R E T H I N K I N GF A C T O R Y :
Declaration This work contains no material which has been accepted for the award of any other Degree or Diploma in any University or other institutions and to the best of my knowledge does not contain any material previously published or written by another person except where due reference has been made in the text. I consent to this copy of thesis, when in the library of CEPT University, being available on loan and photocopying.
Student Name & Code No: SHAILJA PATEL UI2709 Sign Date 16-11-2015
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS With all my heartfelt gratitude, To my Guide, Mentor Giulia Setti for her patience, encouragement and to show me a new perspective To my Faculty and the School Krishna Mam for some amazing guidance in KP Sir past half decade KD & Chandra Mam To some spontaneous encouraging Sachin Soni inputs for thesis Seema Khanwalkar To some speedboosters Dhruv, Mayuri of my thesis Mitali, Priyanka To sharing knowledge and facts Zameer Basrai about Mumbai Hinal, Monish, Multi and some great stay Laadoo Fia & Sonal Maasi, and of course, Mumbai Local To some amazing Anuj, Pandya, Sagar, Soumya, Varun, Advait, Divya, Filza, Freny set of seniors & juniors Gajjar, Kamna, Kaveesha, Mehul, Nrupa, Panchal, Ronit, Rutuja, for all new experiences in SID Sowmya, Vyas, Udit To all the worldly opinions, Churchill, Khatro, Khyati, Komal, Nanda, jokes and tiniest discussions Mitalee, Pratik, Pinkal, Vrushti about almost everything To some five years of Jay, Reddy, Soham, Sritej, Tarun straightforward witty notions & viewpoints To the people of Amol, Brinda, Drashti, Deepak, Ishan, Jayana, Joohie, Pratik, my Kin Priyanka, Saloni and 09 Batch To some fantastic authors, creators, Anne Frank, Ansel Adams, Bernd & Hilla Becher, Charles Bukowski, musicians to inspire an Galileo, George RR Martin, Iron&Wine, John Ruskin,J.K.Rowling, imagination in me Leonardo da Vinci, Mies van der Rohe, Pink Floyd & Yann Tiersen and To my Structural System Nana, Nani, Mum, Dad and my taller brother Shaurya!
Thank you for your support in all the possible ways!
The British played quite a different role here in this city than they did in Calcutta. The British didn’t build Bombay – Indians did. But the British gave the city its civic structure, its DNA, which allowed Indian energy and initiative to find fruitful expression. What we are witnessing today is a far vaster outflow of energy than what was available here in Bombay towards the end of the 19th Century – and that built this city. That is the tragedy of today’s Mumbai in a nutshell – all that energy, but not the context through which it can become constructive. For energy can create a great city – but it can also destroy it. Par ticularly so, because of the humungous scale of Mumbai today. In the 1880s, when these mills were star ting to proliferate, the city ended at Byculla and Mahalaxmi. Beyond this lay open fields. The British took these fields from the local farmers and handed them over to private companies – with the stipulation that they run textile mills. With migrants pouring in from Solapur, Kohlapur and Ratnagiri, etc, availability of cheap labour, the new textile industry flourished. [0.1]
F0.1 Mumbai Zones
[0.1] D’Monte, Darryl, ed. Mills for Sale : The Way Ahead. Mumbai, India: Marg Publications, 2006.p.26
AIM & OBJECTIVE OF THE THESIS During the last twenty years, this building type has increasingly been protected as a symbol of the historic value attached to the physical remains of the industrialization process. The best way to secure their continuing role in the urban fabric for the future was through adaptive reuse. The primary aim of the thesis is to study the design factors in conversion of industrial buildings. These factors can be ultimately determined as an oppor tunity or constraints. An oppor tunity or a constraint in design is related to the concept in any design process. In industrial buildings, as a typology, the oppor tunity lies in exploring the scale whereas the constraint is to accommodate a function into an architecture which is not at all meant for it. In other words, the crude roughness of an industry, from its materiality to its structure, is a total contrast to any other functions apar t from what it is meant for. How these industrial buildings have changes the notions of such interiors. Apar t from that, industrial buildings take a huge amount of space in the city and in this era, due to deindustrialization these factories and industries are becoming dysfunctional or been abandoned. So in adaptive reuse of such spaces, how in a design process then an architect or designer takes stands considering cer tain factors in mind? These factors help define cer tain strategies. These strategies then can be applied for any industrial building. These strategies then can suggest manners in which an industrial building can be reused, right from the decision to incorporate function to any structural changes. As the title of the thesis says â€œRethinking Factoryâ€? it may refer to multiple different manners. It talks about how a factory can be thought again in context of some other function, trying to coexist in a complete opposite environment. It may also means as to how the reuse of factories industries can be modified which refers to the economics and politics involving government bodies. The advantage of designing in reuse of industries lies in the fact that, the architecture of the building is so bare minimum to create a shell, that inside, the spaces are only governed or controlled by the structural space grid. Also, cer tain typologies of industries have interesting shell which again creates an oppor tunity for a designer to explore inside. This kind of reuse hold a lot of potential in exploration of space planning to design decisions for providing services, which such structures are not meant for.
CONTEXT OF RESEARCH What are the factors of the design to be taken under consideration of such projects, reuse of industries? How these factors changes the perception of space? How can the intervention change the impor tance of the structure? Are there any strategies to approach such projects of reusing industries, in India?
SCOPE & RELEVANCE OF STUDY The thesis talks about textile mills of Mumbai. Mumbai is one of the richest city in terms of industrial heritage, also with a history involving government decisions which changed the perception in todayâ€™s time. Hence the study looks upon the case studies of Mumbai, which creates a strong context with a rich background. The thesis will focus on factors of design in reuse of industries, which will be determined if it is an oppor tunity or a constraint. The need for study is to provide basis for reuse of such spaces, irrespective of the strong context of Mumbai. In India, there are several other cities with derelict industries taking up space and are not in use. Such spaces when adapted can change the urban scenario of a city. The design factors are independent of urban issues. They are not directly related. But the act of reuse will determine a lot of issues of the kind of functions that are incorporated in such spaces. Apar t from urban advantage, the advantage in terms of design lies in exploration of these buildings, spatially. Hence, this thesis will try and focus to deriving a pattern from the existing reuse of these spaces.
METHODOLOGY To understand the process, the thesis has been divided into four major sections. Each of these sections is a study in itself. CHAPTER ONE: Talks about the concept of Memory & Architecture, Reuse and Industries individually. It broadens the view of the reader to understand the larger urban scope of projects like these.
CHAPTER TWO: Talks about Mumbai and its history, which involves all the Government activities to the spaces which are adapted in current scenario. This chapter is dedicated to the idea of a context. CHAPTER THREE: Talks about reuse as an act. The design factors of reuse in Industries. It recognizes the phenomena through which the case studies follow. The last section, are the case studies, which talk about design positions taken in reuse of industries CHAPTER FOUR: Inferences and conclusion, to gather a cumulative viewpoint of the interventions and derive a strategy if any. The study will give an insight of derelict mills and their conversion with an oppor tunity of interior design. The study will infer the idea of aesthetics from an abandoned space.
“When we build, let us think that we build for ever.” ~John Ruskin
1.1 MEMORY I carried a tiffin box To the mill since childhood I was cast the way A smith forges a hammer -Narayan Surve, one of many mill workers. “.. and if indeed there be any profit in our knowledge of the past, or any joy in the thought of being remembered hereafter, which can give strength to present exertion, or patience to present endurance, there are two duties respecting national architecture whose importance it is impossible to overrate; the first, to render the architecture of the day, historical; and the second, to preserve, as the most precious of inheritances, that of past ages.” [1.1] Memory: (noun) (synonyms) Recollection, Souvenir, Echo, Impression
Memory relates to many different issues that can be considered from cross disciplinary perspectives. According to the philosopher Henri Lefebvre, the notion of representation is more than the idea of reflection. It implies and explains a language, which can be useful to understand the dynamic logic of architecture. For cultural historian Marc Bloch and Pierre Bourdieu, representations go beyond isolated facts and economical issues; they are par t of political and institutional actions of different social groups. “.. and it is not until a building has assumed this character, till it has been entrusted with the fame, and hallowed by the deeds of men, till its walls have been witnesses of suffering, and its pillars rise out of the shadows of death, that its existence, more lasting as it is than that of the natural objects of the world around it, can be gifted with even so much as these possess of language and of life.” [1.2] Architecture is one of many cultural representations, which has directly dealt with the question of memory in last few decades. To understand the relationship between architecture and memory, in the context of cultural representations means to consider the production of space and of collective memory, both material and immaterial, to deny the notion of linear chronological time.
