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PUTTING INDUSTRIAL LAND TO WORK RE-PURPOSING INDUSTRIAL LANDS FOR FUTURE NEEDS

SHRAVAN KAMATH

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01 ACKNOWLEGMENT I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor Tobias Goevert for the continuous support and guidance. I am particularly grateful to the Faculty of the Bartlett School of Planning who have taught and guided me for the Masters programme in Urban Design and City Planning. Finally I am thankful for my parents for their unequivocal support and my fellow classmates for keeping up the spirit during the long hours spent in the basement cluster.

Shravan Kamath 05 September 2016

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University College London The Bartlett School of Planning MSc Urban Design and City Planning Major Research Project 2015-2016 Topic PUTTING INDUSTRIAL LAND TO WORK Regenerating industrial fabric to cater for future needs Shravan Kamath Word count: 7890

Being a Major Project in Regenerating industrial fabric submitted to the faculty of The Built Environment as part of the requirements for the award of the MSc Urban Design and City Planning at University College London, I declare that this project is entirely my own work and that ideas, data and images, as well as direct quotations, drawn from elsewhere are identified and referenced. Shravan Kamath Date : 05 September 2016

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01 ABSTRACT Industries are intrinsically tied to the heritage of the city. The industries of yesteryear are valuable to the community by the creating an identity, character and cultural background. The shift in economics and development of technology in the 21st century has led to the decline of many large industries. By repurposing regenerating and activating industrial sites to serve a new purpose, we create a sustainable development which helps in keeping the identity and character of the place while at the same time creating new economic opportunities. The purpose of the Major research Project is to explore the methods and strategies of reusing industrial lands, and create a place which has an alternate use and function but retains its identity and character.

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INDEX 1 Introduction Premise / Problem Global Background Research Question Objectives Methodology

12 12 13 13 14

2 Literature Review Growth of Cities Land Recycling Re-use of Heritage Creating Mixed Use Case Studies Methodology Butlers Warf London Kings Cross London Hafen City, Hamburg Regents Quarter London

18 20 22 24

26 28 30 32 34

3 Literature Synthesis Case study Synthesis Tool Kit

38 39 40

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5

Site Introduction Location and context Policy Context

Design Proposal Vision Concept Buildings Retained Space Matrix Proposed masterplan

80 82 84 86 88

Masterplan Analysis Ground Level landuse Typical building landuse Road network Pedestrian network Landscape Paved surface

92 93 94 95 96 97

Masterplan zoning Districts Kodak Office Kodak Green Civic Quarter Kodak Park Kodak Factory Row Houses Bunker Park Warehouse Phasing

98 100 102 104 106 108 112 114 116 118

Strategic site Analysis Green Spaces Transport and Linkages Urban Nodes Areas and deprivation Character and Value Local Site Analysis Green Network Land Use Building heights Views from site Views of site History Kodak History Site Weakness Site Opportunities Existing proposal analysis

44 46

48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 72 74 76

6 Comparative illustrations Critique & limitations Conclusion

122 123 124

Image Reference Bibliography

126 127

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TABLE OF FIGURES AND MAPS Fig 01 : Growth of cities - How urban areas expand 19 Fig 02 : Goals of Brownfield development 20 Fig 03 : Objectives of brownfield development goals 21 Fig 04 : Four Pillars for Sustainable regeneration 22 Fig 05 : Process of Growth, Decline & regeneration 23 Fig 06 : Principles - Industry in the City 24 Fig 07 : List of case studies evaluated 27 Fig 08 : Butlers Wharf regeneration29 Fig 09 : Kings Cross regeneration31 Fig 10 : HafenCity regeneration33 Fig 11 : Regent Quarter regeneration35 Fig 12 : Tool Kit Principles40 Fig 13 : London Borough of Harrow44 Fig 14 : Harrow Statistics - CBRE Research46 Fig 15 : Heart of Harrow AAP - Key Development Sites47 Fig 17 : Key green spaces around Kodak Site 48 Fig 18 : Urban Nodes, key built forms 52 Fig 19 : Residential Typologies around site54 Fig 20 : Views from the site64 Fig 21 : Views of site from surrounding66 Fig 22 : Conceptual Guidelines82 Fig 23 : Space Matrix of proposed uses86 Fig 24 : Aerial View90 Fig 24 : Proposed Districts98 Fig 25 : Phasing Plans118 Fig 26 : Value and Benefits of Re-generation126 Map 01 : Site location in relation to key London areas49 Map 02 : Green spaces around Site49 Map 03 : Public transport Location51 Map 04 : Urban Nodes and Employment Areas53 Map 05 : Economic Deprivation55 Map 06 : Urban Character & Value57 Map 07 : Orientation & Green space59 6

Map 08 : Landuse61 Map 09 : Building Heights63 Map 10 : Key views from site65 Map 11 : Key views of the site67 Map 13 : Site constraints73 Map 14 : Site Opportunities75 Map 15 : Existing Masterplan (BDP)77 Map 16 : Conceptual bubble diagram81 Map 17 : Conceptual Zoning83 Map 18 : Retaining Built Form84 Map 19 : Proposed Masterplan89 Map 19A : Proposed Ground Level Masterplan91 Map 20 : Land Use92 Map 21 : Typical Building Use93 Map 22 : Road Network94 Map 23 : Pedestrian Network95 Map 24 : Landscape96 Map 25 : Paved Surface97 Map 26 : Masterplan Districts99 Map 27 : Kodak Office100 Map 28 : Kodak Green102 Map 29 : Civic Quarter104 Map 30 : Kodak Park106 Map 31 : Kodak Factory108 Map 32 : Row House112 Map 33 : Bunker Park114 Map 34 : Warehouse116 Map 35 : Care Home & Student housing117


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01

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION RESEARCH QUESTION

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01

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INTRODUCTION Due to the size and abandonment of neglected landscapes, new questions are being asked about the future state of these sites. The industrial landscapes have a direct heritage link to its surrounding, which stretch intrinsically to the city. The importance of the social,economical, political and cultural conditions from the past of the cities are defined and valued through their manufacturing productions. These factories and their complexes describe powerful lessons of industry that were once so dominant and provide a visual link to the areas history. The future of these landscapes is a issue which needs to be addressed not just urgently but also appropriately. The decline of industrial cities is an issue faced by cities all over the world. Many examples show that communities are destroying the dormant industrial landscapes by completely erasing them; therefore erasing its significance in relation with the historic context, without any consideration for their inherit rooted cultural and contextual qualities. Previously performing as industrial distribution, manufacturing or power plants, urban growth from traditional residential areas has led to these landscapes to be wiped out and creating developments on a tabula rassa, thereby alienating communities and landscapes. These once flourishing landscapes located in dense urban centres provide incremental possibilities for contemporary activation; through reusing and invigorating the left over anatomy of the industrial urban fabric.

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01 PREMISE The premise of the thesis is that the urban recycling of derelict industrial areas is indispensable for sustainable development. Conservation of industrial heritage marks a new commitment to the transformation of abandoned industrial sites to new cultural, economic and environmental uses. The transformation of derelict industrial sites into public spaces represents a significant enhancement to the quality of life, an important raise of use of land and recognition of the great potential for economic development of the place.

Industrial sites of the previous century

BACKGROUND Since the late 1960’s, manufacturing industry in the UK has significantly declined leading to de-industrialization of major cities including London. The process of de-industrialization has led to vacant sites in urban centers often with large unused buildings which no longer serve their purpose. While at the same time left many inner cities facing severe socio-economic and environmental problems. Multiple deprivation describes these associated problems of poverty. (Royal geographic society)

Regeneration... Reusing the Landscape

OR

Regeneration... Starting anew 12


RESEARCH QUESTION How can the industrial fabric be used as a catalyst for change and as a strategy for redevelopment through adaptive re-use? How can derelict industrial lands be re-purposed, to reaffirm the existing local character and identity and contribute to local community?

“The heritage of the past is the seed that brings forth the harvest of the future.” - Wendell Phillips

OBJECTIVES The field of the study of the report is a research of possible strategies which affect the reclamation of derelict industrial sites in urban areas using the concept of urban recycling. The Objective of the report are as follows: • How industrial sites contribute to the growth of a city by means of ‘urban consolidation’ • Exploring design and planning interventions on regenerating the industrial lands and understanding the impact of the regeneration on its surrounding. • Produce a tool kit and methodology on how to redevelop industrial sites in city centres by preserving large structures. • To implement the tool kit on a site and evaluate the possible outcome on its surrounding.

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01 METHODOLOGY

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Literature Study

Case Study

Formulate Tool Kit

To study factors which lead to industrial regeneration and understand concepts to develop design which preserves heritage.

To evaluate projects which have Industrial regeneration as a focus of development. To understand best practises and shortcomings

To conceptualise strategies & methods derived from the literature and case studies, which can be applied.

Growth of Cities

Kings Cross, London

Land recycling

Butlers Warf, London

Reusing Heritage

Hafencity, Hamburg

Creating Mix use in Industrial Areas

Regents Quarter London


Site Analysis

Design Proposal

Conclusion

Analysis of selected site, surrounding neighbourhood and factors affecting it

To propose a successful masterplan based on the tool kit, which re-purposes the industrial site.

Analyse the limitation and critique the proposed masterplan. To understand how the proposed tool-kit can be transferred.

Strategic Site Analysis

Existing masterplan Proposal

Comparison

Local Site Analysis History Weakness & Opportunities

Proposed Masterplan Detail Zoning Phasing and Areas

Limitations Critique Transferability

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01

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CHAPTER 2 CASE STUDY & LITERATURE STUDY

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02

LITERATURE STUDY

GROWTH OF CITIES Our current urban population of around 3.9 billion is expected to grow to around 6.34 billion by 2050, out of a total global population of at least 9.5 billion. This near-doubling of the urban population will mean a doubling of the natural resources is required to build and operate our cities – which is not sustainable. Following are the ways urban areas develop and grow. Urban Sprawl is a phenomenon in growing cities typified by continual growth of the urban area in a radial pattern, with the development of low density housing typically on agricultural or environmentally sensitive lands. Urban sprawl typically provides the quarter acre block or detached housing. However, this type of development tends to impact on food, industrial basins and fringe areas. Village Development- New self-functioning communities, scattered over rural or regional areas. A typical village development exhibits medium to high density dwellings supported by large open spaces that act as communal recreation areas. This type of development is often portrayed as a simple, effective solution to stem the effects of population growth.

