Page 1

A COMMUNITY HOME

for left behind children and elderly in Guang An Village

社区之家

光安村留守儿童及老人活动中心


ii


A COMMUNITY HOME FOR LEFT BEHIND CHILDREN AND ELDERLY IN GUANG AN VILLAGE Creating a center to support the care of “left behind” children and elderly in rural China by Xiao Ma

Thesis document submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture at Portland State University Portland, Oregon June 2016

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PORTLAND STATE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE COLLEGE OF THE ARTS The undersigned hereby certify that the Masters thesis of Xiao Ma has been approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture

Thesis Committee: Advisor Travis Bell Assistant Professor of Architecture __________________________________ ________________ Date Committe Member Margarette Leite Associate Professor of Architecture __________________________________ ________________ Date

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Acknowledgements This research and documentation would never have been able to be accomplished without the support and guidance of the faculty of the School of Architecture at Portland State University. To Travis Bell, he is fantastic, always energetic and expands the story of this project. To Margarette Leite, always pushing me forward. To Nancy Merryman, Jacklyn Kohon, giving me valuable feedback based on their professional knowledge. To Nengjie Jiang, enthusiastic supporter for my thesis. I give thanks to my dear Mom & Dad for helping me along the site visit and for always supporting me. Thanks to my boyfriend Celi Tan, my roomates Shuai Han, and Alicia Rush for helping me prepare the presentation from start to finish.

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Abstract Rural China has been experiencing an unprecedented rise in the phenomenon known as “left behind children.” This phenomenon describes the difficult situation for many rural, poor families in which one or both parents, seeking decentpaying jobs in the cities, elect to leave their children in the care of extended or adopted families during the periods of migrant work. China’s much-hated hukou system1 registers families as either rural or urban. Most migrants can’t change their household registration when they move. They struggle to access healthcare and other social services in urban areas. Their children can’t go to public schools -- even if they are born in the cities. 2The periods of separation between parents and children can last several months at a time, sometimes becoming a nearly permanent situation. This phenomenon is not new to rural communities under modern, global industrialism, but has become a concerning and growing trend in rural China in recent days. “Left behind children” are defined by a number of different care-giver scenarios; the children may be in the care of one parent, grandparents or with other relatives. Older children might be left to care for themselves, but most often it is the grandparents and elderly, those who still remain in the rural community, that must shoulder this new responsibility. In all cases, families are split apart and the left behind children and elderly are asked to adapt to the new circumstances with few resources to aid them. They are forced to redefine the concept of “home”.

“home” and the needed support. This thesis proposes a model for a “community home” for those who are left behind. My thesis will focus on the village of Guang An, China, but the model is applicable to any rural community enduring the same situation of “left behind children.” The programs that this community home supports will promote interactions between the children and the elderly, and improve their health conditions, both physically and mentally. In this thesis, the “home” is for the community, not the individual--it is not the same as housing, as the left behind children and elders already have houses. Beyond the daily activities that this new typology sponsors, the left behind children will get knowledge about their grandparents and parents through memory-sharing activities, while the elderly will have less burden taking care of their grandchildren and feel not as lonely as before. This home will bridge the gap between these two generations of people, rooting them into the life of the shared community.

In this circumstance, the role of the community becomes particularly important. It is within the community that the children and the elderly can create the shared feeling of 1

A hukou is a record in the system of household registration required by law in mainland China and Taiwan. The system itself is more properly called “huji”, and has origins in ancient China.

2

McKenzie, David. “Mom and Dad: Strangers to Millions of Chinese Kids.” CNN. March 12, 2015. Accessed June 02, 2016. http://www.cnn.com/2015/03/11/asia/ china-left-behind-kids/index.html.

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Research Question In creating a center to support the care of “left behind� children and elderly in rural China, what new architectural typology might emerge?

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Figure xii

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Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction: ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1

7.0

Pre design............................................................................... 43

1.1 Existing Conditions: The Left Behind Children and Elderly

7.1 Design Inspiration

1.2 Current Issue

7.2 Program Setting

1.3 Goals

8.0 2.0

Exploration Process����������������������������������������������������������������������� 9

8.1 Site Plan

2.1 Artifacts

3.0

8.2 Experiences Exploring 8.3 Section

Case Studies����������������������������������������������������������������������������������17

3.1 Case study #1

3.2 Case study #2

4.0

Site Analysis�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������23

4.1 Site Selection

4.2 Data Collection

4.3 Site Issue

4.4 Material Studies

Design Proposal.................................................................... 49

8.4 Experiences refining 8.5 Model

9.0

Specialty And Memory Strategies..................................... 77 9.1 Window 9.2 Levels 9.3 Wall

Conclusions......................................................................................... 90 5.0

Rhythm of Daily Living����������������������������������������������������������������31

Appendix A: List of Figures

5.1 Interaction Point Exploring Appendix B: Bibliography

6.0

New Story of The Community��������������������������������������������������35

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.

Introduction

1

简介:研究背景


Figure 1.0

2


Existing Conditions TOP 8 LEFT BEHIND CHILDREN AROUND WORLD AND MIGRATION FLOWS TOP 8 LEFT BEHIND CHILDREN AROUND WORLD AND MIGRATION FLOWS

Moldova 180,000

ASIA EROPE 7

NORTH AMERICA

5

8 1 CHINA 61,000,000

4

AFRICA

TAJIKISTAN100,000

2

ROMANIA 350,000

PHILIPPINES 9,000,000

3 MEXICO 500,000 6

SOUTH AMERICA

Destination

SRI LANKA 1,000,000

Origin

ECUADOR 218,000

Left behind children is when children in rural areas are taken care of by one parent, their grandparents or other relatives and have little or no Figure education. 1.1.1 One or both of their parents are migrant workers who left their hometown to work in big cities.