[1.1] Ruskin, John. Seven Lamps of Architecture. New York: Dover Pub., 1989, p.148. [1.2] Ruskin, John. Seven Lamps of Architecture. New York: Dover Pub., 1989.,
“..still I cannot but think it an evil sign of a people when their houses are built to last for one generation only.” [1.3] The criteria of permanence and the destiny of architectural and urban elements and situation are primarily guided by the accommodation of dominant economical and political practices. Some buildings stay, some buildings are torn down, mainly according to the interests, mechanisms and investments and not about collective, social and historical significance. In the last few decades, the phenomena of recognizing old historical buildings and urban areas, has turned the eyes of developers and politicians towards the transformation of some well structured but impoverished neighborhoods to create a new identity, image of the city. “..Restoration means the most total destruction which a building can suffer: a destruction out of which no remnants can be gathered; a destruction accompanied with false description of the thing destroyed. Do not let us deceive ourselves in this important matter; it is impossible, as impossible as to raise the dead, to restore anything that has ever been great or beautiful in architecture. Another spirit may be given by another time, and it is then a new building; but the spirit of the dead workman cannot be summoned up, and commanded to direct other hands, and other thoughts.” [1.4] Memory is affected by the understanding of the history, the “old” as a thing or as a commodity, and it is destabilized by conflicting fictional constructs. On one hand, older buildings are conver ted into new architectural and urban uses, such as housing, cultural institutions like museums, galleries and commercial organizers, generally serving wealth and excluding less represented groups with their narratives, memories and identity. “.. it so happens that in architecture, the super induced and accidental beauty is most commonly inconsistent with the preservation of original character, and the picturesque is therefore sought in ruin, and supposed to consist in decay.” [1.5]
[1.3] Ruskin, John. Seven Lamps of Architecture. New York: Dover Pub., 1989, p.148. [1.4] Ruskin, John. Seven Lamps of Architecture. New York: Dover Pub., 1989, p.161 [1.5] Ruskin, John. Seven Lamps of Architecture. New York: Dover Pub., 1989, p.160
Memory is in time, but it cannot be understood as a line. Memory is in the past, present and future, because they co-exist in time. Memory takes place in space, but is not isolated things but rather in the experience of things and space. Memory is a value that represents the relationships and need, and therefore constitutes an
impor tant element in the production of space. Memory is related to a temporal sense and a spatial sense, but also to a temporal-spatial sense that is socially constructed by individuals. The building is turned to the inside, away from its immediate urban presence, and it offers all citizens a parade of perpetual happy ending differentiated from each other by their respective memories. Architecture, alone does not contain the answers to the questions about space and memory. It can be found in the context of cultural, philosophical and historical approached. There are two issues that concerns architecture and memory, -firstly, the production of space as a field of action, to which both social and economic forces converge, and -secondly, architectural thought and practice, with project or design as a questioning action. Both approaches are important references to the debate of architecture as a cultural representation, in which architects have a fundamental critical role to play. [1.6] The set of alternate responses, talking about memory and architecture, creates a dialogue of thoughts with author (of The Seven Lamps of Architecture), John Ruskin. The Lamp of Memory, as explained to us by Ruskin, talks about the values and ethics of preserving time in architecture, as to how it creates and por trays memories throughout time. The act of preservation becomes a separate branch of exploration in architecture itself. The most interesting thing about exploring in such scenario is to represent intangible things in a very tangible manner. The manifestation of various different perceptions thereby creates a new language altogether. The approaches towards each building by every architect differs, hence there will be introduction of new concepts. Carlo Scarpaâ€™s approach towards Castelvecchio Museum is one of the most significant example in history of architecture and Zumthorâ€™s approach in Kolumba Museum, in present time. The juxtaposition of the past and the present by both architects in respective sites are represented in the most authentic way which is harmonical aesthetically and increases the impor tance of the existing structure in a very power ful manner.
F1.1 Castelvecchio Museum, by Carlo Scarpa
F1.2 Kolumba Museum Facade, Peter Zumthor
[1.6] Lima, Zeuler and Vera M.Pellamin. Architecture and Memory: References in `Contemporary Culture. Saint Louis, MI, USA, 1998.
1.2 REUSE â€œ.. to view something as a ruin, is already to have a perspectiveâ€? [1.7] To reuse is to utilize, what once was discarded and considered as a waste. It creates another language in itself. Such utilization holds a great potential in perceiving something in a completely different way, yet retaining the essence of the existing. The reuse of existing buildings and the redesign of spaces within them are subjects that are central to the evolution of the urban environment, and issues of conservation and sustainability have become vital to the development of cities. As the mannerisms of urban environment change, so does the attitude towards building reuse alters. More or less, such interventions deal with architecture and interior spaces parallely. There are number of different methods used in the conservation of a structure with distinct differences between each. [1.8] Restoration is the process of returning the condition of the building to its original state. Renovation is the practice of renewing and upgrading the building. Remodeling is the process of completely altering a building. All these methods can be achieved with some strategies to deal with existing buildings. According to Cedric Price, there are six strategies that can be used to modify existing buildings [F1.1] They are: -
F1.3 Six Strategies on Existing Building [1.7] Brooker, Graeme and Sally Stone. Form + Structure : The Organisation of Interior Space. Switzerland: AVA Publishing SA, 2007. [1.8] Mah, Alicia. Industrial Ruination, Community, and Place, p.11
REDUCTION ADDITION INSERTION CONNECTION DEMOLITION EXPANSION
REDUCTION: When a par t of building is removed, while the retaining the basic form. ADDITION: When elements are added upon the building. INSERTION: When elements are inser ted inside the building. CONNECTION: When a building is connected to any adjacent building. DEMOLITION: When a par t of the building is demolished, changing the architecture. EXPANSION: When another space is added to the existing building. These strategies holistically decide the nature of intervention or the basic concept of working on an existing
building. These strategies can differ or can be modified according to various building typologies. Here, are few examples from the mentioned strategies, which are applied in different manners.
Eberstadtâ€™s Rucksack House: ADDTION This structure is a 9 square meter room that can be added to any existing residential building. The point of the design is to add extra space to cramped apar tments. It is classified as an addition because there in an existing structure and the Rucksack House can be attached or added with no other modifications to the existing design.
F1.4 Eberstadtâ€™s Rucksack House
Wohlfahrt-Laymann House: EXTENSION The design for this modification was based off of a need for a permanent expansion to a cottage.The resulting design was a sor t of shell that was built completely around the existing house with minimal renovations to it. The shell completely transforms the building on all sides by adding more space. The point of complementary architecture is to complete a building. The first building was too small, and the second structure completes the building by adding more space, and complementing the programmatic design as well as the aesthetic appeal.
F1.5 Wohlfahr t-Laymann House
Spiral House: CONNECTION This renovation is an example of connection. This structure connects the existing farmhouse to the site, and connects the public and private spaces. Originally the owners wanted more space as well as guest rooms. Beforehand, the farmhouse was a classic design and the new design is extremely innovative, yet simple. On their own, neither would be anything special but they work extremely well together to create a programmatic spiral with a patio in the middle. This complementary relationship is very effective in addition to reaching the predetermined goal.
F1.6 Spiral House
1.3 INDUSTRIAL FABRICS Industrial sites are an impor tant par t of our built environment and landscape. They provide tangible and intangible links to our past have great potential to play significant roles in the futures of our cities, towns and rural environment. The remains of an industry include dramatic building landscapes, sites and precincts as well as more everyday structures and spaces that work together to give our cities, towns, regions their character. [1.9]
F1.7 Industries and Its Role in Society
An industry in a city is connected directly and indirectly with the society at many levels. It adds economic value to a country, creates a sense of community in all the working class people and in itself deriving a new culture. Hence, reusing an industrial site will automatically link itself to the greater good for the citizens Industrial landscapes involve various kinds of structures. As a complex it has different architectural typologies coming together to serve different purposes. Hence, together it creates interesting set of buildings, with chimneys towering the skyline to demarcate the zone. Bernd and Hilla Becher, German Photographers, have since long documenting industries through European industrial landscapes and world, and creating an interesting set of photographs of industries throughout time. This collection gives an overall impression of how industries were an impor tant par t in 19th Century in urban scenario. These photos include individual building typologies to massive structures and industrial plots. [F1.8, F1.9, F1.10, F1.11, F1.12]
[1.9] Heritage Council Victoria. â€œAdaptive Reuse of Industrial Heritage : Opportunities & Challenges.â€? 2013. Architecture Insights Web Site.
F1.8 Bethlehem, Pennsylvania (1986), USA
F1.9 Duisburg-Bruckhausen, Germany (1999)
F1.10 Charleroi-Montignies (1971), Belgium
F1.11 Fforchaman Colliery, Rhondda Valley, South Wales (1966), UK
[F1.12] Industrial Facades, 1978-1992 The set of industrial facades, are collection of photographs by Bernd and Hilla Becher. This collection shows various interpretations of an industrial building with its variations in the elevations. It shows different kind of roof structures interpreted with multiple explorations. These have been captured over the time of 14 years. There is a very strong language throughout all these facades.
F1.13 Process of Utilisation
Abandoned derelict Industrial Buildings are considered to be assets for urban growth of the city. Changing in function happens at several levels after abandonment. There can be several reasons of abandonment of any industry. It varies from political, to economical and cultural changes in a city. Globalization is one of the major reasons of the shutting down of industries in 19th Century leaving acres of land dysfunctional. These lands have high potential to create a new face of the city, hence lot of effor ts are being put into its reuse. These sites are looked upon as a public domain. Hence, the kind of reuse matters as well. The new use, and the level of changes require to accommodate that use, needs to be compatible with and appropriate to the heritage significance of the place. Many
industrial heritage sites are reused as facilities for the ar ts and creative industries. The aesthetic of industrial places is often readily compatible with ar ts where the building fabric can be retained. Adapting industrial sites for multiresidential reuse can have much more significant impacts than other uses. Industrial Heritage can have an impor tant role in regeneration of decayed or declining areas reinforcing urban character and identity, increasing amenity and acting as the focus of economic development. The continuity that reuse implies may provide psychological stability for communities facing sudden end of long standing sources of employment. Broader strategies and approached to reusing entire suburbs are also impor tant for urban regeneration. This is adaptive reuse on a larger scale. One of the most recognized significant example, is the Ruhr in Germany, now the site of the Industrial Heritage Trail. Here a large region has shifted from an economy based out of on steel and coal industries to new economic system. Industrial fabrics, apar t from the mills, warehouse, also includes railway lines, docklands etc. Each site offers a unique insight into developing it individually. Where mills, provide larger interior spaces, railway lines and docklands may serve as open spaces to incorporate parks and other public amenities.
WESTERN CONTEXT MASSACHUSETTS MILLS APARTMENTS IN LOWELL, USA.
F1.14 The Boott Complex, Before
F1.15 The Boott Complex, Today
The Boott Mills complex stretches along the Merrimack River like a for tress, a 179-year-old set of connected brick buildings that once housed roaring hydroelectric textile factories in the hear t of Lowell, Mass. It represented of the mills that launched Lowell and other towns like it to prominence during the Industrial Revolution, and then left them in economic decline in the second half of the 20th century. The restored set of connected factory buildings comprises of a combined 232 apar tments, 39 condo units, commercial space, and a museum run by the National Park Service. he entire Boott complex itself is 810,000 square feet, and had been renovated piecemeal since the 1980s, in par t by the park service and an initial developer whose condo project stalled due to the recession.
HIGH LINE IN NEW YORK, USA. Another highly renowned international example is the High Line in New York, the conversion of an old elevated freight rail line into a linear park, The project was begun by two residents who successfully lobbied to keep the structure and then worked with the City of New York to develop the park. The recycling of the railway into an urban park has brought on the revitalization of Chelsea. The designers were landscape architect James Corner of Field Operations and the architecture firm of Diller Scofidio + Renfro, who joined forces to produce the winning scheme in a competition that pitted them against such notables as Zaha Hadid, Steven Holl, and landscape architect Michael Van Valkenburgh. Their plan struck a balance between refinement and the rough-hewn, industrial quality of the High Line.
