also been maintained in the design through bridges and covered pathways, which also double up as a living museum, educating and informing people about social and democratic values along with showcasing the ideals of the High Court and its design.

Leanings fom case studies have shown that components like a library go well in coherrence with the funtion of a courthouse. Functions like a Public Library & Museum could go a long way in creating a people centric court and also help towards a more informed society.

Allowance of natural light into the blocks and public spaces.

Provision of large window openings as well as open spaces at multiple levels has been provided wherever possible.

Integration of blocks in order to provide smooth to & fro movement

Program should have qualities of integration and inclusivity

Security protocols, however, restricted the provision of large windows in certain blocks. Hence, a light wells have beendesigned so that even such spaces are not devoid of natural light (as is the case with few case studies)

86

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


6.0

#10

Transparence in architecture : Through peripheral circulation and facade treatment Opaque exteriors are dull and uninviting to the world beyond the site. However, transparency, that is, visual connecting to the inside from the outside is a well appreciated strategy for inclusive architecture. Exposed and peripheral movement systems can let one be connected to the site on the outside, while traversing well withing the confines of the block. Also, for the people observing the building from the outside, the experience is differentin the way that they might feel connected to the inside of the building since they can see the veins and artries of a building.

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

#11

Creating more MEANIGFUL Archietcture

Architecture should tell a story and have a deeper inherent meaning. This gives the buildings another dimension which can be very satifying and fruitful for the user. It increases the associability of the building for the user. A High Court should carry within itself the ideals of liberty, equality, tolerance, permanence and benevolence. The architecture should reflect this and try to evoke emotions which correspond to such ideas and beliefs.

87


88

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


Chapter 07 :

concept development

This chapter illustrates the steps taken from reasearch to the evolution of the design concept. It elaborately discusses the design concept. It draws influences from the previous chapters of reseach and talks about the physical, architectural manefestations of the findngs

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

89


Fig.69 Conceptual Evolution of Tower Block

a. Reducing Ground coverage and increasing the height.

7.1

Fig.70 Zoning DIagram

conceptual response to identified issues

Creates valuable open space at the ground level

JUDGES’ ZONE

VERTICAL EXPANSION There is a strong design intent to EXPAND VERTICALLY in this project by the author. There are various reasons identified for this approach: •

Freeing space on the ground so as to provide enough space for the large volumes of public flooding into the site. The context predominantly low-rise. A high-rise block in such a context can have a greater impact on the surroundings, making the High Court the focus of development. Such a treatment is suited for a function like a HC.

It makes the building ICONIC

The intent to go high with the courtroom block also has symbolic significance. It gives importance to block where the actual function is performed.

Going vertically also enables the penetration of natural light into all the courtrooms, without the need for large galzed openings (a security concern)

ISSUES ADDRESSED : #1; #2; #3; #7; #11 90

b. Staggering the block in pursuit of natural light

Creates possibility of open terrace spaces at upper level

PUBLIC ZONE

LAWYERS’ ZONE c. Creating void spaces by lifting floor plates

SERVICES

Enables every floor to receive natural sunlight through lightwells

Allows a natural flow of wind through the building. THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


7.1 Fig.71 Orientation Diagram

30 deg.

N

a. Considering an axis tilted at 30deg. from the normal

ZONING

ORIENTATION

The zoning of the site is largely a derivative of the accessibility into the site. The requirement of different access points for different user groups was a major determinant for the zoning. The raod connectivity on three sides facilitates this design move.

The site has a N-S orientation. This is an appropriate orientation for climatic responsive design.

Thus, the road along the west side of the site is dedicated to judges’ entrance and exit. It is a secured access and no public entrance has been provided on this side.

b. Orienting blocks according to this axis

Similarly, the longer North side has the public and lawyers’ entrance. The service entrance has been allocated to the rear end of the site and enters into the service zone.

However, it was observed that with rotating the axis by 30 deg. from the normal, more otimal conditions could be achieved, based on the design requirements. The 30deg. tilt facilitates in: •

Allowing natural sunligh to penetrate even the areas which are due north as the sun rises in the NE during the summer days. Also, it is suitable for winter days when sun rises in due East. This could not have been possible in the conventional orientation.

This orientation also takes into account the predominant wind direction : NW to SE. This will enable the winds to blow through the site and integrated open spaces.

The harsh west setting sun is blocked throughout the year. It protects the users from the direct UV rays which penetrate during the setting sun.

ISSUES ADDRESSED : #4; #5; #6; #8

c. Better climatic response achieved for both solar and wind conditions of the site HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

ISSUES ADDRESSED : #3; #7 91


7.1

PRIMARY AXES

SECONDARY AXES

TERTIARY AXES Fig.72 Identification of axes

AXES •

The axis defined by the solar analysis is taken as one of the primary axes. Planning and zoning of functions are around these identified primary axes. They form an notional connection between different funtions. Also, symbolic importance to functions/blocks can be in accordance to these axes.

Creation of charged activity nodes at the junctions of the axes 92

The secondary axes run parallel to the main axes.