The left behind children’s issue is a global issue due to the internal and external migratory flow. This phenomenon is not new to rural communities population In China under modern, global industrialism, but has become a concerning and growing trend in rural China in recent days. As the top 1 country with this Children In China severe problem, China has 61Live million children being left behind. One of every five in the world’s most populous nation—haven’t seen one or both Children Live according In Rural Area parents for at least three months, to the All-China Women’s Federation, a Communist Party advocacy group.1 Based on researches, Left children behind Children In Rurallive Area there is one left behind in every 5Live of children in China. The

1368 Million 278 Million 154 Million 61 Million

1

1: 5

Browne, Andrew. “Left-Behind Children of China’s Migrant Workers Bear Grown-Up Burdens.” WSJ. January 17, 2014. Accessed June 05, 2016. http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB1000142405270230417370 4579260900849637692.

five cities that have the most severe problem with left behind children are Szechuan, Henan, Anhui, Guangdong, Hunan. The young parents of those children are primarily moving to big cities like Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin, and % of left behind children Guangdong for work. The phenomenon was becoming more %and more severe since 2005. of children The ratio of migrant children (the children who moves together with their parents) and left behind children was pretty even in 2000, but the balance was broken in 2005 since people started realizing that they can earn much more money in urban area. From then on, more and more people choose moving to urban rather than staying at rural area. Total Population

Szchuan

3

8.2% children

Total 81,400,000

8.5% left behind children

Henan 14% children

7% left behind


% of left behind children

% of children

1368 Million Population In China 278 Million Children Live In China 154 Million Children Live In Rural Area 61 Million Left behind Children Live In Rural Area 1

Total Population

2

Szchuan

1: 5

8.5% left behind children

8.2% children

Total 81,400,000

Henan 14% children

Beijing Tianjin

7% left behind children

Total 94,360,000

Anhui

10.1% children

7.2% left behind children

Total 60,830,000

Henan

Guangdong 12.3% children

Anhui

Shanghai

Total 107,240,000

8000000

Szchuan

4.1% left behind children

Hunan

7000000

10.7% children

6000000

6.5% left behind children

Total 67,370,000

Hunan

5000000 4000000 3000000 2000000

Guangdong

Urban

2014

Rural

1000000 0

Figure 1.1.2 2013

Urban

2012

Urban 0

Szchuan

Henan

Anhui Guangdong Hunan

Left behind children population in each province

Figure 1.1.3

Rural

Rural

5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000

53% Live with one parent

33% Live with grandparents

11%

3%

Live with others

Live alone

Figure 1.1.4

0-5 years 38%

Figure 1.1.5

6-14 years 48%

15-17 years 14%

Figure 1.1.6

2010 2005 Migrant children (move with parents)

2000 20

40

80

millions

Rural left-behind children

Figure 1.1.7

1 National Bureau of Statistics of China, Tabulation on the 2010 Population Census of People’s Republic of China, China’s Statistics Press, 2012 http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/pcsj/rkpc/6rp/indexch.htm (Chinese) http://www.stats.gov.cn/english/statisticaldata/ censusdata/rkpc2010/indexch.htm (English)

McKenzie, David. “Mom and Dad: Strangers to Millions of Chinese Kids.” CNN. March 12, 2015. Accessed June 02, 2016. http://edition.cnn.com/2015/03/11/asia/china-left-behind-kids/index.html 2

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Current Issue Family Structure Live with grandparents 33% live with one or both grandparents in rural area.

Figure 1.2.1

Live with others 11% live with either other relatives or their parents’ friend.

Figure 1.2.2

Live alone 3% live by themselves especially happens to the family with more than one kids. They are acting as young adult who has to take responsibility for both themselves and their brothers and sisters.

Figure 1.2.3

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Elderly

Figure 1.2.4

Need more support for caring kids

Lonely

Health care, frail

Busy with farming

It is a burden for an elderly who has to take care of more than one kid.

Without seeing their children for long time, they feel lonely and lacking connection with community and society.

Usually the clinics in village are not well conditioned and can only served for basic problems. It lacks attraction for doctors’ visit.

Elderly are usually busy with their farm, which gives them less time to care about their grandchildren.

Lacking memory of parents

Health care, frail

What are their parents looks like? A circle? Some parents left their children behind when they were 1 year old, thus, they are not that familiar with each other later.

As elderly, children are also frail. With in the “clinic,� they may not have enough space to have rest or be treated well. Facilities and environment need to be upgraded.

Children

Long distance to school It is not an easy thing to go to school for people who lives far away. Children will take a long walk for several hours by themselves or together with their grandparents.

Not enough educational support, not enough good teachers Villages are not attractive enough and facilities are not good enough to allow young teachers stay there.

Figure 1.2.5

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Goals The initial goals for this project were: 1.

Create a space to provide children and elderly a better place to study

2.

Create positive memory within the community

3. Use this place as an community hub, make people’s life easier 4.

Help to identify this area, localize the space

5.

Eco-friendly energy use

6.

Increase the flexibility of this place

7.

Improve the accessibility

8.

Design programs to help them have better communication

Based on the researches and issue analysis, the goals were developed through this information gathering process. I defined three groups of people who will benefit from this project including elderly, children, others (teachers, visiting doctors, volunteers and other relatives) In order to create a feeling of home for all these community members, I started setting up the goals from the idea of function, experience, interaction activities and etc. For children, they need a place to play, to learn and to communicate with their grandparents but also other community members. For elderly, there should be a place for them to relax, do exercise, learn from kids etc. Then, for others, they need something to support their works and attract them to go or stay in that region. These three groups can have both individual spaces and shared spaces. Children can have their own space for studying while the elderly can have their own place to relax. Other people will have private space for supporting their daily living. At the same time, they all have interaction moment with one or all other groups of people. In this case, the shared space for all are mostly the health check, indoor and outdoor gathering space. The researches indicate that all children in rural China are vulnerable and need extra care, attention, and resources.1 The same as children, the elderly should have more health support in the village. 1

Zhou, C., S. Sylvia, L. Zhang, R. Luo, H. Yi, C. Liu, Y. Shi, P. Loyalka, J. Chu, A. Medina, and S. Rozelle. “China’s Left-Behind Children: Impact Of Parental Migration On Health, Nutrition, And Educational Outcomes.” Health Affairs 34.11 (2015): 1964-971. Web.

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GOALS/ PROGRAMS

Others

Teachers, Doctors, Volunteers, Other relatives

Health Care

Energy

Memory

Support

Gathering

Facilities Private Space

Meeting Joining

Relax Waiting

Community Home

Play Joyful Learning Enjoy

Elderly

Sport

Children

Education

Connection Entertainment

Accompany

Exercise

Communication

Convenience

Study

Training

Figure 1.3.1

8


.

Exploration Process

9

研究过程


Figure 2.0

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Figure 2.1.1

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Figure 2.1.2

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Figure 2.1.3

13


Figure 2.1.4

14


Figure 2.1.5

15


Figure 2.1.6

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.

