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Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry Dissertation Project

Submitted To

Mr. Amitesh Singhal & Dr. Sunita G. Konwar

School of Business In fulfillment of the B.A. (Hons.) Degree in Fashion Business Management Submitted By: Shreya

Tewari

DFBM140186 (2014 - 2018) Submitted on: 2nd May 2018


Declaration

Declaration I hereby declare that this dissertation is my own work and that to the best of my knowledge and belief, it reproduces no material previously published or written, nor material that has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma by any educational institution, except where due acknowledgement is made in the text.

Name – Shreya Tewari Date – 2nd May 2018 Signature -

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Acknowledgement

Acknowledgement There is a lot of hard work and efforts that have been put together to complete this dissertation project and there have been a lot of contributions from various people without whom I could not justify this report. Initially, I would like to thank everyone associated with this project to take the topic positively and to encourage me to work harder every day. To begin with, I would like to extend my gratitude towards my mentor, Mr. Amitesh Singhal and our course leader, Dr. Sunita G. Konwar who not only appreciated my topic but also encouraged me to do well by giving their helpful inputs. I would also like to thank Pearl Academy, New Delhi (Naraina and Rajouri Campus) to provide me with the facilities of the Library where I could gain more knowledge about my project. A major part of this project contains the inputs of the trans-genders who were available throughout this journey. I would like to thank Gesu Seth, alumnus of Pearl Academy, Naraina to help me meet the team of Basera Samajik Sansthan (the NGO in Noida) with whose help I could meet a group of friendly trans-genders for the focus group discussion. It was a pleasure to get associated with the NGO and to get their valuable time and inputs which have only made this research stronger. I would also like to thank Dr. Sudhir Sharma, Professor of Economics, Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut and Mrs. Archana Sharma who gave me their valuable suggestions and views about the topic. Their house-help, Sonam also holds a major part in the project by making me meet another group of enthusiastic trans-genders for the expert interviews. The people from the Indian fashion industry have also helped in making the research valuable by participating in the expert interviews and by spending their time for this project and by giving their honest views on the research questions asked. And finally, I would like to thank my family and my friends who have supported me throughout the research by encouraging me to do something new and effective. Their opinions, love and time have been a great source of energy for me while completing my dissertation project.

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Certification

Certification This is to certify that the project file titled “Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry” is a bona fide work undertaken by Shreya Tewari done in fulfillment of the requirements for the undergraduate course, B.A. (Hons) Fashion Business Management, 2014 - 2018.

Name – Shreya Tewari (FBM 2014 -18)

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Abstract

Abstract Title - Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry Author - Shreya Tewari Purpose - The purpose of the research is to understand the meaning of the term ‘transgender’ or hijra as used in India to refer to the transgender community. The research focuses on the presence of the trans-genders in the Indian culture since centuries and on the need to understand the discrimination faced by them in the modern era. It includes the background study about the trans-genders which helps us in achieving the aim of the research which is to identify the needs of the trans-genders in terms of having a better lifestyle. The purpose is to create a chance for them to work in the Indian fashion industry which is vast and never ending. It will help in understanding how and where can the trans-genders of India be placed in the industry so that they can have a healthy working lifestyle. Design/Methodology/Approach - Research design used for this study are both exploratory and descriptive. The research includes both primary and secondary data collection methods. The primary data is collected through a focus group discussion with the trans-genders and personal interviews with both the trans-genders and the people from the Indian fashion industry. Whereas, the secondary data is collected from different sources like the Government websites, journals, articles, reports etc. Findings – According to the focus group discussion and the personal interviews done with the trans-genders, it is confirmed that there is a need to employ them at suitable places with some skill training which can enhance their talents and can help them work efficiently and effectively. The trans-genders accept that they are neglected by the society and so they wish to work and create a better lifestyle for themselves. They have also shown a keen interest in the Indian fashion industry as it is attractive and makes them feel happy. From the point of view of the people who are already working in the industry, the Indian fashion industry is gender fluid and is open to all. People believe that the transgender community in India is discriminated and is not provided with the right facilities. Thus, they think it is their responsibility to help them grow and to provide them a healthy working environment so that they come out of all the negativity that they have ever faced in their lives. Various job profiles in the Indian fashion industry can be considered for the trans-genders if they get the right training and the skill set. A lot of jobs in the industry exist in the back end and it does not promote a direct contact between the employee and the end consumer. Therefore, there is a possibility that the people who do not like being trans-genders can still buy the final garments and accessories without knowing that the trans-genders were a part of the process. Originality/Value – There is an existing research about the trans-genders however, the idea of bringing them in the mainstream by finding the appropriate job profiles for them in the Indian fashion industry is original and new. The industry promotes gender fluidity and therefore, it can be a way to motivate the trans-genders to come into the limelight and work towards the betterment of their own lives.

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Table of Content

Table of Content S.No.

Particulars

Page No.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Declaration Acknowledgement Certification Abstract Chapter 1 - Introduction Rationale Research Aim Significance Research Objectives Expected Outcomes Problems and Limitations Chapter 2 – Literature Review Flow Chart of Literature Review Introduction to Trans-genders History of Trans-genders Presence of Trans-genders in India Problems Faced by the Trans-genders in India Inclusion of Trans-genders in the Indian Society Government Policies for Trans-genders in India Non-Government Organisations for Trans-genders in India Fashion Industry Indian Fashion (Apparel and Textile) Industry Employment in the Indian Fashion Industry Chapter 3 – Research Methodology Problem Statement Research Objectives Research Approach Flow Research Methodology for Research Objectives Limitations of Research Methodology Chapter 4 – Data Analysis and Findings Focus Group Discussion Personal Interviews Chapter 5 – Conclusion and Recommendation Conclusion Recommendation References (89) References – Figures and Images (99) Bibliography (102 – 103)

I II III IV

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

1 5 5 5 5 5 6 8 13 18 24 33 42 47 50 52 60 67 67 – 68 68 69 71 72 77 83 84

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List of Figures, Tables and Images

List of Figures Figure No.

Title

Page No.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Flow Chart of Literature Review The Traditional Gender Model The Progressive Gender Model The Hierarchical System in Hijra Gharana Exclusion of Trans-genders in India Share of Segments in the Indian Apparel Market Segments of the Indian Textile Industry Other fashion jobs in the industry Research Approach Flow

6–7 8 9 16 26 53 56 64 68

List of Tables Table No.

Title

Page No.

1. 2.

Population of Trans-genders in India Literacy Rate of Trans-genders in India Various fashion jobs, their descriptions and the skills required by the industry Research Methodology for Research Objectives Minimum Daily Wages of Tailors and Ready-made Garment Manufacturers in Punjab Minimum Wages of Tailoring, Stitching and Embroidery in Haryana Basic Wage + Hourly Wage * 60 Hours = Total Takehome Wage Details of the trans-genders who participated in the focus group discussion held at Basera Samajik Sansthan Details of the people from the Indian fashion industry Brief Comparison between the Two Groups of Transgenders Appropriate Job Profiles for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

1 – 2 & 18 – 19 2 – 3 & 20

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

61 – 64 69 65 65 66 69 – 70 71 79 81

List of Images Image No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Title Unemployment Ratio of Trans-genders vs. Total Population in India Percentage of Population of Third Gender Children in India Literacy Ratio of Third Gender in India Literacy Gap in Rural and Urban India Employment Gap in Rural and Urban India Bharathi Kannama Madhu Kinnar

Page No. 3 & 23 19 21 22 23 34 34

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List of Figures, Tables and Images

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

Dr. Manabi Bandopadhyay Rose Padmini Prakash Anjali Ameer Rituparno Ghosh Lakshmi Narayan Tripathi Kalki Subramaniam Gauri Sawant Noori Lakshmi Narayan Tripathi walking the ramp at the Lakme Fashion Week Anjali Lama Rudrani Chhetri Fashion Sense of a Transgender Transgender getting makeup applied on her face Transgender in a saree Trans-genders wearing sarees from Mazhavi collection Michelle Obama in Naeem Khan’s Design Lupita Nyongo in Bibhu Mohapatra’s Design Heidi Klum and Katy Perry in Manish Malhotra’s Designs Penelope Cruz and Selena Gomez wearing Amrapali earrings Ramkali, Akansha, Mannat, Ruhi, Bobby, Deepika, Sneha and Kajal [L – R] Trans-genders who participated in the personal interviews

35 35 35 36 36 36 37 37 38 38 39 39 40 40 41 41 59 59 60 60 70 70

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Introduction

Chapter 1 – Introduction The purpose of this chapter is to give a brief introduction of the research on the transgenders in India. It focuses on building a rationale for the research based on the existing literature about the Indian transgender community. The aim is to give an outline of the existing working lifestyle of the trans-genders and a brief introduction to the Indian fashion industry as well.

1.1.

Rationale In India, trans-genders are known as hijras who are born as males but while growing up, they adopt the feminine gender identity and the roles of a female or vice-versa. There are various transgender communities that have existed in the country since approximately 4,000 years. However, their image has changed a lot over the years. In earlier times, hijras were considered to be important and respected people in the courts of the Mughal kings during the 16th and the 17th century. They were the “close confidants” of the kings and worked as royal servants and bodyguards. But today, they are neglected by the society and they face discrimination in different ways in their everyday lives. (Thomas, R., 2015, p. 28) Population of Trans-genders in India The Census of India never recognised the third gender until 2011, when the data was collected under the category of ‘Others’ in the gender section and the data was collected for literacy, employment and population. The data revealed that the total population of the trans-genders was approximately 4.88 lakhs back then. However, the data was mixed with that of the males and therefore, it is difficult to find out the total population of the Trans people. The data also claimed that out of the total population of the trans-genders, there were approximately 55,000 transgender children who were accepted by their parents. (Sawant, N., 2017, p. 59) States

Population (Adults)

Uttar Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Maharashtra Bihar West Bengal Madhya Pradesh Tamil Nadu Orissa Karnataka Rajasthan Jharkhand Gujarat Assam Punjab

1,37,465 43,769 40,891 40,827 30,349 29,597 22,364 20,332 20,266 16,517 13,463 11,544 11,374 10,243

Population (Children between 0 and 6 years) 18,734 4,082 4,101 5,971 2,376 3,409 1,289 2,125 1,771 2,012 1,593 1,028 1,348 813 Creating Employment for the Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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Introduction

Haryana Chhattisgarh Uttarakhand Delhi Jammu and Kashmir Kerala Himachal Pradesh Manipur Tripura Meghalaya Arunachal Pradesh Goa Nagaland Puducherry Mizoram Chandigarh Sikkim Daman and Diu Andaman and Nicobar Islands Dadra and Nagar Haveli Lakshadweep Total

8,422 6,591 4,555 4,213

1,107 706 512 311

4,137

487

3,902 2,051 1,343 833 627

295 154 177 66 134

495

64

398 398 252 166 142 126 59

34 63 16 26 16 14 10

47

5

43

5

2 4,87,803

0 54,854

Population of Trans-genders in India (Census, 2011)

Literacy Level of Trans-genders The table below shows the level of literacy of the trans-genders living in different states of India given by the Census of India in 2011: States Uttar Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Maharashtra Bihar West Bengal Madhya Pradesh Tamil Nadu Orissa Karnataka Rajasthan Jharkhand Gujarat Assam Punjab Haryana

Literacy Rate (in %) 55.80 53.33 67.57 44.35 58.83 53.01 57.78 54.35 58.82 48.34 47.58 62.82 53.69 59.75 62.11 Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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Introduction

Chhattisgarh Uttarakhand Delhi Jammu and Kashmir Kerala Himachal Pradesh Manipur Tripura Meghalaya Arunachal Pradesh Goa Nagaland Puducherry Mizoram Chandigarh Sikkim Daman and Diu Andaman and Nicobar Islands Dadra and Nagar Haveli Lakshadweep Total

51.35 62.65 62.99 49.29 84.61 62.10 67.50 71.19 57.40 52.20 73.90 70.75 60.59 87.14 72.22 65.18 75.51 73.81 73.68 50.00 56.07

Literacy Rate of Trans-genders in India (Census, 2011)

Level of Unemployment of Trans-genders

Unemployment Ratio of Trans-genders Population in India (Venkat, A., 2016)

vs.

Total

Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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Introduction

Venkat, A. (2016) has compared the unemployment rates of the trans-genders with that of the total population and she states that “third gender individuals in 28 of 36 states and Union Territories face unemployment rates higher than the total population.” Working Lifestyle of Indian Trans-genders The trans-genders have faced a lot of discrimination over the last decade but this was not the case in the historic India. However, the stigma and the negative treatment of people towards the trans-genders have led them to live an unsafe life which costs them their dignity. There are no right ways, according to the standards of the Indian society that are used by the trans-genders to earn money. They are usually seen begging either on the streets or at various wedding and child birth functions in India. If not this, then the majority is seen to be working as prostitutes across the nation. (Khatri, S., 2017, p. 400) Indian Fashion Industry The Indian textiles and apparels industry is supposed to be one of the oldest industries which have evolved beautifully over the years, starting from the small scale domestic market and now becoming one of the largest in the global market with a huge raw materials and textile manufacturing base. The history of the Indian textile industry is states that around 3000 BC, the use of mordant dyes and printing block was prevalent. For centuries, the global buyers were attracted to the vast variety of fibres available in India and the detailed weaving on the looms and the organic dyes. It is considered to be one of the largest contributors in the Indian economy in terms of “output, foreign exchange earnings and employment”. The sector has a huge potential for the creation of various job opportunities in different fields like agriculture, industries and organised sectors in the rural and the urban parts of the country, specifically for women and the disadvantaged people. (ASSOCHAM India, 2015, p. 7) This research is about recommending the possible job opportunities for the transgenders in the Indian Fashion Industry. They have always been neglected in India because of which they do not have a good working lifestyle which further doesn’t help them to create better lives for themselves. It is important to create an employment for them in the Indian fashion industry because: 1. The jobs done by the trans-genders in India are odd like prostitution, begging and dancing on the streets etc. which do not give them a respected recognition. 2. The Indian fashion industry is ever-growing and it will never shut down because of the necessity that is associated with it. Thus, there will always be a job security. 3. The jobs that will be given to the trans-genders in the Indian fashion industry will give them recognition, respect and a good source of income for them and their families. Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

4


Introduction

4. It is an inspiration to see a few successful trans-genders in India and thus, as a society, it is our responsibility to create a better environment, both in personal lives and in the working areas, for the trans-genders because they are a part of the society as well.

1.2.

Research Aim The aim of the research is to understand the possibilities of getting the trans-genders employed in the Indian fashion industry.

1.3.

Significance Trans-genders are a minority in India and therefore, they are generally not considered as a part of the groups formed by other males and females. It is important to create an environment for them so that they can live freely with everyone else and can have a better lifestyle. The Indian fashion industry is ever-growing and it is huge in all forms. Therefore, for initiating a step towards the betterment of the lives of the trans-genders, the industry can be helpful in many ways.

1.4.

Research Objectives Objective 1: To develop conceptual understanding of the reasons for the transgenders being neglected by the society. Objective 2: To conduct in-depth study of the demographics and psychographics of the trans-genders in India. Objective 3: To analyse trans-genders’ attitude to be employed in the Indian fashion industry. Objective 4: To recommend the possible job opportunities for the trans-genders in the Indian fashion industry.

1.5.

Expected Outcomes The expectations from the research are to gain a thorough understanding of how a transgender lives and why he/she is not accepted by the Indian society. The research will also help in understanding the problems faced by the community and the various methods through which they can get a healthy working lifestyle with the help of the Indian fashion industry.

1.6.

Problems and Limitations There are various problems and limitations that can occur while researching on this topic. They are: 1. 2.

The people from the industry might not take the research positively. Getting the trans-genders out of their comfort zone to talk about their lives is difficult. Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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Literature Review

Chapter 2 - Literature Review This chapter gives an insight about the meaning of the term ‘transgender’ in India and around the world. It mentions about the problems associated with the trans-genders in India in detail and a brief literature about their inclusion in the society as well. The chapter also focuses on the Indian fashion industry and the various job opportunities that are available in the industry.

Flow Chart of Literature Review

Section 1 Introduction to Trans-genders

Meaning

Trans-gender Terminology

Trans-genders and Trans-sexuals

Meaning of Transgenders in India

Section 2 History of Trans-genders Trans-genders in the World

Indian History of Trans-genders

Hierarchy and Working Culture of Trans-genders

Critical Analysis of the Lifestyle and Culture of Trans-genders in India

Section 3 Presence of Trans-genders in India

Population of Transgenders

Literacy Level of Trans-genders

Level of Unemployment of Trans-genders

Section 4 Problems Faced by the Transgenders in India Exclusion of Transgenders in India

Health Problems

Education Problems

Employment Problems

Creating Employment for the Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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Literature Review

Section 5 Inclusion of Trans-genders in India Politics

Education

Media and Entertainment

Social Activities

Indian Fashion Industry

Section 6 Government Policies for Transgenders in India The Supreme Court Judgement

Right of Transgender Persons Bill

Kerala

Tamil Nadu

Odisha

Maharashtra

Section 7 NGOs for Trans-genders

The Humsafar Trust

People Like Us

Sangini Trust

Naz Foundation

Swabhava

Section 8 Fashion Industry Introduction

Section 9 Indian Fashion Industry

Market Size

International Recognition

Section 10 Employment in the Indian Fashion Industry

Job Opportunities and the Skills Required

Key Players in the Indian Fashion Industry

Flow Chart of Literature Review (Author, 2018) Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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Literature Review

2.1.

Introduction to Trans-genders 2.1.1. Meaning Transgender is a term given to the people who “experience and/or express their gender differently from what is generally expected from them.” (Devaney, K., c.a., 2007, p. 2) The term ‘transgender’ is used commonly for the people who do not fit into the traditional gender binary which includes a male and a female. The transgender umbrella includes various people known to the world as the transsexual, crossdressers, male-to-female and female-to-male etc. (University of Houston, 2016) According to the University of Houston (2016) there are two different models namely – the Traditional Gender Model and the Progressive Gender Model. This can be explained with the help of their respective diagrams given below. The Traditional Gender Model shows how there are two different sets of people, either males or females. Also, depending upon these two kinds of people, there are two different gender identities, that of a man and a woman who depict their gender roles of being masculine and feminine respectively. According to this model, the people could never change their gender identities and therefore, the flow in the diagram given below is straight and not fluid. (University of Houston, 2016)

The Traditional Gender Model (University of Houston, 2016)

However, the Progressive Gender Model consists of no such dependence of different characteristics on each other. There are three sets of people; males, females and others. The flow of the gender identity i.e. man and woman; and the flow of the gender roles, that are being a masculine or a feminine, can be seen in this model. It clearly depicts how independent the characteristics are of each other and that the people have an option of deciding their gender identity if they are not comfortable with the gender assigned to them at birth. Therefore, the flow in the diagram given on the following page is flexible and not straight. (University of Houston, 2016) Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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Literature Review

The Progressive Gender Model (University of Houston, 2016)

Gender Identity Gender identity is a term which defines the internal feelings of an individual about the gender he/she wishes to follow which may or may not be the one they were born with. It further affects the person’s way of talking, expressing themselves, and dressing up etc. (Statistics New Zealand, 2014, p. 9) Statistics New Zealand (2014, p. 9) explains the concept of gender identity by stating that – “a person’s gender identity can change over their lifetime, and can be expressed in a number of ways and forms. This includes outward social markers, such as name, clothing, hairstyles, mannerisms, voice and other behaviours. Some individuals may express different gender identities in different situations.” It is to be noted that an individual’s gender identity is not an indication towards his/her gender which means, a person’s sex cannot be mentioned on the basis of the identity that they follow and vice versa. It is often unpredictable and selfdenied. (Statistics New Zealand, 2014, p. 9) Sexual Identity Sexual identity is a term which describes the physical appearance of a person in terms of the gender he/she wants to follow. The person can decide to either be a man, a woman or a third gender. For example, a person who is born as a female might want to transform into a man and thus, she can go for a sex change surgery. (Anon, no date) 2.1.2. Transgender Terminology The term ‘transgender’ is an umbrella as it consists of various kinds of people who do not fit into the traditional gender binary. Thus, in order to understand the trans-genders and their lifestyle it is important to understand certain terminology which exists with them.

Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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Literature Review

Cisgender – The people who have the same gender identity as the gender they are born with. They are not trans-genders. (Beemyn, G., c.a., 2016) Crossdressers – People who wear clothes worn by the other gender. For example, a man wearing a woman’s clothes and is accepted by the culture too. (Beemyn, G., c.a., 2016) Female-to-male Individuals – It is a term used for the people who are born as a female but they identify more with the male gender. These women don’t undergo any physical change; however, they just mentally treat themselves as males. Therefore, they are called female-to-male. (Anon, 2016) Male-to-female Individuals – The male-to-female individuals are born as males but they identify more for the female gender. These men don’t undergo any physical change; however, they just mentally treat themselves as females. Therefore, they are called male-to-female individuals. (Anon, 2016) Hir – The term ‘hir’ is used as a non-gender specific pronoun for the transgenders instead of ‘her’ and ‘him’. (Beemyn, G., c.a., 2016) Transsexual – The individuals who are assigned a particular gender at birth but they do not identify with it and therefore, they undergo various hormone treatments and surgeries to “align their anatomy with their core identity.” (Beemyn, G., c.a., 2016) Intersexuality – It is referred to the condition where an individual is born with the opposite sex’s gonadal tissue or is born with external genitalia of the opposite sex. (Merriam-Webster, 2017) Gender Variant, Gender Diverse or Gender Non-confirming – It is a term used for the people who do not fit into the traditional gender binary. This includes all the trans-genders, transsexual, MTM, and FTM etc. (Beemyn, G., c.a., 2016) Drag Kings and Drag Queens – The people who dress as the opposite gender at various events for performance or fun are either called drag kings (males) or drag queens (females). (Anon, 2016) Transitioning – It refers to the period during which a person begins to identify with his/her “true” gender identity. This might include a change of name, hormonal changes or various surgeries. (Beemyn, G., c.a., 2016)

Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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Literature Review

2.1.3. Transgender and Transsexual The terms ‘transgender’ and ‘transsexual’ focus on the words ‘gender’ and ‘sex’. Therefore, before understanding the difference between a transgender and a transsexual it is important to understand the difference between gender and sex. Gender vs Sex According to Anon (no date), gender is the “polarity of appearance and behaviour”. It can further be understood as a term that defines the “socially constructed characteristics of women and men”. (World Health Organisation, 2017) The gender of a person can be understood with the help of various signs such as the clothes, hairstyle, body language etc. It is traditionally understood that the gender of a person is either a male or a female. However, it depends on the person to follow a particular gender as it is a behaviour oriented term. (Anon, no date) On the other hand Anon (no date) described sex as the “polarity of anatomy”. This means it refers to the biological characteristics of a human being which include the sex organs, hormones, chromosomes etc. Therefore, the sex of a person defines whether he/she is a man or a woman. (Staughton, J., 2017) According to the above mentioned difference between gender and sex, it is now easy to understand the difference between a transgender and a transsexual: Transgender Transgender refers to the people who do not identify with the gender assigned to them at birth. Therefore, a male who does not identify with his gender might:  Dress as a woman.  Change his name to a feminine name.  Use female pronouns instead of male pronouns.  Engage in activities that are traditionally associated with the females. (International Society for Sexual Medicine, 2017) Transsexual Transsexual refers to the people who undergo various surgeries and operations to transform from their biological sex to the other sex. Therefore, a man who does not identify with his gender might:  Get his anatomical features removed.  Get the opposite gender’s anatomical features added in his body. (International Society for Sexual Medicine, 2017)

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Literature Review

Therefore, it can be concluded that a transgender stays in a particular body but does not follow the characteristics of the gender he/she was assigned with at birth. Whereas, a transsexual gets his/her body operated in order to live in the body of a gender which is different from what was assigned to him/her at birth. 2.1.4. Meaning of Trans-genders in India The term ‘transgender’ is an umbrella term that is used worldwide for the people who do not feel comfortable with the gender identities that they are born with. However, in the recent times, the term is also being used to refer to the trans-genders residing in India who were earlier, and even today in some parts of India, are known as ‘Hijras’. The term is derived from Urdu and it means “impotent ones” however, in the Indian vocabulary, it is often used for the people who are “neither man nor woman”, also termed as Kinnar (in Sanskrit) and the “third gender”. (Saveri, S., 2013, p. 2) According to Saveri, S. (2013, p. 2), hijras are biologically born as males or in some cases, as intersex people who tend to become a part of the hijra community at some point of time in their lifetimes. However, it is observed over the years that they may or may not live with the community for their whole lives. In another study, it has been mentioned that the word hijra was derived from a Persian word hiz which meant “the one who is effeminate, disdains woman or a catamite.” The word originated from old Pahlavi Persian, “the sister language of Sanskrit, before the eighth century A.D.” It originally meant “incompetent and ineffective”. However, according to various other Persianists, the word hijra originated from ‘hich’ which originated from ‘hichgah’ which meant “nowhere”. It was further stated as “the person who is nowhere, a thing that has no place, no identity or personality of its own.” (Chettiar, A., 2013, p. 753) Meaning of Trans-genders for this Research The research revolves around the significance and the need of creating employment for the trans-genders in the Indian fashion industry through various methods. Therefore, to achieve the aim of the research that is – ‘to understand how the trans-genders and trans-sexuals can be employed in the Indian fashion industry’; it is important to understand that the focus is on the Indian trans-genders and trans-sexuals; and not on the ones residing worldwide. The trans-genders and the trans-sexuals in India, as stated above, include hijras/kinnars (eunuchs), jogappas, shiv-shaktis, sakhi and jogtas etc. However, they are primarily known as hijras in most parts of India. (Athreye, V., 2015)

Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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Literature Review

2.2.

History of Trans-genders 2.2.1. Trans-genders in the world Trans-genders have been a part of the world since centuries. However, it was only in 1965 that the word ‘transgender’ got printed in American English for the first time. Even after getting printed, it took years for the term to reach the people and thus, people started using it only in the 1990s. (Stryker, S., 2016, p. 6) The term ‘transgender’ became familiar to the public in the mid-1990s and unlike the term ‘transsexual’, it is not a “medical or psychiatric diagnosis.” However, before this time, the term ‘transgender’ had a specific meaning. In the books published by Dr. Virginia Prince, “the term originally referred to biological men who are satisfied with their male genitalia but who wish to be seen and live in the world as women.” (Green, J., n.d., p. 3) As mentioned in the history, there have been women who lived as males but never received as much attention as the male counterparts did. It has always been understood that there are only male-to-female transitions but the less known fact is that there have been women in the earlier times that have lived as males throughout their lives and they are often called “passing women”. There have been several examples like Catalina de Erauso who was a Spanish soldier stationed in Chile and Peru in the early 1600s and Dr. James Barry was a surgeon in the British army in the 1800s. Earlier in the US, the famous jazz musician, Billy Tipton was discovered, in a female body on his death in 1989, by his ex-wife and adopted children. (Green, J., n.d., p. 4) There have not been much traces of the history of trans-genders worldwide and therefore, it is often considered to be a recent term used by people. However, Stryker, S. (2016, p. 6) states that since the nineteenth century, the struggles of the trans-genders have formed a history of various social movements that were purely based on the identities of people and that have, in a way, contributed to make the lives of the people better who are a part of the minority communities in the United States. In the past, there have been instances that were recorded to indicate the existence of trans-genders in the world. For instance, it was recorded in the first published European exploration that between 1528 and 1536, while travelling from Florida to Mexico, Álvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca encountered with males who used to live and work as females, whom he gave the term – hombres amarionados impotente – which means “impotent effeminate men”. Another instance which was recorded was between 1673 and 1677 when Jacques Marquette, the first European who visited the Upper Mississippi

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observed “men who do everything women do” while he was travelling in Illinois. (Stryker, S., 2016, p. 6) There have also been various cases that were found in the earlier legal records of Anglo-American colonies. One such case was that of a person named Thomas Hall or Thomasine. She was an individual who was born with “physically ambiguous genitalia” – which means she lived both as a man and a woman in different phases of her life. She was initially raised as a girl in England but she presented herself as a man to become a sailor and then represented herself as a woman to become a lace maker. However, she eventually became a male servant in Virginia. In 1629, Hall was accused of performing an illicit sexual act with a female servant and the Virginia Court in Williamsburg had to determine whether she was a male or a female in order to justify the case. However, it was further ordered that Hall was supposed to wear both a man and a woman’s clothing. (Stryker, S., 2016, p. 6) 2.2.2. Indian History of Trans-genders India has seen the birth and the evolution of trans-genders since centuries and thus, it has a huge history with the third gender also called Tritiya Prakriti (UNDP, 2010). In India, the transgender community comprises of various terms that are a part of the transgender umbrella like Hijras, Eunuchs, Kothis, Shiv-shakthis, and Aravanis etc. The term Eunuchs has its roots in Greek and it means “keeper of the bed”. They have been known since 9th century BC and they were in popular demand to guard the quarters of the royal women in the earlier times. (Michelraj, M., 2015, p. 17) The Vedas play an important role in the Indian culture and in the earlier years, it was believed that they categorised the gender of a person into three separate categories according to one’s nature or prakriti. As the term transgender is considered to be new, it is stated that it was known even in the pre-modern India when the three categories of people – male-bodied, female-bodied and the intersexual were known to people. (Michelraj, M., 2015, p. 17) According to Nambiar, S. (2017), the hijra community has a recorded history in India for over 4,000 years now and it has been mentioned in the ancient texts that the trans-genders are considered to be “a testament to the sexual diversity” in the country and worldwide. The community of hijras has been a part of the ancient literature as it has been mentioned in the famous Hindu book that talks about the sexual behaviour, Kama Sutra, between 400 BC and 200 CE. It has been observed over the years that the hijras have an important role in some of the most precious Hindu texts like Mahabharata and Ramayana.

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In a study initiated by Habib, T. (2012, p. 10-11), it has been mentioned that hijras were a part of various religious groups in the ancient India. They existed in the presence of Lord Ram, who always “acknowledged and blessed” them. Lord Shiva was one of the deities who had the characteristics of both a male and a female and therefore, he was usually associated with “fertility and eroticism”. Arjun from Mahabharata once refused to get involved in a sexual act with one of the minor deities and he was cursed “to be neither man nor woman” after which he started entertaining people through music and dance. Another example includes that of Vishnu and Krishna who often “transformed with female and male characteristics to protect from demons and have no distinct sexual classification. Mughal Era (1526-1858) The Mughal era is considered to be famous in terms of the presence of eunuchs. It was observed and noted that the eunuchs were usually a part of Islamic courts where they were often seen wearing masculine clothes and turbans. Their role was to take care of the ladies and their children in the harem. As stated, it was easy to trust a transgender and therefore, they were always close to the Kings and the Queens and thus, they were considered to be prestigious. (Habib, T., 2012, p. 11) The British Period (1765-1947) In earlier times when the British ruled India, hijras were often protected by their communities and were provided with different benefits like “provision of land, rights of food and smaller amounts of money from agricultural households” which however, were removed by the British legislation because they did not inherit the land through blood relations. (Habib, T., 2012, p. 11) Habib, T. (2012, p. 11-12) also stated that during the 19th century, hijras used to expose their genitals if they were not given any alms which means, “A religious rite which involves giving materially to another as an act of religious virtue. It exists in a number of religions like Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam etc.” The trans-genders also earned money by transforming the children into hijras through genital mutilation and by involving them in the hijra community. However, there was an attempt to criminalise these practices by the British but they were unsuccessful. It was observed that the trans-genders could earn money only through these ways and the general public was also tolerant towards them. (Habib, T., 2012, p. 12) Habib, T. (2012, p. 12) mentions more about the ways practiced by the transgenders to earn money and some of them include, kidnapping, “castrating children” and they also danced at various places, dressed as women. The hijras Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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were then punished with two years of imprisonment or a fine or sometimes with both of them. After Independence (1947-2000s) The transgender community is huge in India and it is spread across the country. However, the majority of the community resides in the Western and Northern India and only a few live in the Southern India. Trans-genders have lately moved from the smaller towns to the bigger ones in search of better livelihood opportunities and to live far away from their families. (Saveri, S., 2013, p. 8) The lives of trans-genders did not change much even after independence in terms of the work they did. They were still begging on the streets, dancing at various weddings and other occasions, and working as sex workers. People believed and they still believe that the hijras hold the power of blessing and cursing because of the religious and mythological backgrounds that they come from. This usually causes the public to be scared of the trans-genders that further results into discrimination and stigma at different levels. (Saveri, S., 2013, p. 8) According to John, D. (2017, p. 3), the Criminal Tribes Act passed by the British legislation in 1871 which categorised the trans-genders under the Act was repealed by the first Prime Minister of India, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. He further amended the Act and passed it as the Habitual Offenders Act which focused on punishing the individual who committed a crime instead of criminalising the entire community. 2.2.3. Hierarchy of Indian Trans-genders The term ‘transgender’ also includes the Hijras of India as a whole but there is a difference between both the terms. The Hijras have their own hierarchical structure called hijra jamaat that exists only in India, majorly in the Western, Northern and a few Eastern states. (Saveri, S., 2013, p. 3) Nayak

Chela

Guru

Guru

Chela

Chela

Guru

Grandchela

The Hierarchical System in Hijra Gharana (Saveri, S., 2013) Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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In the above figure, it is clear that every gharana has its own ancestor who is known as Nayak/Naik and she is the head of all the hijras who are the part of that particular gharana. After the head, come the different gurus who further have different chelas and the grand-chelas under the same gharana. (Saveri, S., 2013, p. 6) Saveri, S. (2013, p. 6) says, “the hijra jamaat is not different from the local/traditional panchayat system because it has its own sets of norms and rules which are supposed to be very rigid. Any violation of the jamaat norms can lead to expulsion from the jamaat or payment of fine.” 2.2.4. Working Lifestyle of Indian Trans-genders The working lifestyle of the trans-genders is very different from that of the general public residing in India. A lot of discrimination surrounds the transgender community in our nation which leads to no education, no jobs and a bad lifestyle followed by them. Therefore, they are not educated and that leads to the negligence that they suffer while applying for jobs. (Humanity Always, 2017) According to Ali, M. & Mohyuddin, A. (2013, p. 436) out of the total population of the trans-genders, almost 85% of them are either thrown out of their homes or they leave their families themselves. This causes a lot of problem to them, majorly, education problems and financial problems. They usually go out to earn money through dancing on the streets and sex work. 2.2.5. Critical Analysis of the Lifestyle and Culture of Trans-genders in India In ancient India, trans-genders were always accepted by the people around them as they were seen as prestigious human beings who received respect from everyone. However, in the mid-19th century during the British rule, Hijras were made illegal and they were soon considered a taboo in the Indian culture “through the passage of the Criminal Tribe Act 1871” (Johnson, R., n.d., p. 49). According to Rajkumar (2016, p. 18), the British had tagged the whole transgender community as “criminals” and “addicts” who used to commit various crimes. They were arrested for various activities like dressing up as women, dancing on the streets, playing music in public places and for getting involved in gay sexual intercourse. Trans-genders have been a part of the Indian culture for a long time but even today, there is a certain kind of traditional understanding which does not let them get involved with the people around them. They do not have any safe places to live in and they are also often ignored by their families. (Gayathri, N. & Karthikeyan, P., 2016, p. 22) Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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2.3.