F1.16 High Line, New York
2.1 GIRANGAON (MILL VILLAGE) MUMBAI A vision that was expected to endure for several centuries was shattered within a matter of just fifteen decades – from 1856 when the first cotton mill was set up in Tardeo by a Parsi, Nanabhai Davar, to the mill workers’ strike of 1982-83 when the dream began to sour for all its many players – the mill owners, the authorities, the workers of Girangaon and above all, Mumbai’s citizen – and many maneuvers later, to the final blow in 2006, with a Supreme Cour t judgement in favour of the mill owners. With new developments such as residential and commercial complexes, shopping malls and multiplexes, all sans basic infrastructure, what will soon be left in the city is a mere memory of what was once one of the largest textile manufacturing centre in the world. [2.1]
F2.1 Kohinoor and other mills at Dadar, 1920. Photograph Courtesy: Sharada Dwivedi
2.1.1 MILLS, A HISTORY The genesis of the textile and other industries can be traced back to the mid 18th-century. The decade of 1850s brought about a gradual transformation of Bombay from a trading and agrarian centre into a manufacturing town, primarily as a result of the Industrial Revolution in the West, which finally manifested itself at Bombay and brought with it new sources of power, modern machinery, contemporary forms of architecture and changing lifestyles. The cotton boom of the mid- 1860s which began with the American Civil War in 1861, stimulated fur ther enterprise and by 1865, 10 textile mills employing over 6500 mill workers had been established by industrial magnates who had switched their activity from trading to industry. By 1880, 42 spinning and weaving mills were set up, increasing to 68 in 1885, 94 in 1890, 102 in 1895,
[2.1] Dwivedi, Sharada. “Past Time: Layers of History and Culture.” Mills For Sale. Ed. Darryl D’Monte. Mumbai: Marg Publications, 2006; p 76, 77.
and an astonishing 136 by 1900. The textile industry, which was offered many incentives in terms of long leases extending to 999 years, not only shaped the economic history of the city, but even more impor tantly, boosted economic growth and employment, as also the volume of trade through the por t. [2.2]
2.1.2 MILLS, AN IDENTITY Mills occupy 600 acres of prime proper ty in midtown Mumbai. The city has some of the most expensive real estate in the world and the sale of mill land is literally like a matter of life and death for mill owners and trade unionists. [2.3]
F2.2 Mumbai Skyline
The rapid growth in mills was sustained by a large migration of workers into the city. Initially, mill owners constructed chawls to meet the growing demand for workers’ housing by building sprawling residential blocks. As people continued to pour into the city, the demand for housing increased phenomenally, the number almost doubled in 1921 compared to 1881. The areas in which they settled close to the mills, comprising Tardeo, Byculla, Mazgaon, Reay Road, Lalbaug Parel, Naigaum, Sewri, Worli and Prabhadevi came to be known as Girangaon, village of the mills. [2.4] This balance between livelihoods, housing, environment, social and cultural institutions, active political par ticipation, all impar ted a unique quality of life to this working class district. The mill lands were limited to the mill workers and associates, hence, for the people of the city the towering chimneys, became a strong identity associating with city’s industrial skyline.
2.1.3 MILLS, AS CHARACTER The survey of the mills reveal cer tain typical features. They are vast and span entire city blocks with access from two or three streets. The buildings which cover the major por tion of the land can be categorized into four types:
F2.3 Type 1: Saw-tooth Profile [2.2] Dwivedi, Sharada. “Past Time: Layers of History and Culture.” Mills For Sale. Ed. Darryl D’Monte. Mumbai: Marg Publications, 2006; p 78. [2.3] Social Dimensions; Mumbai Pages; http://theory.tifr.res. in/bombay/history/cotton.html [2.4] Dwivedi, Sharada. “Past Time: Layers of History and Culture.” Mills For Sale. Ed. Darryl D’Monte. Mumbai: Marg Publications, 2006; p 79.
1) The first type are the ground floor sheds for weaving and processing, spanning vast areas, having a saw tooth profile side elevation, lit by nor th-light glazing, with south sloping roofs suppor ted by trusses and columns. In the earliest mills, the trusses and columns are of wood and the roofs of Mangalore tiles over wooden boarding and battens. Most of these sheds are sturdy and well lit. Their south facing roofs, form ideal slopes for solar panel arrays. Internally, these sheds have a good height below the truss that could be exploited by creating
mezzanine spaces to offset the floor coverage. 2) The second type of the building is, typically, a solid rectangular block of ground and 2-3 storeyed construction, mainly used for the spinning of yarn. The periphery walls of this structure are load bearing. The internal space is divided into equally spaced bays by cast-iron columns which suppor t brick jack-arch floors above. Their modular construction, good floor to ceiling heights and capacity to withstand heavy loading allow for a variety of uses. 3) The third type of structure is the tower blocks and chimneys, structures that form the visual critical elements of the mills. They are usually located alongside the main storeyed spinning block and complement its horizontal bulk profile with their ver ticality. The tower block is actually the dust chimney, a small rectangular square room in plan, hollow from within and rising ver tically upward without any openings until it projects out over the roofs of the main block it adjoins. The mill chimneys form reference points in Central Mumbai, even today. 4) The four th type, are the ancillary structures that surround the main buildings. Every mill has to have water for its reprocessing. This water is often stored in an open sur face reservoir. These water bodies surrounded by trees and greenery balances the rest of the industrial land. They serve for fighting fires both in the mills and the immediate vicinity. [2.5] A complex network of chawls, markets, maidans, and social institutions spread out from the mill gates, integrating the neighbourhood outside with the factory inside. The chawls are four to five storeyed box-like buildings housing a number of one-room tenements accessed from a common corridor, at the end of which are located toilet blocks. When such modest chawls face the main ar terial roads, the facades are highlighted with NeoClassical architectural elements as an appropriate urban response. [2.6]
F2.4 Type 2: Warehouse
F2.5 Type 3: Chimney
F2.6 Type 4: Ancillary; Waterbody
F2.7 Mill Worker Housing, Chawls
[2.5] Cardoz David, A Report to Correa Committee on the Survey of the Cotton Mills of Central Mumbai, 1996. [2.6] Adarkar Neera, Mumbaiâ€™s Industrial Landscape; Mills For Sale, 2006, p 84.
2.2 DECLINATION OF MUMBAI MILLS Defunct: (adjective) No longer existing or functioning Piecemeal: (adjective & adverb) Characterized by unsystematic par tial measures taken over a period of time Stakeholder: (noun) A person with an interest or concern in something, especially a business.
F2.8 Timeline of Decline of Mumbai Mills, from 1982 Strike Onwards
In mid 19th century textile industry experienced several technological changes all over the world. The conventional handloom technology was now over taken by modern machineries. Mill owners diver ted their profits to star t other industries instead of using them back into the textile industry, so there was no modernization of the mills. Reservation policies and adverse taxation discouraged the mill owners from investing more in the industry. Hence, by 1980’s it became uneconomical to maintain large scale industrial units within the city limits on account of high power and tax costs. [2.7] In order to close the mills and force workers to accept voluntary retirement, mill owners regularly stopped workers’ wages for months on end, starving them into submission. They did not pay other dues so workers were compelled to agree to unjust settlements. [2.8] Such injustice, led to one of the biggest strike in world history by the mill workers. The 18 month long textile strike under the leadership of Dr.Samant in 1982-83 became the ultimate reason of the declination. After the strike failed, during this time, the mill owners had increasingly star ted outsourcing weaving production to sectors of Bhiwandi and Malegaon. Labour in these towns was available at half the wage, for much longer shifts, without any protection. The closure of the textile mills in the late 1980s and 90s coincided with the Central government’s shift towards liberalizing the economy. With technological changes and economic restrictions; many of the mills were declared ‘sick’ and it was hard for mill owners to pay thousands of workers unless they were allowed to sell their assets. There are 58 cotton textile mills in Mumbai. Of these, 26 were deemed ‘sick’ and, therefore, taken over by the Government of India. The remaining 32 mills continued in the private sector. As a result of above situations, DCR 58 (Development Control Regulation) came into existence. In 1991, the government amended DCR 58 which allowed mill owners to sell their land. [2.9]
[2.7] (Nallathiga 2010) [2.8] Adarkar, Neera, Sandhya Srinivas and Alka Pradhan. 600 Acres of Mill Lands: For the Public or the Privileged. Mumbai, p.4. [2.9] Adarkar, Neera, The Lost Century of Workers, Mills For Sale: The Way Ahead, Mumbai, p.94-107.
2.2.2 REDEVELOPMENT OF MILLS Redevelopment of mills happened largely on the basis of amendment passed by the state government, Development Control Regulations 58. DEVELOPMENT CONTROL REGULATIONS 58 In 1991, in the changed context of the liberalization of the economy and due to the pressure of the Central government and the Board for Industrial & Financial Reconstruction (BIFR), the Maharashtra Government introduced Regulation 58 in the DCR, which allowed the development of mill lands, but only for the revival or modernization of the mills after approval of the BIFR. For the first time the mill owners were allowed “change of user” from “industrial” to “commercial/residential” on condition that they used the resultant funds for revival of the mills. [2.10] Regulation 58 of the new Development Control Regulations, which came into force in March 1991 provides development of lands of sick and/or closed Cotton Textile mills on conditions that: (a) One-Third of the land is given to the BMC for public open spaces. (b) 27%-37% (depending on the area of the site) is given to MHADA and PSUs for housing. (c) The remaining land could then be developed by the owner for residential or commerical uses as may be permissible under D.C. Regulations in force. Inshor t, DCR of 1991 intended to regulate the development/redevelopment of cotton textile mill lands so as to generate open spaces and public housing in the city, in a manner which would create coherent urban form. Unfor tunately, in reality this has not happened. Such revelopment that occurred has been in a piecemeal and haphazard manner on a totally commercial basis without any por tion of land becoming available either for low income housing or for public amenities. One of the most crucial reason this happenend, is the lack of any overall planning and development strategy seeking to create coherent urban form, housing for low income groups and civic amenities, and generate new employment oppor tunities for workers thrown out of employment by the closure of the mills. This is why the Government of Maharashtra set up a study group to prepare an integrated development plan for these textile mill lands on the basis of cer tain principles specified therein. [2.11]
[2.10] Adarkar, Neera, The Lost Century of Workers, Mills For Sale: The Way Ahead, Mumbai, p.94-107. [2.11] --, Extracts from the Report of the Study Group Appointed by the Government of Maharashtra in 1996 to Prepare a Plan for Cotton Textile Mills in Mumbai, Mills For Sale: The Way Ahead, Mumbai, p.110-132.