They predominantly define the movement systems within the complex. Main public plazas and other functions are along these axes.

The tertiary axes define the more private parts of the site and their linkages to the main block.

They act as connectors between the private and public parts of the site.

The museum component is realised along these axes

ISSUES ADDRESSED : #5; #8; #9; #10; #11

Building blocks developed along axes THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


7.2

key features

STRONG CONNECTION WITH PUBLIC SPACE

SEPARATE ORGANISATION PROGRAM

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

CLEAR PROGRAMMATIC IDENTITY

STRONG IDENTITY FOR LUCKNOW HIGH COURT

93


94

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


Chapter 08 :

DESIGN development

This chapter tries to show the design process and the various iterations of the same in an evolutionary format. It talks about the takeaways from different stages of design and plots the development of the scheme

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

95


8.1

stage 1

ITERATIONS IN TOWER DESIGN •

Considering thebas courtroom tower the most important block, functionally, programmatically and symbolically, the design process started with the resolution of the tower.

All alternatives are developed on the basic idea of allowing natural light to penetrate within every courtroom, while security protocols restrict large opeinings.

Thus, all design developments revolve around the provision of light shafts in each courtroom. The efficient working of every shaft also has to be ensured.

Segregation of circulation was a major issue while designing this particular block

96

#1.

ITERATION #1

STRENGTHS •

Segregation in circulation for user groups was achieved.

Suffient number of lifts could be accomodated for a large occupancy courtroom tower.

DRAWBACKS •

The design did not accomodate for respose to the climate.

The light shafts were inefficient as they never gathered enough sunlight (due to the floor above) to be of significance.

Circulation and core efficiency were issues.

Accessibility of the public and judges’ core on the ground floor created problematic interjections

Insufficient public waiting areas.

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


8.1

COURTROOMS PUBLIC AREA

ITERATION #2 STRENGTHS •

Common waiting area for public along with large open space.

Due to new massing, the light shafts worked effectively.

Segregation of circulation at ground level was managed. Interjections could be avoided.

Good fire safety adherence.

#2. JUDGES’ AREA

DRAWBACKS •

Very low core efficiency. Too much circulation space in comparison to useable built space on every floor.

Non fruitful tripple height spaces with no specific use or function

Insufficient public core.

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

97


8.2

stage 2

J U D G E S ' E N T RY

STRENGTHS

DRAWBACKS

More efficient courtroom tower design. (Approaching towards final design)

Definition of the axes can be traced

Central public open space, giving • due inportance to public integration.

Zoning is functional and as per site constraints. Security concerns are adhered to.

Undefined and weak public entry/exit points.

Vehicular access to blocks within the site is very weak

JUDGES' BLOCK

COURTROOMS : 58

The public library, which is an important propositional addition to the program has been given a very weak and insignificant location.

To much circulation in the lawyers’ block

The greens are isolated and disconnected.

P E D E S T R I A N E N T RY PLAZA

PUBLIC BLOCK

B A R A S S O C I AT I O N BLOCK

98

G E N E R A L V E H I C U L A R E N T RY

P U B L I C L I B R A RY

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


8.3

stage 3

STRENGTHS

DRAWBACKS

A well defined public realm winthin the site has been established

The axes have weak termination points and lack symbolic significance

The greens are more integrated throughout the site.

The public library has obtained an important central spot.

The most dominant block (Courtroom Tower) does not respond to any axis directly.

The identified axes are respected and given due importance.

The public drop off is too small and its connectivity to the parking is weak.

Architectural expression is taking shape in this exploration.

The entry experience of the public is weak and the desire lines do not stretch till the interesting features of design.

Sufficient parking space has been provided.

Segregated Lawyers’s Block

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

99


8.4

stage 4

STRENGTHS

DRAWBACKS

A strong architectural vocabulary which is in coherrence with the concept and proposition.

Lack of definition and importance of the identified axes.

Integrated Lawyers’ Block

Improper teminations of the axes.

A more well defined and welcoming vehicular entrance.

Unemcumbered open green areas. These areas lack definition and hence would not be used a imagined.

Concolidated vehicular entry thus reducing load on security.

Substation outside the side with an adjoining service road.

Pedestrian entry to the main court block is very far away from the entrance in the compound.

Service areas and drop-offs integrated with all other zones.

The entry experience of the public is weak and the desire lines do not stretch till the interesting features of design.

100

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


8.5

stage 5

THE FINAL SCHEME KEY FEATURES •

Strong open space connection for the public.

Inhanced user experience with well articulated and connected open space structure.

Cohessive built blocks : Allowing easy public movement across the blocks without having the need to cross multiple security check points.

Fine integration of propositional quests into the physical planning of the complex.

Large space available for future expansion: hence efficiently exploiting the site.

Equal importance given to the funtional aspect of the complex as well as it’s public interface.

Public blocks

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

Well integrated built form : Allowing easy movement through the blocks.