“The suburbs, urban sprawl, and the infinite number, of housing developments of the postwar boom have contributed to the architecture of entropy.” - Robert Smithson, Artist

Decentralisation is the strategic development in existing urban or regional “growth centres” to stem the growth in congested business districts into areas with larger capacities for growth. Urban Consolidation is the process of increasing or maintaining the density of housing in established residential areas. The ultimate aim of urban consolidation is to reduce development on the fringe areas of the city. It is often realised by densification, high-rise development and urban renewal. To many people, urban consolidation means increased population densities that would initially occur along transport routes and then spread. 18

Fig 1:

Growth of cities - How urban areas expand ( Author)


URBAN SPRAWL

DECENTRALISATION

Growth of low rise built forms on green land away from city center

De-congesting urban centers forming smaller growth centers within the city

EXISTING URBAN SPACE

VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT

Small self sufficient nucleus located away from city centers

URBAN CONSOLIDATION

Increasing density and redeveloping the existing land and building stock.

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02

LITERATURE STUDY

LAND RECYCLING Land recycling is the most significant environmental innovation developed in the last decade - an innovation pioneered by states in response to unrealistic urban policies that actually encourage the abandonment of contaminated properties. Returning properties to productive reuse free from environmental liabilities has not only obvious environmental benefits but economic benefits as well. And by encouraging businesses to locate on old industrial sites in towns and cities, land recycling may also turn out to be a major factor in reducing sprawl development and preserving open space and farmland. Based on the investigation program run by the group of professors from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Karen, Li, Chen, James, 2009) the objectives of land recycling are: • • • • • • • •

Improve the environment Remove stigma associated with environmental contamination Reverse neighbourhood unemployment and blight Increase property values and property tax revenues Achieve significant savings in infrastructure investment, due to using under-utilized existing infrastructure Stimulate economic growth Create environmental jobs Increase land availability and reduce pressure to develop greenfield sites.

Land recycling provides opportunities for urban renewal & to build liveable communities: efficient, compact, vibrant urban neighbourhoods integrated with public transit, which offer a mix of uses as well as affordable housing. Recycling process in a closed circuit process and as such is the best for sustainable development.

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Goals for Brownfield Interventions

Area the goals relate to:

Improve the Legibility of the City

Built Form: Urban Fabric

Improve Urban Integration and Mobility

Built Form: Urban Networks

Green the City

Natural resources

Build Complete Communities

Built Form: Mixed Use

Mitigate the Impact of Urbanization

Natural Resources: Land & Energy

Deal with the Pre-Existing

Pre - Existing

Fig 2 :

Goals of Brownfield development ( Jones, 2001)

Fig 3 :

Objectives of brownfield development goals( Jones, 2001)


Improve the Legibility of the City

Improve Urban Integration & Mobility

Green the City

Enhance the existing and Surrounding urban fabric.

Enhance the existing and surrounding street network.

Improve the environmental quality of public open space.

Increase the compactness of the urban fabric.

Enhance the existing and surrounding pedestrian network.

Increase the quantity of green open space.

Increase the diversity of the urban fabric.

Enhance the existing and surrounding transit network.

Improve the accessibility to green public open space.

Reveal the area’s site specific natural features.

Promote other non-motorized modes of transportation.

Include other environmental features (i.e. recycling facilities, composting and urban agriculture).

Build Complete Communities

Mitigate the Impact of Urbanization

Deal with the Pre-Existing

Increase housing availability.

Reduce brownfield land in the metropolitan area.

Reuse, restore and integrate existing structures and infrastructures.

Reduce pressure of greenfield development

Engage the community in the decision making process.

Reduce contaminated soil in metropolitan area

Preserve and enhance existing biodiversity and green open space.

Include green building Practice

Address the site’s former uses through design

Increase housing affordability and social integration. Improve accessibility to services and amenities. Encourage economic revitalization

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02

LITERATURE STUDY

REUSING HERITAGE Recycled derelict urban land encourages growth of businesses and services helping to break up concentrations of poverty, creating new jobs and brings economic improvement thought stimulating additional private investment. An abandoned factory site can be redeveloped Attractiveness into a new mixed-use development with a commercial facility, housing, public and cultural buildings etc. The addition of neighbourhoodserving retail, affordable housing, or a public park in a disadvantaged community can boost local spirit and improve overall quality of life. Economic benefits: • To attract investment • To increase tax revenue • To improve the City’s competitiveness • To increase the value of real property • To improve efficiency of infrastructure & land resources Social benefits: • To increase job opportunities; • To increase the affordability of residents housing • To improve the quality of life of residents • To mitigate human health risks Environmental benefits: • To improve the quality of the urban environment • To reduce greenhouse gas emissions; • To take urban development pressure off of green-space • Cultural benefits: • Retain the symbolic manifestation of the space • To enhance visual and mental sense of rooted • To create community areas around local landmarks

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SOCIAL

CULTURAL

Social Cohesion

Image & Symbols creation Visual Architecture Language Creativity & Innovation

Community participation

Creation of Identity

Sense of Place

Education Knowledge Skills

SUSTAINABLE REGENERATION

Cultural Landscape

Regional Attractiveness

Reducing urban Sprawl

Preserving embodied Energy Lifecycle Prolongation

ENVIRONMENTAL

Fig 4 :

Place Branding

Labour Market

Regional Competitiveness

Housing Stock Market

Continuity of Social Life

Return on Investment Real Estate Market

Gross Value Added

ECONOMIC

Four Pillars for Sustainable regeneration (The CHCfE Report, June 2015)


Physical / Structural Obsolescence Functional Obsolescence Image Obsolescence

Original Economic Use

Economic Value

Economic Decline

Urban Context

Legal / Statutory Obsolescence

Physical Revitalization

Location Obsolescence

Functional Revitalization

Financial Obsolescence

Social Revitalization

Aesthetic Value Economic Revitalization

Social Value

NEW USE

Cultural Value Historic Value

Economic Obsolescence

Economic Value

No Economic Value Disuse and Neglect

NO Economic Obsolescence

Loss of Value Fig 5 :

Process of Growth, Decline & regeneration (Heritage Works, 2013)

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02

LITERATURE STUDY

CREATING MIX USE IN INDUSTRIAL AREA The question of how industrial activities should best be accommodated in the contemporary city is increasingly significant for future development of urban areas. As demand for housing soars and land supply becomes increasingly constrained, the efficient utilisation of land sets the agenda for future development. (Beunderman et al., 2016) More efficient use of land and residential development on land currently used for non-residential activities within the city has the potential to be a significant source of new housing. Based on a wide-ranging analysis of examples of successful intensification and mixed use, these strategies by Urhahn Urban Design for the Greater London Authority are indicative of the essential ‘good ideas’ for building typologies, planning principles and urban design strategies. They show how the creation of successful mixed use districts or intensified industrial areas can be achieved. Together, this can be used as a ‘tool-kit’ for urban restructuring and area transformation.

Control the views from residential units

Separate access routes for different uses

Make the most of existing assets

Make active use of transitional zones and buildings

The adjacent illustrations represent the key characteristic principle. The Logo specify the scale of the principle, i.e. Area, Block or Plot as well as whether it focuses on intensification or mix. The highlighted strategies will form the criteria for evaluating the case studies in the following chapter.

Fig 6 :

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Principles - Industry in the City (Urhahn Urban Design, Amsterdam for GLA)


Encourage vertical stacking of industry

Mix on different scales

Encourage built parking solutions

Comprehensive masterplans, promoting good design

Create attractive private courtyards

Define a clear but flexible spatial framework

Promote flexible building types

Invest in large-scale hybrid buildings

Minimise environmental disruption

Create public space and meeting places

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02

CASE STUDY

CASE STUDY METHODOLOGY The case studies have been selected based on the how the existing industrial built form have been repurposed. The case studies will be evaluated following the methodology shown below:

TEST

Using the Tool Kit provided by Urhahn Urban Design following aspects are analysed. The objectives will be represented with a tick or cross based on the objectives achieved

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SCOPE

Analysing the parameters and actions undertaken to regenerate the area

REUSE

Understanding how the built form has been re appropriated and its response to the surrounding.

ANALYSIS

Evaluating the Pros and Cons of the proposal, whereby the successful actions can be transferred to other interventions.


BEFORE

Butlers Warf, London

Kings Cross, London

Hafen City Hamburg

Regents Quarter, London

AFTER

Fig 7 :

List of case studies evaluated

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02

CASE STUDY

BUTLERS WARF, LONDON The regeneration of the Butler’s Wharf estate, close to Tower Bridge, was a twenty-year project that has seen a formerly derelict area of redundant Victorian warehousing transformed into a thriving community of restaurants, bars, shops, galleries, flats and offices.