Case Studies

17

案例分析


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Case Study #1 Cattle Back Mountain Volunteer House, China / dEEP Architects

Architects: dEEP Architects. Location: Pumaidi Village. Architect in Charge: Daode Li. Area: 300.0 sqm. Project Year: 2015. Photographs: Courtesy of dEEP Architects From the architect. Led by head architect Li Daode, dEEP Architects has renovated a traditional folk house in Pumaidi Village, near Niu Bei Shan mountain, in China's Sichuan Province, turning it into both a space for local volunteers as well as a hostal. Incorporating both the old and new, the Cattle Back Mountain Volunteer House1 makes full use of traditional, local materials, while also implementing a digital design strategy. Despite the large influx of visitors to Niu Bei Shan every year, the infrastructure and social support of the area is severely underdeveloped. Like most suburban areas of China, Pumaidi Village is mostly populated by children and the elderly, while the working adults live in the city. As a result, the traditional village, though harmonious with its pitched roofs and green tiles, is in need of maintenance. It works as a social project base here, not only to provide help for those travelers in need, but also the elderly and children in the village The new project will house volunteers who are maintaining the village, in addition to acting as a youth hostel to balance costs. Prior to the renovations, the building was a traditional folk house in a state of disrepair with a wooden pitched roof and broken tiles. The front platform – referred to colloquially as a Bazi – was heavily shaded by the thick walls surrounding it. Though there was a rooftop loft, it was in poor condition, and there were no kitchens or bathrooms inside. To the south of the Bazi, there was a single square, brick house built by farmers that was neither appropriate for the surroundings nor earthquake-resistant. The renovations strengthened the existing internal wood structure, removing the thick walls surrounding the Bazi to create a public space for people to gather. A steel-net-framed glass wall is used to store firewood and can be opened completely to remove the boundary between exterior and interior. A kitchen and bathroom, containing the only flush toilet in the entire village, were added to the rooftop loft. A wooden pavilion with a tiled roof to shelter people from wind and rain has replaced the brick house to the south of the Bazi. By maximizing use of the Bazi, the project improved basic programs and functions, made the design more open and capable of serving more people, and blended the surrounding traditional culture with structural innovation. Stone walls, pitched roofs and green tiles come together in a new 1

“Cattle Back Mountain Volunteer House / DEEP Architects.” ArchDaily. July 08, 2015. Accessed June 05, 2016. http://www.archdaily.com/769850/deep-architects-cattle-back-mountain-volunteer-house-inchina-combines-traditional-materials-with-digital-design.

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way, creating an organic roof shape along the main façade, merging with the mountain and clouds at its background. The internal spaces are “a brand new expression of wood structure in digital times,” and utilize a new, bamboo-based fiber composite produced in Sichuan that is strong, resistant to moisture and fire, recyclable and environmentally friendly. Producers of the material participated heavily in the project, and were involved in on-site sampling, the pre-fabrication in factories and manual adjustments.

Pros:

•Multi- functional, having the facilities to provide help •Attraction •Local material uses lower the cost •Traditional architecture structure heritage, with the memory and soul of the local architecture, which is in harmony with its surroundings •Financial balance, economic support for the program, self-supported •Add contemporary element to the traditional construction •Balance the private and public use

Cons:

• As a social project base, there are only few programs very useful for local people. The scale of water bar, kitchen looks more private that the library. However, the hostel area is much larger. The function for the community itself is not that strong. •Programs design are also very important, the design for open space lacks following design.


Figure 3.1.1

Figure 3.1.2

Figure 3.1.3

Figure 3.1.4

Figure 3.1.5

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Case Study #2 Ta Phin community house / 1+1>2

Architects: 1+1>2 Location: Ta Phìn, Sa Pa District, Lao Cai province, Vietnam. Project Architects: Hoang Thuc Hao, Pham Duy Tung, Nguyen Thi Minh Thuy. Project Manager: Red Dream Project. Project Year: 2012. Photographs: Courtesy of 1+1>2 The project site is at Unit 1, Xa Seng village, Ta Phin commune, 17km far from center of Sapa town, a popular tourism attraction in the north of Vietnam. The project is a multi-functional community house, which will contribute to the local economic growth, enhance tourism development and maximize the local potentials. The project is also developed toward sustainable development for the local community by preserving natural resources and environment, as well as enhancing the local cultural diversity and traditional handicrafts. The action program will include training strategies for local people in sustainable agriculture, tourism, and project management. The community house1 will be incorporated with an herb garden, and will include a working space, an exhibition room for local handicraft product, a small library, a communication center, as well as a studio for training program. All the above activities have been supported and advised by not only the local people but also the authorities and other community associations. The building form is inspired by the traditional red-scarf of the Dao minority woman, as well as the form of the mountainous topography of Sapa. The building uses local labor and material such as stone, recycled wood, adobe brick… and other sustainable green technologies such as: rain-water filter system, solar energy, 5 compartment septic tanks, energy saving fireplaces, utilizing extra heat from the fireplace. The location of the community house has also been well considered: It is in the center of the commune, next to the elementary school and public rice milling station, therefore it can maximize the use of all the above center and is easy to be recognized by tourists. The community house has just been opened for a short time, however it is getting many compliments and supports from the local community. We do hope that in future, the same idea will be applied for other communities, especially for minority communes. 1

Saieh, Nico. “Ta Phin Community House / 1 12.” ArchDaily. August 07, 2012. Accessed June 05, 2016. http://www.archdaily.com/261063/ta-phin-community-house-112.

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Pros: •Multi- functional •Economic growth, agricultural training •Tourists attraction, enhance tourism development •Sustainable development of the local region with respect of cultural diversity and natural environment. •Self-supported and corporation with other communities •Architectural form is inspired by traditional culture •Local material and labor use lower the cost •Centered location •Proposal of the same idea extension

Cons:

• As a community house, the function is still limited •Different programs should be separated by space, everything is too open which makes boundary lines blurred. •It is better to have space specialties that are designed for different groups of people in this community or outside. •Based on the climate of the region (Summer is marked by cool and rainy weather, while winter is cold and frosty, occasionally snowy), the open space may not works well year round.


Figure 3.2.2

Figure 3.2.1

Figure 3.2.5

Figure 3.2.3

Figure 3.2.4

Figure 3.2.6

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.

Site Analysis

23

场地分析


Figure 4.0

24


Site Selection The original site selection was based on a documentary, which is called ‘Children at a Village School.’ It was produced by Nengjie Jiang on September, 2014. Nengjie is an independent film director who has been always focusing on the social problems about children and elderly in rural area in China. He was born in Hunan province, with partially similar experience of left behind children when he was a child. He lived with his dad while his mother went out working in cities. He was aiming at raising people’s awareness of left behind issue, evoking people to pay more attention about this group of people through the movie or documentary that he made. From 2009 to 2013, Jiang Nengjie documented the lives of “left behind” children in a remote rural village--Guang An. Their parents have gone to work in distant factories, and grandparents are left to take care of the children.1 Nengjie hopes that his film can be a window that allows people to explore the children’s lives in the rural area, exposing the problems and difficulties of their living condition. After watching this documentary, I used it as an important resource since it has many useful information: data of left behind in the village, mentally and physically growth of left behind children, daily life of children and elderly, educational condition. Since this village is located in one of the 5 cities with severe problem of the issue, I think Guang An is representative enough to be used as a model. After that, I was able to contact with the producer Nengjie Jiang through social media fortunately. I made the decision of using the center spot as my site through the photos and information that he post online. 1

“”Children at a Village School” 《村小的孩子》 – Independent Film Screening and Q&A with Director Jiang Nengjie.” Cityweekend. June 8, 2014. Accessed June 05, 2016.