STUDY GROUP REPORT HEADED BY CHARLES CORREA As a first step, the Study Group appointed teams of architects, engineers, conservationists, to visit the 58 mills and appraise and document the various structures and other prominent features in each of them. Since the Study Group was denied access to the 32 mills in Private sector, the Repor t deals principally with the 25 mills that are with NTC and so were reasonably accessible. The strategy involved, NTC indentified mill units: -which were viable and whose lands should therefore be retained. -which are deemed to be viable, but which had amount of surplus land which could be disposed of. -and the land of the remaining mill units which should be disposed of. A systematic survey of structures in each mill plot was conducted by a team of conservation architects. This survey was conducted by visually examining all structures to identify their heritage significance, structural quality, construction technology and potential for adaptive reuse. Based on the survey of 28 mills out of 58, they were graded in three categories: TYPE A stands for buildings which should be retained and adaptively reused. TYPE B stands for structures which could be retained for their ensemble value, contributing to the character of the place. TYPE C are structures which could be demolished. The structural conditions of these buildings have been categorized as follows: FAIR are structures which are in sound structural condition. MODERATE are structures which require a few localized repairs so as to make them in fair condition. POOR are structures which require major structural repairs to strengthen them. The Study Groupâ€™s proposal of distribution of land, allows the owner exactly same amount of construction as in the amendment 58 (with FSI identical to the original 58). [F2.9] F2.9 Study Group Proposal of Land Distribution
The Study Group fur ther recommends: -The present division of land as stipulated in the DCR discourages the amalgamation of plots, since the larger the area, the less can be retained by the owner. The Study Group therefore recommends that the division between the City, MHADA and the owner should be fixed at one third each, regardless of the size of the state.
-The use of the land which is retained by the mill owner should not be restricted just to housing which will most probably end up at the luxury end of the market, but should also include use for setting up new high tech industrial units which will generate employment in the area. -The structure indentified as having heritage value should be so designated by the Mumbai Heritage Conservation Committee in order that they must be preserved and recycled to accommodate studios and offices. -The present DC Regulations stipulate that the comprehension for land surrendered to BMC should be used only for the public open spaces. The Study Group however recommends that such land could also be used for other social facilities like schools, clinics, or community centres, depending upon the needs of the neighbourhood. The work of the Study Group is limited just to the mill plots themselves. To bring about more comprehensive and decisive urban renewal, detailed planning will have to be under taken to address many problems of the area such as chawl reconstruction, housing for the pavement dwellers, parking of inter-city buses etc. [2.12]
POLITICS The government recognized the need for integrated planning required by Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning (MR&TP) Act for the development of this large area where the mills are all situated, so as to avoid piecemeal action. It appointed the Study Group, who suggested measures to improve transpor t and connectivity, and public and open spaces. The repor t of the group was submitted in 1996, but no action was taken on its recommendations, and it has never been made public. In 2000, the state government appointed another committee under Minister of Textiles, to revise the mill land sale policy and to look upon mill workers and owners. This committee submitted its repor t in 2001. In March 2001, under section 37 of the MR&TP Act the government amended DCR 58. Besides modifying the original regulation, this changed the very basis for calculating the land to be surrendered for open space and housing. Instead of considering the entire open land and land after demolition of structures for calculating the area to be surrendered as in the original regulation, it substituted the words “open lands and balance FSI” and dropped the words “lands under the structures”. This reduced the area to be surrendered. [2.13] In 2005, BEAG and other NGO workers files petition against the amendment in High Cour t. Mills
[2.12] --, Extracts from the Report of the Study Group Appointed by the Government of Maharashtra in 1996 to Prepare a Plan for Cotton Textile Mills in Mumbai, Mills For Sale: The Way Ahead, Mumbai, p.110-132. [2.13] Correa, Charles, Recycling Urban Land, Mills For Sale: The Way Ahead, Mumbai, p.30.
owners appeals to the Supreme Cour t which lifts the stay and upholds the validity of DC Amendment. In 2006, INTACH files case in the High Cour t to protect heritage structures in the mills. Cour t orders listing and stays fur ther demolition of mills.Thus, city loses one time opportunity to obtain roughly 400 acres for housing and open space.
CENSUS OF MILLS AS PER 2006
F2.10 Map of Private-MSTC-NTC Mills Across the City
25 | National Textile Corporation Mills 1 | Metal Scrap Trade Corporation Mills 32 | Private Mills
2.2.3 FROM CULTURAL TO COMMERCIAL “…The character of social relations in Girangaon, as well as its place within the city as a whole, charged substantially since its formation in the late nineteenth century. In the early twentieth century, the neighbourhood represented the most crucial social arena in which the solidarities of the working classes in Bombay were forged. In fact, in important ways, the social relations of the neighbourhood, particularly in the case of Girangaon, were constituted neither by social homogeneity nor by a harmony created by the act of living together but by political conflict, at various levels, from the family and the chawl to the mill and the state. At the end of the twentieth century, as the cotton textile industry was dismantled, the politics of urban space impinged upon the residents of Girangaon, and indeed of the city as a whole, in a radically different way.” [2.14] As Rajnarayan Chandavarkar puts it in his paper, Mumbai Mill lands and its consequences have been more defined on politics of the urban space, which drastically affected the lives of all the people involved into it.. “Today the city skyline is commanded by towering skyscrapers, not by smoking chimneys. Builders, not mills owners or industrialists, are the kingpins of today’s global city and architecture, arts and cultural practice must reflect the new order. Heritage is, quite plainly, a smart way of boosting real estate values for high end consumption, and of turning down-market areas into upmarket ones.” [2.15] Making these mills into public spaces and giving them back to the city is more than just an abstract dilemma of land-use or planning policy. There is notable change of perception of Girangaon, which once was closed to the citizens, is now being dominated and governed by the non associated entities, like planners and builders. Mills just got commercial. Constant changes in the norms of land distribution by the government, changed the perception of the mill lands which once was culturally rich is now commercially rich. [F2.11]
STAKEHOLDERS & INTERRELATIONSHIPS Over the past ten years, different groups from architects, historians, activists, and media practitioners have been documenting the city’s post industrial landscapes & identifying multiple issues, ranging from economical, political, ar ts, architectural, social, films & media, etc. The diagram [F2.12] shows the relationship of stakeholders with mill lands in two different political situation, before and after the 18 month strike, which changed the scenario and impor tance of the mill lands.
F2.11 Changes in Land Distribution according to Development Regulation Control 58
[2.14] Chandavarkar, Rajnarayan, From neighbourhood to Nation: The Rise and Fall of the Left in Bombay’s Girangaon in the Twentieth Century, p.3. [2.15] Krishnan, Shekhar, Mills as public spaces: Mumbai’s Industrial Heritage, March, 2006.
F2.12 Interrelationships of Stakeholders, Before and After Shutdown.
2.3 OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS 2.3.1 POST INDUSTRIAL LANDSCAPE OF MUMBAI
F2.13 N.M.Joshi Marg, Lower Parel, Post Industrial Landscape of Mumbai
Many developers and builders have already redeveloped number of defunct mill lands. The land in most cases have been used for residential high rises, with commercial, retails and enter tainment sectors. Almost all the existing structures on these lands were demolished completely except, few where chimneys are retained as factory features. The first textile mill development was a shopping hub and enter tainment center, Phoenix Mall in 1996. Now, it has become one of the most iconic developments, where par t of the mill building housing a restaurant and a chimney (painted white) has been retained. This, now, acts as a symbol to demarcate mill lands. What is observed here that, redevelopment of hubs and high rises are largely done in the plots which fall under private sectors, private mills. Due to DCR 58, mill owners get to keep most lands. Private Mills are brought down and a flurry of redevelopment plan follows. NTC proposed a revival plan for 10 of its mills by selling the remaining 15. In conclusion, privately owned proper ties are rapidly changing with oppor tunities of reuse of existing and demolishing to construct, private clubs, office complexes, hotels with access to limited population of the city.
Since, more and more new developed spaces are based on employment from service sector; it also has influences on the decision making of function/program in adaptive reuse of defunct mills. Existing mills structures, for adaptive reuse are provided on rent with a lease-based contract system to young entrepreneurs. These entrepreneurs, to provide as a refreshment break out spaces in between the towering skyscrapers, for the working class people, adapt the defunct mills to conver t into restaurants, bars, eateries, bowling alleys and gaming zones. For eg. The Bombay Canteen, a adaptive reuse project, by cityâ€™s architectural firm The Busride, is one of the example of such situation. Lying in the shadows of towering glass buildings housing offices ranging from TV channels to Radio FMâ€™s, in the trade centre at Kamala Mills, the Bombay Canteen is the modern version of mess. A restaurant which serves desi dishes with twist. User groups largely involved employees of surroundings offices to elites, of the city.