Status : Completed Masterplan : Conran & Partners

After the decline of industries in the 1960’s the warehouses were used by artists until the early 1980’s. The escalation of London house prices was the reason for converting the warehouses in high end residential purpose

TEST Flexible spatial framework Promote flexible building type Large-scale hybrid buildings Vertical stacking of uses Public space Active transitional zones Access for different uses Variation in scale 28

SCOPE Retaining the Industrial buildings, and refurbishing the units to develop apartments. Opening of the space around the buildings are creating promenade along the river and public plazas around which commercial activities are based. Eviction of existing artist community to set up regeneration, thereby displacing community

REUSE Conversion schemes enhanced the unique character of the area,such as Brewhouse, Butlers Wharf, New Concordia Wharf and the redevelopment of the former Brewery (Tower Bridge Piazza). The reuse of old riverside warehouse buildings encouraged additional developments within the area of similar quality and sensitivity to the historical character of the place. Creation of design museum, by regenerating warehouse whereby adding public space

ANALYSIS CON • High end residential led to the loss of local character. PRO • Creating public Plaza, streetscape improvements helping to reinforce its importance within the local public realm. • Commercial spaces on the ground level, creating active frontages • Retain heritage, and supporting developments to attract culture and investment Fig 8 :

Butlers Wharf regeneration


Butlers Warf Masterplan

Butlers Warf before regeneration 29


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CASE STUDY

KINGS CROSS, LONDON In Victorian times, King’s Cross was an important industrial heartland. But by the late 20th Century, the area known as the railway lands had become a series of disused buildings, railway sidings, warehouses and contaminated land. King’s Cross is one of now the largest and ongoing redevelopments in London. The 67 acre site of underused industrial land is being transformed into a new part of the city with homes, shops, offices, galleries, bars, restaurants, schools. The University of the Arts London moved to the Granary Complex and creation of public spaces have added to the social regeneration of the area.

TEST Flexible spatial framework Promote flexible building type Large-scale hybrid buildings Vertical stacking of uses Public space Active transitional zones Access for different uses Variation in scale 30

SCOPE

Status Masterplan Land Area Public Space Areas Population

: Ongoing : Allies and Morrison & Porphyrios Associates : 67 acres : 26 acres of open space 10 new public parks and squares : 50 new buildings 1,900 residential units 20 new streets : 30,000 people by 2016

REUSE

Focusing on phased regeneration whereby the spaces get developed systematically, this allows for greater social intergeneration with the previously impermeable site.

Repurposes the existing building stock which is made accessible to the public by converting into institutional, retail and commercial spaces.

New buildings are developed in clusters, which although compliment are not part of the refurbished building.

Large plazas& garden located adjacent to the refurbished building, allowing greater social integration.

Diversity in architectural style and landscape creating unique spaces.

Developing Institutional, retail and Commercial spaces to generate interest for residential development.

ANALYSIS CON • No vertical stacking of uses. • Sense of over programming of public spaces • Masterplan not inclusive of surrounding Industries PRO • Create mix use with culture led regeneration of historic buildings focusing on social interaction • High density and permeability • Reuse of buildings for predominantly public activities • Creation of public spaces in key areas Fig 9 :

Kings Cross regeneration


Kings Cross Masterplan

Kings Cross before regeneration 31


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CASE STUDY

HAFENCITY, HAMBURG The concept of creating a new development in the inner city port areas arouse when the port capacity had been built up south of the River Elbe, which had left centrally sited areas on the north banks of the river either idle or under-used, since they were unsuitable for container operations.

Status Masterplan Land area Public Space

By buying out all the private land the city was able create a development which allowed the intensive interaction between existing and new buildings and the water, the elevation of buildings as a flood protection concept, the public character of many ground-floor uses, and the fine-grained mix of uses.

Areas Population

TEST Flexible spatial framework Promote flexible building type Large-scale hybrid buildings

Urban horizontal & vertical mix of uses paired with a flexible design framework. New developments respect the existing building heights & fine grain nature of existing typologies.

Vertical stacking of uses

Creating visual corridors

Public space

Squares, small and large, linked together advance urban spatial integration. Lohsepark, the “Central Park” will extend down to the River Elbe creating a green pedestrian link across the site.

Active transitional zones Access for different uses Variation in scale 32

SCOPE

: Ongoing : RHWL Architects : 127 ha : 10.5 km dockside promenade 3.1 km Elbe embankment 41 ha of public space : 6,500–7,000 homes : 15,000 people by 2020

REUSE

ANALYSIS

The Speicherstadt, a set of old warehouses now a UNESCO world heritage site is still active, The new development adheres maintains the height of the old structures and at the same time is physically linked

CON • Flexible design framework may sometimes allow for buildings to not respond to the local context. • Lack of economic mix

The Elbe Philharmonic is being built on top of the older warehouses which will form the focal center of the development.

PRO • Fine grain development with high density promoting horizontal & vertical mix of uses. • Commercial spaces on the ground level, creating active frontages • Encourage existing industries by linking to residential units • Retain heritage look to attract culture and investment Fig 10 : HafenCity regeneration


HafenCity Masterplan

HafenCity before regeneration 33


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CASE STUDY

REGENT QUARTER, LONDON Regent Quarter is located at the east part of King’s Cross Station. Since 1820, a mixture of large warehouses, small houses, factories complexes and industrial buildings with internal courtyards, formed an eclectic architectural landscape and a coherent historical group of buildings. The areas wen into disuse from the 1970s. The redevelopment of Regent Quarter the industrial local character was carefully enhanced, by refurbishing most of the existing buildings and with awareness combining the retained buildings with new modern ones. The existing but disused courtyards and streets were to revitalized in order to encapsulate the original style of the area and give access to the public.

TEST Flexible spatial framework Promote flexible building type Large-scale hybrid buildings Vertical stacking of uses

SCOPE Retaining the Industrial buildings, and refurbishing the units to develop apartments. Pedestrianizing internal roads to achieve greater permeability. Retains the existing street layout. The new buildings response

Status Masterplan Land area Areas

: completed April 2005 : RHWL Architects : 2.4 ha : 18,580sqm office 4626sqm retail 13011 sqm 138 units residential

REUSE

ANALYSIS

Buildings repurposed with retail spaces at the ground level and office or residential spaces above thereby maintaining an active frontage across the site.

CON • The internal streets are not visible from the external roads causing less pedestrian movement.

The former parking spaces/ loading bays have been converted into public plazas

PRO • Street layouts remain unchanged adding character. • Variety in scale and massing

Public space Active transitional zones Access for different uses Variation in scale 34

Fig 11 : Regent Quarter regeneration


Regent Quarter Masterplan

Regent Quarter before regeneration 35


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CHAPTER 3 CASE STUDY & LITERATURE ANALYSIS TOOL-KIT

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LITERATURE & CASE STUDY ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS OF LITERATURE STUDY The lessons learnt from the literature studies are synthesized into three tiers of varying scale context.

NEIGHBOURHOOD/ CITY CONTEXT

Aim for intensification, by means of urban consolidation and regeneration rather than urban sprawl

Develop new urban nodes, which compliment or supplement existing urban centres.

SITE CONTEXT

• Evaluate the reuse of existing urban built form which adds value and character to the local economy, identity creating a socially sustainable ecosystem. • Flexible spatial framework promoting mix of scales both vertically and horizontally • Create linked Public spaces around local landmarks which help activate the surrounding • Separate access routes for different uses, promoting pedestrian and cycling network across.

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BLOCK / LOCAL CONTEXT

• Industrial Buildings have high resilience and are the types of building stock offering greatest potential for conversion and that are likely to be viable and sustainable • Propagate Large-scale hybrid buildings which are flexible. • Minimise environmental disruption • Encourage vertical stacking use, focusing on activating the ground level


ANALYSIS OF CASE STUDY The lessons learnt from the case studies are synthesized into 3 ties of varying scale context.

NEIGHBOURHOOD/ CITY CONTEXT

BLOCK / LOCAL CONTEXT

SITE CONTEXT

Retain street layout and urban fabric. Create development which adds to the local character rather than removing it altogether.

• Evaluate the reuse of existing urban built form which adds value and character to the local economy, identity creating a socially sustainable ecosystem.

Develop transport linkages across the site , which connects neighbourhoods.

• Re-purposes the large industrial building stock for specialist uses which allows for social interaction • High density, low rise development. • Create visual vistas which link the existing built form, to the wider surrounding.

Refurbish existing buildings stock to accommodate new uses.

Encourage stacking of uses combining residential with commercial and work spaces.

Variety in scale and massing and material palette of built form.

Create inviting street fronts.

• Develop hierarchy of open spaces from large open public spaces to small private courtyards. 39


03

TOOL KIT

TOOL KIT The primary objective learnt from the literature and case studies is to neither demolish nor preserve the existing fabric of the Post Industrial Landscape, rather to strive, to exemplify how a new layer of urbanism can both respect and respond to a site with remaining structures, creating a dialogue between the past and the present. The new urban form must present an opportunity to chart the evolution of history in the context of broader redevelopment strategies and asses their potential for a more meaningful social attachment to landscape and place.

CONNECT

FRAME

REVEAL

The tool kit presents concepts which are interlinked to represent the varying condition of design intervention identified within the needs of the site.

“To restore is not to repair it, nor to do maintenance or to rebuild, it is to re establish it in an ultimate state that never existed before� - Eugene Viollet le Duc 40

ANTICIPATE

Fig 12 : Tool Kit Principles (Author)

ENGAGE


REVEAL

CONNECT

FRAME

ENGAGE

ANTICIPATE

Open industrial sites and buildings, which were previously impermeable to the larger surrounding

Extend road networks through the site, connecting areas around thereby increasing the permeability

Create vistas of the existing buildings from the site to enhance the visual connection to the surrounding

Site to be made interactive by promoting mix use adding to the emotional connect with the heritage

Create opportunities which will develop the identity of the place

Retain key structures which are of value to the community

Develop physical linkages to the existing economic areas of the neighbourhood

Activate space around existing structures

Create public spaces in and around the existing buildings.

Develop alternate uses which will contribute to the economically, Environmental social and cultural growth of the neighbourhood

Create flexible spaceswhcih can be used informally used.