Figure 4.1.1

25

Figure 4.1.2


Figure 4.1.3

Figure 4.1.6

Figure 4.1.4

Figure 4.1.5

Figure 4.1.7

26


Data Collection Hunan is located in south part of China, which is one of the five cities with the severe problem of left behind. In this province, there are more than half of the children being left behind. The site is located in Shaoyang county, called Guang An Village. Inside this village, almost half of the people are left behind, including elderly, children and some other relatives. The site is located in the center of this village and across to the only primary school in the community.

Shaoyang

Figure 4.2.1

Hunan Province, China

7,116,880

Children Live In Rural Area in Hunan1

4,349,300

Left behind Children Live In Rural Area in Hunan

Guang An Village

1700 800

people Live In Rural Area in Guang An Village2 Left behind

1

National Bureau of Statistics of China, Tabulation on the 2010 Population Census of People’s Republic of China, China’s Statistics Press, 2012 http://www. stats.gov.cn/tjsj/pcsj/rkpc/6rp/indexch.htm (Chinese) http://www.stats.gov.cn/english/ statisticaldata/censusdata/rkpc2010/indexch.htm (English)

2

“微电影:村小的孩子.” YouTube. July 20, 2015. Accessed June 05, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZFQd2UX7AF8.

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2014 Primary School 2009 Primary School

Guang An Village

Site

Residence/ Local Housing Farming Land

Village Road

Figure 4.2.2

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Site Issue

Figure 4.3.2

Figure 4.3.1 The site is originally located on a farming terrace, some people in this village still grow food by themselves. Most of the terraces like this are used for growing rice since the quality of the soil in this region is not as good as Northern China. The red earth and yellow earth are very common is this area. With using the farming terrace, people can avoid the Soil Erosion. As many other rural places with left behind issue, most of the young adults, young parents left their children to grandparents. The parents usually come back one time in very two years. There are 1700 people live In Rural Area in Guang An Village, 800 people are left behind. 1Children and elderly are both having individual and shared issue. Most of the children have to take hours to get to the primary school everyday, which occupied most of their valuable time.

Figure 4.3.3

1

“微电影:村小的孩子.” YouTube. July 20, 2015. Accessed June 05, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZFQd2UX7AF8.

Figure 4.3.4

29


Material Studies

Historical and Traditional

Contemporary

Tile

Pattern

Function Louvers Roof Gutter

New Form

Ways of casting + flexibility

Contemporary

Figure 4.3.5

Historical and Traditional

Earth

Work as a whole, filled in mold

Layers with different colors & material

Figure 4.3.6

Contemporary

Historical and Traditional

Timber

Play on structure

Contemporary & Traditional

Louver

Contemporary

Historical and Traditional

Stone& Brick

Ways of cutting & construction

Artificial & Natural

Traditional pattern Modern function (lighting/ shading)

Figure 4.3.7

30


.

Rhythm Of Daily Living

31

日常生活节奏分析


32


Interaction Point Exploring

Elderly

People have their own rhythm of daily living that is different from generation to generation. Rhythm is life. We breathe rhythmically, our heart beats rhythmically; we are rhythmic creatures. Until very recently in the history of humankind, we lived with nature’s rhythms, to rise with the sun, work in its warmth and light and turn in with its setting each day. 1In order to explore the interaction point between elderly and children, I created a diagram to find out the answer. Elderly usually start their day much earlier than children, which is naturally happen when people getting old. Their body clock wakes them up everyday even without setting an alarm. Children are usually get up around 9 when most of the elderly start reading newspaper or listening to the radio. The formal activities (natural interaction point) happen twice during a day when elderly and children having lunch and dinner. The potentially formal activities (potential interaction point) happen when children go to school, play games, doing home works and watching TV. Elderly can do the similar activities at the same time or at least they can stay together with kids during the time. Other times they can stay separately keeping their individual space.

05:00

08:59

09:00

Doctors

Similar to that, there are formal activities between the elderly, children and caregivers. Doctors, teachers and volunteers can have interaction with them when they are in need. During health check, school time, farming, they can use their knowledge and energy to support these two generations of people back and forth. 1

“Celebrate the Rhythm of Life: Basic Elements of Daily Living with Children ~ the Morning.” Celebrate the Rhythm of Life. January 16, 2012. Accessed June 05, 2016. http://www.celebratetherhythmoflife.com/2012/01/ basic-elements-of-daily-living-with.html.

Volunteer

Teachers

Children

POTENTIALLY FORMAL ACTIVITIES FORMAL ACTIVITIES

33

09:00


17:00

22:59

17:00

22:59

EATING

EATING

16:59

16:59

34 Figure 5.1.1


.

New Story Of The Community

35

社区愿景


Figure 6.0

36


Story Room The elderly and children can use this space to share and create memories through story telling. Children will become familiar with their parental figures in this way and become closer to their elders through the act story telling. A big window is required for there to be enough natural light and to view events outside of the window at the same time without a feeling of isolation. The story room can be multiple small rooms, within this small area; the elderly and children can keep the feeling of privacy.

Figure 6.1

37

Figure 6.2


Play Room As an important event from children and elderly’s daily rhythm, the play moment is very necessary which requires a playroom. Within this playroom, they can either play together or play separately. Based on their specialty requirements, the playroom can be divided into many levels. Small windows, big windows, small doors and big doors, children and elderly will experience the playful not only through games but also through the architecture or spaces setting inside the room.

Figure 6.3

38


Testing Garden Farming is an important activity in the village, so there will be a garden provided for both children and elderly to learn and experiment. Through this process, elderly will share their knowledge about growing food with children; their memory and experiences are valuable for these kids. They can build up confidence through the success of growing food at the same time.

Figure 6.4

39


Dining Area To lessen the burden of elderly taking care of their grandkids and having a big dining area will provide them a space to eat together. The meal can be prepared by both elderly and children or with other relatives in this community instead of cook by one elderly. When they gather around the table, they can get closer to other community members through meal sharing or some conversation during the time.

Figure 6.5

40


Media Room In this dark and theater feeling media room, children and elderly can do video chat with the parents. Multiple screens hanging on the wall creates the embrace feeling. Once they are inside of this room, they are totally isolated from the outside world. They can concentrate on the conversation with their parents. This is a pretty private space that allows them to talk without many disturbances.

Figure 6.6

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Playful Elderly and children have something similar, which is playfulness. In order to closer the relationship between elderly and children, the playful element like climbing walls, windows and doors in different scale will attract people from these two generations. Children will have fun in this community home while the elderly will be happy to see them play.