Presence of Trans-genders in India The first-ever census which counted the trans-genders as a part of the Indian population took place in 2011. The results showed that approximately, over 4,90,000 trans-genders reside in India. Times of India has stated that “over 66% of the population identified as the third gender who live in rural India whereas close to 69% of the overall population lives in the villages.� (Venkat, A., 2016) 2.3.1. Population of the Third Gender in India According to Census 2011, the total population of trans-genders in India was stated to be 4,87,803 out of which 54,854 were recorded to be children ageing between 0 and 6 years. The state wise population is given below: States

Population (Adults)

Uttar Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Maharashtra Bihar West Bengal Madhya Pradesh Tamil Nadu Orissa Karnataka Rajasthan Jharkhand Gujarat Assam Punjab Haryana Chhattisgarh Uttarakhand Delhi Jammu and Kashmir Kerala Himachal Pradesh Manipur Tripura Meghalaya Arunachal Pradesh Goa Nagaland Puducherry Mizoram Chandigarh Sikkim Daman and Diu

1,37,465 43,769 40,891 40,827 30,349 29,597 22,364 20,332 20,266 16,517 13,463 11,544 11,374 10,243 8,422 6,591 4,555 4,213

Population (Children between 0 and 6 years) 18,734 4,082 4,101 5,971 2,376 3,409 1,289 2,125 1,771 2,012 1,593 1,028 1,348 813 1,107 706 512 311

4,137

487

3,902 2,051 1,343 833 627 495 398 398 252 166 142 126 59

295 154 177 66 134 64 34 63 16 26 16 14 10 Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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Andaman and Nicobar Islands Dadra and Nagar Haveli Lakshadweep Total

47

5

43

5

2 4,87,803

0 54,854

Population of Trans-genders in India (Census, 2011)

The above table clearly states that the most populated areas of India like Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, and Andhra Pradesh have more trans-genders than the areas like Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli where there are hardly any transgender children. However, the population of the children (0-6 years) in places like Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Mizoram, Sikkim, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Lakshadweep, Puducherry, Nagaland, Daman and Diu and Andaman and Nicobar Islands are very low in terms of rest of the trans-genders. Also, their population is low in the most populated states of India in comparison to other trans-genders. The map below shows the state wise population of the transgender children in India in percentage on a scale of very low to very high:

Percentage of Population of Third Gender Children in India (Venkat, A., 2016)

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2.3.2. Literacy Level of the Third Gender in India In order to understand the overall presence of trans-genders in India, it is important to observe their literacy rate. Following is the state wise segregation of the same given by the Census of India: States Uttar Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Maharashtra Bihar West Bengal Madhya Pradesh Tamil Nadu Orissa Karnataka Rajasthan Jharkhand Gujarat Assam Punjab Haryana Chhattisgarh Uttarakhand Delhi Jammu and Kashmir Kerala Himachal Pradesh Manipur Tripura Meghalaya Arunachal Pradesh Goa Nagaland Puducherry Mizoram Chandigarh Sikkim Daman and Diu Andaman and Nicobar Islands Dadra and Nagar Haveli Lakshadweep Total

Literacy Rate (in %) 55.80 53.33 67.57 44.35 58.83 53.01 57.78 54.35 58.82 48.34 47.58 62.82 53.69 59.75 62.11 51.35 62.65 62.99 49.29 84.61 62.10 67.50 71.19 57.40 52.20 73.90 70.75 60.59 87.14 72.22 65.18 75.51 73.81 73.68 50.00 56.07

Literacy Rate of Trans-genders in India (Census, 2011)

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According to the above table and the findings of Venkat, A. (2016), it can be concluded that the literacy rate of trans-genders is very low in some of the backward states like Bihar, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Jammu and Kashmir, Meghalaya and Lakshadweep. However, it is very high in areas like Maharashtra, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Tripura, Chandigarh, Kerala, Mizoram, Gujarat, Nagaland, Puducherry and Goa etc. It stays medium in other parts of the country. The map below represents the literacy level of trans-genders in the different states of India as compared to that of the total population:

Literacy Ratio of Third Gender in India (Venkat, A., 2016)

The map indicates that the trans-genders residing in Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and Meghalaya are less illiterate than those residing in Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and Mizoram. (Venkat, A., 2016) It is obvious that in states like Madhya Pradesh and Jharkhand where the population of the third gender individuals is high and the literacy rate is low; the opportunities for various occupations and a good livelihood are very low. However, other states have significantly more literate and working transgenders. (Venkat, A., 2016) The literacy level of trans-genders affects their education qualification which is stated to be either secondary or senior secondary on an average because they Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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do not get any formal education and they often discontinue their schooling because of the discrimination. (Rajkumar, 2016, p. 19) Other than the normal literacy level, there are findings of the literacy gap that exists among the urban and the rural parts of all the states in India. This gap has been represented in the map below on a scale ranging from very low to very high:

Literacy Gap in Rural and Urban India (Venkat, A., 2016)

With the help of the above map, Venkat, A. (2016) tries to explain the gap between the rural and urban India in terms of the literacy rate of the transgenders. It can be seen that the gap is very low in states like Kerala, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur and Sikkim. However, it keeps increases with an increase in the population. For instance, the gap is high in states like Gujarat, Rajasthan, Orissa, Jammu and Kashmir and Bihar. Also, it is very high in other states that are; Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Assam and Nagaland. It is concluded that the “urban areas in these states are 23-25% more literate than rural areas, indicating a severe gap between people and the educational institutions that serve them.� 2.3.3. Level of unemployment of Trans-genders in India According to the data of the literacy level of trans-genders in different states, it is obvious that the employment level with increase with an increase in the literacy rate. The following map represents the ratio of unemployment of transgenders to that of the general population on a scale of very low to very high:

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Unemployment Ratio of Trans-genders Population in India (Venkat, A., 2016)

vs.

Total

Venkat, A. (2016) has compared the unemployment rates of the trans-genders with that of the total population and she states that “third gender individuals in 28 of 36 states and Union Territories face unemployment rates higher than the total population.�

Employment Gap in Rural and Urban India (Venkat, A., 2016) Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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The above map represents the employment gap that exists among the rural and urban areas of the states in India. The evaluation shows a severe gap in the rural and urban areas and it can be seen that the employment rate is high in the rural areas than in the urban areas of a few states. For instance, there is a very high gap of “over 16%” in the rural areas of Sikkim, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Meghalaya and Chhattisgarh. However, it is the opposite in states like Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab and Haryana. It is because the urban areas of these states are highly populated and thus, jobs are easier to find and the gap that exists is “about 3-7%”. Also, “in the Union Territories of Delhi and Chandigarh, this rural/urban gap jumps to 26% and 38% respectively, predictably in favour of urban areas.” Hence, it can be concluded that the employment rate is affected by the literacy rate in many ways and therefore, the employment and literacy gaps between the rural and the urban areas of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh are very low. (Venkat, A., 2016)

2.4.

Problems Faced by the Trans-genders in India The transgender community has always faced discrimination in terms of human rights in the past. They have often been abused sexually and their cases have never been solved by the police as most of the harassment is caused by them (Johnson, R., n.d., p. 49). It has been observed over the years that they have gone through different types of abuse at public places, police stations, prisons and at their homes as well. It is understood that the reason behind the abuse is the lack of acceptance of the public towards the hijra community and the fact that the major part of the transgender population has a lower middle class background. Thus, they are vulnerable to harassment in different forms. (Gayathri, N. & Karthikeyan, P., 2016, p. 22) Other than sexual abuse, trans-genders have also faced problems like homelessness, lack of medical facilities, lack of educational services, unemployment, tobacco and alcohol abuse, depression, HIV, human trafficking, marriage and adoption etc. It is often seen that they are not allowed to adopt a child or inherit a property. Thus, they end up doing odd jobs to earn money like dancing on the streets, begging and getting into sex work. (Jha, M., c.a., 2017) Hotchandani, K. (2017, p. 75 - 76) has mentioned about a lot of problems in her research report that are faced by the trans-genders in India. According to the article, the problems are associated with the LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender) community which is categorised under a marginalised group that faces social, legal, economic and cultural problems. Discrimination One of the major problems that the trans-genders come across is discrimination. They are discriminated through various means like education, job opportunities, human rights and entertainment etc. (Hotchandani, K., 2017, p. 75)

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Downtrodden It is often seen how the transgender community is oppressed by the majority groups. They fight a lot to gain justice to protect their identities. (Hotchandani, K., 2017, p. 75) Prostitution A lot of trans-genders work as sex workers in various parts of India because they don’t have an opportunity to work at respectable places. Due to the loss of opportunities and the lack of acceptability by the corporates, they are forced to get into illegal jobs like prostitution. (Hotchandani, K., 2017, p. 75) Rape and verbal and physical abuse The most common problem faced by the trans-genders is that of rape and physical abuse. This happens because of the fact that they belong to a minority and so, people take advantage of them wherever possible. Other than that, since the trans-genders work as sex workers, people think it is acceptable to abuse them physically or sexually. (Hotchandani, K., 2017, p. 75) Lack of educational facilities Other than the sexual abuse, the community is neglected in the educational sector as well. They are not allowed to study by their families, friends or their community members and even if they are permitted, they are treated differently by the people concerned. (Hotchandani, K., 2017, p. 75) Rejection of entry In India, a lot of places still practice untouchability and they understand that the transgenders should not be permitted to enter religious places or other public places like theatres, parks, hotels and restaurants etc. (Hotchandani, K., 2017, p. 75) Human trafficking Due to the negligence that the community goes through, it is prone to be a part of human trafficking as well. (Hotchandani, K., 2017, p. 76) STI and HIV Aids Since the trans-genders are not educated or are less educated, they do not have an awareness of health related problems like STI and HIV and therefore, they are more likely to have these problems. They do not know about the precautions that should be taken in order to protect themselves. (Hotchandani, K., 2017, p. 76) Unwanted attention Trans-genders often get unwanted attention at various public places in form of insults, punishments, curses and different types of abuse etc. (Hotchandani, K., 2017, p. 75)

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Family problems A lot of trans-genders belong to families which didn’t accept them once their identities were revealed. It is hard for their families to see them change and thus, they are often forced to leave their homes as they no longer fit into their society. (Hotchandani, K., 2017, p. 75) Alcohol and Drugs The most common problem among the trans-genders is the consumption of alcohol and drugs. They commonly use drugs like cocaine, brown sugar, hash and ganja etc. it is mainly because they want to get rid of the discrimination they face in everyday life but it eventually leads to sexual abuse or other kind of risky behaviour. (Rafeek, M., 2015, p. 4) According to the problems mentioned above, it can be understood that the transgender community is excluded from the society in many ways. Thus, it is important to understand the various exclusions that the trans-genders are a part of. 2.4.1. Exclusion of Trans-genders in India According to a research done by Delliswararao, K. & Hangsing, C. (2018, p. 12), there is a Social Exclusion Framework which is used to understand the problems faced by the “disadvantaged and disenfranchised groups”. They say, “it provides a multidimensional and dynamic framework that focuses both on the causes and the consequences of social disadvantage. Social Exclusion Framework is seen as having particular salience in addressing the barriers to meeting the Millennium Development Goals, particularly where these relate to exclusionary social relations and institutions.” The different exclusions faced by the trans-genders are as follows:

Exclusion of Trans-genders in India (Delliswararao, K. & Hangsing, C. 2018, p. 12)

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Exclusion from Social and Cultural Events India is considered to be one of the most tolerant countries in the world as it comprises of different cultures, customs, languages, beliefs and religions. However, even after accepting a lot of different beliefs, Indians seem to have a very limited knowledge of same sex orientation and about the people who do not fit in the traditional gender system and choose to live with a gender identity different from that of their biological sex. (Gayathri, N. & Karthikeyan, P., 2016, p. 23) In India, most of the trans-genders are born with the males turning into females and that makes it difficult for their families to accept the transformation of their male child into a female. Parents and other family members treat their sons or other male relatives badly for wearing feminine clothes and behaving like women. As a result, some children either leave their houses or they are asked to do so by their parents. (Gayathri, N. & Karthikeyan, P., 2016, p. 23) In a research done by Atheeque, M. & Nishanthi, R. (2016, p. 641), the situation of the families of trans-genders has been discussed. It specifies the physical and verbal abuse faced by the trans-genders in their own homes which encourages them to live a “double life”. The abuse often leads to abandonment of young kids because they go through discrimination and prejudice in their homes. The living conditions of trans-genders are bad in India because they do not have their own homes to live in and various other housing facilities are often denied to them. Homelessness leads to a bad livelihood which is experienced by the hjras such as smoking, drinking, HIV infection, drugs and work in the underground economy etc. They are not a part of any of the housing schemes initiated by the Government and they are also unable to rent a property to purchase a land. (Atheeque, M. & Nishanthi, R., 2016, p. 640-641) Exclusion from Political Participation The trans-genders in India have a limited or no participation in the politics. They do not have an access to the basic citizenship rights because of their gender identities. They have difficulties in contesting for an election because they do not understand the process of elections, the society does not accept them and also because they do not have sufficient resources to contest elections. The inability to participate in political activities gives the transgender community a limited access to politics and decision making. (Chacko, S. & Narrain, A., 2014, p. 195) However, Gayathri, N. & Karthikeyan, P. (2016, p. 25) mention that the transgenders have an opportunity of casting a vote as a woman or as ‘other’. But, there has been an instance where a transgender contested in an election as a

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woman and had also won the elections however, it was later considered as fraud and illegal because the gender identity was mentioned incorrectly. Exclusion from Economic Participation and Lack of Social Security Trans-genders face different types of discrimination in India and one of them takes place economically. Leaving their homes or getting thrown out of their houses by their families makes it difficult for them to expect any sort of support from their parents or other family members in the long run. This makes them stand a point in their lives where they are unable to earn for themselves. It happens because of less employment opportunities or because they get sick. This also affects their security in the nation. (Gayathri, N. & Karthikeyan, P., 2016, p. 23) There are two issues that are associated with the trans-genders while they suffer the loss of their social security. They are: 1. Less livelihood choices A lot of trans-genders are still working as sex workers because they do not have other job opportunities. Many employers refuse to appoint educated and qualified trans-genders has their employees and therefore, the community goes on to either start their own work or continue to be prostitutes. However, there has been a record of jobs being offered to trans-genders as agents for Life Insurance Corporation of India. (Gayathri, N. & Karthikeyan, P., 2016, p. 24) 2. Hurdles to use social welfare schemes There are many social welfare schemes for various socio-economically discriminated groups in India that are initiated by the Government but they do not include the hijra community. But there are certain parts of India that are providing the trans-genders with several schemes, for example, the Minority Welfare Department has been ordered by the state government of Andhra Pradesh to “consider hijras as a minority and develop welfare schemes for them.� It has also been recorded that most of the transgender communities are not even aware of the different welfare schemes available for them. Other than that, most of the communities are not a part of various life or health insurance schemes because they do not have the knowledge. (Gayathri, N. & Karthikeyan, P., 2016, p. 24) 2.3.2. Health Problems Health is an important factor that should be taken care of in the course of life. It is a fundamental human right to have access to all the health care facilities available in the surroundings. But, this right is not valid for the trans-genders in India. Other than the discrimination by the family, trans-genders also go

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through disrespect in the health sector and in some cases, violence too. (Atheeque, M. & Nishanthi, R., 2016, p. 640) The doctors and other healthcare professionals are very insensitive towards the community. Over the years, a lot of cases of discrimination have been reported by the trans-genders that were caused to them by the healthcare staff. For instance, the professionals are often hostile or un-co-operative while addressing them. They are mocked by the staff and are also refused to have access to any healthcare facilities. (Chacko, S. & Narrain, A., 2014, p. 194) Various medical rules and regulations affect the community negatively. There are instances from the past that refer to this. For example, any human who has been attacked by the police or a goon needs a medical certificate for certain legal procedures but the trans-genders are refused to have such certificates and the government hospitals do not co-operate at all. Also, a lot of times, the intersex children, born with “atypical sex characteristics”, are discriminated through different medical surgeries performed on them without any consent or without informing their parents. Such surgeries are very expensive and that is why trans-people usually avoid undergoing such a process. However, in some cases, to get rid of the cost of processes like hormone therapy, gender affirming surgeries or hormone implants, trans-genders get into sex work to earn money. (Chacko, S. & Narrain, A., 2014, p. 194) Chacko, S. & Narrain, A. (2014, p. 194) also state the disadvantage of not having proper medical guidance and facilities. In order to avoid expensive surgeries, trans-genders depend upon the unsafe means like “non-medical industrial quality silicone ‘fillers’ and ‘pumpers’, traditional or backyard castration or taking hormones with little or no medical supervision.” This leads to a lot of medical complications. 2.3.3. Education Problems The most important factor for creating a better lifestyle is education. It helps us in exploring ourselves and in expanding our prospects so that we are able to build the foundation of our work life. Therefore, it is important to understand that even today; the transgender community is India does not have a proper access to education. They do not have the equal rights for education because of all the discrimination and violence that they face in their everyday life. (Atheeque, M. & Nishanthi, R., 2016, p. 640) Hijras are forced to leave their homes once their identities are confirmed and that also affects their education as they no longer have an access to schools and colleges which further their limits their opportunities for a good career. (Asmy, V. & Nagaraj, P., 2015, p. 22)

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There has never been any formal education provided to the trans-genders in India. Once they are out of their houses, they are discriminated more and thus, they either become reluctant to study or they do not find the right sources. The average qualification of the community is either secondary or senior secondary level. It is observed that the rate of enrolling into schools or other education institutes is low and that of the dropout is very high. However, their enrolment in a certain institute does not make much difference to their education level because they are bullied and harassed and are asked to drop out of the school every day. Therefore, it has been recorded that trans-genders are the most uneducated individuals of the society. (Rajkumar, 2016, p. 19) Bhaskar, S. & Vadarevu, S. (2015) write that the discrimination in the educational sector is not limited to India, it exists in the Western parts of the globe as well. There are many educational institutes which do not admit transgender students because of the insecurities of other students. Thus, it is now important to recognise the transgender community and give them the right to education. 2.3.4. Employment Problems One of the major problems associated with the trans-genders is unemployment. Many employers are reluctant to give jobs to trans-genders which further make them work on their own small businesses like tea shops, dhabas and paan shops etc. However, a lot of trans-genders do not have an access to such work options and therefore, they end up doing sex work, begging and other ill jobs to earn money. (Rafeek, M., 2015, p. 4) A study reveals that out of the LGBT community, the trans-genders are the most discriminated individuals in the corporate sector. They are excluded from the different phases of the employment process like “recruitment, training opportunities, employee benefits and access to job advancement.” This makes the trans-genders; ‘transphobic’ and they feel discouraged to apply for any sort of job. These disadvantages make them work as entertainers, beauticians or sex workers. Since prostitution is illegal in India, trans-genders are criminalised and they are subjected to violence, abuse and extortion. (Cortez, C. et al., 2016, p. 2) According to certain research findings, it is usual for the transgender community to face discrimination at workplace because of their sexual orientation and/or their gender identity. The women are often considered masculine and vice versa because of their behaviour or appearance and that leads to harassment like people asking them questions about their personal lives in order to get an insight of their gender identity. For instance, many transgenders have been rejected during interviews because of their appearance; the employers are hesitant to accept the way the trans-genders dress up; they are Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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not allowed to use the washrooms at a workplace because of their gender identity which is different from that set by the society etc. (International Labour Organisation, n.d., p. 2) Many transgender applicants have been rejected on the basis of their gender expression i.e. clothes, mannerism and the way they talk etc. This often stereotypes the hijra community in terms of the type of jobs that should be done by them. For example, trans-women residing in Thailand reported that had better acceptance in the entertainment or service sectors and most of them find it better to be sex workers as it gives them better remuneration than other jobs however, it eventually increases their risk of HIV infections and that decreases their life expectancy. (International Labour Organisation, n.d., p. 2) Case Study A short interview was done by Hindustan Times to find out the reason of why it is difficult for the trans-genders in India to work in different companies. 5 trans-genders from different fields of work were interviewed for the survey that were: 1. Stylist Model (SM) 2. Manager, Quality Auditor BPO (QA) 3. Online Strategist, Google (OS) 4. Worker at Marriage Functions (WM) 5. Worker at a Toy Factory (WT) Question 1: How did their journey start? Answers – SM: She bagged an internship with a fashion features editor, during her college which made her realise her passion for working as a freelance stylist model. QA: She used to work as a tele-caller but she was later shifted to the quality team of the same BPO where she now works as a Manager, Quality Auditor. OS: Earlier she used to work a retail executive in the retail sector but later, she went on to work in the backend process of Google. WM: She works at various wedding sites. WT: She used to work in the packing department of a toy factory in Rajouri Garden, New Delhi. Her job was to count the number of packages packed and the ones that were left. Question 2: What were the problems they faced while looking for job opportunities? Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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Answers – SM: After giving different interviews, she found out she had not got any job or internship because the employees working at those offices did not find her “fit” for the working environment and also questioned her appearance. This made her feel comfortable while working as a freelance model. QA: She had to look for a job right after completing her schooling. She was scared to join a college because of all the discrimination she faced during her school life so she completed her graduation through a correspondence course. It was after graduation that the BPO sector attracted her and so she decided to join it. WM: She says, “there are no job opportunities for kinnars.” Despite of being a talented tailor, she was never allowed to work at the tailor shops because of the fear that the ladies around would stop coming to those particular shops. This is what led her to start working at different parties and functions. Question 3: How difficult is it to retain their jobs? Answers – SM: She has often been called a “bad fit” for the brands she worked with or had thought of working with. QA: The atmosphere of the office used to get uncomfortable for her after a while and so she started leaving her jobs after every four or six months. She could not be friends with her co-workers because of her appearance or behaviour. OS: She used to face sexual harassment at her previous job which made her feel uncomfortable and so, she decided to leave and move on. WT: She worked at the factory for 15 days and later decided to leave the job because her self-conscious did not allow her to go through the discrimination. When she started working there, she had not told anybody about her identity but with time when her manager found out, he was happy. However, the problem was from the employer’s end. Question 4: What do they think is the problem? Answers – QA: According to her it is the mind-set of the people which leads to discrimination. The people around trans-genders do not try to gel up with them or talk to them. OS: Everyone judges the trans-genders on the basis of their appearance and the clothes they wear.