Free flowing public open spaces : Articulated with the museum component at multiple levels

Space for the future expansion of the lawyers’ block

Private blocks

101


102

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


Chapter 09 :

portfolio

This chapter is the culmination of the entire thesis with the final scheme and detailed drawings of the same. This is what was achieved after a semesterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hard work and effort. The chapter also includes the final jury comments and candidateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s defence.

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

103


09

SITE PLAN

0

60m 104

120m

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


09

SITE SECTIONS

0

40m

80m

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

105


09

0

40m

106

80m

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


09

0

40m

80m

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

107


09

0

40m

108

80m

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


09

PUBLIC LEVEL PLAN

0

20m

40m

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

109


09

TOWER & PUBLIC FLOOR SECTION

110

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


09

TOWER PLANS

0

10m

20m

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

111


09

0

10m

112

20m

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


09

0

10m

20m

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

113


09

JUDGES' BLOCK : GF

0

15m 114

30m

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


09

JUDGES' BLOCK TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN : 1-3 0

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

5m

115

10m


09

JUDGES' BLOCK TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN : 4-6

0

116

5m

10m

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


09

JUDGES' BLOCK SECTIONS

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

117


09

LAWYERSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; LOUNGE

0

7.5m

15m

LAWYERS' BLOCK FIRST FLOOR PLAN 118

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


09

0

7.5m

15m

LAWYERS' BLOCK TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

119


09

LIBRARY BLOCK FLOOR PLANS 0

120

8m

10m

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


09

BASEMENT PLAN 0

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

15m

121

30m


09

MODEL PHOTOGRAPHS

122

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


09

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

123


09

jury comments The discussion largely revolved around the functional aspect of design : the public and private movement system and patterns, the handling capacity of the built and open spaces and the inter-relationships of the same. •

The first leg of discussion ended with the jury commenting about the dissimilarities in the scales and requirements of the case studies chosen and the project at hand. This was later resolved when key learnings from each case study were discussed.

Moving onto the planning and design, a major portion of the discussion was dominated by questions about the orientation, form and evolution of the courtroom tower.

After talking about the basic zoning and functionality at the site plan level, the discussion moved to the detailed aspect of design. The only issue pointed out was the positioning of the Judges’ block lift cores, which was later rebuked considering the scale of the project.

124

The choice of the exterior finishing (exposed concrete) was questioned, considering the likeability of the material by the general masses. The need to break out of the existing and trying to create an iconic and permanent image were the two major driving factors for the choice.

In totality, the jury ended up liking the approach of research and the translation of the proposition. The jury also appreciated the choice of project in terms of its complexities and the level of functional resolution required and achieved. The jury also tried to encourage other students to take up projects of similar nature and difficulty in order to be able to learn more.

THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


09

HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW | THESIS 2017

125


10

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Anon., 2017. Building a better world: can architecture shape behaviour?. [Online] Available at: http://theconversation.com/ building-a-better-world-can-architectureshape-behaviour-21541[Accessed 17 4 2017]. 2. Hershberger, R. G., 1988. The study of Meaning and Architecture, s.l.: Cambridge University press.

study-of-meaning-and-architecture/65277D9 3028B92F474ECA3C7615EA1D5 [Accessed 16 March 2017]. 7. Rasmussen, S. E., 1959. Experiencing Architecture. 2nd ed. Cambrige: MIT University Press.

8. Sujdic, Deyan with Jones, Helen, “Architecture & Democracy”,2001, Lawrence Kind 3. Levy, K., 2009. Reinventing the Court Publishing, London. house. [Online] Available at: https://www. 9. The happy city experiment : Charles Mont pps.org/reference/courts-in-a-new- gomery. 2014. [Film] Canada: Tedx. paradigm-of-place/ [Accessed 18 March 10. “The Cirtual Courthouse : A guide to 2017]. Planning & Design “ Available at: http:// 4. MacLeod, F., 2015. The Tranquility of Louis courthouseplanning.ncsc.wikispaces.net/ Kahn’s Salk Institute. [Online] Available at: Trial+Courts [Accessed 14 March 2017] http://www.archdaily.com/773231/video11. Zega, A. & Dams, B. H., 2011. Architectural explore-louis-kahns-iconic-salk-institute-likeSymbolism 101. [Online] Available at: http:// never-before [Accessed 6 April 2017]. architecturalwatercolors.blogspot.in/2011/07/ 5. Marmot, A., n.d. The Role of Architecture in architectural-symbolism-101-geometry. Shaping Communities. [Online] Available html[Accessed 29 4 2017]. at: https://beebreeders.com/the-roleArchitectural Thesis of-architecture-in-shaping-communities [Accessed 04 04 2017]. 1. Kumar, Mohit. Jharkhand High Court, 6. Nasar, J. L., 2013. Environmental Aesthetics. [Online] Available at: https://www.cambridge. org/core/books/environmental-aesthetics/a126

Ranchi, 2014 (TA-4226)

2. Mathur, Mani, High Court, lucknow bench, 2006. (TA-3100) THESIS 2017 | HIGH COURT COMPLEX, LUCKNOW


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Thesis Book : Shriyak Singh  
Thesis Book : Shriyak Singh  
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