Figure 6.7

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.

Pre Design

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设计始初


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Design Inspiration In order to create a sense of home for the community, I did research about some traditional layouts and construction way of home. I looked at the traditional home from both north and south part of China. The idea of courtyard is very important in these homes; communal life usually takes place in the central courtyard. In the northern China housing style, it has three courtyards and the family usually uses the one in the center. Mostly, the elderly lives in the north home since it has the best lighting sources. Parents and kids live by the side that are west home and east home. The servers and other people live in the south home. Today, several families share some of the courtyard homes, so they use the center courtyard as their gathering space. It is very common to find that people gather around watching TV, chatting with each other, having meal in this courtyard.

Figure 7.1.1

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Similar to the traditional housing in North China, there is a courtyard in the center of this community housing---The Hakka Tulou1. The Tulou are large fortified buildings representing a specific and traditional housing type of the Fujian province of Southern China. Their recurring layout is made up of a thick enclosure wall, rectangular or circular, which hosts the living and storage areas and a central courtyard with a small building in the middle used for ceremonies. With a height between three and five stories, a Toulou can house up to 80 families and contains in itself all the feature of an entire village. The inhabitants share the same conditions and mutualize several features in the building: common areas, bathrooms, washrooms as well as water wells and even the farmed land around is common property. Communal life usually happens in the central courtyard: the void may work at the same time as a marketplace, as a site for worship and celebration, as the space for children’s play or as an outdoor kitchen on summertime. Each level has wooden walkways (towards the courtyard side) climbing up to the upper floors, supported by beams projecting from the wall. 1

Lucarelli, Fosco. “Walls as Rooms /4 : The Hakka Tulou (Community Housing for Equals)...” SOCKS. February 01, 2014. Accessed June 05, 2016. http://socks-studio.com/2014/02/01/walls-asrooms-4-the-hakka-tulou-community-housing-for-equals/.

Figure 7.1.2

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Program Setting I started the concept of program design for this community home. I used the traditional home layout as an example, designing a big outdoor gathering space in the middle of the community home that is surrounded by four buildings. Elderly mainly use the building in the north and it will be used by children partially. In order to keep the idea of home, there is a living room for elderly to relax that works as a lounge. For elderly, they need this space that allows them to be away from those kids for a while. A media room can be used as a mini theater; children and elderly can do video chat with the parents through several large screens. A garden can provide elderly space to do some test or experiment. Children mainly use the building in the west. There is also a garden for them to learn growing food. They can build up confidence through the success of growing. A library offers them resources and spaces to learn outside of the class. The story room is shared by children and elderly, which allow them sharing stories about elderly or a day of children. Or, the elderly can tell some stories about children’s parents, so that the children can get knowledge about their parents indirectly. For the concern of getting economic support, a camping sleep unit can be added on. People can hold a summer camp that allows student live in cities to come and experience the life in rural area. In that way, children in this village may teach them the basic knowledge of rural culture. The south building is mostly private for the others, except for the office, since the kids can still go there for asking questions. The east building is very important that help pushing people get together. There is a big dining area and a kitchen, which allows children and elderly cook and eat together, but also with other people. Through these activities, they will become

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more familiar with each other and feel like living inside of a big family. In addition, with sharing daily activities, it less the burden of elderly in taking care of multiple kids.


PARKING 800 sq ft

MUTI-USE occupants 20 140 sq ft

LIVING ROOM MEDIA ROOM occupants occupants 30 20 220 sq ft GARDEN 300 sq ft BATHROOM/ occupants RESTROOM PLAY ROOM 20 occupants occupants 280 sq ft 8 30 120 sq ft 450 sq ft MECHANICAL GYM 300 sq ft occupants 20 1000 sq ft

HEALTH CHECK occupants 20 4800 sq ft

LIBRARY occupants 20 1000 sq ft

GARDEN occupants 20 280 sq ft

BATHROOM/ RESTROOM occupants 8 MUTI-USE 120 sq ft occupants 50 350 sq ft

STORY ROOM

STUDY ROOM MECHANICAL 300 sq ft

occupants 20 1000 sq ft

KITCHEN OUTDOOR GATHERING COURTYARD

occupants 30 1500 sq ft

occupants 20 4000 sq ft

DINING occupants 200 3000 sq ft

STORAGE 300 sq ft

BATHROOM/ RESTROOM occupants 8 120 sq ft

MECHANICAL 300 sq ft

CAMPING SLEEP UNIT occupants 50 2500 sq ft

OTHER RESIDENCE occupants 14 700 sq ft

MEETING ROOM occupants 8 800 sq ft

OFFICE

occupants 14 1400 sq ft

BATHROOM/ RESTROOM occupants MECHANICAL 8 300 sq ft 120 sq ft LIVING ROOM OCCUPANTS 14 220 sq ft

PRIVATE SPACE FOR EITHER ELDERLY OR CHILDREN POTENTIALLY ECONOMIC SUPPORT

Figure 7.2.1

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.

Design Proposal

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设计思路与方案


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Site Plan 1 Children Health Check 2 Elderly Health Check 3 Living Room1 4 Gym 5 Mechanical 6 Media Room 7 Play Room 8 Dining 9 Kitchen 10 Storage 11 Mechanical 12 Office 13 Office 14 Meeting Room 15 Mechanical 16 Other Residence 17 Living Room 18 Story Room 19 Library 20 Mechanical 21 Study Room 22 Outdoor Sunken Area 23 Testing Garden As the initial design concept, there are four buildings in this community home. In order to scale down the size of each building, the highest building has two floors. Most of the housing in the village are two stories or less. There is a walkway covered with brick that connects to each building. Since the community home is located on the farming terrace, they are replaced by stairs. The entrance is lower than the courtyard in the center. Each section is 2ft lower than the other. An outdoor sunken area is at the second section and a testing garden is at the third section. Each building has a walkway like porch in front of them, the brick material continues to the bottom of enclosure walls of the buildings. Then, it was connected with rammed earth. In the north building, it has a children health 1

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Works as lounge but with a home feeling name

check, elderly health check, living room, gym, mechanical, media room and play room. Several glass walls separate the space between gym and play room. This will allow the elderly & children to enjoy activities within the same space. Health check sometimes works as clinic, it was added with some private space. The building in west has story room, library, mechanical room and study room. The story room keeps the idea of balancing the private and public space. Most of the interaction activities happen in story room and library. The east building has a big dining area, kitchen, storage and mechanical room. There is a glass wall separates the dining area and kitchen, people can explore the activities in the kitchen when they are eating. The top part kitchen is a little higher than the bottom, which makes children feeling more comfortable cooking with elderly. The dining area has multiple levels, offering children and elderly more options to choose from. There are three stages with different height; they can have different experience eating at different stage. Visiting teachers, doctors and volunteers mostly use the south building. It has office, meeting room, mechanical room, other residence and living room. This community home will create a home feeling for elderly, children, as well as these people who will support this community. Since most of them come from different places outside of the village, they need a home to let them stay. Even when they are away from their original home, they can still have the sense of belonging here.