Develop green corridors connecting different spaces

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04

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CHAPTER 3 SITE INTRODUCTION STRATEGIC SITE ANALYSIS LOCAL SITE ANALYSIS WEAKNESS & OPPURTUNITY EXISTING MASTERPLAN ANALYSIS

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04

SITE INTRODUCTION

HARROW

Fig 13 : London Borough Of Harrow

Located at the geographical centre of the London Borough of Harrow, situated at the north western fringe of London, the site is within close proximity to a number of transport routes, civic and retail centres. Harrow shares a boundary with the London Boroughs of Hillingdon, Ealing, Brent and Barnet, while the area between its northern edge and the M25 consists of a number of residential settlements and open space areas that define the southern part of Hertfordshire. There are a number of high quality public transport and strategic road connections that provide linkages between Harrow and the centre of London, including the Thames, West End and the City. Connections away from London include the M1 and M40, which connects to Leeds and the A1, and Birmingham respectively. 22% of Harrow’s population identify themselves as Indian in ethnicity, the highest in London One fifth of the borough is composed of parkland and open spaces creating a green belt equivalent to eight Hyde Parks

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Harrow Wealdstone Station

12 Minutes

Euston Station


Kodak

Wembley Stadium 4. 5m

Euston 11.5m

Hyde Park 10 . 5m Heathrow 13m

Stratford 17m

Kings Cross St Pancras 12m City of London 13.3m

South Bank 13. 5m Canary Warf 17m

Map 1 : Site Location in relation to key London areas

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04

SITE INTRODUCTION

HARROW & WEALDSTONE OPPORTUNITY AREA Harrow and its surrounding area in North West London has played an important part in the growth of the capital city and its economy over many years. Whilst there is a state of flux in the world and UK economies one certainty is the importance of Harrow to London exemplified by its position as one of the 11 key metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan and as such pivotal for job creation and new housing. Outline of Harrow & Wealdstone AAP: Urban renewal - Reducing vacant and obsolete spaces Improved spaces - Increasing activity through higher residential density and mixed use schemes, office renewal Town Centre - Regenerate by improving quality of retail and housing Industry - Intensity industries thereby increasing employment Infrastructure - Improve transport infrastructure and public realm

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Fig 14 : Harrow Statistics - CBRE Research


Fig 15 : Heart of Harrow AAP - Key Development Sites

Harrow & Wealdstone Delivery targets

: Designated Opportunity Area : 3,000 homes, 3,000 jobs

Fig 16 : Heart of Harrow AAP - Proposed Urban Form

Kodak Development : 1800 homes 60% of Harrow & Wealdstone opportunity area target

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04

STRATEGIC SITE ANALYSIS

GREEN SPACES Located at the outer-limits of Greater London, Harrow benefits from good connections to the countryside and the green belt that constrains the urban expansion of the capital. There are large expanses of green open spaces in and around the borough, which have been acquired and preserved since the 1800’s. Some of these open spaces interconnect to form a continuous green corridor which penetrates urban areas surrounding the site.

Stanmore Golf Course

Headstone Manor

Most prominent of these is the green corridor that stretches from north of the M1 around Bentley Priory and the Hilfield Reservoir, continuing south through to Pinner Park and Headstone Recreational Grounds, and the allotments which are immediately west of the site. This corridor then continues in a south westerly direction towards the Thames, roughly following the course to Yeading Brook.

Pinner Park

Fig 17 : Key green spaces around Kodak Site

48


Stanmore Golf Course

Pinner Park

Byron Recreation Pinner Cemetery

Headstone e e Driv Manor Headston

row

Har Vie w

Kenton Recreation

Harrow Recreation

Harrow West

Map 2 : Green spaces around Site

49


04

STRATEGIC SITE ANALYSIS

PUBLIC TRANSPORT Harrow and Wealdstone station, located approximately 400m to the south of the site, provides access to both National Rail and the London Underground network through Bakerloo Underground Line and London Overground services. Mainline rail services are provided by London Midland and Southern and connect various destinations including London Euston (12min), Clapham Junction (40 Min), Watford Junction (10min), Gatwick and Brighton. Further connections on from Watford Junction provide services to Northampton, Milton Keynes and Birmingham. Public transport linkages to the South and East as well as areas not located on the rail link to Central London are poor and rely largely on the local bus network, which is relatively infrequent and inconvenient. As shown in the adjacent diagram the site is well connected in terms of the local bus network. The site is well located in terms of strategic traffic routes, which creates high levels of accessibility for both private vehicles and heavy goods vehicles. At present the highway network copes reasonably well with traffic demands but congestion problems exist at some key junctions including the Headstone Drive and Harrow View junction at peak times. 50

Main Roads Bus Station - 10m Radius

KEY

Train Station - 50m Radius


Hatch End

Stanmore Golf Course

10

A4

9

Pinner Park

04

A40

08

A4

A40

Headstone Lane

Byron Recreation Headstone e e Driv Manor Headston

Pinner

Harrow & Wealdstone

ch chur

st

Chri

ue

Aven

row

Station Ro

Har Vie w

Kenton Recreation

ad

North Harrow

Kenton Station

A4

A4

09

0

04

Harrow on the Hill

6

A

0 40

Northwick Park Map 3 : Public transport Location

51


04

STRATEGIC SITE ANALYSIS

URBAN NODES The site is located within close proximity to a number of established urban centres that combine to form a strong urban corridor running north to south between Harrow and Wealdstone. Harrow Town Centre, to the south of the site is the more prominent of the urban centres with and provides a wide range of services, including retail, leisure, commercial office as well as public and educational uses.

Waverley Estate

Harrow Civic

Crown Court

Harrow Mosque

The Harrow Employment Land Study (ELS), produced by URS on behalf of the Harrow Council identifies 25 business clusters, 20 of which are designated employment sites designated under policies EM13 and EM14 in the UDP, the Kodak site being one of them. Chapter 7 of the ELS includes the assessment of the ‘Quality and Characteristics of Employment Land’, and surveys 76 ha of employment land currently in use and 30 ha of land for potential development in the borough. The Kodak site is the single largest site within the borough and accounts for 16 ha of the existing use.

Urban Nodes Fig 18 : Urban Nodes, key built forms

52

KEY

Employment Corridor


Stanmore Golf Course

Hatch End Wealdstone High Street

Pinner Park

Waverley Estate Pinner High Street

Headstone Manor

Crown Court

Headstone Drive

Harrow & Wealdstone High Street

Byron Recreation

Mosque

row

Har

Harrow Civic Centre

Vie w

Tesco Store

North Harrow Centre

Kenton Recreation

Kenton Harrow Town Cen-

Street

tre

Map 4 : Urban Nodes and Employment Areas

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04

STRATEGIC SITE ANALYSIS

ECONOMIC DEPRIVATION The railway lines which runs along the North East of the site, acts as a physical barrier between a relatively deprived economic zone on the east and a rather affluent area on the west. It must also be noted that the deprived economic areas are located around the railway stations and areas of employment. The affluent areas are characterised as typically residential areas around large parks.

Housing along Harrow View

Villas around Headstone Manor

Housing in the least deprived areas

Harrow View & Headstone Drive Junction

Fig 19 : Residential Typologies around site

54

KEY

Least deprived

9th

8th

7th

6th

5th

4th

3rd

Most deprived

The data source of the illustrated image is from Consumer Data Research Centre, and UK Department of Communities and Local Government - Indices of deprivation 2015

2nd

The Kodak Site lies between the areas of the most and least economically deprived areas creating a unique opportunities to crating a link across the railway tracks and thereby reducing economic deprivation in the east of the site.


Waverley Estate Headstone Manor

Headstone Drive

Crown Court

Map 5 : Economic Deprivation

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04

STRATEGIC SITE ANALYSIS

CHARACTER AND VALUE The illustrated map shows the character areas developed by Future Cities Catapult based on data provided by Office of National Statistics.

56

13 % of London Population

Commute to work

12 % of London Population

Highest Proportion of Foreign Nationals

Above average Home Owner

Work

Work

High Proportion of Family with children

Highest proportion of over 65 age group

17 % of London Population

Likely to have 2 or more cars

11 % of London Population

High Work more Proportion of than 49 hours Family with a week children

Work

High Proportion of Family with children

Work

17 % of London Population

Likely to have completed GCSE

Own their own home


Hatch End Wealdstone High Street

Pinner Park

Waverley Estate Pinner High Street

Headstone Manor

Headstone Drive

Crown Court

Harrow & Wealdstone High Street

Harrow Civic Centre

Tesco Store

North Harrow Centre

Harrow Town Centre

Map 6 : Urban Character & Value

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04

LOCAL SITE ANALYSIS

ORIENTATION & GREEN SPACE The site’s topography slopes gently from north to south within a change in level across the site of 5m resulting in a gradient of 1:100. This gentle slope is ideal for solar orientation and pedestrian and cycle connectivity and also means that surface water falling within the site will drain naturally towards the south and Headstone Drive. The wider analysis of the green network identifies the opportunity to connect the site into the strategic green corridor, which links to Pinner Park and into the Green Belt. The railway corridor has also been identified as a green link within the Core Strategy and incorporation of this green finger will need to be considered in future proposals. There is a wide variety of green open spaces within the local area. These range from school playing fields, formal recreational grounds and allotment gardens which form the setting to Headstone Manor. While there is currently no green open space within the Kodak site, historic photos of the site show playing fields within the confines of the existing site boundary.

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K LIN

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TO

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ILW

AY

EN

GRE T BEL

Av rk a P er n n Pi

en

ue

GR

CO

RR

ID

OR Wealdstone High Street

SITE SLOPE Harrow Museum & Heritage Centre

iew wV

GR

Headstone Manor Recreation Ground

Waverley Estate

rro

N EE

Ha

K

LIN

SITE SLOPE

Empty Site

Harrow Crown Court

AM

PM st Head

rive one D

Harrow & Wealdstone Station

NOON

Harrow Civic Centre

Map 7 : Orientation & Green space

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LOCAL SITE ANALYSIS

LAND USE The area immediately surrounding the site is very diverse in its land uses. The residential uses are the predominant feature with retail and commercial offices concentrated in the centres of Harrow and Wealdstone. Smaller secondary retail shops can be found pepper-potted within the residential fabric and include green grocers, newsagents, hairdressers, etc.

1. Waverley estate and Crown Court

2. Car Park on Harrow High Street

Harrow Crown Court is the major civic use, located adjacent to the site, although it remains largely isolated from other commercial and public uses within the borough. Caryl Thomas Clinic to the south of the site, on Headstone Drive is the closest heath centre to the site. Other local community uses include the Scout Hall, south of Headstone Drive, and the Headstone Manor.