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WT: People assume they always beg on the streets or attend different occasions to earn money. She tried a lot to communicate with her coworkers but somehow they were always rude to her. Question 5: Do they miss their jobs? Answers – QA: She has been through a lot of uncomfortable moments and that is why her will to work in the BPO sector has come to an end. WT: She loved her job because of the fact she enjoys the jobs which include reading and writing. Question 6: Do they want to join the workforce again? Answers – OS: She works with Parivarthan Trust instead of opting to work as a make-up artist in the industry. WM: She would like to work as a guard at nursing homes if she gets an opportunity. WT: She loves the teaching profession and has also gone for a few trainings. Therefore, she would like to study more and then work as a teacher in a Government school. However, she is scared to join a workplace again because she might go through the harassment again. She does not want people to ignore her or be rude to her. Interview of Trans-genders by Hindustan Times (Hindustan Times, 2018)

2.5.

Inclusion of Trans-genders in the Indian Society Over the years, trans-genders have faced exclusion in different aspects of life like social, political and economic participation. Other than that, they do not get fair opportunities in the education and employment field. They also have other problems related to literacy and health which have often been ignored by the general public. However, the democracy is becoming inclusive now and some states in India have begun to bring the trans-genders in the light. (Sharma, R., 2013, p. 72) There are a few examples in different fields that indicate how the transgender community is beginning to be a part of the Indian society in no time. They are: 2.5.1. Political Participation The politics in India has seen a major change over the years in terms of the inclusion of the hijra community. There have been many cases where the transgenders have contested in the elections. For example, in April 2014, Bharathi Kannama contested for the Mayor’s post in Madurai but she was initially rejected as her name was mentioned to be that of a male, ‘Alaguraja’ in the electoral rolls. However, she contested again after the Indian Government had

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recognised the third gender and she was an independent, 53 year old transgender who was a part of the Parliamentary elections from Madurai constituency, Tamil Nadu state in that year. (Gayathri, N. & Karthikeyan, P., 2016, p. 25)

Bharathi Kannama (www.mgrtv.com, 2014)

Gayathri, N. & Karthikeyan, P. (2016, p. 25) have also mentioned about Bhavana Thimmappa, in their journal, who also contested in the same Parliamentary elections in April 2014 from Chitradurga constituency, Karnataka state. The transgender is already a successful entrepreneur who owns a dhaba named Satara on National Highway 4 with a few transgender employees. A big success in the Indian politics was that of Madhu Kinnar who won the mayoral elections in Raigarh, Chattissgarh as an independent candidate in 2015. She is the first transgender mayor in India who also defeated her BJP opponent by 4,537 votes. (De, H., 2016)

Madhu Kinnar (Patkar, E., 2015)

2.5.2. Education In the field of education, Dr. Manabi Bandopadhyay is the first transgender to be appointed as the Principal of Krishnagar Women’s College (Nadia District) in 2015. She had under-went a sex-change operation a decade ago and later also adopted a son. She holds a Doctorate degree in Philosophy and before this job; she was an Associate Professor of Bengali Literature in Vivekananda

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Satobarshiki Mahavidyalaya. (Gayathri, N. & Karthikeyan, P., 2016, p. 26 & Ray, M., 2017)

Dr. Manabi Bandopadhyay (Roy, H., 2016)

2.5.3. Media and Entertainment Other than education and politics, media and entertainment fields have also seen a positive change over the years. Recently, there have been a lot of transgender anchors and hosts on TV. For instance, there is a half an hour long chat show “Ippadiku Rose� (Your Rose) hosted by Rose herself which talks about various concerned topics like prostitution and pre-marital sex etc. and it airs on the channel, Star Vijay. The host is the first transgender to be recognised as a media person. She is talented and also holds a degree in Biomedical Engineering. (Gayathri, N. & Karthikeyan, P., 2016, p. 26)

Rose (Ram, A., 2009)

Another TV anchor who is the first transgender to have her own prime show on a South Indian news channel is Padmini Prakash. She is a trained Kathak dancer and a vocal artist who was also the former Miss Transgender of India. Her career started when she first read out the headline bulletins at Padmini Prakash (Qureshi, I., 2014) Coimbatore based Lotus News channel. Later on, she started acting in various Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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serials before her prime show started airing on the TV. (India TV News Desk, 2015 & De, H., 2016) There has also been a change in the film industry in the south of the country. Anjali Ameer is a transsexual actress who was introduced as a female protagonist in a film, by his Malayalam co-star last year. In the same year, she was also chosen as the lead in a bilingual film. The actress was initially a model who had earlier, lived with certain hijra communities in Coimbatore and Bangaluru. She had undergone a sex change operation at the age of 20. (Lekshmi, P., 2017a)

Anjali Ameer (Abraham, B., 2017)

The most famous director, actor, writer and lyricist in the Indian Film Industry, Rituparno Ghosh was also a transgender. He was a winner of twelve National Awards and was rewarded with various other awards at the International Films Festival abroad. He was a graduate in Economics from the Jadavpur University. He was known to be a strong male who always carried a feminine indentity. However, the industry lost him on 30th May 2013. (Ray, M. 2017)

Rituparno Ghosh (Bakshi, K., 2013)

2.5.4. Social Activities There are a lot of transgender activists who have come into light lately and have become famous for their bold personalities and incomparable talent. The most famous of them all is Lakshmi Narayan Tripathi who is also an actor and an author. She was born in a very poor family in Uttar Pradesh and she was abused both mentally and sexually in her childhood. She holds an Arts degree from Mithibai College in Mumbai and a post-

Lakshmi Narayan Tripathi (Majumdar, A., 2015)

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graduate degree in Bharatanatyam. She has been a part of different TV shows including Bigg Boss and also three documentary films. She also launched a beauty pageant called the “Indian Super Queen” in 2010. Gradually, she became one of the founding members of the organisation that works for the transgender community, the Dai Welfare, in 2002. Later, in 2008, she also represented Asia Pacific in the UN where she spoke about the “plight of the sexual minorities in the society” (Lekshmi, P., 2017a). Lakshmi is known for voicing against the discrimination faced by the transgenders and that led to the “recognition of the third gender by the Supreme Court of India.” She is also a famous TEDx speaker. (Ray, M., 2017) Kalki Subramaniam is also a famous activist who is a journalist, a poet, an actor and a writer. She claims to be the first Indian transgender to be a successful entrepreneur by founding the Sahodari foundation for the hijra community in India. She is a holder of a master’s degree in Journalism and Mass Communication; and in Intellectual Relations too. (India TV News Desk, 2015)

Kalki Subramaniam (Dubey, T., 2015)

Another LGBTQ activist is Gauri Sawant. She was born as Ganesh to a conservative family in Pune and after turning 9 years old, she realised she was different. She underwent a sex change operation with the help of Humsafar Trust and later started her own NGO with the name ‘Sakhi Char Chowghi’ in Malad, Mumbai. Gauri is also one of the Gauri Sawant (www.milaap.org, petitioners of the National Legal 2018) Services Authority (NALSA) judgement which was passed in 2013. (Milaap.org, 2018) The community also involves an ambassador, Noori who “heads the South India Positive Network, a Chennai based organisation, that administers projects to cater to the needs of around 2,000 HIV positive members.” Noori was herself diagnosed positively with HIV in 1987 and that is when she stopped Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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working as a sex worker and began to work as a peer educator about prevention, support and care for the people who had HIV AIDS. (Gayathri, N. & Karthikeyan, P., 2015, p. 26)

Noori (Dr. Batra’s Health, 2017)

2.5.5. Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry The Indian fashion industry is growing tremendously in terms of fashion and the people working in it. As the fashion is becoming gender neutral and gender fluid, the gender binaries are starting to diminish. Even today, the trans-genders are looked upon as mere “stock characters” are often mistaken to be gays or drags because people are still clueless about the term ‘transgender’ and its meaning. (Azeez, A., 2016) However, the Indian fashion industry is known to be friendlier to the LGBTQ community in comparison to other industries. It was proved when the famous activist Lakshmi Narayan Tripathi walked the ramp during the Lakme Fashion Week in 2016 to promote ‘Gender No Bar’. She received a lot of praise and applause for the same. (Azeez, A., 2016)

Lakshmi Narayan Tripathi walking the ramp at the Lakme Fashion Week (Azeez, A., 2016)

Recently, there has been a lot of praise about the successful transgender model, Anjali Lama, who is making headlines for her tremendous presentation at the Lakme Fashion Week held in February 2017. She was born as Nabin Wabia in Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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the rural district of Nuwakot, Nepal and later she underwent a sex change operation only to become the first successful transsexual model in the Indian fashion industry. (Arora, M. & Jamshed, Z., 2017)

Anjali Lama (Arora, M. & Jamshed, Z., 2017)

After she shifted her base to Kathmandu, because her family disowned her, Anjali came across the Blue Diamond Society which is an organisation in Nepal that advocates sexual minorities. Her friends wanted her to try modelling and eventually, she got featured on the cover of a Nepali magazine – ‘Voice of Women’. However, she did not get many jobs because of her identity but she never gave up. Later, she walked the ramp for the first time for Subexya Bhadel, a Nepalese designer. And today, she is one of the leading models in the country. (Arora, M. & Jamshed, Z., 2017) Anjali Lama has also worked with some of the most talented designers in India like Amit Aggarwal, Soumodeep Dutta and Tarun Tahiliani etc. The designers praise her for the talent she owns and feel proud when she wears their outfits. (Tewari, B., 2017)

Rudrani Chettri (Khandelwal, M., 2017)

A Delhi based transgender activist, Rudrani Chettri who is the head of Mitr Trust also owns a modelling agency which helps the trans-genders to get employed as models and get recognition. She started the agency when her career as a model had begun and she was not getting any assignments. She Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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opened it through crowd funding and help from her supporters and friends. (De, H., 2016) In 2010, Lakshmi Narayan Tripathi, CEO of Twelve Noon Entertainment launched India’s first transgender beauty pageant “Indian Super Queen” with a motive to combine all the trans-genders in order to help them display their real characters and “take pride in who they are and to prove that they are just as human as all of us.” The first auditions were held in Bangalore and the event was also attended by the Bollywood actors, Celina Jaitley and Seema Biswas. (India Infoline News Service, 2010) Another beauty pageant called Trans Queen India was started by Reena Rai, a Delhi based housewife in 2017 after she observed the talent of the transgenders and the trans-sexuals in Hijra Habba in Delhi. She later decided to come up with the contest that would provide a platform to their talent. The auditions were held in Mumbai, Imphal and Delhi after which 16 contestants were selected from a group of 1500 trans-genders. The winner of the Indian contest then represented the country at the Miss International Trans Queen in Thailand. (Garg, R., 2017) Fashion Sense of the Trans-genders Even after facing a lot of discrimination, the trans-genders in India are always colourful in terms of what they wear. They put on a lot of makeup and are always dressed up in bright colours. A lot of their fashion sense explains how they want the general public to notice them. (Seth, G., 2017)

Fahion Sense of a Transgender (Seth, G., 2017)

Transgender getting makeup applied on her face (Seth, G., 2017)

The trans-genders in India have diverse fashion sense and they dress up according to the culture they belong to. For instance, the trans-gender community in Pakistan wears salwar-kameez and the ones in Bangladesh wear sarees. The Indian trans-genders wear clothes according to the occasions. Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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However, their clothes are finalised by their gurus because they have to look different when they go out. A lot of trans-genders wear what they wish to and most of them are inclined towards the western wear. (Seth, G., 2017) There are various occasions that play an important role in the lives of the transgenders and so do the clothes that they wear on such events. When a hijra officially joins a community, she wears a saree as a sign of tradition and respect for her guru. (Betigeri, A., 2017)

Transgender in (Author, 2018)

a

saree

In 2016, Sharmila Nair, a fashion designer from Kerala got inspired from the fashion sense of the trans-genders and so she decided to have Trans models for her new collection of sarees called Mazhavi which means rainbow in Malayalam. (Sharma, I., 2016)

Trans-genders wearing the sarees from Mazhavi collection (Sharma, I., 2016) Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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2.6.

Government Policies for the Trans-genders in India The Constitution of India states that every individual has an equal right to justice – social, political and economic equality of status. Thus, “the Constitution of India is sex blind, that is to say, the basic premise of equality is based on a Constitutional mandate that the sex of a person is irrelevant save where the Constitution itself requires special provisions to be made for women.” (Agarwal, S., 2017, p. 146) It is important for all the individuals to have the fundamental human rights irrespective of their gender and all these rights are assigned by the Indian Constitution (Tanupriya, 2016, p. 2). As stated by Kabeer, H. & Wilson, S. (2017, p. 18) in their research, there are a series of rights that the trans-genders in India deserve to have as individuals of the nation: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Article 14 – Right is to be treated equally. Article 15 – Prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of religion, sex, caste or place of birth. Article 21 – Right to privacy and personal dignity to all the citizens. Article 23 – Prohibition of human trafficking.

However, it was a relief for the transgender communities when the Supreme Court identified them as the ‘third gender’ and a judgement was passed in April 2014 which clearly stated that “one’s sexual orientation is an integral part of the personality, dignity and freedom. Thereafter, the hijras were declared as the ‘third gender’ by the apex court, in the National Legal Services Authority (NLSA) vs. Union of India case, which provided them with a legal identity. (Awasthi, S., 2017) 2.6.1. The Supreme Court Judgement on Transgender Rights, 2014 A judgement was passed by the Supreme Court of India on 15th April 2014 which granted a legal recognition to the trans-genders of India under the category ‘third gender’. It was announced that the trans-genders would now be accepted as a “genre apart from male and female and also will be treated as a socially and economically backward class for being given various special rights and privileges.” (Gayathri, N. & Karthikeyan, P., 2016, p. 27) With the passing of the judgement, a set of directions were given to the Central and the State Government. They were as given below (Kabeer, H. & Wilson, S., 2017, p. 19-20): 1. 2. 3.

Hijras, eunuchs should be treated as third gender for the purpose of safeguarding their fundamental rights. Recognise the persons’ needs to identify their own gender. Providing reservations in public education and employment as socially and educationally backward class of citizens.

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4. 5. 6.

7. 8.

Making special provisions regarding HIV for transgender persons and provide appropriate health facilities. Tackle their problems such as fear, gender dysphoria, shame, depression, suicidal tendencies etc. Measures should be taken to provide health care to transgender people in hospitals such as making separate wards and also provide them separate public toilets. Frame social welfare schemes for their all-round development. To create public awareness so that the trans-genders feel that they are a part of the society and are not to be treated as untouchables.

According to Agrawal, S. (2016), there were two more developments after the judgement by the Supreme Court was passed that took place in 2016 which could prove to be the major steps towards the development of trans-genders. They were: 1. 2.

Right of Transgender Persons Bill, 2016. Social Security Schemes by Odisha Government.

2.6.2. Right of Transgender Persons Bill, 2016 The Union Cabinet of India approved the Right of Transgender Persons Bill in 2016 and it created a way for the trans-genders to be recognised as the third gender. However, the Bill does not mention about the reservation rights for the trans-genders who were not born to Scheduled Castes (SC) or Scheduled Tribes (ST). (Kabeer, H. & Wilson, S., 2017, p. 20) In Chapter 1, Section 2 of the Bill, a transgender has been defined as – “a person who is neither wholly female nor male, or a combination of female and male, and whose sense of gender does not match with gender assigned to that person at the time of birth and includes trans men and trans women, persons with intersex variations and gender queers.” (Bhushan, M., c.a., 2017) There is a provision for “prohibition against discrimination in relation to education, employment, health services; right to movement, right to enjoy goods and services, right to reside; unfair treatment and also to acquire public office” in Chapter 2, Section 3. (Bhushan, M., c.a., 2017) In addition, Chapter 3, Sections 4-8 of the Bill talk about the recognition of the identity of trans-genders which forms a mechanism where the right to selfperceived gender identity is provided to them. It states that “this can be done through an application made to the District Magistrate for issuing the Certificate of Identity as a transgender person. The application is then referred to District Screening Committee comprising of Chief Medical Officer, District Social Welfare Officer, a psychologist or psychiatrist, a transgender Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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representative and a Government Officer. This certificate will be the proof of recognition of their identity. It further provides for the mechanism for change in certification in case of change in the gender of the transgender.” (Bhushan, M., c.a., 2017) Bhushan, M. (c.a., 2017) also mentions about the different measures taken by the Indian Government to protect the rights and interests of the trans-genders that are stated in Chapter 4, Section 9 of the Bill. They also talk about “rescue, protection and rehabilitation of trans-genders.” Chapter 5, Sections 10-13 specify the non-discrimination that should exist in terms of “employment, right to residence without arbitrary interference, rehabilitation and grievance redressal mechanism in an establishment of hundred people or more.” (Bhushan, M., c.a., 2017) Protection against the problems associated with education, social security and health are mentioned in Chapter 6, Sections 14-16. It includes the fundamental right to education, non-discrimination, welfare schemes, right to health and insurance schemes. (Bhushan, M., c.a., 2017) There is detailed information about the National Council for Transgender which includes the “members of the Executive, Human Rights Commissions and National Commission for Women, representatives of transgender community and Non-Government Organisations (NGOs)” in Chapter 7, Sections 17 and 18 (Bhushan, M., c.a., 2017). The author of the article also adds that this Council is to give advises to the Central Government about the formulation of policies, to monitor and evaluate the effect of the policies; and to renew and coordinate the activities that take place in all the departments related to the trans-genders. Chapter 8, Section 19 talks about penalising any person who is or will be involved in forcing a transgender to beg, to work as a labour, to leave their household; harming the lives of the trans-genders or obstructing their right to passage to various public places with a fine and an imprisonment of 2-6 months. (Bhushan, M., c.a., 2017) Finally, Chapter 9, Sections 20-24 of the Bill includes various provisions like the grants provided by the Central Government and the different powers held by the Government in order to form rules, “protection of Government or any local authority from any prosecutions for the actions taken against them in good faith”; and “power of the Central Government to remove the difficulties for the provisions which are inconsistent with provisions of this Bill.” (Bhushan, M., c.a., 2017) According to the above provisions mentioned in the Bill, it is believed that the Government has introduced a mechanism which can empower the transCreating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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genders in terms of social welfare, economic status and education. It will help the marginalised group of trans-genders to fight against the discrimination and the stigma that follows them. (Press Trust of India, 2016) 2.6.3. Social Security Schemes by Odisha Government In 2015, after the Supreme Court passed its judgement in 2014, the Government of Odisha introduced the Department of Social Security and Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (SSEPD) which is entitled to look upon the matters related to the transgender communities. The first step of the department was to recognise the trans-genders and Odisha and to provide them with the legal certificates of identity. (Agrawal, S., 2016) The department was launched with five sub-schemes for the welfare of the trans-genders that were sponsored by the Central Government. The scheme focuses on providing the trans-genders with pre-matric and post-matric scholarships, skill development training; a “provision of assistance to the parents of the trans-genders” and a national pension scheme for the working trans-genders. (Agrawal, S., 2016) Agrawal, S. (2016) adds that in September 2015, the provisions of the National Food Security Act, 2013 were stretched out to the transgender communities in Odisha. The Government of Odisha also announced the provision of the same social welfare schemes for the trans-genders that are available for other people who are below the poverty line. 2.6.4. Initiatives Taken by Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu is the first state in India to establish a Social Welfare Board for the trans-genders in April 2008 (Gayathri, N. & Karthikeyan, P., 2016, p. 27). A public hearing, organised by a federation of NGOs, was held in December 2007 in Tamil Nadu which revolved around the problems of Aravanis (transgenders). There were several recommendations made to the different departments of the Tamil Nadu Government, most of which were earlier made in “the ‘sub-committee for rehabilitation of transgender people’ under the Social Welfare and Nutritious Meal Programme Department (now known as Department of Social Welfare).” (Karthikeya, D., 2017) The jury members of the public hearing also included RK Ramathal from the State Women Commission (SWC) who initiated the formation of a fourmember committee and gave recommendations to different departments of the Government including the Department of Social Welfare. Later, it was ordered to form the Transgender Welfare Board which happened on 15th April 2008. Also, the day was announced to be celebrated as ‘Thirunangai Day’ (Transgender Day) in Tamil Nadu. (Karthikeya, D., 2017)