1 Children Health Check 2 Elderly Health Check 3 Living Room 4 Gym 5 Mechanical 6 Media Room 7 Play Room 8 Dining 9 Kitchen 10 Storage 11 Mechanical 12 Office 13 Office 14 Meeting Room 15 Mechanical 16 Other Residence 17 Living Room 18 Story Room 19 Library 20 Mechanical 21 Study Room 22 Outdoor Sunken Area 23 Testing Garden

Figure 8.1.1

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Experiences Exploring

Figure 8.2.1

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Figure 8.2.2

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Figure 8.2.3

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Figure 8.2.4

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Section

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Figure 8.3.1

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Figure 8.3.2

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Experiences Refining

Figure 8.4.1

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Figure 8.4.2

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Figure 8.4.3

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Figure 8.4.4

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Model

Figure 8.5.1

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Figure 8.5.2

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Figure 8.5.3

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Figure 8.5.4

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North building section model

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Figure 8.5.5

South building section model

Figure 8.5.6


West building section model

Figure 8.5.7

East building section model

Figure 8.5.8

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Figure 8.5.9 Entrance And Outdoor Sunken Area

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Figure 8.5.10


Figure 8.5.11 Health check with two scale entrance

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Climbing Wall This climbing wall is located at the exterior wall of the dinning area. Since the building was using timber structure, rammed earth wall and the brick as the base of the wall; the climbing wall was made with the same material but pull out some bricks to create the climbing feature. Children can either stand or sit on some part of the bricks. Beyond the brick wall, some brick will continue to half of the rammed earth wall randomly. The openings on the wall respond to this climbing wall and the playful idea. People will find out some kids climbing when they are having meal, it will be an interesting moment in the community home.

Figure 8.5.12

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Courtyard As the traditional Chinese housing idea, the communal life will happens in the central courtyard. This big courtyard is divided into two parts: testing garden and outdoor sunken area. Children and elderly can use the testing garden to do experiment and training. The sunken area is more flexible that can be used as outdoor performance area, festival celebration area, outdoor ping-pong court, out door exercise area. It will works as any outdoor gathering spaces.

Figure 8.5.13

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Structure This community home is a secondary home for all the community members in this village, so it keeps the traditional structure of the local housing. Instead of using lumber, it use timber as the main structure as the contemporary way of wood structure, there is round beams sitting on top of the girders as a way of trigger people’s memory of the traditional lumber structure. The exterior wall is made up of brick and rammed earth, which triggers the memories of earth brick that they used for local housing. The roof tiles were saved as a way to make all the buildings different from institutional building, but home.

Figure 8.5.14

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Figure 8.5.15

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Specialty And Memory Strategies

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策略


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Window For people like left behind children and the elderly, they need a space that is designed specifically for that makes them feel cared for and loved. The big difference between them is the scale, which makes these two generations special. The window design for different spaces is varied. Through the height, scale, and arrangements, the children and elderly will have their own unique views, experiences and moments. In addition, the window will deliver the story inside of the building to the people in the courtyard area.

Story Room The story room was designed with a big window that allows the space to be filled with light. Natural light creates a calm atmosphere giving the children and the elderly a room to do story telling or memory sharing, this window will make the space not only secrete but sacred. In addition, they will not feel isolated because they can still look outside to link back with the community.

Library This room has windows of various sizes and heights. The windows offer the children and elderly more seating options to sit alone or they could pull up a table between a pair of windows and sit together. Taller windows will help bring in more natural-light. The small window will be the perfect height for a child.

Camping Sleeping Unit Through different windows, they will have different views and living experiences.

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Figure 9.1.1 Story Room

Library Camp Unit


Health check (Window & Door) In this health check area, there are two different entrances for the elderly and children. Similar to the different sized windows, the doors will be scaled to different sizes suiting both children and the elderly. The doors will also lead them to the appropriate health check areas.

Figure 9.1.2

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Dining Area Windows in the dining area are randomly arranged in a way to mimic the rhythm of the climbing wall outside. When people are eating in this space, they will get a chance to watch children climbing outside while people inside sit and chat with each other. Similar to the design philosophy of the other spaces the openness strengthens the concept of community.

Figure 9.1.3

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Study Room Children will be the primary users of this space because they are still in primary school. When the children and the elderly interact, they can share with them the things they learned and pass the knowledge along. Here, they can have their own window or individual lighting spot. Or, they can choose to sit in somewhere without direct lighting.

Figure 9.1.4

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Levels The other strategy is to add several levels within in a space. The levels allow the elderly and children to be at different elevations to best utilize the space and allow for space that is personal or private. Children are usually more energetic than the elderly thus, they like to climb on a higher place to play or stay. Children have more energy than the elderly and the ability to climb and play on the structure, making the children the main users. However, the elderly prefer a calm and gentle living rhythm. So they may prefer staying at lower levels. The levels can be found in the kitchen, dining area, testing garden. It can also be added to spaces like the gym and playroom for the future stages of this community home design. To follow the goal of making the space flexible, the levels are one of the aspects that responds to that need.

Kitchen There are two levels in the kitchen as it is shown on the right. Since this kitchen is larger than the average kitchen, needing to comfortably fit 20 people at a time. It will provide the children and elderly a unique space and experience to cook together. With these two options, the children can stand at the higher stage to work with the elderly, while the elderly stand by the other side of the table. The raising floor gives the children a chance to work on the same level as their elders. Compared with the elderly, the cooking skill and the added level are the difference between them. Once they learn all the knowledge from the elderly, they may grow up and become a real adult both physically and mentally. They will not need that level anymore, and then, they will go to the other side of the working table to join the team with other elderly and help cook.

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2. 1.

Figure 9.2.1

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Dining Area There are four levels in the dining area. The first one being the ground level, the children and elderly can sit together and share a meal. On the second level, there will be the kitchen where children and the elderly can cook together and prepare meals. When people are eating at this level, they can have more privacy. Beneath the 3rd and 4th level are additional seating areas, which make the space more enclosed and private. Level 3 & 4 is more specific for children since they are very energetic and sometimes they want to stay by themselves. When they sit on these two levels, they will have their own view and a time to share special moments with other children in this community.

4. 3. 2. 1.

Figure 9.2.2

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Testing Garden The testing garden has 3 levels as well, and the level one is also mainly for the elderly since it will give them more convenience to test with. The 2nd and 3rd levels are more specific for kids. With this design, children can learn how to farm in fun playful ways. Compared with the large farming terraces, several small planter boxes can be used as the small test garden of those terraces.