3. Harrow View & Headstone Drive Junction

There are a number of high quality employment clusters in and around the site which take advantage of good links into London and at the same time relatively low rents. These include; the Waverley Estate adjacent to the site, Tudor Park, Barrat Way Industrial Estate and the White Friars Industrial Estate.

School Residential Commercial/ Retail Industrial Car Park / Train station Religious KEY

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Civic buildings


Pin

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Wealdstone High Street

Harrow Museum & Heritage Centre

Waverley Estate

Ha rro iew wV

Headstone Manor Recreation Ground

st Head

rive one D

Harrow Crown Court

Harrow & Wealdstone Station

Harrow Civic Centre

Map 8 : Land use

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LOCAL SITE ANALYSIS

BUILDING HEIGHTS The area around the site is composed of predominantly low-rise 2-storey detached and semi-detached houses. There are some lower rise 3-4 storey flats interspersed within the residential fabric, these are generally found along key movement corridors such as Harrow View and Headstone Drive. More contemporary 4-5 storey apartment buildings are found in Wealdstone, which complement the adjacent 3-4 storey commercial and mixed-use buildings that line the High Street. Taller 8-12 storey buildings are found within Harrow Town Centre. The buildings within the site have historically ranged in height from 12 – 37m. The existing chimney is located in the centre of the site rises to approximately 64.6m. This strong vertical element is the most visible feature of the existing buildings and can be seen large distances away from the site. +21 m 18 m 15 m 12 m 9m KEY 62

6m


Pin

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Wealdstone High Street

Harrow Museum & Heritage Centre

Waverley Estate

Ha rro iew wV

Headstone Manor Recreation Ground

st Head

rive one D

Harrow Crown Court

Harrow & Wealdstone Station

Harrow Civic Centre

Map 9 : Building Heights

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04

LOCAL SITE ANALYSIS

VIEWS FROM SITE The scale, orientation and local topography has resulted in the existing industrial buildings within the Kodak site, including the tall chimney becoming significant landmarks that are visible throughout Harrow. Strategic views towards the site can be taken from a number of local high point, hills and open spaces, including Bentley Priory (north), Belmont Hill (north east), Harrow-on the- Hill (south) and Pinner Park (west).

Pinner Park

Harrow on the Hill

Wembley Stadium

Stanmore

Views from the site can also be enjoyed from the roof-tops and upper floors of the Kodak site’s existing industrial buildings, including long views south towards Harrow-on-theHill, Wembley Stadium, Merry Hill and on a clear day it is possible to see the London Eye and the capital’s sky-line. Publicly accessible roof-top spaces have been considered in the proposed development to create a vantage point for these views and give the future users an opportunity to enjoy these views.

Fig 20 : Views from the site

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STANMORE

Pin

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PINNER PARK

Harrow Museum & Heritage Centre

Waverley Estate

Ha rro

Harrow Crown Court

iew wV

Headstone Manor Recreation Ground

st Head

rive one D

Harrow & Wealdstone Station

HARROW ON THE HILL

WEMBLEY STADIUM Map 10 : Key views from site

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04

LOCAL SITE ANALYSIS

VIEWS OF SITE

1. View from Harrow View South

2. View From Victor Road

The site’s chimney is a prominent feature within the local landscape and can be viewed from a number of vantage points in the local area. Key views of the Kodak Factory are illustrated in the adjacent plan. The remaining tall long industrial buildings, which run parallel to Harrow View are also visible from a number of long vistas. The height of the structures, low-lying context and absence of any natural features means the site remains a prominent landmark for Harrow.

3. View from Harrow View North

4. View from Athelstone Road

Fig 21 : Views of site from surrounding

66


Pin

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4

Harrow Museum & Heritage Centre

Waverley Estate

Ha rro

Harrow Crown Court

iew wV

2 Headstone Manor Recreation Ground

st Head

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Harrow & Wealdstone Station

1

Map 11 : Key views of the site

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04

HISTORY

HISTORIC DEVELOPMENT

1868 The 1868 map shows the railway line and the developing street pattern spreading from Harrow & Wealdstone Station. The primary routes of Harrow View and Headstone Drive have been formed. Large villas know as can be seen off Headstone Drive.

1918 Within twenty years of the establishment of Kodak on Harrow in 1890 the premises expanded significantly so that the extent of the works seen in the 1918 map are considerable in scale.

1938 The Kodak works expands by acquiring adjacent land. The 1938 map shows a jump in urbanisation with the Kodak Works filling the site, nearing their peak density with the road layouts to the residential development around Headstone Manor in place.

HARROW

GLOBAL

KODAK TIME LINE

68

George Eastman sets up Kodak

1891

1837

Railway line separates Harrow from Wealdstone

1901

Kodak sets up factory at Harrow

WWI

WWII

1914-1918

1939-1945 1925

200 feet Chimney... At time was the tallest in the country

1939

Retreat position for civil servants

1950

Largest manufacturing plant in British Commonwealth 6000 Employees


1951-60 The map of 1951-1960 then shows the full impact of the residential development surrounding Headstone Manor. This is the area at its peak of density and the street pattern and urban characteristics as we know them today fully defined.

Moon-landing captured using Kodak Tech.

1969 1960

Peak of residential density

1963

Paper building constructed

Digital camera invented by Kodak

1975

1977

1967 The maps dated 1967, show the continuing development of the Kodak site up to that sites peak of density, with the surrounding areas retained as the layout finally realised in the 1930s/40s.

Employs 128000 worldwide

1981

Administrative building set up

Digital camera introduced commercially

1991

2005

Stops manufacturing photographic film

1993 While most of the surrounding has remain unchanged the Map of 1993 shows the gradual consolidation of various buildings.

Ends Kodachrome Files for Film manufacture bankruptcy

2009

2012

2009

Sale of land

2009

Employs 13000 Worldwide

2015

Nov 2016

Factory to close permanently

250 employees working 69


04

70


71


04

WEAKNESS & OPPORTUNITIES

SITE WEAKNESS Development of the site is subject to the following Constraints: STATION Z The existing concrete bunker to the east of the site adjacent to the railway is a massive underground structure which makes it not feasible to demolish. Innovative reuse of this structure needs to be considered.

LOW RISE DEVELOPMENT The residential development on the North and North west of the site are of low rise development preventing large high rise buildings to be developed on the Kodak site.

INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS Ground conditions from the historic industrial use of the site will limit land use if mitigation / remediation works are not undertaken. Two aspects of risk have been identified: -Chemical contamination of the ground -Obstacles, basements and buried foundations.

ECONOMIC AREA Most of the economic areas are located on the East of the railway tracks and there is no good pedestrian linkage to the High Street.

RAILWAY Noise from the railway lines, particularly from high speed non stopping trains into London. BOUNDARIES The north and western Part of the site cannot be linked to the existing residential area, owing to the fact that the houses have their backyards and there is no direct road linkage possible.

Low rise residential Railway track Impermeable edge condition KEY

72

Noise from railway tracks


P er n n Pi

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Harrow Museum & Heritage Centre

R

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Waverley Estate

Ha

High Street

rro

Harrow Crown Court

iew wV Kodak

Headstone Manor Recreation Ground

st Head

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Harrow & Wealdstone Station

Map 13 : Site constraints

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04

WEAKNESS & OPPORTUNITIES

SITE OPPORTUNITIES REGENERATION The site’s redevelopment to be a catalyst in transforming the area by re-purposing the industrial buildings for new sustainable uses.

SUSTAINABILITY The site should take advantage of good access to public transport to support medium residential densities on the site.

Raising the profile of Harrow as an attractive and exciting place

ENVIRONMENT Improve the local green network, by creating linkages through the sports field site and to Headstone Manor making them accessible to The wider community. The existing tall buildings on the site provide precedent for taller buildings, provided the structures are strategically framed.

LAND USE Provide new high grade employment facilities which are compatible with residential uses. Link to existing retail and community facilities. Provide additional community uses adjacent to the Crown Court to ensure it is not isolated from the other non residential uses.

New buildings to take advantage of long views from the site. Utilise orientation to create south facing environments. Create Green Link Extend the High Street Extend road network Extend Employment KEY 74

Create new Urban Node


Pin

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Harrow Museum & Heritage Centre

Waverley Estate

Ha rro iew wV

Headstone Manor Recreation Ground

st Head

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Harrow Crown Court

Harrow & Wealdstone Station

Map 14 : Site Opportunities

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04

ANALYSIS OF EXISTING PROPOSAL

EXISTING MASTERPLAN Kodak and Land Securities formed a partnership to realise development opportunities on the site. A masterplan proposed has been submitted has lapsed thereby creating an opportunity to develop a fresh design whereby the industrial heritage can be reused. The Site on the left of harrow View has been bought by Persimmon Homes and has largely been pre sold to future home owners . owing to this factor the proposed masterplan will focus on the Kodak site located toward between Harrow View and the railway tracks. Housing led regeneration, where the existing urban fabric and industrial sites are erased largely to create a tabula rasa Focus on housing rather than creating a balance between residential, employment and community. This could lead to heavy suburbanisation leading job loss for the existing local economy.

76

STRENGTHS • The development creates a good mix of housing both in terms of size and scale. The green Link is the most distinct feature and connects across the site • The entry points of the site is well developed and the Civic plaza concept is to be retained • The location of the employment along the railway track acts as a visual and acoustic buffer • The development of the Employment space along Heaststone Road while retaining the Kodak Administration Building • Porosity achieved by creating a mix of road and extending the existing road into the site.

WEAKNESS • The industrial character of Kodak is lost completely except for the chimney of the power house which is retained as a token gesture. • Over dependant on the harrow View road and headstone Road, which might lead to increase in traffic in the future. • Very few opportunities for employment and office spaces. • Access to the warehouse and employment areas near the railway lines cut across the key residential zones and the green link. • The bunker is developed as a car parking facility, which is a lost opportunity for regeneration • The green Link is cut across by numerous shared surface and roads.