F2.14 The Bombay Canteen, Kamala Mills, Lower Parel
2.3.2 OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS F2.15 The Bombay Canteen Facade
CHARACTERISTICS Industrial structures are designed on the concept of ample lighting and larger interior spaces which allows the installation and working of huge machineries to smaller ones. Common characteristics of industrial buildings of19th Century: -Multi-storey, with side elevation of solid load bearing masonry -External walls punctuate at regular intervals with large windows -Wrought iron or cast iron members in regular bays forming an internal frame suppor ting the floors -Covers larger spans and thus open spaces are obtained internally Nature of spaces in Mill and Warehouse structures of textile mills:
NATURE OF SPACE
NO. OF STOREYS
Large Single Space
Flexibility; Easy Movement
Small Repeated Spaces
Flexibility; Difficult to Subdivide; Ample Light
FACTORS There are several factors to be taken under consideration, while adapting these mill structures. Such projects often deals with the issues of heritage, historical impor tance, modernization of the place, to generate economy and thereby changing the urban scenario. About memory, what connect more with senses are the visual experiences. Similarly, the character of mill lands in Mumbai, is lost in between the jungle of high rises. Fragments of these memories are scattered around the city. These left over mills, today, are either in ruins, closed and inaccessible or are being adapted. Due to the developments around, so close to these structures, chances of architectural intervention by expansion or addition to the structure minimally reduces. Hence, to preserve the historical impor tance of these lands, larger exploration lies in the interiors of these structures. Exploring these structures through interior interventions and hence, conveying the history, oppor tunities lies within the field of ar ts and architecture. These fragments of mills are now looked upon as proper ties in one of the highest valued land zones of Mumbai. As a result, the interventions are regarded in the similar manner as well, to generate profits from the derelict lands by conver ting it into public zones, through restaurants, bars, gaming zones etc. Since, the final amendment in 2006, areas in Girangaon, now Central Mumbai, Worli, Lower Parel are regarded as gold mines. Centrally located with easy access to other developed places, this place attracts lots of builders and entrepreneurs to invest into it. The existing structures which are adapted are open to investors on contract based system. The lease of the space will determine the time period they can utilize the space for. Hence, the mills are now rented by the citizen to provide public spaces back to the city. Such system has time constraints, which will determine the kind of reuse in these structures. For e.g. a space which is available on lease for less than 5 years, one may invest into activities of conver ting it into functions like, restaurants, bars, enter tainment centers etc. Whereas, to occupy these mill spaces for offices, institutes or museums, the time of the lease may expand for several years. Other factors, includes the area available, which also influences on the decision of program. One may also look at surrounding urban landscape as well.
MANIFESTATIONS WAREHOUSE The Tote, by Serie Architects In between the greenery, in complex of Mahalakshmi Race Course, Mumbai, lies the Tote, a hyper modern dining and drinking place, which adapts the language of the surrounding. Simple warehouse space, has been transformed, by introducing new structural system which sits in harmony with the surrounding trees. Expressing the nature, this intervention takes inspiration from the vicinity in harmony. F2.16 The Tote, Mahalakshmi Race Course, Mumbai
F2.17 Bar Lounge
F2.18 Structural System of Banquet Hall
F2.19 Response to Nature [2.16] Design Brief by Serie Architects
â€œOur proposal follows this idea of a continuously differentiated space, with no clear boundary, into the envelope of the conservation building. A new structure is proposed within the old building envelope. The structural system adopted here is that of a tree-branch. The propagation of the branching system along the longitudinal section of the conserved building is differentiated in its growth along the transverse section. This differentiation reorganizes the old buildings with new dining programs. Therefore each dining program (wine bar, restaurant, pre-function and banquet facilities) is captured within a different spatial volume, defined by the variable degree of the branching structure. As the structure branches into finer structural members as it approaches the ceiling. When the branches touch the ceiling, the ceiling plane is punctured with a series of openings corresponding to the intersection of the branches with the purlins and rafters. These openings become light coves and slits.â€? [2.16] Here, the design response is inspired from the surroundings to create a new perception of a defunct warehouse structure. Interventions are majorly done on the structural system, retaining the basic architectural form.
F2.20 Banquet Hall
MILL (SAW-TOOTH ROOF) Empire Institute of Learning, by SnK Architects
On one of the major roads in Lower Parel, Empire Institute of Learning, is an event management institute designed by Brinda Somaya and architects in a defunct mill. The area of the mill is quite large enough to accommodate an institute programmatically. â€œThe conversion of a dilapidated mill into a contemporary and institutional space resulted in the Empire Institute of Learning. It was a challenging restoration and renovation project as it involved the transformation of a voluminous space of a mill warehouse into an institution comprising of fashion studios, classrooms, administrative offices, a cafeteria and an exhibition spaces. While maintaining the structural quality, the building transformed into a vibrant, interactive space that students could relate to. Structural elements such as the cast iron columns and the North light ventilation was preserved, while form and colour infused energy and dynamism into the interior spaces. Structural elements such as trusses, cast iron columns and wooden posts have been painted and left exposed to retain the original character of the building.â€? [2.17] The design response of program towards the structure must have been largely based on the availability of area which can incorporate a function like an institute. The interior spaces follow the structural grid and are designed in a manner that each activity has its own volume. The corridor space gives an idea of the expanse of the mill structure. The design decision to retain the trusses adds to the character and compliments the scale.
F2.21 Empire Institute of Learning, Mumbai
F2.22 Corridor Spaces
F2.23 Corridor Spaces
F2.24 Plan of Insititute
F2.25 Work Spaces from Inside [2.17] Design Brief by SnK Architects
F2.26 Before Intervention
2.3.3 MUMBAI, AS CONTEXT Mumbai Mills, since 2006 has seen a rapid development with lots of economical and political forces. Hence, for architects and planners working on reuse of mills, are already under cer tain notions. When projects of reuse are proposed, due to major influences from economical and social aspects, there come constraints. So what remains to explore the space is as an individual space, not in harmony with urban issues and historical values. More and more reuse projects are looked upon as a benefits and personal profits. What, once were a sea of mills together in Girangaon, now has lost the larger sense of community of mill lands and is fragmented in smaller pieces, which sadly are not coherent with each other. With its lost architectural landscape and disconnected sense of community, what remains to explore is the inside of these buildings. Hence, lot of oppor tunities lies in the exploration of the insides of such spaces, which can changes the perception of reused ruins.
3.1 DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES & CONSTRAINTS Constraints: (noun) A limitation or restriction. Factor: (noun) A circumstance, fact, or influence that contributes to a result. Intervention: (noun) The action or process of intervening. Perception: (noun) The ability to see, the way in which something is regarded, understood, or interpreted. Phenomenon: (noun) A fact or situation that is observed to exist or happen, especially one whose cause or explanation is in question. In Philosophy: The object of a personâ€™s perception. Opportunity: (noun) A time or set of circumstances that makes it possible to do something. Strategy: (noun) A plan of action designed to achieve a long-term or overall aim.
3.1.1 PHENOMENA IN REUSE In adaptive reuse, existing building plays a very crucial role. It is directly associated with time and hence allows you to experience the age of the building. Adaptive Reuse is more than just conservation or preservation of an building. It deals with how a new function incorporated can complement each other and increasing the value of it. Such types of projects are largely based dealing with the building specifics. It can be called interior architecture as well, because it deals with the space inside with respect to the existing architecture. There are two phenomena happening simultaneously when a user travels through adapted spaces. A user in that space sees through two realities at the same time. The phenomena are: (i) Architecture: The memories of the past | The existing building | The Old The architecture of the old, tells a user the stories about the time gone. The architecture, so to say, the remaining existing building, is treated as fossils to be preserved. They are considered to be of value, which shows the happenings of the past era. It gives hints of how the space previously was in use and the notions behind it. In todayâ€™s context, the existing building is read upon as a palette or set of ideas which constitutes the language of interventions happening inside. It provides hints and concepts to form a new set of experiences. The scale of the old, helps determine lot of factors for any new interventions inside. (ii) Interior: The experience of the present | The new intervention | The New The interiors, which are largely the newer members of an old abandoned building, have an impor tant role to play. They por tray the stories of the past, through new experiences. The manifestations of these interiors will define the old. It may or may not take hints from the existing, but all the interventions will change the experience of the existing. The experiences created by the interiors are modern impressions of the past. What can be looked upon these interventions is the manifestation of it. There will a dialogue between materiality of the old and the new. The juxtaposition of the new and the old creates an intermediate zone in which spaces of adaptive reuse can be placed. The two notions of the old architecture and new interiors are strongly positioned creating a dialogue. This dialogue, in context of user becomes perception of space.
The phenomenon of the perception of space is the resultant of the two phenomena of architecture and interior. Here, both are considered to be a separate entity. They are treated differently or take upon as different concepts and then are bound together within a site. The design inside, the concept, will determine the coherence between these two separate entities. The concepts or such sites are mainly based on the notion of intersection/merging/ placing of these two entities. These concepts can either be harmonious or in dissonance to create new perceptions.
INTERIOR PERCEPTION OF SPACE
EXPERIENCE F3.1 Phenomena in Reuse
The figure [F3.1] explains, as how the user sees two different phenomena at the same time, which leads to a perception of space. The red zone denotes the architecture and the blue denotes the interiors, with their respective occurrences. These occurrences are related to any situation of adaptive reuse. What differs will be the site within which the intervention will happen.
3.1.2 DESIGN FACTORS
INTERIOR PERCEPTION OF SPACE
FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTION
MEMORY SCALE FUNCTION MATERIALITY F3.2 Factors in Reuse of Industrial Buildings
The perception of the space changes with the site, context and building typology. It has a set of factors which affects the design decisions while adapting and also governs the concepts and notions. The factors are a response to the building typology. Projects for reuse largely involve dysfunctional buildings with typology including heritage monumental structures and industrial buildings. The heritage monumental structures have different approaches towards its reuse than the industries. The industrial buildings are large par t of lands covered with optimum structural system to provide large interior spaces.
In such building typology, the set of factors can be categorized into four: (i) MEMORY (ii) SCALE (iii) FUNCTION (iv) MATERIALITY These set of factors are a response to the buildings typology of Industries. When dysfunctional industries are adapted, these are the set of factors which influences the design decisions taken for intervention and hence, thereby affecting the perception of space on user. These factors are also response to the qualities of architecture and interior. Memory and Scale can be related to the existing building architecture, whereas function and materiality can be related to the interiors. Each of these factors is design positions in their respective manners. MEMORY: ( concept ) Memory as a factor denotes the existing building, which can be represented in tangibly and intangibly. The tangible aspect of the memory includes the physical character of the building, the architecture. The intangible aspects of memory include the user experiences from the past, as to how the space was used earlier. It involves the activity of mill workers in mill before it stopped functioning. In the case of mills of Mumbai, the memory denotes the existing building and the activity which used to happen inside it. It showcases the lifestyle of mill workers. As seen in chapter two, the architectural characteristics of the building has lost its character from outside, hence the interior remains one of the strongest character to por tray the mills of Mumbai. In design decisions, â€œMemoryâ€? as a factor will question as how these characteristics have been preserved and in what manner. It will also help to judge the strength of the concepts involved in intervention. SCALE: ( space
Another physical aspect, which is very evident in industrial structures is the scale. The scale of the building is one of the major factors of design decisions. The scale directs the whole idea of
manifestations to create experiences inside the space by the exploiting it. Lot of design positions of dividing the volume of the industries depends on the outer shell. It governs the space planning of any interventions. It is looked upon as an advantage to create inside spaces with variations. The scale therefore can directly control the perception of the space inside through its physical characteristics. It directly affects the visual senses first. Hence, here how the scale has been utilized can give us various notions of space planning while reusing any industrial building. FUNCTION: ( contrast ) In reuse the function of the space is dependent on the possibilities the existing structure allows. The function, the program which will be incorporated inside is a total contrast of the earlier function. Hence, the decision as to how the structure will respond to any other function than the mill is a factor which can be explored. The different function itself opposes the nature of the space, since the mill is considered to be factory with harsh interior environments than any other. Hence, automatically there comes a contrast between the function and the site. Hence, we can see how any design decision increases or decreases the contrast between the site and the function. MATERIALITY: ( flexibility ) Materials are the masters of creating the experiences. This factor directly deals with the senses of sound, touch, smell, taste and vision. It helps to define the experience by using and combining multiple of them. It also controls the senses of any users inside the space, by making them experiencing various qualities which once was lacking in the building before it was reused. Hence, material governs lot of design decisions including the execution on the site as well. The overall materiality can be decided as a palette or individually according to the concepts. In case of Mumbai, mills are an economical assets, hence the time to reuse the space given by the owner, are based on rental system. This means, that any intervention happening in a mill in Mumbai has a preset timeline, which may or may not extend fur ther. Hence, how this effects the intervention will matter a lot, in which case, again the materials will help define the flexibility of the space.