3. 2. 1.

Figure 9.2.3

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Wall As a community home, this place should bring back memories of the homes they left, the atmosphere and environment should be inviting. Thus, the material choices are more detailed than anything else. Through previous material research, I chose the three main materials and translated them into contemporary language. The traditional lumber, earth brick and brick are replaced by timber, rammed earth and are combined with material brick. There are five senses that trigger our memory through sight, smell, sound, touch, and taste. These materials will bring back memories of home.

Lumber

Timber

The use of these traditional materials in contemporary ways will be a good learning resource for the community members but also it takes the advantage of the community and keeps this new home sustainable.

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Earth Brick

Rammed Earth

Brick

Combined Material Brick


Figure 9.3.1

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Conclusions For the community like Guang An village, a community home can be a first step towards the elderly and children living together. This model can be applied to other communities with the left behind issue. This project aims to bring the connections between elderly and children in this situation closer, use the community home as a tool to make their daily life more meaningful, playful and special. This stage will raise people’s awareness of their living situation and I hope they can realize that we can use architecture to improve their lives instead of doing donation only.

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What’s the future? The model for multiple communities needs to fit the climate and the local culture from materials to direction.

The Program There needs to be a time schedule to support the programs in this community home. Based on the diagram and studies of the “Rhythm Of Daily Living”, there needs to be a time setting for the elderly and children to get together.

The Government In order to make this idea feasible, the government’s support is very important. In recent years, the Chinese government only recently started realizing how severe the problem of left behind children is. In response to the perception that leftbehind children are more vulnerable than other children, Chinese policy makers—sometimes in partnership with international agencies—are considering the development of a number of programs targeting these children.1 They have been trying to use some policies to limit the migrant population. At the same time, they are aware that the elderly population needs support. In this project, it will help them to improve the situation with the elderly and with the migrant population in the long run.

The Home There is no residential area for the elderly and children in the first stage. The 2nd and 3rd this community home can be expanded to a larger scale, which might contain a lot of housing for the entire village. This project can also lead to a new way of rural reconstruction.

The parents In this stage, most of the interactions happen between the elderly and children because of the first priority issue (Left behind children and elderly live in a condition without enough health, educational and entertainment support). The second stage will create programs to be used when the parents come back to the village. In order to familiarize the parents with the new form of daily living for their loved ones. In addition, they can be a part of the community home when they come back. The community home can have some small business to support the local goods and provides some job opportunities at the same time. There is no doubt that it needs the government’s support.

The Energy Use To move forward, the design of the community home also needs to focus on the energy use: heating systems, cooling systems, solar energy, wind energy, etc. In order to make the project more sustainable and to create a new rural form, the design should fit to their local conditions.

The new rural construction Is it possible to get more people to come back to the village and have them stay?

1

Zhou, C., S. Sylvia, L. Zhang, R. Luo, H. Yi, C. Liu, Y. Shi, P. Loyalka, J. Chu, A. Medina, and S. Rozelle. “China’s Left-Behind Children: Impact Of Parental Migration On Health, Nutrition, And Educational Outcomes.” Health Affairs 34.11 (2015): 1964-971. Web.

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Endnotes 1. A hukou is a record in the system of household registration required by law in mainland China and Taiwan. The system itself is more properly called “huji”, and has origins in ancient China. 2. McKenzie, David. “Mom and Dad: Strangers to Millions of Chinese Kids.” CNN. March 12, 2015. Accessed June 02, 2016. http://www.cnn. com/2015/03/11/asia/china-left-behind-kids/index.html. 3. Browne, Andrew. “Left-Behind Children of China’s Migrant Workers Bear Grown-Up Burdens.” WSJ. January 17, 2014. Accessed June 05, 2016. http:// www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702304173704579260900849637692. 4. National Bureau of Statistics of China, Tabulation on the 2010 Population Census of People’s Republic of China, China’s Statistics Press, 2012 http:// www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/pcsj/rkpc/6rp/indexch.htm (Chinese) http://www.stats. gov.cn/english/statisticaldata/censusdata/rkpc2010/indexch.htm (English) 5. McKenzie, David. “Mom and Dad: Strangers to Millions of Chinese Kids.” CNN. March 12, 2015. Accessed June 02, 2016. http://edition.cnn. com/2015/03/11/asia/china-left-behind-kids/index.html6. Ibid., 14. 6. Zhou, C., S. Sylvia, L. Zhang, R. Luo, H. Yi, C. Liu, Y. Shi, P. Loyalka, J. Chu, A. Medina, and S. Rozelle. “China’s Left-Behind Children: Impact Of Parental Migration On Health, Nutrition, And Educational Outcomes.” Health Affairs 34.11 (2015): 1964-971. Web. 7. “Cattle Back Mountain Volunteer House / DEEP Architects.” ArchDaily. July 08, 2015. Accessed June 05, 2016. http://www.archdaily.com/769850/ deep-architects-cattle-back-mountain-volunteer-house-in-china-combinestraditional-materials-with-digital-design. 8. Saieh, Nico. “Ta Phin Community House / 1 12.” ArchDaily. August 07, 2012. Accessed June 05, 2016. http://www.archdaily.com/261063/ta-phincommunity-house-112. 9. “”Children at a Village School” 《村小的孩子》 – Independent Film Screening and Q&A with Director Jiang Nengjie.” Cityweekend. June 8, 2014. Accessed June 05, 2016. 10. National Bureau of Statistics of China, Tabulation on the 2010 Population Census of People’s Republic of China, China’s Statistics Press, 2012 http:// www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/pcsj/rkpc/6rp/indexch.htm (Chinese) http://www.stats. gov.cn/english/statisticaldata/censusdata/rkpc2010/indexch.htm (English) 11. “微电影:村小的孩子.” YouTube. July 20, 2015. Accessed June 05, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZFQd2UX7AF8. 12. “微电影:村小的孩子.” YouTube. July 20, 2015. Accessed June 05, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZFQd2UX7AF8. 13. “Celebrate the Rhythm of Life: Basic Elements of Daily Living with Children ~ the Morning.” Celebrate the Rhythm of Life. January 16, 2012. Accessed June 05, 2016. http://www.celebratetherhythmoflife.com/2012/01/ basic-elements-of-daily-living-with.html. 14. Lucarelli, Fosco. “Walls as Rooms /4 : The Hakka Tulou (Community

Housing for Equals)...” SOCKS. February 01, 2014. Accessed June 05, 2016. http://socks-studio.com/2014/02/01/walls-as-rooms-4-the-hakka-tuloucommunity-housing-for-equals/. 15. Works as lounge but with a home feeling name 16. Zhou, C., S. Sylvia, L. Zhang, R. Luo, H. Yi, C. Liu, Y. Shi, P. Loyalka, J. Chu, A. Medina,

and S. Rozelle. “China’s Left-Behind Children: Impact Of Parental Migration On Health, Nutrition, And Educational Outcomes.” Health Affairs 34.11 (2015): 1964-971. Web.