OPPORTUNITIES • Retain the large Industrial buildings and maintain the industrial fabric to retain the visual and historic rootedness of the place • Increase the density in order to pay for the Regeneration of the industrial buildings. • Create employment opportunities by putting the industrial buildings back to work. • Create a new office district along the Kodak Administrative buildings thereby increasing the office stock of Harrow. • Improving the Green Link by making it more pedestrian friendly and restricting car movement across it. • To create more retail space, thereby elevating the site to be more than a residential development.


Map 15 : Existing Masterplan (BDP)

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05

78


CHAPTER 5 MASTERPLAN PROPOSAL MASTERPLAN ANALYSIS MASTERPLAN ZONING

79


05

DESIGN PROPOSAL

VISION London Borough of Harrow has a unique set of characteristics, such as its ethnically diverse population, good local schools, proximity to the ‘Green Belt’, excellent transport connections to central London, along with important heritage structures such as Headstone Manor. The site provides an opportunity to respond to these key features, while highlighting the existing characters and proposing a cohesive environment of land uses. The proposed development will aim to revive the area, where the new neighbourhood can grow as an integral part of the existing community in turn enhancing it and bringing a much desired vitality to the local area and the borough. To repurpose the indurial site whereby, it adds to the economic, soical, cultural and environment of Harrow.

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1. Existing and Landmark • Ensure that the new development retains the visual presence of the Kodak factory . • The bulk and massing of the existing industrial buildings provide precedent for a new development of a high level of intensity and density. • To provide a public access to the former factory spaces allowing integration and appreciation for the development 2. Place-Making & Identity • Retain the Industrial link of the site through design and visual identity • Deliver a new community within Harrow which can integrate with and enhance the existing community. • Create people focused places which are attractive, vibrant and socially relevant. 3. Integrated Development • Ensure the new development provides a mix of tenures economically and aesthetically in an attractive environments. • Provide public spaces and community facilities which instigate social interaction.

4. Green Network • Extend the continuous green corridor connection to green belt through ‘Green Link’ across Harrow View towards the Headstone Manor and Pinner park. • Provide a variety of new green open spaces within the site to perform a variety of functions including, informal meeting spaces, relaxation / leisure spaces, play space, and improve biodiversity through habitat creation. • Use green roofs, rooftop gardens, green walls to further enhance the space. 5. Mix of Uses • Provide a mixture of uses within the site which brings value to the site. • Integrate the surrounding warehouses into the proposed development as well as creating new employment opportunities. 6. Permeability & Connections • Provide a network of new pedestrian and cycle routes through the site improving levels of permeability and access. • Ensure the benefits of the site’s regeneration extends beyond the boundaries of the site.


Residential

Residential

Residential

Residential

R

Allied Housing

A

Warehouse / Industry

IL

W

Warehouse / Industry

Residential

A

Retail

Y

LI

N

E

Office Public Space Retail

Community

Park / Gardens

Reuse and Mixed use Residential

Residential

Warehouse / Industry

Public Space Local Council Offices

Residential

Office

School

Residential Residential Map 16 : Conceptual bubble diagram

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05

DESIGN PROPOSAL

CONCEPT The proposed development is based on key concepts as shown on the adjacent diagrams: Retain buildings of Interest The key buildings retained are based on the visual and aesthetic impact to the site surrounding. The following buildings are retained 1. Film Factory 2. Power House 3. Administrative Building 4. Station Z - Bunker Retain Industrial fabric The existing industrial fabric and road network to be retained and used as the guiding principle to create the road network for the new development.

1

4 2 3

Retain buildings of Interest

Retain Industrial fabric

Extend road surrounding road networks through the site

Green Link connecting surrounding parks

Extend road surrounding road The surrounding road networks to be extended through the previously impermeable site thereby increasing the porosity of the site. Green Link Extend the continuous green corridor connection to green belt through ‘Green Link’ across Harrow View towards the Headstone Manor and Pinner park. Fig 22 : Conceptual Guidelines

82


Entry to the site from the main road . Multi-level car park to be located near the main road in order to reduce car movement within the site

Site to the west of Harrow View sold out by Persimmon Homes

Mixed use space centred around the regenerated existing buildings thereby forming a urban node

Green Link Extending the Waverley Estate creating new employment space

Extension of Harrow Court creating a new civic/ community plaza as well as gateway to the site

Extension of residential

Creation of office space around the Kodak Administration building

Green Link Map 17 : Conceptual Zoning

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05

DESIGN PROPOSAL

BUILDINGS RETAINED

1

4

1. Film Factory A large red-brick building adjacent to the Power House. The tallest building on the site

2 3

Year Built - 1945-1969 Process Undertaken Film Solutions,Emulsion & Dispersion Manufacturing

Map 18 : Retaining Built Form

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2. Power House

3. Administration Building

4. Station Z

The Power House is perhaps the most iconic On the Kodak site, with the landmark chimney as part of the structure. The Power House was Completed by 1925 and is probably the earliest remaining building remaining on the factory site

The main administration block for the factory site. The building served as the entrance to the industrial complex.

Intended emergency location for the Air Ministry during WWII should the UK have been invaded. The Ministry building above the bunker was demolished in 1996 after the site was purchased by Kodak.

Year Built - 1925

Year Built - 1976

Year Built - 1976

Process Undertaken Chemical Packing, Electricity Generation

Process Undertaken Chemical Packing, Electricity Generation

Process Undertaken WWII Bunker

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05

DESIGN PROPOSAL

SPACE MATRIX The proposed space matrix has been developed further based upon land use proposed by the architects BDP based upon the requirements of the community and the Harrow AAP.

Fig 23 : Space Matrix of proposed uses

86

Retail

Large Food Store

Non food Retail Mid Size Retail

Speciality Retail Small Local Shops

Food & Beverage

Cafe & Restaurant

Community /Local Cafe

Take-away / Pop outlets

Residential

Private Apts., Row Houses, Town Houses

Serviced Apartments

Affordable Housing

Student Housing

Student Housing

Care Homes

Hospitality

Hotels

Banqueting Event Space Conference Centre

Discotheque

Employment

SME

Non Polluting Industries & Workshops

Innovation hub

Warehousing

Storage and Logistics

Leisure

Health and Fitness

Indoor Sports facilities

Outdoor Activity

Community

Museum, Art Centre & Library

Health Centre and Local GP

Community Space Event, Banqueting, Theatre

Public Realm

Park and Gardens

Open Air venue

Informal activity

Pubs & Brewery

Co working space

Multi Faith Prayer Space


PROPOSED USE OF BUILDINGS RETAINED Employment

Innovation hub

Banqueting, Cafe & Event, Conference Restaurant Centre

Co working space

Serviced Apartments

Retail

Leisure

Pubs & Brewery

Discotheque

Museum, Art Centre & Library

Retail

Banqueting, Event, Conference Centre

Community Space, Banqueting, Theatre

Informal activity

Museum, Art Centre & Library

Multi faith Prayer space

Cafe & Restaurant

Administration Building

Station Z

Museum, Art Centre & Library

SME

Film Factory

Power House 87


05

DESIGN PROPOSAL

PROPOSED MASTERPLAN The proposed masterplan illustrated on the facing page aims to achive the the goals laid out in the Vision. THe masterplan shows a Heritage led regeneration where the repurposed buildings form the nucleus of each zone in the aim of creating social interation which leads to the creation of identity. The ‘ Green Link’ connects the buildings and helps create unique zones. The

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Persimmon Homes

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Kod

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Kodak Factory

oad

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Power House

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Headstone Manor

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Waverley Industrial Estate

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School

Kodak

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Harrow Crown Court

Health Centre

View

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Map 19 : Proposed Masterplan

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05

DESIGN PROPOSAL

Fig 24 : Aerial View

90


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Persimmon Homes

Dr

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Station Z ur

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Kod

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Kodak Factory

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Headstone Manor

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Kodak

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Harrow Crown Court

Health Centre

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Map 19 A: Proposed Ground Level Masterplan

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MASTERPLAN ANALYSIS

GROUND LEVEL LAND USE

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ha

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Residential Apartment

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Residential Row House Residential Lobby Office space

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Non polluting industry

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Community - Leisure

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Community/ Pavilion Health Centre

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Retail School

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Food & Beverage

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Senior /Care Homes

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Student House/ Serviced Apts.

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Multi Level Car Park

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Mixed use

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Map 20 : Land Use

Harrow Crown Court


TYPICAL BUILDING USE

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Ha

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ils

t Ro

to Fac

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m

ad

Co

ur

w

Vie

w

Vie

Residential Apartment

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row

Residential Row House Residential Lobby Office space

tor

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Non polluting industry

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lt Wa

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R on

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Harrow Crown Court

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Heads

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View

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Hotel

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Community - Leisure

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Community/ Pavilion Health Centre

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Waverley Industrial Estate

Retail School

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Kodak

Food & Beverage

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Roa

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Senior /Care Homes

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Student House/ Serviced Apts.

oad

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Multi Level Car Park

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Har

Mixed use

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Map 21 : Typical Building Use

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MASTERPLAN ANALYSIS

ROAD NETWORK Key access routes through the site are along the two major roads abutting the sites, namely Headstone Drive and Harrow View, providing pedestrian, cycle and vehicular access into the proposed development.

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t Ro

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ad

The main vehicular is the Court Road, staring from Headstone Drive and continues parallel to Waverley industrial estate. This road exists the site on Harrow view road as Factory Road, on whose junction lies the Multi Level Car Park. These two roads take the bulk of the Heavy vehicle and services.

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Harrow Crown Court

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Heads

View

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Bus routes

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Waverley Industrial Estate

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Shared Surface

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Car Access

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Roa

Park Pathway ( no vehicles) Heavy vehicles

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Shared Surface is provided along the buildings retained to more porous pedestrian access across the site.