3.1.3 DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES & CONSTRAINTS These factors establish earlier can be looked upon as a medium to translate the ideas and concepts in industrial reuse. They can be read as an oppor tunity or a constraint in respect to any intervention and the concept behind it. Design Oppor tunity, means a way to por tray your idea in the best manner possible. In Mumbai, there is lot of similar spaces coming up. Hence to differ and create a unique experience, a designer can follow and explore these factors and can take them as an oppor tunity. Each factor can be called as an oppor tunity or a constraint with respect to the approach of the intervention inside. On a larger scale these oppor tunities can also help form strategies to deal with such spaces in Mumbai. Constraints on whole, becomes as design challenges or problems to which, a designer can respond with a solution. These constraints may or may not complement the concept behind it. In the third section of this chapter, all the factors will be analyzed through three different case studies. These case studies will be looked upon with the four factors which then according to the approach can be determined as an oppor tunity or a constraint. The larger perspective of this factors can help determine strategies to work upon these structures in context to Mumbai.
3.2 DECODING SPATIALLY The mill structures according to Charles Correa are categorized into three types to determine the condition of the building: -FAIR -MODERATE -POOR
F3.3 Survey Sheet of NTC Mill by Charles Correa Study Group
[F3.3] The figure shows a survey repor t of a mill by the Charles Correa study which was never published by the government. It shows how all the structures have been categorised in accordance to their condition.
There are two type of mill structures that are available for reuse in Mumbai: MILL WAREHOUSE MILL: A mill is the building typology with saw tooth roof profile, which allows nor th light to penetrate the space at various intervals suppor ted by column and beam structure. It has load bearing wall on the periphery. A mill is the main working space for the workers where the machineries are kept in accordance to the structural grid inside. The mill provides with ample of lighting due to series of nor th lights. These lights also acts are ventilations for this structure. Openings and entrance to the mill are on longer side of the mill. Generally in structures with only one floor, the saw-tooth profile is hidden by taking up the load bearing wall. So from the side elevation, it cannot be perceived. When in structures more than one floor, the profile is kept exposed. One module of the saw-tooth when repeated creates the volume of the mill. Due to the structural grid inside, a user visually perceives the space grid first. Hence due to the series of the space grid, it makes a user feel the scale of the building. It also visually breaks the space through which it is easier to read it layer by layer. A mill roof is composed of red clay tiles, with masonry walls as load bearing structure on the periphery. Old mills have wooden trusses whereas the newer ones are replaced with metal sections. The expanse of the mill is flexible, and can be expanded with addition of structural grid. While in reuse, the designer has to deal with strong structural grid, which influence space planning inside and defines it character. There can be other design positions as well where the grid can be neglected and can get interesting spaces in correspondence with the roof. Normally in a working mill, the volume created by the roof is barely utilized. But there can be interventions which can address the trusses and create smaller volumes through it. In reuse of these structures, one can exploit the scale of the space to achieve a new perception of the typical structure. For eg. The Loft. The Loft is an ar t gallery in Mathuradas Mil Compound. It houses space for ar tist and ar tist residences. The space has been utilized with white walls below the trusses and a mezzanine whichThe intervention kept here is minimal in nature as possible providing walls for display for exhibitions.
F3.4 The Loft, Ar t Gallery
F3.5 View from Mezzanine
Trusses & Columns Roof Outline Load Bearing Walls Nor th Light F3.6 Structural System in a MIll
The diagram shows truss system observed in the mill structure. These trusses are made up of wood with circular metal columns forming the space grid inside. The form of the roof is achieved through the wooden beams.
F3.7 Scale and Visual View Points of User in Space
F3.8 Two Type of Volume in a Mill
This diagram shows the various viewpoints and user perception due to the structural grid and the roof.
VOLUME TYPE VOLUME TYPE
Lower Volume formed by Space Grid Upper Volume formed by Roof
WAREHOUSE: A warehouse is storage space. The warehouse in mill was used as a storage space for cotton after its manufacturing. This space is usually single roof linear structure with metal trusses suppor ting it. There is no internal structure. The outer periphery is very high masonry wall with opening for specific uses. The warehouse is an empty single volume with pitched roof. This space has vents on the top of the roof to maintain the temperature inside. The scale of space is huge as it’s a singular volume space. While reusing this structure one can exploit the volume and create various orders of subdivisions inside. A warehouse wall is around two storeys high, which was earlier used to accommodate large packages of the products. There is no visual barrier inside the space. Generally, asbestos sheets are used for the roofing of ths structure.The warehouses can be found of various sizes. While in reuse, the scale of the space is the first approach a designer takes, due to the singular volume. The first act of design is how division of the space irrespective of other ideas. It gives a lot of oppor tunities to subdivide spaces and play with level inside, by making floors and mezzanines. To achieve proper lighting one can utilize the high walls and can create opening on higher levels as well.
F3.9 From Stage towards the Lower Levels
For E.g. Hard Rock Café, Mumbai, by Khosla Associates The café is incorporated in a abandoned warehouse, which is located between skyscraper offices in Bombay Dyeing Mill Compound. This café has a ramp in the entrance which takes higher than the ground level. While entering the café, the first aspect one notices is the scale of the warehouse, as the intervention done here, are majorly through levels without any ver tical divisions. Hence, one can notice different levels providing different kinds of seating for a the café. The Hard Rock Café is also a per formance space with live music as a par t of the program. Hence, to address the music side of the café, the stage where the band per forms is on the top most mezzanine in the space, where everyone present in the café can be see the per formance with ease. This lower par t of the mezzanine incorporates a bar counter with seating. The walls of the café have been incorporated with musical and spor ts instruments which a used can see from below to promote the notion of music in the café.
F3.10 Entrance, Ramp Leading on a Level
F3.11 View from Mid Level Seating towards Stage
Trusse System Load Bearing Walls Roof Outline
The diagram shows different types truss system observed in the warehouse structure. These type of trusses help in spanning of long linear warehouse. Asbestos sheet and red clay tiles are used for roofs. F3.12 Structural Systems in a Warehouse
This diagram shows that the scale in a singular volume of a warehouse. There are no visual barrier on the eye level. F3.13 Scale and Visual View Points of User in Space
VOLUME TYPE VOLUME TYPE F3.14 Two Type of Volume in a Warehouse
Lower Volume formed by Space Grid Upper Volume formed by Roof
3.2.2 APPROACHES & STRATEGIES APPROACHES: Approaches refer to the mannerism or methodology with which an adaptive reuse project is dealt with. The approaches tend to set cer tain standards to follow if in case of any peculiar circumstance. These approached may vary from different building typology. An approach may or may not be concept. Approaches may or may not be a strategy. An approach towards design means to take a stand, to create a design position which will fur ther help to resolve and manifest the concept. These design positions may differ from project to project, from context to context and from concept to concept. The mannerism or methodology which is applied helps to create a strategy fur ther. STRATEGY: Strategy in design means the method to execute any design. The term strategy is very much used for any projects dealing with adaptive reuse. The strategy involves specifics of methods, as to how one can solve of resolve any design issues. There can be multiple strategies or a single to one design issue. The strategy comes onto the later stage of design process after finalizing upon an approach or a concept. The strategy for organizing space will inform the plan or layout of the building, but itâ€™s the elements which plays crucial role. The elements are the individual components of the building. They are an expression of the use and of the character of a building.
RESPONSIVE INTERIORS [3.2] The approaches or strategies where the site is taken under as a crucial considerations and design decisions are based on it can be called upon as responsive interiors. The designer or architect may strip away or remove elements in order to reveal hidden meaning of the building, before adding elements that interpret this analysis and form the basics of the redesign. [3.1] Responsive Interiors can be catalogued into three sections:
INTERVENED INTERIORS: Intervened interiors are created when the architect or designer reveals the qualities of the existing building and translates these into new design. The interventions can alter or change the existing building.
F3.15 Intervened Interiors
INSERTED INTERIORS: Inser ted interiors establish a very close relationship between the existing building and the new interior. It consists of a single element inser ted into the space. The distinct component may contain a different function. Such techniques are par ticularly effective when the language of the new element is different from the existing building.
F3.16 Inser ted Interiors
INSTALLED INTERIORS: Installed interiors allow the existing building and the elements of the intervention to coexist independently from each other. They do not alter the structure of the size of the original space.
F3.17 Installed Interiors
[3.1] Brooker, Graeme and Sally Stone. Form + Structure : The Organisation of Interior Space. Switzerland: AVA Publishing SA, 2007., p.100 [3.2] Brooker, Graeme and Sally Stone. Form + Structure : The Organisation of Interior Space. Switzerland: AVA Publishing SA, 2007., p.101.
3.2.3 PROPOSED STRATEGIES FOR INDUSTRIES In case of industrial buildings, there are proposed strategies regarding the reuse of any industrial building. These strategies are: TRACES Intervention in which the strategy responses to the roof structure of the building.
Strategy in which without altering the structure includes it inside by covering it from all sides.
Strategy in which new structure of different language is inser ted/built from inside of the existing building.