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List of Figures Figure Xii The Left Behind In A Village With Young Adult Migratory Flow Figure 1.0: Collage Of Community Home Concept Figure 1.1.1: Top 8 Left Behind Children Around World And Migration Flows Map, Refer To Mccandless, David. Knowledge Is Beautiful. New York: Harper Design, 2014. Figure 1.1.2: Top Five Cities With Severe Left Behind Issue And Migration Flows In China Figure 1.1.3: The Proportion Of Total Population, Children Population And Left Behind Children Population In Each Province. Figure 1.1.4: Urban And Rural Area Annual Income Tax Return Comparison From 2012 To 2014 Figure 1.1.5: Family Structure Of Left Behind Children Figure 1.1.6: Age Distribution Of Left Behind Children Figure 1.1.7: Population Changes Of Rural Left-Behind Children And Migrant Children (Move With Parents) From 2000 To 2010 Figure 1.2.1: Children Live With Grandparents Figure 1.2.2: Children Live With Others Figure 1.2.3: Children Live Alone Figure 1.2.4: Current Issue Of Left Behind Elderly Figure 1.2.5: Current Issue Of Left Behind Children Figure 1.3.1: Diagram Of Design Goals And Relationship Between Elderly, Children And Others Figure 2.0: The Relationship Between Left Behind Children, Parents And Elderly Figure 2.1.1: Children’s Farming Condition Of Today+Tomorrow Figure 2.1.2: Children And Elderly Have Meal Today+Tomorrow Figure 2.1.3: Study Condition Of Children Today+Tomorrow Figure 2.1.4: Elderly Misses Her Children Today+Tomorrow Figure 2.1.5: Elderly Wait And Relax Condition Of Today+Tomorrow Figure 2.1.6: Transportation Of Today+Tomorrow Figure 3.1.1: Homes In Pumaidi Village. Image Courtesy Of Deep Architects Figure 3.1.2: Completed House. Image Courtesy Of Deep Architects Figure 3.1.3: The View Of Book Bar Inside Of The Hostel Figure 3.1.4: Glass Walls Opened. Figure 3.1.5: Volunteers And Villagers. Image Courtesy Of Deep Architects Figure 3.2.1: The View Of Ta Phin Community House From Distance Figure 3.2.2: Children Get Together To Learn Painting Figure 3.2.3: Material Use And Structure Analysis Of This Community House Figure 3.2.4: Community Members Are Having Fun In The House Figure 3.2.5: The Entrance Figure 3.2.6: Gathering Space Figure 4.0: The Relationship Between Left Behind Children And Elderly, Guide And Support Each Other

Figure 4.1.1:Nengjie Jiang, The Producer Of The Documentary ‘Children At A Village School.’ Figure 4.1.2: The Poster Of The Documentary ‘Children At A Village School.’ Figure 4.1.3: One Of The Main Character In The Documentary Whose Father Never Call Her Grandmother Since He Left. Figure 4.1.4: Some Elderly Has To Take Care Of Multiple Kids At One Time Figure 4.1.5: Children Get Chance To Video Chat With Their Parents With Volunteer’s Help. Figure 4.1.6: Site Model Figure 4.1.7: Mass Model Figure 4.2.1: The Location Of Shaoyang County And Guang An Village Figure 4.2.2: Site Analysis, Village Context Figure 4.3.1: The Site. Photo Taken By Yan Zhang Figure 4.3.2: The Primary School. Photo Taken By Yan Zhang Figure 4.3.3: Two Left Behind Children In The Village. Photo Taken By Jun Ma Figure 4.3.4: Local Housing In The Village. Photo Taken By Jun Ma Figure 4.3.5: Local Housing (Top), A Moment That A Kid And Elderly Doing Home Work Together(Bottom) Figure 4.3.6: Material And Structure Analysis Of Local Housing Figure 4.3.7: Basic Materials: Tile, Earth, Timber, Stone& Brick. The Comparison Of The Traditional And Contemporary Way Of Using These Materials. Material Study Sketches Figure 5.1.1: Rhythm Of Daily Living Diagram Figure 6.0: The Main Character Of The New Story Book Of The Community: Children And Elderly Figure 6.1: Story Room 1 Figure 6.2: Story Room 2 Figure 6.3: Play Room Figure 6.4: Testing Garden Figure 6.5: Dining Area Figure 6.6: Media Room Figure 6.7: Playful Figure 7.1.1: China Traditional Courtyard House Figure 7.1.2: The Hakka Tulou. Figure 7.2.1: The Initial Program Design For The Community Home Figure 8.1.1: First Floor Plan On Site Figure 8.2.1: Collage For Experience Of Dining Area Figure 8.2.2: Collage For Experience Of Courtyard Figure 8.2.3: Collage For Experience Of Garden Figure 8.2.4: Collage For Experience Of Story Room Figure 8.3.1: Section Drawing 2(Refer To The Site Plan) Figure 8.3.2: Section Drawing 1(Refer To The Site Plan) Figure 8.4.1: The Community Home From Distance Rendering

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Figure 8.4.2: View Of Walking Under The Porch Rendering, Testing Garden Figure 8.4.3: The Interior Of Story Room Figure 8.4.4: View Of The Climbing Wall Outside Of The Dining Area And Testing Garden Figure 8.5.1: Sketch Model 1 Figure 8.5.2: Sketch Model 2 Figure 8.5.3: Final 4 Sides Section Model Figure 8.5.4: Final 4 Sides Section Model From The View Of Entrance Figure 8.5.5: North Building Section Model Figure 8.5.6: South Building Section Model Figure 8.5.7: West Building Section Model Figure 8.5.8: East Building Section Model Figure 8.5.9: Entrance And Outdoor Sunken Area Figure 8.5.10: North Building And Walk Way Figure 8.5.11: Climbing Wall Figure 8.5.12: Structure Figure 8.5.13: Screen Of The Dining Area Figure 9.1.1 Window Design Idea Of Story Room, Library And Camp Unit Figure 9.1.2 Window & Door Of Health Check Place Figure 9.1.3 Window Of Dining Area Figure 9.1.4 Window Of Study Room Figure 9.2.1 2 Levels In The Kitchen Figure 9.2.2 4 Levels In The Dining Area Figure 9.2.3 3 Levels In The Testing Garden Figure 9.3.1 Diagram Of Memory Strategy On Material Use

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A COMMUNITY HOME for left behind children and elderly in Guang An Village  

A COMMUNITY HOME for left behind children and elderly in Guang An Village  

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