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The Tamil Nadu Government issued an order for including the trans-genders in the list of candidates applying for the police force. The trans-genders could apply through the third gender category mentioned on the recruitment forms. This led to the recruitment of Prithika Yashini as the first transgender subinspector in India. (Manu, G., 2016a) The Tamil Nadu Higher Education Minister, KP Anbazhagan announced last year that all the transgender students in the state would get free education at the Manonmaniam Sundaranar University in Tirunelveli. He added that the meritorious students would receive a stipend of Rs. 3000 per month. (Chatterjee, S., 2017) 2.6.5. Policies Formed by the Government of Kerala According to the data of Census recorded in 2011, Kerala has the highest rate of literacy of trans-genders in India i.e. 94%. This has led to the development of various policies by the Government of Kerala for the overall welfare of the transgender communities residing in the state. (Ghoshal, S., 2017) Kerala was the second state of India to have a policy for trans-genders which targeted at demolishing the stigma and the discrimination against the transgenders and also for bringing them in the mainstream, in 2015. A justice board was set up which can deal with all the complaints filed by the community. An initiative was taken by adding the category ‘intersex’ as an option in the birth and death registration forms. And the most important of all was to make it compulsory for all the Government buildings to have separate washrooms for the trans-genders (Kabeer, H. & Wilson, S., 2017, p. 20). Also, the Chairperson of the Kerala Youth Commission, Chintha Jerome confirmed the concerns of the Commission as not just limited to the general public but also towards the empowerment of the LGBT Community in Kerala. (TNN, 2017) There have been a lot of initiatives taken by the Kerala Government lately in terms of recruitment, education, medical services, sports and beauty pageants etc. For instance, Kochi Metro Rail Limited recruited a total of 23 transgenders in different departments and thus, it became the first Government organisation to give them jobs in the railway sector. The state also owns the first ever school built for the transgender community by the name of Sahaj International which is run by a transgender, Vijayraja Mallika. The students are guided under the National Open School System and the school also gives a chance to the trans-genders who dropped out earlier by giving them vocational skills training. (Binayak, P., 2017) The first ever sports event for the trans-genders, Transgender Sports Meet, also took place in Kerala which was hosted by the Kerala Sports Council in Thiruvananthapuram’s Central Stadium. The event was attended by more than Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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130 transgender athletes from 14 districts who took part in different track and field activities. (Binayak, P., 2017) In the medical field, the Kerala Government made sure that there would be clinics which would cater to the medical needs of the transgender community and would function in various Government medical colleges available across the state and they would also offer sex-change surgeries. It was unveiled in 2015 that this step would be taken by the state’s Health and Social Justice Department with the help of Legal Services Society to achieve the goal of making the medical sectors transgender friendly. (Lekshmi, P., 2017b) Other than this, Kerala also hosted the first transgender beauty pageant which was organised by the state’s transgender association which had more than 40 transgender women as the participants and out of them, 15 made it to the finals. (Binayak, P., 2017) In February 2018, the Government of Kerala also announced the development of co-operative societies for the trans-genders with aim of supporting the community with financial assistance and certain grants which would help in giving them a self-sufficient livelihood. (PTI, 2018) 2.6.6. Initiatives Taken by the Maharashtra Government After Kerala, Maharashtra came out with a welfare board for the trans-genders and became the third state in India to do that. The board will provide the transgenders with formal education, employment, self-employment opportunities and health programmes. Also, it is the first state to set up a cultural institute which is entirely dedicated to the transgender community. (Kabeer, H. & Wilson, S., 2017, p. 20-21)

2.7.

Non-Government Organisations for Trans-genders in India Apart from the initiatives taken by the Indian Government to transform the lives of trans-genders, there are a few Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) that are working for the betterment of trans-genders’ lives in India. 2.7.1. The Humsafar Trust The Humsafar Trust in Mumbai is an organisation which has been working for the health and human rights of sexual minorities since 1994. It is a member of a national level network which has 192 community-based organisations that represent LGBT people, the Integrated Network for Sexual Minorities. The NGO “provides counselling, advocacy and healthcare ton LGBT communities” which has further helped in reducing the discrimination, stigma and various forms of violence against them. (Satyamevjayate.in, c.a., 2018)

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There are various community-based organisations that work under this foundation like ‘Kinnar Kasturi’ and ‘Kinnar Asmita’ for trans-genders and/or hijras, ‘Umang’ for LBT, ‘Yariyan’ for LGBT, ‘Sanjeevani’ for trans-genders with HIV and ‘Gaurav’ for male sex workers. (Satyamevjayate.in, c.a., 2018) 2.7.2. People Like Us (PLUS) A transgender activist, Agniva Lahiri founded an organisation to support the transgender community in India named People Like Us (PLUS). This organisation has two Drop-in-Centres (DICs), one of which is “located in a rural area of a southern district in West Bengal.” The aim of the NGO is to create a warm environment for the trans-genders, to provide with proper health care services like medical care and counselling for hormonal therapies. (Manu, G., 2016) In 2008, PLUS initiated a step towards the evolution of the trans-genders’ lives through a project called Prothoma, which was a shelter home and a crisis intervention centre for the trans-genders. This project was a major step which was taken by the United Nations Development in 2011 to “create a safe place for these individuals” and to help them recover from the trauma they go through while facing violence, discrimination and other forms of abuse. There was an effort made by the organisation to help these people reunite with their families with the help of counselling. (Manu, G., 2016) Another aim of Prothoma was to eliminate the bullying and discrimination faced by the transgender students in schools. Therefore, in 2016, it was looking forward to collaboration with the schools in order to provide the transgender and LGB community with certain study material. However, the grant which was provided to PLUS by an overseas organisation was supposed to expire in 2016. There are currently no records that state the continuation of the project after that. (Manu, G., 2016) 2.7.3. Sahodari Foundation The organisation was founded by Kalki Subramaniam, a transgender herself, in 2007 with an aim to work for the welfare of the transgender community in India. It is set up in Tamil Nadu and it was officially registered in July 2008 and since then, it has been working actively for their rights. (Sahodari.org, c.a., 2017) The foundation focuses on promoting “social, political and economic equity; and campaign for civil and legal rights of transgender and intersex people.” Other than this, they prohibit discrimination against the gender identity and expression; and also work towards the establishment of social, economic and environmental justice for the transgender community. (Sahodari.org, c.a., 2017)

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Sahodari has also won awards like Kokilavani Memorial Award in 2009 and an award for the Best Use of Website & Internet Tools for community outreach at the 4th e-NGO South Asia Challenge in 2015. (Sahodari.org, c.a., 2017) 2.7.4. Naz Foundation Trust The Naz Foundation Trust was founded in 1994 by Anjali Gopalan, an activist who supports different marginalised communities of India and works for the people who suffer from HIV/AIDS. The organisation was the first one to work support and offer care to the people affected by HIV/AIDS. (Nazindia.org, 2018a) Other than all the programmes initiated by this NGO, there is a focus on the MSM and LGBT community too. The organisation believes in the rights of these communities and thus, it focuses on providing them with appropriate education and other training. A project was run by the organisation from 200408 which was Naz India’s Milan Project. The aim was to “focus on transgenders and homosexual men” and to provide them with “safe sex education, training programs and interventions.” The project was later awarded with the MTV Staying Alive Foundation Award in 2006 and 2007. (Nazindia.org, 2018b) 2.7.5. Sangini Trust Sangini Trust was started in 1997 in New Delhi by the Naz Foundation Trust to work for the betterment of the lives of the LGBT community, particularly involving the female-to-male individuals. It counsels the communities and provides them with both online and offline support services. (MJ, 2017) 2.7.6. Swabhava A charitable trust named Swabhava was registered in Bangalore, Karnataka on 18th September 1999 to provide the LGBT community and other sexual minority groups with an access to support services. Their first project started operating on 9th June 2000, named SAHAYA which provided counselling to all the sexual minority groups, initially through telephone but now it has expanded to offline mediums too. (Swabhava.org, c.a., 2018) In 2003, Swabhava organised the first-ever LGBT film festival in Bangalore in October. Later, in 2009, the Bangalore Queer Film Festival was organised by the organisation. (Swabhava.org, c.a., 2018) This organisation has been working for the healthcare, mental care, legal and social support for the LGBT groups. Since, it is one of the few NGOs in Bangalore that are working for sensitive issues like sexuality, gender, mental health etc. it has counselled and trained a lot of people who are doctors, lawyers, NGO workers, counsellors etc. (Swabhava.org, c.a., 2018) Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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2.8.

Fashion Industry 2.8.1. Introduction Fashion industry is a multi-billion dollar industry which solely works for the creation and selling of clothes and accessories. After the mid-19th century the clothes were handmade and even the home products were made on orders by the tailors. However, with the beginning of the 20th century, the industry adapted to the new technology like the sewing machines, global capitalism and the introduction of factories which produced various fashion products in bulk and the century also experienced the introduction of various retail outlets. (Major, J. & Steele, V., 2018) It is recorded that the industry was first started in Europe and America and today, it has spread to various other continents and is a “highly globalised industry�. The industry has grown to the extent that now the raw material for clothes and accessories is sourced from one country and then they are manufactured in a different country and are further shipped to a third country. (Major, J. & Steele, V., 2018) The present fashion industry is a combination of four levels: 1. Production of various raw materials like fibres and textiles majorly and leather and fur in addition to it. 2. Designing of a variety of fashion products. 3. Manufacturing of the products by different factories. 4. Selling of these products after advertising. (Major, J. & Steele, V., 2018) 2.8.2. Key sectors of the fashion industry The fashion industry is consists of certain sectors that make it a huge and successful industry today. These sectors are: Textile Design and Production The creation of textiles is the primary and the most important part of the fashion industry. The first process of producing the fibres was during the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century. It involved processes like the spinning and the weaving of wool, cotton and various other natural fibres. (Major, J. & Steele, V., 2018) According to Major, J. & Steele, V. (2018), the production of fabrics includes a lot of additional steps to enhance the look and the feel like printing, dyeing, weaving and various other finishing processes. Therefore, the textile industry starts working on the production way before the apparel industry so that it is easier for the latter to procure the raw materials.

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Fashion Design and Manufacturing It has been recorded that earlier, only a few fashion designers had become famous like Coco Chanel and Calvin Klein who used to create “prestigious high fashion collections” which were either couture or prêt-á-porter (“ready to wear”). However, the above mentioned designers work solely for the needs of the customers even today. (Major, J. & Steele, V., 2018) Other than the designers who create exclusive collections for the celebrities or other customers, there is a major section of designers who work with the manufacturers and merchandisers in various export houses to create huge productions on the basis of the trends followed by the average consumers. The task of the designers is to create designs of the garments or other products by taking inspiration from their surroundings with the help of different techniques and then to select appropriate fabrics or material for the same. (Major, J. & Steele, V., 2018) The manufacturing aspect of the fashion industry includes the conversion of the designs made by the designers into actual products. This requires a lot of attention and techniques as it is all about making the correct patterns for the designs and then cutting the fabrics or altering other material accordingly. Further, the pieces are assembled together with the help of stitching, which is labour intensive, and other technical methods. The next step is to finish the products or garments by adding embroidery, buttons, zippers, fasteners, hems and cuffs etc. The garments are then pressed and packed for the shipment. (Major, J. & Steele, V., 2018) Fashion Retailing, Marketing and Merchandising Once the garments or other products are assembled and are ready to be shipped, they are ready to be sold in the market. This is where fashion retailing comes in the picture. Retailing is all about selling the products and apparel at the right place, at the right time, at the right price and in the right quantity. The different brand outlets purchase the required stock approximately three to six months before displaying it for the sale. (Major, J. & Steele, V., 2018) The marketing of fashion is about “managing the flow of merchandise from the initial selection designs to be produced to the presentation of products to retail customers with a goal of maximising the sales and profits.” There are various ways of reaching the customers through marketing like the use of different social media, tracking down the data of the target audience, fashion shows, catalogs and by focussing on the groups that are attracted to the products. This also includes collecting the feedbacks of the consumers and later applying them accordingly to increase the sales and the profitability. (Major, J. & Steele, V., 2018)

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Another important aspect of fashion is retail merchandising which is different from that done in the manufacturing. The retail merchandisers have to work according to the information collected by the marketers by the consumers. The task is to make the products available to the consumers in the retail stores as and when required. It is about keeping a check on the stock available in the store and the one that is lacking. The products should be available at the right prices depending upon the image of the brand. Also, the products should be displayed in a way that attracts the customers. This is known as visual merchandising. (Major, J. & Steele, V., 2018) Fashion Shows There are a lot of ways to promote the collections created by the designers and the manufacturers but the most common and the most famous of all is a fashion show. It develops a private showcase of the products and the apparel designed and manufactured before it is available in the retail stores for sale. These shows hold a commercial value and are usually for the fashion buyers, journalists and celebrities. (Major, J. & Steele, V., 2018)

2.9.

Indian Fashion (Apparel and Textile) Industry India has a history with fashion because of its rich textile heritage. In earlier days, people used to wear very simple clothes and accessories but after the independence, the industry faced a change in the dressing sense of the people which meant a fusion in the Indian and western wear, due to globalisation. (Indian Mirror, 2018) India has grown tremendously in terms of fashion since the last decade. It has “moved from the embryonic stage to a blossoming take-off.” The Indian fashion industry was already reaching the masses in India but now it has crossed the domestic boundaries and is now a part of the western market as well because of the contribution of the designers. (Indian Mirror, 2018) The Indian textiles and apparels industry is supposed to be one of the oldest industries which have evolved beautifully over the years, starting from the small scale domestic market and now becoming one of the largest in the global market with a huge raw materials and textile manufacturing base. The history of the Indian textile industry is states that around 3000 BC, the use of mordant dyes and printing block was prevalent. For centuries, the global buyers were attracted to the vast variety of fibres available in India and the detailed weaving on the looms and the organic dyes. It is considered to be one of the largest contributors in the Indian economy in terms of “output, foreign exchange earnings and employment”. The sector has a huge potential for the creation of various job opportunities in different fields like agriculture, industries and organised sectors in the rural and the urban parts of the country, specifically for women and the disadvantaged people. (ASSOCHAM India, 2015, p. 7) It is recorded that in 2013, the Indian textile industry was a “14% contributor to the Index of Industrial Production, 4& to the country’s GDP, 17% to the country’s export Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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earnings and approximately 8% of the total excise revenue collection is contributed by the textile industry.� Also, it was estimated in 2015 that the country’s worth was US $108 billion and it is expected to reach US $141 billion by 2021. (ASSOCHAM India, 2015, p. 8) The industry is also a big contributor of the employment sector and it accounts for a total of 21% of the total employment that is generated in the Indian economy which employs approximately 35 million people in the textile manufacturing field. A study indicates that the indirect employment i.e. the manpower which works in the agricultural sector for the production of raw material, required in the textile industry, and other related activities is about to reach 60 million. (ASSOCHAM India, 2015, p. 9) 2.9.1. Market Size The Indian apparel industry is the second largest contributor of the overall retail industry. This growth of the fashion industry is because of the fast growing economy, changing preferences of the consumers, entrance of major international brands and the large number of young population in India that leads to a good amount of consumption of products. The industry has a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 9.7% which makes it prominent in the retail sector. It is was estimated to have a worth of Rs. 2,97,091 crores (US $46 billion) and it will grow and reach the worth of Rs. 7,48,398 crores (US $115 billion) by the year 2026 (IMAGES Business of Fashion, 2017). Also, according to Dalal, R. (c.a., 2017) the industry is expected to grow with 10% increase every year and will soon worth US$ 400 billion because of an increase in the disposable incomes of the youth. The youngsters will buy more branded products over the years and thus, the future of the Indian fashion industry is very bright. Intersegment Analysis of the Indian Apparel Market

Indian Apparel Market

Men's Wear (41%)

Women's Wear (38%)

Kids' Wear (21%)

Share of Segments in the Indian Apparel Market (IMAGES Business of Fashion, 2017)