Dr

Map 22 : Road Network


PEDESTRIAN NETWORK The main pedestrian access to the Kodak Factory site will be from the southeast corner of the site and Headstone Drive at three main locations; A) The ‘Green Link and the Kodak Plaza’ on head stone drive between Walton and Kodak View Roads B) Civic Square on court road C) The Green Link Access on Harrow View

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Waverley Industrial Estate

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The western edge of the site along Harrow View has several access points via the streets of the proposed row house cluster, with an important continuation of Victor Road from West of Harrow View which provides access to the Kodak Factory and the Power House. The proposed ‘Green Link’ through the site is the key pedestrian and cycle link from North to South and further west towards Headstone Manor.

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Kodak

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Harrow Crown Court

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Heads

View

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Green Link - pedestrian & cyclist

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Pedestrian Only

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Pedestrian/ Cyclist routes

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Map 23 : Pedestrian Network

95


05

MASTERPLAN ANALYSIS

LANDSCAPE Majority of the public green space is part of the ‘Green Link’ connecting from Headstone Drive to Harrow View on the north. This space runs along the retained Kodak Film Factory and Power House providing visual vistas, and also creating an elegant backdrop for cultural use of the public open space

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The Other large green space located Above Station Z constitutes of a light weight pavilion which can host activities of temporal nature. ak

row

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Semi Public

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Waverley Industrial Estate

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Private Back Yard Residential

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Private Front yard Residential

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Roa

Private Institutional Public Green Space

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Semi Public spaces are located with the residential courtyard blocks.

Dr

Map 24 : Landscape

Harrow Crown Court


PAVED SURFACE Plazas around the community and retained buildings are created to provide a buffer space between the landscape and the built spaces. Similarly the plaza in the commercial areas are to be extensions of the shops and the retail spaces.

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The large paved areas are proposed to be used for informal activities such as weekly markets and community gatherings.

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Factory Plaza

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Bunker Plaza tR

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Kodak Plaza

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Harrow Crown Court

Civic DrivePlaza

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Private access only

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Semi Public Paved

View

Shared Surface Plaza - public

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R on

Kodak

Private Institutional Paved Surface - Public

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Waverley Industrial Estate

lto Wa

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Map 25 : Paved Surface

97


05

MASTERPLAN ZONING

DISTRICTS The Kodak Site is divided in districts based on the character and use. Following sections will highlight details of each district.

98

1

2

3

KODAK OFFICE

KODAK GREEN

CIVIC QUARTER

4

5

6

KODAK PARK

KODAK FACTORY

ROW HOUSES

7

8

9

BUNKER PARK

WAREHOUSE

CARE HOMES & STUDENT HOUSING

Fig 24 : Proposed Districts


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Persimmon Homes

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Headstone Manor

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Waverley Industrial Estate

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Harrow Crown Court

Kodak

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Map 26 : Masterplan Districts

99


05

MASTERPLAN ZONING

1. KODAK OFFICE The Office cluster is built around the existing Kodak Administrative Building which is t be retained Kodak. The new buildings are to have a basement parking . The proximity to the junction of Harrow View and Headstone Drive roads makes the location ideal, as well as provided intimacy from the residential areas.

Building No.

Height

Plot Area

Total Area

Use

Office Block 1 Office Block 2 Office Block 3 Office Block 4 Kodak Admin 5

11m 11m 7m 12m 9.5m

1500 sqm 785 sqm 200 sqm 635 sqm 1400 sqm

4500 sqm 2350 sqm 400 sqm 2500 sqm 4200 sqm

Office Office Office Office (Kodak) Office (Kodak)

iew

1 2

Kodak

4

5

View

A

1

3

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tone D

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Mons Memorial Museum - Atelier d’architecture Pierre Hebbelinck

kV

Vie

Fondazione Prada-OMA

da

row Har

Precedents

Ko

Heads

1

Map 27 : Kodak Office

100

Vehicular entry

Office Main Entrance

Office space

Surface Parking


Headstone Drive

Forecourt + Car Park

Kodak Administration Building

Piazza

Office block 2

Section 1_1

View A : View of office Plaza

101


05

MASTERPLAN ZONING

2. KODAK GREEN The Kodak Park buildings form the entrance to the development, two open courtyard blocks are created with commercial spaces looking over the green link. The residential access is from the extension of the Walton Road. A mix of apartment and row housing is provided to help create a varied character. The ground floor

on

lt Wa

13

Block 6 Block 7 Block 8 Block 9 Block 10 Block 11 Block 12 Block 13 Row House

13m 10m 19m 22m 16m 16m 16m 22m 9m

530sqm 575 sqm 675 sqm 575 sqm 535 sqm 720 sqm 590 sqm 535 sqm 55sqm x12

2100sqm 2025 sqm 3375 sqm 4200 sqm 2650 sqm 4300sqm 3600sqm 4700sqm 130 x12sqm

Residential Retail + Residential Retail + Residential Residential Residential Retail + Residential Retail + Residential Residential Residential

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iew

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2

8

7

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6 B

oa

Precedents St Andrews - Allies and Morrison

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Use

lto Wa

Total Area

ad

Plot Area

Ro

Height

View Kodak

Building No.

2

Neo Bankside - RSHP rive

tone D

Heads

Map 28 : Kodak Green

102

Vehicular entry

Residential Entrance

Retail

Residential Row House


Walton Road

Row House

Semi Public Space

Block 7

Retail Corridor

Green Link

Kodak View Road

Section 2_2

View B : Overlooking green Link

103


05

MASTERPLAN ZONING

3. CIVIC QUARTER The school and the Health centre buildings are situated on the east of the site, thereby acting as an extension of the Harrow Crown Court and creating a new civic centre catering to the larger surrounding. The location along Headstone drive allows for better connectivity The school consists of 3 units enclosing the play area. The units are set back from the road in order to create a green sound buffer. A pedestrian access in created between the school and the health centre

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9320sqm 1300sqm 1100sqm 1050sqm

8000 sqm 2600 sqm 3300 sqm 2100 sqm

Health Centre

14m

1350sqm

3500 sqm

Co

s1

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Health Centre

d

3

iew

V Kodak

Kodak School

Precedents Maggie Centre, London - RSHP

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s3

Burntwood School - AHMM

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C

9m 13.5m 9m

3

Kodak School s1 s2 s3

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Total Area

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Plot Area

lto

Height

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Building No.

R ol

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lto Map 29 : Civic Quarter

Vehicular entry Retail 104

Entrance

Surface Parking Residential Row House


Walton Road

Row House

Semi Public Space

Block 7

Retail Corridor

Green Link

Kodak View Road

Section 3_3

View C : View from Headstone Drive

105


05

MASTERPLAN ZONING

4. KODAK PARK The Kodak Park is located in the centre of the development, the Power Station is to be reused as the community space catering to the Kodak Community and beyond.

Residential Residential Residential Residential Residential Residential Residential Retail + Residential Residential Community

St. Ann’s Warehouse - Marvel Architects

Aldeburgh Music - Haworth Tompkins

20

Greens

Community

21

19

4

18

D

17 16

Ko

da

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Road

Precedents

Piazza 4

d

2200 sqm 3450 sqm 5180 sqm 1700 sqm 2650 sqm 4300sqm 3850 sqm 3700 sqm 130 x13sqm 1700 sqm

oa

550 sqm 460 sqm 740 sqm 280 sqm 600 sqm 650 sqm 770 sqm 460 sqm 55sqm x13 1700 sqm

tR

12m 18m 21m 16m 16m 19m 17m 17m 9m 12m

ur

Block 14 Block 15 Block 16 Block 17 Block 18 Block 19 Block 20 Block 21 Row House Community

Co

Use

Victor Road

Walton

Total Area

ad

Plot Area

Ro

Height

t ur

Building No.

Co

The chimney is to be retained , acting as the visual compass for Harrow. The green link continues and has less trees in order to create, informal spaces catering to the new Community space. Similarly a Large Plaza is developed around the community space in order to host informal activities

15 14

Map 30 : Kodak Park

106

Vehicular entry

Residential Entrance

Retail

Residential Row House


Block 19 Block 21

Court Road

Retail Corridor

Kodak Community Centre

Green Link

Plaza

Kodak View Shared Surface

Section 4_4

View D: View of Community Greens

107


05

MASTERPLAN ZONING

5. KODAK FACTORY The factory district is developed as a mixed use containing reused for Economic, Commercial, Community and retail space. Large retail space is located towards north of the district.

y

tor

Fac

18m 18m 21m 15m 21m 18m 21m

936 sqm 5725 sqm

9500 sqm 2070 sqm 1650 sqm x2 2700 sqm 1360 sqm x2 2200 sqm 1650 sqm 4000 sqm

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Retail + Residential Retail + Residential Retail + Residential Mix Use Retail + Commercial Residential Residential Residential Residential Residential Residential Hotel Mix Use

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4560 sqm 6970 sqm 4875 sqm

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F

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Kodak Film Factory

Hotel

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560 sqm 880 sqm 875 sqm 6980 sqm

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17m 23m 17m

5

Kod

Block 22 Block 23 Block 24 North Block Retail g+1 Block 25 Block 26&27 Block 28 Block 29&32 Block 30 Block 31 Hotel Film Factory

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E

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Use

26 25

31

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Total Area

North Block 32

row

Plot Area

29

Har

108

Height

27

28

30

The design preserves original elements, while incorporating a range of innovative architectural and curatorial devices. The existing brick structure is enclosed with a new translucent double layer polycarbonate façade that will accommodate entrance foyers, service spaces and building additions. The facade is lifted 2.5 metres from the ground in order to visually reconnect the factory interior to its surrounding. Building No.

6 d a o R

Cou

The Kodak Film Factory is to be retained with the ground levels constituting of leisure space,retail and F&B’s thereby opening up the building to the community, and creating a new focal point. The top floors are proposed to be retained as work spaces, Non polluting industries which can best use the thereby bringing in work back into the industrial buildings.