Strategy in which a third element is incorporated to connect two spaces.
Intervention in which the land inside is used to create new space by removing it.
Strategy in which the existing structure is extended by addition of new structures from outside.
EXTENSION F3.18 Diagrams of Proposed Strategies
3.3 INVESTIGATION CRITERIA The selection of case studies were based on these factors: -The case studies should be in city’s most central area, which can be accessible easily with all means of transpor t: Lower Parel -The typology of the case studies chosen are “Mill” structure, which provides more challenges than the Warehouse typology while intervention due to cer tain structural constraints. -All the function of the case study serves different purpose; hence the methods of interpreting one typology can be read. -The case studies also include a chronological history, which represents the temporary nature of these mill lands. -All the chosen case studies are spaces which are given on rental basis, lease system, which may or may not extend in future, which becomes a major point in design decisions, due to the temporary life span of the reuse. CITY CONTEXT: MATHURADAS MILL COMPOUND
3.19 Mathuradas Mill Compound, Main Entrance
Mathuradas Mill Compound falls in the central zone of Mumbai, Lower Parel. -Parel, before shutdown, which housed maximum number of mills previously, is now over taken by high rises with office complexes and residential schemes. -The nearest local station, Lower Parel Station is 700mts far. -The mill compound falls directly next to N.M.Joshi Marg flyover, which is one of the city’s major roads. -It also directly intersect with Senapati Bapat Marg which connects to major areas like Worli and Elphinstone. -The vicinity consists of Phoenix Mall, at walking distance, in the southern par t, with Kamala Mill Compound housing major tv radio offices. -The locality houses chawls next to the flyover where the wall and the base of the flyover becomes a fish market in the day for locals. Hence, there is very strong cultural notion in the context which shows the original residents of the zone. -To reach Mathuradas Mill Compound, one can directly walk from the station to the gate, with crows flying over your head due to the fish market during the day. -The mill compound houses, a huge business park falling on the main road with high end cafes and eateries like Bluefrog, Todi Mill Social to small local shops of teas and computer repairs. -Hence there is very strong contrast in the context as well.
F3.20 Lower Parel in 2000
F3.21 Lower Parel in 2015
F3.22 Mapping the Mills
F3.23 Street Facade
MILL AND SURROUNDING CONTEXT
F3.24 Street from Station
F3.25 Fish Market, N.M.Joshi Marg Flyover Base
F3.28 Contrast Character of Old and New
F3.26 Inside Mill Compound looking towards Gate
F3.27 Division of Street leading to Cafe Zoe|Kenil|OML
F3.29 Backyard Parking, Alleyway
i kenil ii CaFE ZOE iii oml office
3.3.1 KENIL, ASHIT SHAH OFFICE PROGRAM BRIEF CLIENT: Kenil Industries by Mr.Ashit Shah DESIGNED BY: Jignesh Doshi Architects YEAR: 2007 OWNERSHIP: Ashit Shah | Currently, Par t of it Rented to Owners of Café Zoe ORIGINAL: A Defunct Mill CONVERTED: A Jewellery Designer’s Workshop | Office Spaces CURRENTLY: Half of the new intervention destroyed in fire, the remaining half works for the same purpose. TYPE: Inser ted Interiors Personal office cum home of a Mumbai based jewellery designer, Ashit Shah, this office is housed in a century old mill. The mill building is also an example of temporal nature. Completed in 2007, the office met with a fire accident, in which the first two and half bays were damaged. In order to compensate the loss, the damaged space has been given on rent, to the owners of Café Zoe. The remaining par t of the office is still intact and under use for the same purpose. The office here has been interpreted as different cuboidal volumes inside the volume of mill coming together creating a homely environment as well as a work space. Each volume of activity is properly defined. Each activity has its respective demarcated space. These volumes inside are placed together to create an interesting resultant spaces. The intervention inside the space has the vocabulary of juxtaposed volumes that are characterized by straight lines interpreting space with minimum, and the use of materials. The bifurcation of space is in two sections: -the factory area, with its workers and sor ters; accounts and storage depar tments -the aesthetically replete executive area that house the conference room, besides the proprietor’s cabin, design section, library and lounge amidst two other distinctly designer work-spaces and en expansive mezzanine for future use.
DAMAGED | REMAINING F3.30 TOP: Original | BOTTOM: Remaining after fire
DESIGN BRIEF The series of diagrams shows the concept of interior intervention inside a mill building. For the function of an office, architect Jignesh Doshiâ€™s approach towards the mill building was with the idea of utilizing the scale and the space available. With a perception, that the column beam trusses creates a strong grid inside, has been modified to merge it with intervention. The set of volumes here act as independent entity in itself. The resultant spaces creates an path for a user to experience miniature models in real scale. The aesthetic look of these volumes makes a user perceive it as a set of lego blocks to play, which the archtiect has been able to achieve. Every volume inside gives a unique experience and transforms mundane office spaces to a playzone. With incorporating elements like a bamboo planters, TT Table and a Vintage car, the notion of formality reduces. Users inside feels at home. The impor tance of each activity can be seen through the characteristics of the each volume.
F3.31 Exploded View of the Inser ted Volumes
F3.32 Plan of Original Intervention
DAMAGED | REMAINING
F3.33 Par t of the Space damaged in Fire
ORIGINAL SITE SITE PHOTOS BEFORE INTERVENTION
Original Space before Office
Facade Facing Towards the Street.
Wooden Beams | Metal Column Junction
Large Interior Space inside the Mill
Par t Front Facade Covered By Another Compound Wall
INTERVENTION Ashit Shah Office, 2006-2012
Staircase to Mezzanine and Other Cabins
Junction of Column and Added Volume
Longitudinal View, from Reception towards Workshop
Foyer & Reception with a glimpse of Exisiting Structure
Front Facade, Entrance to the Office
Use of Different Materials
CURRENT CONDITION Working as Jewellery Workshop with Manufacturing & A Shop Front
Lounge Space Now Used as Storage Space
From Entrance, Mezzanine Used as Workspaces
Longitudinal View, with Wall Dividing Office and Cafe Zoe
Shop Front Replacing the Previous Space Used as Conference Room
Mezzanine Space, Now Used as Assembly Place for Jewellery
(i) MEMORY Memory acts as a tool to retain the existing building and convey the stories behind it. In this intervention the designer has tried to explore the volume more than retaining the orignial grid of the space, hence there are bits and pieces here on the site which are retained. Scattered traces of the past in the site, juxtaposed with modern materials gives you the idea of contemporary time of today. TANGILE ASPECTS: For a user in the space the most evident par t of the building are the columns, trusses and the exposed brick wall as the backdrop. One can directly perceive this in the lounge area, while entering the space.
Here, the wooden trusses with weathered finish give a notion of time and the age of the building.
F3.35 View from the Lounge Space
F3.34 The Retained Wall and the Trusses
The exposed brick wall acts as a backdrop to the variety of material palatte inside the space. It stands out and acts on it own, just like the rest of the spaces. The columns, par tly seen and hidden in the inser tion of new volumes, makes a user realize the power of the intervention inside. Although, existing structure is not so much highlighted, as the concept of inser ted volumes. Hence, here the existing building only houses the bunch of spaces and allows the flexibility of exploring interiors. Intangibly speaking, today, in current use of the space, all the workshop activities regarding the production of jewellery, happens in the lounge area. There are clusters of things lying in the lounge space, which gives you the idea of manufacturing. Hence somewhere, you get the notion of a factory.
F3.36 Elevation View From The Entrance
(ii) SCALE As seen in [F3.31] multiple volumes comes together in a composition and forms spaces inside. These volumes act independently in the space. Each volume has a different activity and hence a different character. These volumes cover up the scale of the space. They are planned in such a way that the resultant spaces apar t from the volumes become an exterior in the space. They act as outside, which one can see with the hints of natural elements, by adding bamboo, pebble stones and other plants in it. These volumes are accessible through respective staircases and lead you up to the trusses. So, when a user in the space is walking through, there is another set of experiences in changing viewpoints. The play of volumes offers an advantage to create vantage points in space and see a different view on each corner. In the lounge space, the mezzanine around are open spaces which allows users to look through it. F3.37 View from the Lounge Space
F3.38 Multiple View Points in the Space
The span offered by the mill, has been used extensively to create interior spaces. Another observation, one can see here is the transition of open spaces to closed ones which goes from public to private spaces. The areas like proprietor’s and other cabins are more towards the entry, and gradually the it closes as one reaches the other end on the mill. [F3.31] These volumes on the upper level are workshop spaces and the cabin of proprietors’ son. They are private spaces which are less accessible to the visitors. In a way, with the play of volumes, the expanse of the mill is not experienced from one position. It requires a user to move around and experience in breaks. One may look upon it as an oppor tunity to truly delay the experience of being inside a mill by creating movements layer by layer. Or one can look upon it saying, that the expanse of the structure is not read due to the visual barriers. F3.39 Model by Architect
(ii) FUNCTION Activities that make up a Jewellery Design Company as are below. They have been categorized by their location in the space. The majority of the activities in the space are on the lower level. All the activities on the lower level have small area compared to the ones on the upper level. LOWER LEVEL
OWNER’S CABIN DESIGNER’S STUDIO LIBRARY LOUNG AREA SALES STAFF WAITING (COMMON) WAITING (STAFF) STORAGE SPACE SHOWROOM FOR EXPORT CONFERENCE MAIN STAFF’S CABIN X 3 FOYER ENTRANCE RECEPTION PANTRY TOILET EXECUTIVE TOILET COURT X 2 GARDEN WORKER’S ENTRY
INFORMAL SEATING SHOWROOM (MEZZANINE) WELDING MACHINE ROOM WORKPLACE X 2 SON’S CABIN TOILET HIS/HER
The upper level houses workshop for making of these jewellery. The upper level spaces have limited specific users utilizing the space. These spaces are private in nature, hence the have been positioned at the end of the mill, whereas the spaces below comprises of individual cabins, studio, sales office, lounge area and storage. The activities here have been organized in a fragmented manner. Each activity stands alone with interesting passage ways connecting them. Each activity has been considered in a very broken manner. They are fragmented all over the mill in smaller volumes. Each activity’s volume has a cer tain hierarchy in terms of materiality. For e.g. the owner’s cabin have plush interiors with a view of cour t and access to the library, whereas the other employees have offices with no exterior views. The spaces in the inner par t of the mill houses storage spaces and showrooms. The contrast between the activity and the space has been highlighted in the way they are manifested. The volumes defines a lot of notions and hence, there is contrast, that the design helps to make a user feel comfor table inside a crude space.