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1. Men’s Wear The Indian market for men’s wear is huge and this is the largest segment of the apparel industry. Its total worth was Rs. 1,24,423 crore (US $19 billion) in 2017 and it is expected to reach Rs. 2,95,795 crore (US $45.5 billion) by 2026 with a CAGR of 9%. (IMAGES Business of Fashion, 2017) This segment includes different categories like shirts, trousers, suits, winter wear, T-shirts, daily wear, denim wear, active wear, innerwear and ethnic wear etc. In these categories, shirts have the biggest market in India which is followed by trousers and denims. However, it has been observed in the recent years that denim, active wear and T-shirts are growing tremendously and are estimated to keep growing with CAGRs of 14%, 14% and 12% respectively. In terms of qualitative growth, denim and T-shirts have grown consistently whereas active wear is still evolving and has a high growth potential in not just Tier-I cities but also in Tier-II and Tier-III cities. (IMAGES Business of Fashion, 2017) The corporate sector has started adopting the western means and so, casual wear and western wear are more in demand by the working professionals. Thus, the formal wear category has expanded to a range of jackets, loafers, printed shirts etc. (IMAGES Business of Fashion, 2017) 2. Women’s Wear The contribution of women’s wear in the Indian apparel market is 38% which is an estimated worth of Rs. 1,11,467 crore (US $17.5 billion in 2016) and it is expected to reach Rs. 2,86,456 crore (US $44 billion) by 2026. (IMAGES Business of Fashion, 2017) The women’s wear segment is mostly affected by globalisation and the incoming of new trends and styles and therefore, the demand usually occurs for western wear and fusion wear. This segment includes different categories like ethnic wear, western wear, Indo-western or fusion wear and innerwear etc. However, in the overall Indian market, ethnic wear occupies the biggest chunk and has a share of 66%. The category holds importance because of its largest selling dress, saree which is common among women in the traditional India. It is worth Rs. 37,837 crore and it is expected to reach Rs. 61,632 crore by 2026 with a CAGR of 5%. (IMAGES Business of Fashion, 2017) Other than saree, salwar kameez also occupies a large amount of market in the ethnic wear category. It has a market share of Rs. 35,804 crore and it will reach Rs. 1,11,203 crore by 2026 with a CAGR of 12%. (IMAGES Business of Fashion, 2017) Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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The next important category is innerwear as it has a market share of Rs. 16,259 crore and with a CAGR of 14% it is expected to reach Rs. 60,277 crore by 2026. The branded innerwear has share of 35-40% in the total innerwear market in the women segment and it is expected to reach 4045% in 2020. (IMAGES Business of Fashion, 2017) Another growing category is denim as the times are changing and more and more women are demanding it. The current market share of this category is Rs. 2,035 crore and it is expected to reach Rs. 10,209 crore in the next ten years with a CAGR of 17.5%. (IMAGES Business of Fashion, 2017) The western wear category holds two important sub-categories, tops and shirts; and T-shirts. The market of women’s tops and shirts is currently worth Rs. 2,236 crore and it has a promising CAGR of 14% with which it is expected to reach to reach Rs. 8,291 by 2026. However, the T-shirts own a market of Rs. 933 crore and will expectedly reach Rs. 4,4,84 by 2026 with a CAGR of 17%. (IMAGES Business of Fashion, 2017) 3. Kids’ Wear One of the fastest growing segments in the Indian apparel market is kids’ wear. The segment had a worth of Rs. 61,201 crore till 2016 and it is expected to grow and reach Rs. 1,66,147 crore by 2026 with a CAGR of 10.5%. This makes the market share of this segment to be 21% in the apparel market. Over the years, the firms have shifted their focus to kids’ wear as it improves their quality with less cost. Also, this segment is not just limited to Tier-I cities anymore, it is spreading across Tier-II and Tier-III cities as well. (IMAGES Business of Fashion, 2017) The segment has two categories – boys’ wear and girls’ wear.  Boys’ Wear: The major part of the kids’ wear market is occupied by this category. It accounts for 51% of the total kids’ wear market and it was worth Rs. 31,552 crore in 2016. It has CAGR of 10.3% and it is expected to grow till Rs. 84,678 crore by 2026. This category has various sub-categories like T-shirts, denim, bottom wear, ethnic wear, uniforms and winter wear. (IMAGES Business of Fashion) The categories that dominate the market with a share of 78% are uniforms, T-shirts and bottom wear. Also, T-shirts and denim have a promising CAGR of 12% and 15% respectively. (IMAGES Business of Fashion, 2017)  Girls’ Wear: This category owns 49% of the kids’ wear market and includes sub-categories like dresses, denim, bottom wear, winter Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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wear, uniforms, ethnic wear and T-shirts. Uniforms occupy a large amount of share in the girls’ wear market and is worth Rs. 9.013 crore and it is expected to reach Rs. 25,591 crore by 2026 with a CAGR of 11%. (IMAGES Business of Fashion) Just like women’s wear, the most dominating category in the girls’ wear market is ethnic wear as it accounts for 23% in this category. However, the demand is shifting towards western wear which includes denim (CAGR of 16%) and T-shirts (CAGR of 14%). (IMAGES Business of Fashion, 2017) Indian Textile Industry The Indian textile industry covers two sectors – hand-woven sector and the capital intensive mill sector. There are various segments in these two sectors like “the decentralised power looms, hosiery and knitting sectors; the handloom and handicrafts segment; and a wide range of fibres like silk, cotton, jute, wool and man-made fibres. (Ministry of Textiles, 2017, p. 1) The major part of the Indian fashion industry is textiles and it contributes 10% to industrial production, 2% to the GDP and 13% to the total exports. It has employed over 45 million people directly and has thus, become the largest source of employment in the country (Ministry of Textiles, 2017, p. 1). According to PTI (2017) the Indian textile market is expected to reach USD 250 billion till the end of 2019 from its previous worth of USD 150 billion. Segments of the Indian Textile Industry

Cotton Export Promotion

Silk

Apparels and Garmenting

Jute Indian Textile Industry

Mill Sector

Handlooms

Power looms

Handicrafts

Segments of Indian Textile Industry (Ministry of Textiles, 2017) Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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1. Cotton Cotton is one of the most important commercial and cash crops of India. The fibre has a share of 25% in the total global fibre production. However, in the domestic fibre production, it accounts for 59%. The fibre contributes in the sustenance of the lives of around 5.8 million cotton farmers and 40-50 million people who are related to other activities like cotton processing and trade. (Ministry of Textiles, 2017, p. 8) There is a wide range of fibres and yarns that are consumed by the Indian textile industry. There are more than 300 lakh bales (170 kg each) of cotton which is consumed by the industry every year. (Ministry of Textiles, 2017, p. 8) 2. Jute After cotton, the jute industry in India is an important part of the national economy. Jute, the ‘golden fibre’ is considered to be eco-friendly, renewable, natural and biodegradable. The industry has employed 0.37 million workers, as in 2017, in organised mills and other units in the tertiary sector and other related activities. It is also a big support for the families of 4 million farmers working in the industry. It thus, stays to be one of the major industries in eastern India, specifically West Bengal. (Ministry of Textiles, 2017, p. 9) 3. Silk India is the second largest producer of silk in the world, following China, with a total production of 28,523 MT as in 2017. Its production had progressed during 2015-16 even after the droughts, un-seasonal rain, cyclone etc. There are four different types of silk that are produced in India – Mulberry which has a share of 71.8% (20,478 MT), Tussar has a share of 9.9% (2,819 MT), Eri accounts for 17.7% (5,060 MT) and Muga silk accounts for 0.6% (166 MT) in the Indian silk industry. (Ministry of Textiles, 2017, p. 9) 4. Handlooms The handloom sector in India has a total share of 15% in the textile industry and thus, it is the second largest economic activity after agriculture. This segment provides employment to more than 43 lakh weavers and other related workers. As per the records, the hand woven fabrics of India are exported to 95% of the world. (Ministry of Textiles, 2017, p. 9) 5. Handicrafts Handicraft is one of the biggest sectors in the Indian economy. A large chunk of artisans and crafts persons residing in the rural and semi urban parts of the country have been employed by this sector. There were Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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approximately 68.86 lakh artisans in the handicrafts industry as in 2017. Also, according to the records of 2016, the export of handicrafts was worth Rs. 20,869.29 crore. (Ministry of Textiles, 2017, p. 10) 6. Power looms The power loom segment in the Indian textile industry is important in terms of fabric production and employment generation. “It provides employment to 64.36 lakh people and contributes 60% of the total cloth production in the country” as in 2017. As on 31st October 2016, the total number of power looms available in India were approximately 25.74 lakh. (Ministry of Textiles, 2017, p. 10) 7. Mill Sector The mill segment is an organised sector in the Indian textile ministry. There were a total of 3400 textile mills combining the ones in small scale industry and the large scale industry as in 2017. According to the reports in 217, the total production by the mill sector was 2500 sq. mt. of cloth and 2500 million kgs of man-made fibre and man-made filament yarn. (Ministry of Textiles, 2017, p. 10) 8. Apparels and Garmenting There is a segment of readymade apparels and garments in the Indian textile industry which accounts for 42% in the total exports of the industry. This export includes “cotton garments, man-made fibre garments, accessories and other textile clothing.” This segment has employed a total of 12.3 million people and has produced 3.6 million tonnes of apparels and garments as in 2017. (Ministry of Textiles, 2017, p. 10) 9. Export Promotion India is the second largest country to manufacture and export textile in the world after China and it accounts for 15% in the total exports of the country. However, the industry has a share of 5% in the global trade of textiles and apparels. The data for 2016-17 (April-September) states the export of textiles and apparels was worth US $18.7 billion and it held a share of 14% in the country’s total exports. (Ministry of Textiles, 2017, p. 11) 2.9.2. International Recognition Lately, the global fashion market has seen a lot of involvement by the Indian fashion designers through embroideries, designs, fabrics and weaves. They have also been able to attract international celebrities and have gained their trust for the Indian apparel. Also, a lot of global fashion brands have recently starting including Indian designs in their collections like H&M and Forever 21; Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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and famous labels such as Valentino, Prada, Gucci, Dolce & Gabbana and Roberto Cavalli have also started adding a “pinch of Indian-ness” in their collections. (Johri, N., 2017) In the recent years, the Indian fashion industry has made a strong mark in the globally. A designer from Mumbai, Naeem Khan designed a green floral silk organza dress for Michelle Obama when she was invited for the inauguration of Metropolitan Museum’s new Anna Wintour Costume Center in May 2014. Following this, a pearl dress with gold detailing was designed by an IndianAmerican designer, Bibhu Mohapatra, which was worn by the actress Lupita Nyongo at the White House Correspondents’ pre-dinner cocktail party, in the same week. (Abrams, M., 2014)

Michelle Obama in Naeem Khan’s Design (Justice, C., 2014)

Lupita Nyongo in Bibhu Mohapatra’s Design (Jolin, A., 2014)

Another Indian designer who has come into the limelight with his incredible success in the global fashion market is Rahul Mishra. He won one of the most prestigious awards, the International Woolmark Prize in February 2014. The dresses that won him the award were “handwoven off-white and yellow dresses with embroidered lotus and tree motifs.” This collection was later launched at Harvey Nichols in the following week. (Abrams, M., 2014) There are various other designers who keep experimenting with their techniques that attract the global buyers. For instance, Elle India’s (in 2007) designer, Rajesh Pratap Singh is known for his “hand-appliqued metallic shapes and sequins” that are in demand by the buyers from Brazil and China. The owners of India’s first luxury swimwear brand, Shivan and Narresh make floor-skimming and body-con dresses by using neoprene and Dri-Fit; and they also make traditional lehenga (long-skirt) which is embellished with Swarovski crystals. (Abrams, M., 2014)

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The international celebrities have often been seen wearing the attires designed by the Indian designers or labels. There were various events in the past that recorded the famous celebrities carrying the Indian clothes and accessories with ease. Actresses such as Heidi Klum and Katy Perry appreciate Manish Malhotra’s work and thus, they often wear his designs. (Johri, N., 2017)

Heidi Klum and Katy Perry in Manish Malhotra’s Designs (Johri, N, 2017)

Sumeet Varma, an Indian fashion designer from New Delhi designed clutches for Sarah Jessica Parker and Jennifer Lopez. The famous international singers and song-writers, Fergie and Jessie J wore the dresses designed by Falguni and Shane Peacock. Also, accessories from the famous jewellery brand in India, Amrapali had been worn by celebrities such as Penelope Cruz, Kristen Bell, Selena Gomez and a few more. (Johri, N., 2017)

Penelope Cruz and Selena Gomez wearing Amrapali earrings (Johri, N, 2017)

2.10. Employment in the Indian Fashion Industry The Indian fashion industry’s major part is the textile sector as it provides direct employment to more than 45 million people in the country. Its sub-sector which is the readymade garment (RMG) sector is the biggest employer in the urban India and it has

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gradually changed from an informal industry to a formal one which means it is more labour intensive now. The RMG market is spread across the country and the largest players are in Chennai, Bangalore, Tirupur and the National Capital Region (NCR). The manufacturing units here have both men and women employees, however, women are more in the southern regions while the men dominate the northern units. (International Labour Organisation, 2015, p. 1) 2.10.1. Job Opportunities and the Skills Required The Indian fashion industry involves various sectors where an individual can work and earn a livelihood. For example, a person willing to work in the industry could apply for the following jobs with the appropriate skill set given below: Job Title

Fashion Designer

Textile Designer

Pattern Maker

Textile Buyer

Head Designer

Description Design and create garments, lines or collection of garments and colour palettes. Work on the details of a garment with the right fabrics. Create fabrics by selecting the right yarns and materials. Design weaves; imagine motifs and patterns with a matching colour range for printed fabrics. Be the link between design and production. Convert designer’s ides into 3D figures and make sample garments with the technical and practical aspects in mind. Responsible for production fittings, final alterations and collection production follow-up. Manage the supply of materials used in creating the garments. Place orders for the fabrics required for completing the garments or collections. Link between the Art Director and the designers. Understand

Skills Required Strong knowledge of fabrics and colours. Strong creative and drawing skills.

Strong technical knowledge of textiles. Good creative skills.

Strong technical skills. Good knowledge of garments and fabrics. Good computer skills.

Good knowledge of fabrics. Technical aspects of production. Good organisation and negotiation skills. Good communication skills.

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Fashion Art Director

Visual Merchandiser

Fashion Journalist

Fashion Editor

Fashion Stylist

the directions of the Art Director and lead the designers for the creation of products. Manages the creative aspects of a brand. Responsible for the coherence between the products, the image and the identity of a brand. In-charge of different collections. Combine creativity and art with a technical approach of light, materials, space organisation etc. Design and implement window and in-store displays according to the identity of the brand. Research, find and propose fashion related subjects for articles or reports. Write and edit articles; conduct interviews; formulate commentaries for fashion shooting and editorials. Work for different mediums like magazines, newspapers, websites, blogs, television etc. Supervise the editors and writers on the process of creating, developing and presenting the content. Formulate and style fashion shoots; choose photos, fashion items and trends for publication; research trends in the fashion industry. Imagine themes; select clothes and accessories; build the silhouettes for editorial features. Collaborate with the designer, photographer and the director.

Creative and team management skills.

Strong creative and visual skills. Good communication skills. Analytic approach of brands.

Strong creative and visual skills.

Good knowledge of the fashion industry. Good networking skills.

Creative and team management skills.

Creative skills. Good communication skills.

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Fashion Assistant

Product Manager

Production Manager

Showroom/Store Manager

Brand Manager

Fashion Coordinator

Product Development Manager

Lend practical support to a fashion designer. Organise and schedule meetings, suppliers’ orders, delivery followups, fittings etc. Define, manufacture and sell the garments to the buyers. Supervise the commercial performance of the products. Responsible for the profitability. Determine production objectives (cost, quality and quantity). Responsible for the production of a garment or a line of garments. Responsible for overseeing all the aspects of a store or showroom operations. Approve visual displays and television advertisements in the showroom. Plan, develop and direct the marketing for the particular brand or a product. Monitor the market trends and advertising activities. Create a lasting good impression of the brand. Filter and mediate the diverse needs of the company to gain coherence from a style or communication. Arrange and supervise the marketing of fashion clothing for manufacturing houses, textile farms and retail stores; promote garments to the press and public. Oversee all the aspects of a manufacturer or a designer’s product from design and construction

Good creative skills.

Good leadership skills. Good communication skills. Strong management skills. Knowledge of manufacturing and logistics.

Knowledge of the fashion industry. Business knowledge. Interpersonal skills.

Strong marketing skills.

Good management skills. Good public relations skills.

Good knowledge of fabrics and other materials. Good knowledge of

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Fashion Buyer

through to selling and distribution. Identify new trends, fabrics etc. Find the best products at the best price while respecting the company’s buying strategy. Establish buying plans; negotiate prices with manufacturers; tackle logistics problems. Responsible for quality control.

the fashion market.

Good strategizing skills. Knowledge of logistics. Logical and analytical skills.

Various fashion jobs, their descriptions and the skills required by the industry (International Fashion Academy, 2018)

Other than the above mentioned jobs, there are certain other job profiles that can be considered while entering the Indian fashion industry. They are: Sourcing Manager Fashion Recruiter Factory Manager Merchandise Planner Purchase Officers Skilled and Unskilled Labour Floor Supervisors CAD Technologists Processing Labour for Yarns, Fabrics, Trims & Accessories Compliance Executive/Manager Other fashion jobs in the industry (International Fashion Academy, 2018 and Deltarecruitmentconsultants.com, c.a., 2018)

2.10.2.

)

Key Players in the Indian Fashion Industry The Indian fashion industry includes various export houses and manufacturers that run it. However, only a few of them dominate the domestic market in terms of brand equity, retail outlets and the reputation of the brand. Given below are the top 15 Indian textile and apparel firms as in 2011 (Acevedo, G. & Robertson, R., 2011, p. 320): 1. Aditya Birla Nuvo Ltd. – Mumbai 2. JBF Industries Ltd. – Mumbai Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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65

3. Century Textiles & Industries Ltd. – Mumbai 4. Alok Industrues Ltd. – Mumbai 5. S Kumars Nationwide Ltd. – Mumbai 6. Vardhman Textiles Ltd. – Ludhiana 7. Arvind Ltd. – Ahemdabad 8. Raymond Ltd. – Mumbai 9. SRF Ltd. – Delhi/NCR 10. Indo Rama Synthetics (India) Ltd. – Delhi/NCR 11. Garden Silk Mills Ltd. – Surat 12. Welspun India Ltd. – Vapi 13. House of Pearl Fashions Ltd. – Delhi/NCR 14. Abhishek Industries Ltd. – Ludhiana 15. Bombay Rayon Fashions Ltd. – Mumbai

2.10.3.