Map 31 : Kodak Factory

Vehicular entry Retail

Residential Entrance Office space

Leisure


Court Road

Block 23

Green Link Piazza

Kodak Firm Factory

Poly carbonate addition

Poly carbonate addition

Kodak View Shared Surface

Row Housing

Section 5_5

Precedents Garage Centre, Moscow- OMA

Garage Centre, Moscow - OMA

Tea Building , London

Second Home, London - Selgas Cano

109


05

Kodak Film Factory

Poly carbonate addition

Green Link

Block 32

Roof Courtyard

Block 29

Section 6_6

Poly carbonate addition

MASTERPLAN ZONING

View E : View of Retail spaceadjacent to Green Link

110


Poly carbonate addition

Kodak View Shared Surface

Row Housing

Section 7_7

Green Link

Piazza

Poly carbonate addition

Kodak Film Factory

Court Road

Hotel

View F : View of Plaza adjacent to Hotel

111


05

MASTERPLAN ZONING

ak Kod

6. ROW HOUSE

Vie

The Row House development is in response to the wider context along Harrow View. The low rise row housing allows for greater views of the Kodak Factory towards Headstone Manor creating visual linkage from east to west.

w r1

The typical units are 3 x 4 bedroom duplex on the ground and first floors with 2 x 3 bedroom unit on the second floor.

9

9m 9m 9m 9m

1528sqm 2531 sqm 1675 sqm 2180 sqm

2748 sqm 4445 sqm 2526 sqm 4015 sqm

Residential Residential Residential Residential

r2

iew

Row House r1 18 units r2 30 units r3 16 units r4 26 units

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Total Area

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Plot Area

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a Kod

r Har

Building No.

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Precedents

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Aldeburgh Music - Haworth Tompkins

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St. Ann’s Warehouse - Marvel Architects

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Vie Map 32 : Row House

Vehicular entry

Surface Parking Residential Row House

112


4 4

1 1

4

1 2

5 3 4

1 2

Victor Road

Row Housing

Shared Surface

Semi Public Space

Shared Surface

Row Housing

Kodak Factory

Kodak View Shared Surface

Row Housing

Back yard - Private

Row Housing

Harrow View

Section 8_8 Section 9_9

5 3

View G : Residential Common Space

113


05

MASTERPLAN ZONING

7. BUNKER PARK The development proposal is to retain Station Z and reuse it as a Museum and or as a Community space. Owing to this factor the land above the bunker cannot be developed.

Ha

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A light weight pavilion is proposed above the bunker with a public park around. This space is to be complementary to the green link. The park caters to the employment around Waverley estate and the new employment space proposed towards the north of the park.

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Ha Co

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Precedents St. Ann’s Warehouse - Marvel Architects

Aldeburgh Music - Haworth Tompkins

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W ad

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Map 33 : Bunker Park

Vehicular entry

Residential Entrance

Retail

Office space


Hailsham Drive

Pavilion

Landscape

Landscape

Court Road

Section 10_10

View H : View of Pavillion over Station Z

115


05

MASTERPLAN ZONING

8. WAREHOUSE The warehouse and office space are placed parallel to the railway line north of Waverley estate. This acts as an extension of Waverley Estate and at the same time as a sound buffer for the residential zones from the railway tracks. The buildings are envisaged as a flexible space,which can accommodate warehouses, office space or non polluting industries. This helps create jobs for the wider community.

Total Area

Use

Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8

6m 6m 8m 8m 8m 8m 8m 8m

890 sqm 1125 sqm 725 sqm 600 sqm 550 sqm 500 sqm 330 sqm 775 sqm

890 sqm 1125 sqm 725 sqm 600 sqm 550 sqm 500 sqm 330 sqm 2325 sqm

Warehouse/ Office Warehouse/ Office Warehouse/ Office Warehouse/ Office Warehouse/ Office Warehouse/ Office Warehouse/ Office Office

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Plot Area

7

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Height

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Building No.

7

1 3 ive

2

r rD

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Precedents Facade - Material Palette

KMC Office, Hyderabad - RMA Architects

Map 34 : Warehouse

Vehicular entry

Surface Parking Office space

116


9. CARE HOME & STUDENT LIVING Located at the north of the site along Harrow View acts as the vehicular entry to the site. The Multi Level Car Park is located along the main service road, in order to reduce vehicular traffic through the site. The student and service apartment block is placed behind the factory district away from the residential areas but at the same time has a good connectivity to all the community spaces.

Use

Senior Living Student/Service Apartment MLCP

9m 9m

1650 sqm 925 sqm

4500sqm 2500sqm

Senior / Care Home Single room Units

8m

1125 sqm

4500sqm

Multi Level Parking

Student / Service Apts oad

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Senior Living

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to Fac

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Total Area

Cou

Plot Area

row

Height

Har

Building No.

w

Multi-Lvl Car Park

Brisbane Airport -Ned Kahn

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111 Lincoln Rd, Miami - Herzog de Meuron

Kod

Precedents

iew Map 35 : Care Home & Student housing

Vehicular entry

Surface Parking

117


05

PHASING

PHASING Phase 1 The first phase will be developed on the cleared site along Headstone road. The Kodak Offices, Park and Civic Quarter. During this time steps can be taken to decontaminate the Film Factory and Power House areas. Phase 2 The second phase of development, focuses on the bulk of the existing built stock . the aim should be to redevelop the Power House & Film Factory to attract further investment into the development. Utilising the space for Commercial and Work spaces will hopefully create generate greater social interaction with the site.

Existing Site

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

Phase 3 The last phase consists of the remainder of the residential spaces and the Row houses aimed at a higher income bracket and the student housing.

Fig 25 : Phasing Plans

118


AREA CALCULATION Total Opportunity Area

16.65 ha

Large single retail (North block)

9500 sqm

Employment & office space

17800 sqm

Health centre

3500 sqm

Primary School

8000 sqm

Kodak film factory Retail & Commercial space Leisure space Employment

1550 sqm 4000 sqm 10,500 sqm

Power House Community space

1700 sqm

Residential Apartments Row house Units

1513 units 110 units

Student Housing

2750 sqm

Senior Care

4500 sqm

17% Paved surfaces, Plaza & Road side greening

35% Built Forms including retained

20% Road

7% Semi Private Green Space 18% Public green spaces

1% 2% Semi Public Private Green Space green spaces

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06

120


CHAPTER 6 CONCULSION

121


06

CONCLUSION

COMPARATIVE ILLUSTRATIONS EXISTING SITE

122

BDP PROPOSED MASTERPLAN

PROPOSED MASTERPLAN


CRITIQUE 1. The Railway line still presents to be a physical barriers connecting east to west. Considering the fact that there is no public land or roads on the East of the track which is predominately dominated by warehouse and industries, it is futile to proposed a bridge linking the two spaces. 2. The location of the Multi level car park on harrow View and factory road which, is also one of the key access and service roads of the site could create traffic problems especially at the roundabout. 3. Similarly the junction of Court Road and Headstone Road could also lead to heavy traffic congestion. 4. The amount of residential units, falls short of the requirement s of the AAP by about 100 units. The masterplan aims to offset the loss of residential units by the increase in Commercial and Employment spaces.

1 2

4

3

LIMITATIONS Built Form Analysis As the site is still in use by Kodak, of the existing structures in detail was not possible. Owing to this lack of analysis of the built forms, there is a possibility that the uses prosed in the masterplan might not be possible to achieve in reality. A more detail study is hence required to be conducted is ascertain, how the buildings can be repurposed in a more definitive way.

Economic viability of Industrial regeneration in outside city centres Majority of the best practises of industrial regeneration are viable owing to the fact its locate in city centre. There is a lack of research on the economic viability of regenerating industrial buildings away from city centres.

Impact of Commercial Spaces. A further study needs to be conducted, to study the impact of the proposed commercial spaces on the existing town centre, the current proposal hopes that the increase in population in Harrow help the Kodak redevelopment to become an extension of the High Street. 123


06

CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION As time passes humanity is in a constant process of evolution. This process of change is intrinsic to the urban built form which often remains the only physical memory linked to a certain chapter of history. Industrial sites, like other heritage assets offers people the understanding of the historic origins and cultural identity along with a sense of place and belonging of the neighbourhood within the larger context of the city. In the ever growing metropolis it is a priority to control urban sprawl by repurposing the industrial sites. Reusing these sites will enrich the identity and character while creating new opportunities for the future. As shown in the case studies, the reuse of industrial sites can be regenerated, creating a mix use development with the existing built form forming the epicentre of change. This is best seen in the Kings Cross redevelopment where, the existing building was repurposed as a university. The creation of a public plaza animated the space further. This helped to generate public interest in and thereby increasing the economic value of the place. Thus heritage led regeneration of industrial sites, combined with culture ,employment retail,and residential, helps develop the identity and character of the place.

Fig 26 : Value & Benefits of Regeneration

124


VALUE OF HERITAGE

USE VALUE

NON USE VALUE

Direct use values income from rental, place of living, place of conducting economic activities, industrial production, craft production providing services, leisure and recreation, tourist consumption, culture and entertainment consumption, place of worship, means of communication

Option maintaining the option to take advantage from the use values in the future

Indirect use values image, quality of life, aesthetic values, spiritual values, social integration, social capital, individual and community identity, educational and cognitive values

Bequest historic legacy, altruism for future generations

Existence autotelic values such uniqueness, artistic value, symbolic value

BENEFITS OF REGENERATION CONTEXT

INPUTS & ACTIVITIES

BENEFITS

Historic buildings in a poor state of repair; relatively low utilisation and activities; relatively low value added; however recognition that the area has a potential due to its historic character

Investment made in improving quality of the environment and of the buildings themselves; p ublic sector often drives delivery of scheme due to ownership issues

Improvement of physical appearance; leading to greater utilisation; increased footfall; improved perceptions and a gradual change in the character of business

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Urban design industrial regeneration by preservation  

University College London - Major Project - Urban Design & City Planning Regeneration of disused Industrial Fabric

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