Wage Structure in Different Regions of India A brief idea of the wages given to the workers in the Indian garment sector is given below. According to Ganguly, A. (2013, p. 32) there are different wages that are provided for different tasks in Punjab and Haryana respectively: Categories Semi-skilled (for making lappas) I Semi-skilled ( for making lappas) II Skilled (stitching of half cup) I Skilled (stitching of half cup) II Skilled (gents’/ladies’ coat) Skilled (gents’ shirts)

Total Daily Minimum Wage (in rupees) 219.2 249.2 283.7 323.4 418.1 353.9

Minimum Daily Wages of Tailors and Ready-made Garment Manufacturers in Punjab (Ganguly, A., 2013, p. 32)

Categories Unskilled Semi-skilled A Semi-skilled B Skilled A Skilled B Highly Skilled

Total Daily Minimum Wage (in rupees) 200.46 205.46 210.46 215.46 220.46 225.46

Total Monthly Wage (in rupees) 5211.96 5341.96 5471.96 5601.96 5731.96 5861.96

Minimum Wages of Tailoring, Stitching and Embroidery in Haryana (Ganguly, A., 2013, p. 32)

The practice of overtime is increasing in the Indian garment sector. The average wages of the different workers that work in the tailoring industry can be seen on the following page. Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry


Literature Review

Category of Workers Tailor cum Supervisor Tailor Tailor/Sampler Checker Press/Ironer Helper Piece Rate Worker

Average Basic Wage (in rupees)

Overtime Rate (rupees/hour)

Total Average Take-home Wage (in rupees)

7000

30

8800

6500 6000 5500 5300 5200

27 25 23 22 22

8120 7500 6880 6520 6520

5400

23

6780

66

Basic Wage + Hourly Wage * 60 Hours = Total Take-home Wage (Ganguly, A., 2013, p. 42)

Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry


Research Methodology

Chapter 3 – Research Methodology The purpose of this chapter is to focus on the methodology that is used to achieve the aim of the research. It defines the problem statement, the research objectives, different methodologies used to achieve the different objectives of the research and the limitations as well. This research is majorly exploratory and qualitative in nature. The collected data has been analysed in detail to gain its proper understanding. This study involves the in-depth analysis of the need to create employment for the transgenders in the Indian fashion industry. The data has been collected through the qualitative form of methodology. There are two aspects of the study: 1. Understanding the lives of trans-genders in India and the need to give them opportunities in the workplace with the required skill set. 2. In-depth study of how the Indian fashion industry works and whether the trans-genders will be accepted by them. The trans-genders and the people from the fashion industry for this research are from Delhi/NCR and Haryana. The research began with the secondary data to create a back-up for the collection of the primary data which will be done through a focus group discussion and personal interviews. The personal interviews will help in collecting the data from the people working in the Indian fashion industry while the data from the trans-genders has been collected through both personal interviews and a focus group discussion.

3.1.

Problem Statement The research addresses the problem of the negligence and the discrimination faced by the trans-genders in India. It is the stigma faced by them which does not let them work in different industries and thus, they have to do odd jobs like begging, dancing on the streets, prostitution and many other illegal jobs. Every individual has the fundamental rights and so do the trans-genders; therefore there is a need to create employment for them in the ever-growing Indian fashion industry that is supposed to be friendly and vast. This will further give them a chance to have a better livelihood.

3.2.

Research Objectives The research objectives for this research are as follows: Objective 1: To develop conceptual understanding of the reasons for the transgenders being neglected by the Indian society. Objective 2: To conduct in-depth study of the demographics and psychographics of the trans-genders in India. Objective 3: To analyse trans-genders’ attitude to be employed in the Indian fashion industry.

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Objective 4: To recommend the possible job opportunities for the trans-genders in the Indian fashion industry.

3.3.

Research Approach Flow Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

Literature Review Primary Research To analyse trans-genders’ attitude to be employed in the Indian fashion industry. To recommend the possible job opportunities for the transgenders in the Indian fashion industry. Secondary Research

Introduction to Trans-genders

Employment in the Indian Fashion Industry

History of Trans-genders

Fashion Industry and Indian Fashion Industry

Presence of Trans-genders in India Government Policies and NGOs for Transgenders

Problems Faced by the Transgenders in India Inclusion of Trans-genders in India

Research Approach Flow (Author, 2018)

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3.4.

Research Methodology for Research Objectives Research Design

Data Collection Method: Tool

Sample Size & Sample Frame

Exploratory

Secondary research: journals and reports

NA

Exploratory

Secondary research: Census reports

NA

Exploratory

Primary research: focus group discussion and expert interviews

Focus group discussion – 8 trans-genders Personal interviews – 8 trans-genders

Exploratory

Secondary research: journals and reports Primary research: expert interviews

Personal interviews – 10 individuals

Research Objectives To develop conceptual understanding of the reasons for the transgenders being neglected by the Indian society. To conduct in-depth study of the demographics and psychographics of the trans-genders in India. To analyse transgenders’ attitude to be employed in the Indian fashion industry. To recommend the possible job opportunities for the trans-genders in the Indian fashion industry.

Research Methodology for Research Objectives (Author, 2018)

3.4.1. Focus Group Discussion A focus group discussion was conducted with 8 trans-genders with the help of Basera Samajik Sansthan (NGO), Noida. The group included the trans-genders from different fields and with different qualifications. The ones who participated in the group discussion are: Name

Age

Ramkali

26

Mannat

23

Kajal

21

Qualification

Job Profile Advocacy Officer at Basera Samajik Sansthan (Present) 5th grade Peer Educator at an NGO and a sex worker (Earlier) Owner of a beauty B.A. Hons. Final Year parlour at Basera (Correspondence) Samajik Sansthan Sex Worker in Noida B.A. Hons. Final Year and a part time worker at (Correspondence) Basera Samajik Sansthan Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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Research Methodology

Deepika

23

B.A. Hons. Graduate

Sneha

23

B.Com. Second Year & Bachelor of Social Worker

Ruhi

23

Diploma in Fashion Design

Akansha Bobby

24 25

10th grade 10th grade

Works at Samarth clinic at Basera Samajik Sansthan Counsellor at Samarth clinic at Basera Samajik Sansthan Works at Basera Samajik Sansthan and a dancer Sex Worker in Noida Sex Worker in Noida

Details of the trans-genders who participated in the focus group discussion held at Basera Samajik Sansthan (Author, 2018)

Ramkali, Akansha, Mannat, Ruhi, Bobby, Deepika, Sneha and Kajal [L – R] (Author, 2018)

3.4.2. Personal Interviews The personal interviews have two aspects, one from the point of view of the trans-genders and the other holds the opinions of the people from the Indian fashion industry. The personal interviews of 8 trans-genders were conducted in Meerut where none of them was educated but all of them had an honest opinion about the research. Their details cannot be shared as they do not wish to disclose them.

Trans-genders who participated in the personal interviews in Meerut (Author, 2018) Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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In order to fulfil the aim of the research, it is important to understand the perception of the people who are already working in the industry to see if they are ready to work with the trans-genders and if they are ready to create a healthy working environment for them. Therefore, to analyse their perception, the following people were interviewed: Name

Age Group

Company Name Theme Exports Pvt. Ltd.

Vikram Thapa

27 - 36

Gesu Seth

18 - 27

Gesu Seth Photography

Anonymous

18 - 27

(Name not to be disclosed)

Bharat Kainwal

18 - 27

Mridu

36 - 45

Rajiv Sharma

36 - 45

Akansha Jain

18 - 27

National Handicraft Exports

Paritosh Arya

18 - 27

Fabindia

Isha Kapoor

18 - 27

StyFi

Jasneet

18 - 27

Eon Clothing

Theme Exports Pvt. Ltd. (Name not to be disclosed) Connor India Pvt. Ltd.

Job Profile Senior Employee (5-10 years) Entry Level Employee (0-5 years) Entry Level Employee (0-5 years) Middle Manager (10-20 years) Middle Manager (10-20 years) Senior Employee (5-10 years) Entry Level Employee (0-5 years) Senior Employee (5-10 years) Entry Level Employee (0-5 years) Entry Level Employee (0-5 years)

Details of the people from the Indian fashion industry (Author, 2018)

3.5.

Limitations of Research Methodology There are many limitations associated with the research. However, the main problems that occurred while collecting the data are given below: 1. It was difficult to find trans-genders as they are not easily available everywhere and they do not trust everyone to talk with. 2. All the trans-genders either did not answer a few questions or even if they did, they were a bit scared to share all the information. 3. The people from the fashion industry have a busy schedule and so it was difficult to collect data from them. 4. The research was only conducted in Haryana and Delhi and that is why it does not give a fair representation of all the regions in India.

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Data Analysis and Findings

Chapter 4 – Data Analysis and Findings The purpose of this chapter is to analyse all the data collected from the different tools of qualitative research. The aim of this chapter is to give a support to the literature review with the help of the primary data collected. This research is qualitative in nature and therefore, the data is collected through personal interviews conducted with the people from the Indian fashion industry and a focus group discussion conducted with the trans-genders, both in Haryana, Delhi and NCR.

4.1.

Focus Group Discussion A focus group discussion was conducted with the trans-genders to find out about their whereabouts. The focus was on their lifestyle, work life, their thoughts about the Indian society and the Indian fashion industry. The following questions were asked to them: Question 1: How and when did you realise you are a transgender? Answers – Ra: She was born as Rizwan Ansari in Bijnor. Her parents sent to her to a Mosque to study when she was around 11 years old. But she would always sit in the girl’s section and was often told to shift to the boys’ section of the class. She had a habit of either wearing her sister’s dupatta or slippers to her class. This is when she realised that she did not feel like a boy. S: She completed her high school in Rajasthan as a boy but while studying in the second year of her B.Com. Degree she realised she felt like a transgender. Question 2: How did your family react once you came out as a transgender? Answers – Ra: She was often beaten by her teachers for wearing girls’ accessories and for behaving like them because according to them it was a bad example for other students. The case got worse and the local panchayat of her village asked her family to either send her to the transgender communities around them or to kill her. However, after the death of her father, her mother and sister supported her throughout. But she was tortured by her extended family and was considered to be a curse when anything bad happened. There was a time when her sisters stopped supporting her but her mother was always around her and she helped her be what she is today. K: According to her experiences, most of the families of the trans-genders do not accept them and they are also scolded for their identity because the parents think it is all in their minds or take it as a bad habit. They are not allowed to stay at home. S: After realising her identity, she did not confront her parents directly because she knew they would not accept her like that. She could not even complete her graduation because she didn’t feel like doing it with time. However, she went on for a photoshoot

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in Delhi as a transgender and later when her family came across the pictures, she was not accepted by them and they took all of her facilities back and locked her up in the house. Gradually they stopped supporting her emotionally and financially when she decided to leave the house. Question 3: What is general public’s opinion about you? Answers – Ra: People believe that since the Government has passed a certain judgement and now that it talks about the rights of the trans-genders, the transgender community is living a better life. However, this is not true. They still do not get education and therefore, they don’t have any jobs too which makes them beg for money. People are reluctant to give them general jobs like that of a house helper. M: She agrees that the people in India have a set opinion about the trans-genders and that they always think of a transgender as a beggar or a sex worker. S: “When we apply for jobs or go to other places, the owners of those places ignore us and reject us on the basis of our identity. It is difficult to expect sensitivity from the people of our level if the owners and other rich people are not sensitised themselves.” Question 4: What are your thoughts about the stigma and discrimination? Answers – Ra: They need basic support from their families and friends because she thinks it is essential and helps to be a better person. She says, “people stop supporting us once they realise who we are. We have to become rude because people don’t talk to us politely. They talk about the rights given to us by the Government but do not bother to help us by giving us jobs. However, they teach us not to beg and not to continue sex work.” M: She says, “if we ever travel in a bus and the seat next to us is empty, nobody sits on it.” K: They are seen as a wrong influence everywhere and so people do not talk to them. People like them only when they give blessings on certain events but they are made fun of after that. Even the police do not support them when they face a problem and try to register a FIR. S: According to her, a major reason for the discrimination is that the trans-genders take time to accept themselves and in some cases, they don’t even accept their identity. She says, “it is difficult to accept the fact that our soul resides in some other body and that is why we take time to accept ourselves the way we are. It starts from our families because our parents always teach us to behave like the gender we are assigned with at birth because of which if a boy loves to play with dolls instead of a bat and a ball, it is considered to be a bad sign. The parents do not bother to ask the child about his/her opinion.” She thinks it is important to spread awareness about the different gender

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expressions in the Indian families to create better understanding between the parents and their children. Question 5: What are the problems faced by you? Answers – Ra: A lot of trans-genders do not study because they are scared of the discrimination. Also, there are housing problems wherein the landlords increase the rent of the houses if the tenant is a transgender and because of this manipulation no contract is made by the landlord to state that the owner of the house is a transgender. “If we go to apply for an identity proof, we need to submit a proof of location or an electricity bill but we do not have any of these because our landlords never give us anything in writing. They later ask us to vacate the place if a new tenant needs the house.” K: “People consider us to be rich or wealthy because they think we earn a lot through begging and going to different occasions. Also, if we go to buy general things for ourselves, we are always sold the products at a higher price than the one printed on the product.” S: Many trans-genders have to pretend to be like a male or a female when they are not. They are scared of the discrimination that will follow them everywhere once they come out as a transgender. Question 6: What is Basera Samajik Sansthan working for? Answers – Ra: The NGO works for the hijra samaaj and currently they are running a programme called ‘Wajood’. It has a separate clinic named ‘Samarth’ for the transgender community just above the NGO where they test HIV/AIDS and other medical problems. It is working on various projects like ‘Sabrang’ in association with Mamta NGO and are also a part of a project in Bijnor and Bareilly. The association works for spreading the awareness about the trans-genders through a mobile app which has various services like counselling, information about various health problems etc. The app is currently available in Hindi and English languages. The organisation has also completed a project called ‘Nayi Disha’ which focused on educating the transgenders who do not have proper sources and are reluctant to study in schools. They provided free education to the communities to help them adopt the different technologies available around and to help them live a better life with adequate knowledge. M: It educates the trans-genders about safe sex to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. The organisation also provides them with jobs and helps in finding jobs in other fields. Recently, they helped their friend to get a job in the High Court. Question 7: What is your opinion about the Government policies made for the transgender community? Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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Answers – Ra: She approves the fact that the Indian Government had passed the judgement for the rights of their community in 2014 and the Transgender Bill was passed in 2016 which currently has a total fund of Rs. 1,500 crores but they have not got the help that they deserve with the new provisions made. K: “We are asked to submit a lot of certificates like the transgender medical certificate, identity proof and an affidavit formed by the Government of India.” S: “There is no implementation of the provisions made by the Government. No transgender has a right to study until they submit a special set of documents required for their admissions. We are still not provided with the basic education, how are we supposed to study in a college or a university?” Question 8: What happened when you applied for a job? OR What are your work experiences, if any? Answers – Ra: She started as a sex worker because of her family problems but later got a job of a peer educator at a NGO in Delhi. Later, she became the first transgender in Delhi to work with the traffic police. She was a part of a project for 30-35 days which was initiated by the Delhi State Legal Authority wherein a group of transgenders went out on the streets to spread awareness about the traffic rules among the general public which helped them gain a lot of respect and praise. All the trans-genders were paid Rs. 1,000 per day. This led to a minor change in the mind-set of people and it made them feel good that a minority group is concerned about their safety. K: She is a famous sex worker in Noida and also works at the NGO. D: She applied for a job of a counsellor at a medical organisation but when she appeared for the interview, the interviewer got surprised and did not test her for skills or knowledge but he let her go because of her identity. She was ignored and therefore, never got a job. Question 9: What are your thoughts about the Indian fashion industry? Answers – M & K: “We love to put on makeup and dress up in different clothes and according to the latest trends.” S: She says, “the Indian fashion industry is very rich but the people there are indifferent to us.” She was once a part of a modelling project wherein a lot of transgenders participated with the help of Rudrani Chhetri and then the selected models were asked to work with certain other modelling agencies when the other project leaders from different agencies found out that the models are trans-genders, the projects got cancelled. Question 10: Will you prefer to work in the Indian fashion industry?

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Data Analysis and Findings

Answers – Ra: “I am good with the clients and convincing them for things. I would like to work.” M: “I own a beauty parlour at Basera and I love to apply makeup. I will be happy if I get a chance to come out and be with others in the same field. But at least, give us a chance first.” K: “We are ready to work but we are afraid we would need specific education qualification which we cannot afford. But we are ready to work anywhere if we are provided with certain training. I would love to work as a makeup artist.” S: “We all have different talents and we wish to showcase it but we are afraid if we will get any jobs. I have worked with certain fashion students for a fashion show but right after the event, they told me how they were scared and felt uncomfortable with this social cause.” D: “We need a chance and we want to work but people in such industries have a mind set and they would never want to work with us.” Ru: “I have studied fashion design but I don’t know how to apply my knowledge because I don’t get jobs.” Data Analysis According to the above focus group discussion, it is clear that the trans-genders in India are discriminated and are not provided with the necessary facilities. The community does not have enough money to spend on their needs and they also do not have an access to the public places or the workplaces. This makes them work at different other places which are full of negativity and are unsafe too. They do not wish to work as sex workers or beg on the streets but due to the stigma that follows them everywhere, it is difficult for them to find jobs or to stick to them in the long run. It is important to understand that this group of trans-genders is educated and still they are not allowed to either apply for jobs or to stick to a job without facing abuse and other forms of discrimination. They agree that their behaviour is often inappropriate but it is only because of the treatment they get from the general public. This makes them scared and that is why they do not wish to study further and apply for jobs anywhere. However, they also plead for change and ask for a chance to work with the public so that they can confidently come out as trans-genders and showcase their talents to the world. In terms of the Indian fashion industry, these trans-genders feel that it is a rich and is a gender fluid society which can help them in becoming what they want to be. They are interested in working in the industry as all the garments and makeup excites them and

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Data Analysis and Findings

they feel it would be lovely to work and create such things for others. This will also give them recognition and a better lifestyle.

4.2.

Personal Interviews The following questions were asked from these trans-genders: Question 1: How did you find out about your identity? Answer: 6 out of 8 trans-genders confirmed that they realised about their identity years after they were born. They got to know about their families, who had given up on them when they were young, from the trans-genders with whom they live now. The transgender community had already taken them away because their parents could not accept them as they were. However, 2 trans-genders shared that their parents knew about their real identity were they did not want to send them away as kids and they thought it would affect their reputations too. However, they left their houses themselves because they did not feel comfortable living there with the people ‘who were not like them.’ Question 2: How does your family treat you now? Answer: All the trans-genders accepted the fact they do not meet their families now because their parents and siblings never treated them as equal in the past. This makes them feel uncomfortable when they are around their families. Also, if they ever wish to meet them, their families do not let them enter the house. Question 3: How do people treat you when you go out? Answer: The transgender community faces the same discrimination no matter where they live or how they behave. All the trans-genders in this group agreed to how they are looked upon as sex workers even when they are not. They are always called names and are not allowed to enter various public places and not even the public washrooms. However, 1 transgender confirmed on behalf of everyone that the people who know them personally treat them in a good way and help them when they are in trouble. Question 4: What are your interests? Answer: Just like everyone has their own hobbies, these trans-genders also love to do things which make them happy when they are free. The head-guru of the group is retired and now she loves to design and stitch her own clothes. The guru likes to make jewellery from scratch and she is also learning how to make different types of necklaces from a jeweller near her place. Another transgender loves to do embroidery on her clothes and her friends’ clothes. She says it makes her happy when she is alone. Five young trans-genders love to apply cosmetics on each other’s faces. They are also learning how to do make up from a nearby beauty parlour. Question 5: What is your education qualification?

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Answer: All the trans-genders are uneducated as they never got a chance to even complete their basic education. They confirm that they have never seen the inside of an educational institute or a school. Question 6: What is your source of income? Answer: The main sources of income for all the 8 trans-genders are the birth of a child in different families and the wedding functions. They have their own sources through which they get to know about such events and they reach there to ask for money. Also, two trans-genders love to dance so they have turned it into their professions. On some events, they even dance to earn money. Question 7: Have you ever tried working on your own? How was your experience? Answer: The guru of the group shares her experience of having her own shop of altering the garments and also stitching them. However, she had to shut down the shop because the nearby gents would always come there and tease her. She has also faced sexual harassment while working at the shop. Question 8: How well do you understand the Indian fashion industry? Answer: They understand the Indian fashion industry as a mix of all the necessary items like clothes, shoes, handbags, jewellery and make up. Question 9: Would you like to learn how to work in the Indian fashion industry? Answer: Two trans-genders said they were reluctant to work in the industry as they do not know if the people there would accept them and if they are ‘meant’ for this work. However, the others agreed to work in the industry but there only concern is if they will earn adequate money to compensate their original source of income. Question 10: What type of work would you like to do in the Indian fashion industry? Answer: According to the interests shared by the trans-genders, one of them said she would like to work in the washing department as she loves to wash clothes and then iron them. Also, three trans-genders would like to work at a beauty parlour because they love the work done there. Two of them wish to work in the embroidery sector as that makes them happy. The other two do not have a specific interest but they would love to learn new skills and then work accordingly. Data Analysis The above group of trans-genders which participated in the personal interviews is uneducated and they have never been to school. Their families never supported them and so they do not have any emotional or financial support from anywhere. All of them work as dancers and they often attend different functions to earn money in return of blessings. These trans-genders were reluctant while talking about their lives as they agreed they have faced so much discrimination that they do not trust anyone now. This makes them adamant and indicates their inflexible nature.

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Just like everyone else these trans-genders also have certain talents which are not being showcased by them as they believe they were born to be neglected by the society and to beg and dance on the streets to earn money. However, in terms of working in the Indian fashion industry, they agreed that would work anywhere as long as their dignity is intact and they are earning enough money to have a good lifestyle. This indicates their need for respect and money. It was found that all of them love to be associated with fashion. Some of them love to work on the garments and jewellery while the others are interested in makeup and in learning the work done at a beauty parlour. This indicates their enthusiasm to learn new things and to take a chance to work in better conditions. Brief Comparison between the Two Groups of Trans-genders Parameters Focus Group Discussion Personal Interviews Majority of them are graduated. Two of them All of them are uneducated. Education have not completed school. Reluctant and difficult to Decent and polite. Behaviour talk with. Beauty, fashion, shopping, Watching TV, beauty, studying and hanging out fashion and hanging out Interests with friends. with friends. Discrimination at workplace Discrimination at public and at other public places. places. No proper medical Problems No proper medical facilities facilities available. Loss of available. Loss of dignity. dignity. Respect, recognition, necessary facilities and Money and respect. Needs money. NGO, sex work, dancing Attending functions to earn and attending functions to Working Lifestyle money. earn money. Interest in the Indian Modelling, beauty parlours, Export houses. export houses, fabrics etc. Fashion Industry Brief Comparison between the Two Groups of Trans-genders (Author, 2018)

People from the Indian Fashion Industry The people from the industry were asked a series of questions to understand their mind set about hiring or working with the trans-genders in the Indian fashion industry. The questions are as follows: Question 1: Do you understand the term ‘transgender’? Answer: The people from the industry are aware of the term ‘transgender’ and they agreed that they understand the difference between LGB members and trans-genders. However, 1 out of 10 people (Rajiv) agreed that he doesn’t understand the term and always has confusion among the LGBT members.

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Question 2: How is your behaviour towards the trans-genders? Answer: People have different behaviours and feelings for the trans-genders according to the situation. But 6 out of 10 people (Vikram, Gesu, Bharat, Rajiv, Isha and Paritosh) confirmed that they are friendly towards the trans-genders and they treat them as any other human around them. However, 2 out of 10 (Mridu and Akansha) agreed that they are indifferent towards the community which means they it does not bother them if they are around them. Also, 1 out of 10 people (Jasneet) feel merciful towards the trans-genders and she feels sad for their situation. And another person (Anonymous) could not analyse his behaviour towards them as he has never been around trans-genders. Question 3: Do you think trans-genders are discriminated by the Indian society? Answer: There is a combination of different views for this question. While 6 out of 10 people (Vikram, Gesu, Mridu, Isha, Jasneet and Akansha) feel that trans-genders are discriminated by the Indian society, 2 people (Rajiv and Paritosh) believe they have mend themselves in such a way that they do not face any problem or are not discriminated in any manner. Also, 1 person (Bharat) agreed has he has never thought about this and the other person (Anonymous) believes that they are not always bullied or ignored by the society but they do face stigma to a certain extent. Question 4: Do you think trans-genders should get a chance to change their lifestyle? Answer: Even if a few people believe that the trans-genders are not discriminated by the society, 8 out of 10 people (Vikram, Anonymous, Bharat, Isha, Mridu, Jasneet, Akansha and Paritosh) agree that just like everybody else, the Indian transgender community also deserves a chance to make their lives better. However, 1 of these people (Gesu) doesn’t agree and thinks that they are already living a life which they chose for themselves even after the society has made a few efforts to include them. Also, 1 person (Rajiv) has never thought about this. Question 5: Do you agree that the trans-genders should be employed in the Indian fashion industry? Answer: 4 out of 10 people (Vikram, Paritosh, Isha and Bharat) strongly agree that there is a need to help the trans-genders through the Indian fashion industry as it is vast and open to all. They feel everyone should get an equal chance to become better in their lives. Agreeing to this, 5 people (Rajiv, Mridu, Gesu, Jasneet and Anonymous) understand that there is a need from the trans-genders’ end and they too wish to work just like everyone else and so they are ready to give them a chance. However, 1 person (Akansha) is neutral about her thoughts and agrees that it will not bother her if the trans-genders work in the industry or not. Question 6: If you were an executive in the Indian fashion industry, would you hire a transgender in your company? Answer: 6 out of 10 people (Vikram, Anonymous, Bharat, Isha, Jasneet and Paritosh) said they would definitely hire talented and skilled trans-genders if they would ever Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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Data Analysis and Findings

have their own set ups. However, 2 people (Mridu and Gesu) have never thought about this, 1 person (Rajiv) said he would never take the chance of hiring them as it would affect other employees and 1 person (Akansha) chose not answer the question. Question 7: As an employee in the Indian fashion industry, would you be comfortable to work with a transgender? Answer: In contrast to the answers given to the previous question, 9 out of 10 people (Vikram, Gesu, Anonymous, Bharat, Mridu, Akansha, Isha, Jasneet and Paritosh) agree that they will be comfortable while working with the trans-genders in the industry. However, 1 person (Rajiv) does not wish to agree to something that he is not sure about. Question 8: According to you what all job profiles can a transgender apply for? Answer: The answer to this question is very interesting as all the people chose the types of job profiles that would be appropriate for a transgender based on his/her skills, knowledge and talent in the Indian fashion industry. They are as follows: Name Vikram Thapa Gesu Seth Anonymous Bharat Kainwal Mridu Rajiv Sharma Akansha Paritosh Arya Isha Kapoor Jasneet

Job Profiles Labour, Supervisor, Assistant, Employee, Entry Level Employee, Managerial Level and Executive Assistant, Employee and Entry Level Employee Labour, Supervisor, Assistant, Employee, Entry Level Employee, Managerial Level and Executive Employee Labour, Supervisor, Assistant, Employee and Entry Level Employee Assistant Not answered Employee and Managerial Level Labour, Supervisor, Assistant, Employee, Entry Level Employee, Managerial Level and Executive Assistant

Approapriate Job Profiles for the Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry (Author, 2018)

Data Analysis According to the personal interviews of the people working in the Indian fashion industry, the trans-genders face a lot of discrimination in India and are rejected from all the necessities that are otherwise provided to the general public. They agree that there is a need to provide them with the appropriate facilities and they too should get a chance to change their lives. In terms of working in the Indian fashion industry, the respondents believe that the trans-genders can work in the industry in majorly all the departments and the majority thinks they could be appointed on any work level according to their existing skills or after they are trained. Thus, according to the majority of the respondents, the transCreating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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Data Analysis and Findings

genders could be appointed as labour, assistants, supervisors, employees, entry level interns or employees, managers and as executives. This indicates the fluidity of the Indian fashion industry in terms of the employees that are ready to hire irrespective of the job profile. Also, the people from the industry are ready to have trans-genders as their co-workers as they are either friendly or are indifferent in nature towards the community. This makes them open to work with the trans-genders at all levels which is a good sign. To conclude, the Indian fashion industry is ready to appoint the trans-genders in any department and at any workplace.

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Chapter 5 – Conclusion and Recommendation This chapter includes the final conclusion that is drawn from the literature and the primary data that has been collected and then analysed. Further, it contains the recommendation given by the author on the basis of the conclusion that will help in achieving the aim of the research.

5.1.

Conclusion Various transgender communities in India have always faced certain discrimination all their lives in the last decade. The historic India always accepted them as a part of the Indian culture but after the British rule, people’s behaviour towards them started changing and now, in the present India they are treated badly and are often neglected of their basic human rights. A lot of amendments have been made in the laws related to the third gender but even after two years of that, no major changes have taken place in the lives of the transgenders. However, a few changes like the addition of the third gender category in various application forms; access to public places like restaurants, hospitals, schools etc. in some regions of the country and a change in the mind set of people have started taking place. The basic problems associated with the trans-genders that are no or less education, unemployment, health issues, social security and social exclusion still exist in many parts of India. The research brings out a very important point which is the education of the transgenders. They are not accepted by their families and majority of them do not live with their parents anymore and that is why most of them have emotional and financial problems. This also harms their education as they do not get admissions in schools either because of their identity or because they do not have adequate amount of money. Also, a lot of trans-genders prefer to roll out of schools and colleges because of the discrimination that they face. In addition to this, there are very less provisions for the education of this community. However, in contrast to this, there are still many transgenders who have managed to complete their basic education and have also completed their graduation from prestigious universities or colleges. This indicates the will and the power that the trans-genders hold to change their lives. It also brings our attention to their need for a chance from the Indian society so that they can move forward in their lives in a better way. A loss in education leads to unemployment. It has been observed that the majority of trans-genders are still unemployed. Since the trans-genders are not able to complete their basic education or do not hold a formal college degree or diploma, they are rejected from entering the workplace. It gets difficult for them to find jobs on the basis of their talent and skills. Also, there are no provisions of training them at the workplace before they actually start working. This leads to a change in the lifestyle of Creating Employment for the Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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this community as they start depending upon odd jobs to earn money. A lot of transgenders are often seen begging on the roads and at various functions, they also dance at bars and restaurants and if that is not enough, a lot of them get into prostitution. They usually earn as much money as they wish to from such jobs but it costs them their dignity. Therefore, it is important to bring them out of these places and train them to work like others so that they can earn respect along with money. It can be concluded from the research that the trans-genders in India have a very prominent fashion sense and they love to follow the new trends. This shows that their interest in fashion has always been there and the different clothes, accessories and cosmetics excite them. Their interest in the Indian culture and the love for fashion can turn out to be a great input for the Indian fashion industry. A lot of them love to do embroideries on their own garments and the others love to apply makeup. This makes them flexible and willing to learn new things other than the jobs they do to earn money. Therefore, it is necessary to channelize their energies into something productive and creative. According to the people who work in the Indian fashion industry, trans-genders should be given a chance to change their lifestyles. The people are open to work with them and wish to create a healthy working environment for their co-workers. It is also important to understand that the Indian fashion industry is supports gender fluidity which makes it more tolerant and accepting. Also, the industry is expanding with time and there is a need of new talent and an addition to the manpower to increase the productivity and profitability. To conclude, it is necessary to include the trans-genders in the Indian fashion industry because it will help in moulding their lives in a good way and also, it will help the industry to grow in terms of productivity and employees.

5.2.

Recommendation The above conclusion defines the current state of the trans-genders in India and how they are not given a chance to work in different industries. Therefore, it is recommended that they should be employed with the help of NGOs and various fashion education institutes controlled by the Government of India. In order to bring the trans-genders out of their existing lives, the Government institutes like National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) and the Apparel Training and Design Centre (ATDC) along with the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), that provide students with the right education and knowledge of the Indian fashion industry and enhance their existing skills, can tie up with the different NGOs working with for the welfare of the trans-genders like the Humsafar Trust, the Naz Foundation, Sangini Trust, PLUS etc. This will help in creating an organised and systematic manner of categorising the trans-genders according to their

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education qualifications and the skills and the talent they own. Also, it will be easy to channelize the system according to the guidelines of the Right of Transgender Persons Bill, 2016. The trans-genders should be made a part of the various internship and training programmes that take place at various fashion export houses and buying houses. A period of 2 months of internship followed by training at the workplace could help them inherit all the skills and knowledge that is required in the industry. Further, on the basis of the interests of the trans-genders in various areas of the Indian fashion industry and; the opinions and the behaviour of the general public and the people already working in the industry towards the third gender, following job profiles can be considered for which they can be trained to work on the basis of their existing skill set and qualities: 5.2.1. Apparel Merchandising Apparel merchandising is one of the most important areas in an export house. It is tedious and requires a lot of attention and hard work. However, there is a need to train them before employing them as they do not have any experience in this field. It would be preferable to treat them as interns or trainees before they are appointed as merchandisers in the export or buying houses. Under apparel merchandising, they can be appointed as merchandiser in the production or the sampling department. In order to do that, they can be provided with the basic knowledge of fabrics, trims, accessories, yarns etc. This will build up their base and they will be able to understand the requirements of the buyers and work accordingly. They could also be trained to work for a set deadline which will increase their efficiency and productivity with time. It is important to provide the merchandisers with the knowledge of the different stitches, mechanism of the stitching machines, communication skills required in a corporate environment etc. This will add to their existing knowledge and will also develop their confidence. 5.2.2. Retail Merchandising Retail merchandising consists of making the products available at the right place, at the right time, at the right price and in the right quantity. This needs a lot of attention and any transgender who can keep a count of all the stock in a store could be appointed for this job profile. The trans-genders can be trained for retail buying and trends, consumer behaviour, product marketing, store operations and management, sales principles and; different methods for creating successful retail sales display. Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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5.2.3. Visual Merchandising In order to help the trans-genders utilise their creative side, visual merchandising can be a great source for that. It is very important for them to know the basic information about the brand they would be working with. Later, they could be trained about the different aspects of visual merchandising like how to attract customers, the art of representing the image of the brand, creating a shopping experience for the customers, displaying the merchandise in a different manner that would increase the time spent by the customers in the stores etc. The training for visual merchandising also includes the understanding of consumer behaviour, ambience of the store, display of merchandise according to the designs and colours and; encouraging a customer to buy multiple products at a time. 5.2.4. Fashion Designing A fashion designer should know everything about the new trends, fabrics, colours, patterns, shapes, the fall and drape of a fabric etc. Therefore, the transgenders could be trained by giving them the knowledge about how to draw and design different patterns and body shapes, the uses of colours and contrasts, how to draw inspiration from various magazines, fashion shows and; nature and other surroundings. Along with the offline knowledge, they could also be taught the use of different design software like Photoshop, CorelDraw, and Xara etc. 5.2.5. Fabric and Trims and Accessories Storage The work in fabric and accessories store is less as compared to other departments and therefore, the trans-genders would only require understanding the difference between the different fabrics and their GSMs. Also, for the accessories storage, they could be trained about the sizes of the buttons, lengths of the zippers and; the use of different trims and accessories. 5.2.6. Embroidery, Printing, Dyeing and Washing Embroidery is a tedious work and it requires a lot of detailing and attention. Therefore, it is important that the trans-genders learn the different types of embroideries available in India. The main training that can be provided is that of how to do different kinds of embroideries on different types of fabrics. Also, the understanding of the different threads that are used for the different techniques of embroideries is required. Printing is evolving in the fashion industry and new techniques are being introduced. However, the old techniques of printing are still used in India. It is important for the new people who are entering the industry to understand both the old and the new methods of printing. Also, the knowledge of the fabrics Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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that can be printed and the ones that cannot is a must. It is also important to understand which techniques of printing are relevant for which type of fabric. Washing is important in the Indian apparel industry as it can either make the garments look good or can totally ruin them. Therefore, the trans-genders who wish to work in this department could be trained how to manage different fabrics and what all chemicals are to be used. Also, they could be provided with the knowledge of how to handle the chemicals while washing the garments. 5.2.7. Packing and Shipment Another important aspect of the apparel industry is the packing and shipment of goods. The trans-genders could be trained about how to understand the requirements of the buyers while packing the production or samples. It is important to understand the details. Shipment includes the understanding of all the legal documents required while exporting the goods. Therefore, it is important to train them about how to study the documents and ship the goods in the domestic areas and internationally. 5.2.8. Sales and Marketing The sales and marketing department in any export house or buying house or in the retail sector requires the understanding of the different techniques through with the products can be sold. It requires the ability to convince the customers and to reach the target audience, thus, the trans-genders can be trained to analyse the different sale trends existing in the market and the new marketing techniques that will help them in maximising the profits. 5.2.9. Yarn and Fabric Production The production of yarns and fabrics is a huge sector as it is the first step of the production of a garment. Therefore, it requires a lot of manpower. The transgenders could be trained to work in this sector by providing them the knowledge about the natural and man-made fibres that are an essential part of producing yarns. Also, they can be taught about the whole process of making a yarn so that they can be appointed in the different departments of yarn production. Similar to the production of yarns, the production of fabrics is also a long process. They could be trained to work in different departments like weaving, knitting, fabric testing, printing, dyeing, washing etc. 5.2.10. Production of Trims and Accessories The most uncommon job profile in the fashion industry is that of producing trims and accessories. However, it is obvious that a lot of people are involved Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry

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in it as it is produced in large quantities. Therefore, more and more transgenders could work in this sector. This would require a training of how to manage the production in bulk quantities and how to create one product in different sizes and colours according to the requirements of different buyers both in the domestic and international market. 5.2.11. Skilled and Unskilled Labour The most important part of any organisation is the labour that works hard every day. It can either be skilled or unskilled. The skilled labour is trained to do the tasks whereas, the unskilled labour is appointed to do the tasks that do not require any additional training. Therefore, in the Indian fashion industry, the skilled labour works in all the departments like cutting and layering of the fabrics; stitching, washing, printing, dyeing, embroidery, shipment, fabric and garment testing, production of yarns and fabrics etc. The trans-genders who are not much educated or are completely uneducated could be employed as the labour in export houses, buying houses and retail stores. They could be trained for working on the sewing machines, washing the garments, dyeing the fabrics and the garments, layering and cutting the fabrics according to the structure of the garment, embroidery, printing the fabrics or the garments etc. Also, the unskilled trans-genders can be employed as peons, security guards, servants etc. at any workplace in the Indian fashion industry.

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References

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Profile for Shreya Tewari

Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry  

This dissertation is about finding the possible job opportunities for trans-genders in the Indian fashion industry.

Creating Employment for Trans-genders in the Indian Fashion Industry  

This dissertation is about finding the possible job opportunities for trans-genders in the Indian fashion industry.

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