F3.40 Owner’s Cabin
(iv) MATERIALITY The set of circles shows junctions covering various materials that have come together in this project. What first one notices, is the contrast nature of materials used inside a building which once was a factory. The set of materials are very finished aesthetically. These finishes with the backdrop of exposed brick sit coherently. The existing structural materials can be perceived mostly through the roof. The retaining columns are hidden in between the volumes which make the character of the space free flowing compared to the space grid of a mill. The materials are used in patches and spots to define an entity. They have been used in a way to represent the activity happening inside. For e.g. Glass has been used in the ownerâ€™s cabin and other impor tant staff memberâ€™s cabin which gives a sense of hierarchy compared to the solid opaque walls of other smaller offices. The staircases are made of metal to complement the columns of the space. The volumes which are meant for spaces like storage and staff cabins have slid opaque walls defining the character. The use of soft furnishings is largely seen in the furniture of the spaces, which again gives perception of comfor t inside. All these materials come together to form a finite notion of comfor t in the mill. It makes a user more relaxed.
F3.41 Set of Materials
INFERENCE The approach of this design in the project can be an example of going against the nature of something. It is difficult to perceive such space planning in a strong grid of the roof structure of a mill. This projects questions the notions of a volume. The volume itself has been interpreted in a manner that each of them possess individual identity. All these volumes as a set come together to complement a mill, and change the user perception of space as crude and harsh environment. It allows you to perceive and go beyond the notions of subdivision of space. It is not necessary to follow the structural system. The interventions can be independent of that and yet can come together to create a harmony with it. The materiality of the space plays a large role in changing the perception. It affects the user directly with the sense of aesthetics. Although, there isnâ€™t any new language created here. The volumes can stand in itself irrespective of the site. Itâ€™s the juxtaposition of all the volumes coming together and creating the resultant space which led to a new perception of mill, works here. The materiality on other hand is common now a days in contemporary modern interiors. But the decision of them using inside an old building, is what it lead to perceive materials as an experience. In this intervention the user perception changed through two solid ideas: the volumes and the materials.
i kenil ii CaFE ZOE iii oml office
3.3.2 CAFÉ ZOE PROGRAM BRIEF CLIENT: Jeremie Horowitz & Tarini Mohinder DESIGNED BY: The Busride YEAR: 2012 OWNERSHIP: On Rent ORIGINAL: A Fire Damaged Section of a Mill (Kenil Industries) CONVERTED: Cafe & Deli with Live Music CURRENTLY: Working as Cafe TYPE: Intervened Interiors Café Zoe is Mumbai’s one of the recognized café spaces. It is a deli cum brasserie which serves all day diner with live music. The café was introduced into the mill, which was half damaged in fire. The mill is Kenil Industries Mill. The café is based on rent system with the owner. Located in the corner most par t the mill compound with an entrance like an alley, you enter the space through a large aluminium swing door. Designed by the Busride, the architects approach here is quite simple. The space is open and light. The nor th light plays an impor tant par t of keeping the space highly lit. The exposed brick wall becomes a power ful factor and the fact that you can see it right while entering the space defines the character of the mill. The café is based on two par ts: Bakery and Diner. One enters straight to the bakery with bar chairs on the right. The bakery then extends backwards into kitchen, hence defining the utility zone. While you enter into a single height space, darker than the double volume, it makes you conscious of the scale of the mill. The main storage of the café is on top of the bakery and the counter to form the single height. This mezzanine houses wine and other service things related to the café. The seating area for diner is series of sturdy wooden table with black chairs in rows. This space becomes the double volume and well lit due to the nor th light. This projects fall under the category of intervened interiors. But there are not many changes in the structural system as the architects approach only introduces the mezzanine.
CAFE ZOE F3.42 Transformation of the Mill
DESIGN BRIEF The intervention star ted with one idea of the mill character. The approach was to achieve the spatial character with just minimal intervention. The café is divided into three zones. -Diner -Brasserie -Mezzanine One enters through single height of the bakery, and directly views the exposed wall opposite. The shot spanned single height opens up to the whole volume which is well lit due to the nor th light. The seating space has a level next to the white washed wall which acts as stage during live per formances. The white wall dividing the next space Kenil Industries, acts as a backdrop for the per formances.
F3.43 Horizontal Inser ts
The horizontal and the ver tical inser ts are simply put with the notion of dividing the café in larger zone. Hence there are no visual barriers in the space. The ver tical elements acts as walls and par titions. The horizontal elements are the mezzanine and the stage. Below the mezzanine is the bar counter with bar stools and a few chairs around it. The lower par t of the mezzanine is the most private space in the whole café. The other horizontal element acts as an informal seating area with sofa’s and cushions during the day and transforms into a stage during the night.
The columns and beams are used for the suspension of the sound system for music per formances. F3.42 Ver tical Inser ts
EXISTING SITE : FIRE DAMAGED
Damaged Section by fire of Kenil, Ashit Shah Office
From Entrance towards the main Seating Area
Cafe Layout Seating Space
Entrance Single Height
From Mezzanine towards the Stage
(i) MEMORY: The act of placing the mezzanine where user can directly connect to the trusses, was one of the other major ideas of this design. The mezzanine indicates a user to go near and experience the truss from the nearest distance. The mezzanine acts as a semi private zone for dining and as a platform to view per formance in the evening. The mezzanine overlooks the main seating space. The cutout in the centre, connects visually to the bar and to get interesting view points. Apar t from the mezzanine as an act, one can see the edge of the exposed brick wall with white plaster defining the form of the roof structure. The trusses of the roof replaced the wooden beams by metal sections. After the fire, wooden beams were destroyed. So while Cafe Zoe intervention it was replaced by metal sections and cable. Even after the replacement, the original character of the mill is not lost. The act of taking the users closer to the structure makes the experience more stronger.
F3.43 Mezzanine in the Space
F3.44 Zones of the Cafe | Scale 1:200
(ii) SCALE Due to the single height entry into the space along with a walk from the alley outside, this experience turns into a surprise when they enter the seating space of Zoe. To enter Zoe, one has to walk down from the street outside to reach the gate, since the streets are so narrow that one has to park their vehicle outside the compound to enter. The end of this walk to Zoe becomes a surprise. The mezzanine with the railing and the storage area corners the central space from two sides. This act becomes stronger with the two walls towering upon the central space. These walls, the single height and the mezzanine makes a user feel contained. This contained space is lit by the nor th light and hence the scale of the mill is perceived very strongly here.
This act changes the perception of the space and scale for a user. Through this minimal space planning the scale of the mill can is perceived. F3.45 Cafe Zoe Entrance
F3.46 Resultant Central Space | 1:200
(iii) FUNCTION The function of this cafĂŠ is very simple with added feature of music per formances. The cafĂŠ opens up with the bakery counter and a small seating space for users who want to be there for a shor ter time. This is demarcated by a book shelf, open to all. The book shelf on the other side continues to be an informal seating space which extends onto the stage. The staircase leads upto the mezzanine with semi public spaces. The bar counter below the mezzanine becomes a per fect place to view the per formances as it is exactly opposite to the stage. The white wall acts as a backdrop. With the logo of the CafĂŠ and shelves running the length of the wall, it becomes a rather fun space for those seating on that edge. The composition of random things placed on the shelf comes together and form a modern contemporary space. The alley outside the entrance also becomes a smoking zone area.
F3.49 Walkway from the Street
The functions in these spaces are defined by elements more than spaces. The kitchen wall becomes an inter face for the user to buy any merhcandises. The level of the stage differ
F3.50 Mezzanine & Bar F3.47 The White Wall
F3.48 Mechandise Wall
F3.51 Per formance Time
F3.51 Material Palatte
The materiality of the space can be defined in one word: Simple. The set of materials used here are very coherent with each other. The color palette of the café is achieved due to materials used here. It includes polished wood chairs with black laminated table. The wall in white with one wall in exposed brick. The columns are black matte finish with sound system suspended invisibly onto it. The neutral walls act as a canvas to the interior space where everything is objectified. The exposed pipes on the wall are perceived as a composition rather than a visual error. To add another factor of casualness into the café, they have incorporated antique lamps, tables, cycle etc on the mezzanine floor, which gives the user a notion of casualty in space. A café is a buzzing place with people pouring in and out. This café does have the same effect, but with more impact of it being in a mill. The architects approach was to create a composition through simple lines. Hence all the materials incorporated here are linear in nature. With cables to wooden bookshelves, these lines creates an interesting harmony with a linear expression.
INFERENCE Café Zoe is an example of minimal intervention. It creates a subtle atmosphere inside. The interiors of the café makes one feel isolated from the buzz outside. The spatial organization of the space requires minimum energy to achieve maximum experience. With just interventions of involving a mezzanine, the resultant space becomes experiential. The materiality of the café is contemporary in nature, which makes one associate it with cafés from New York and other places. This association can also be related to Mumbai citizens. The user group involved people from surrounding offices, tourists, foreigners and the elite class of Mumbai. Hence there is a connection with the users to such interiors. It can also be stated that interior spaces can attract economically as well. So, there is a totally different user group using a mill in compared to the previous workers. There is a shift seen in the user groups, as these spaces are being objectified. Although the design approach remains quite simple, yet there is a conflict seen in the peculiar user group it attracts.
i kenil ii CaFE ZOE iii oml office
3.3.3 OML OFFICE PROGRAM BRIEF CLIENT: OML (Only Much Louder) DESIGNED BY: Patch Design Studio YEAR: 2012 OWNERSHIP: On Rent of 5 Year Lease Contract ORIGINAL: A Defunct Mill CONVERTED: OML Office, An organisation which organizes music festivals with designers are employees. CURRENTLY: Functioning as Workplace TYPE: Intervened Interiors The OML is office is a media firm, which was programmed to be reused in an old mill. The client’s brief to the architect was simple, to provide quirky fun workspace, with open plan for fur ther growth. To bring for th the idea of reuse and refurbishment the design was brought forward with ideas to reuse existing materials and object for completely new purpose. For functional adaptability the spaces have been created out of corrugate tin sheets, reclaimed glass and aluminum sections. The office houses young design students. Therefore the criteria of the workplace was to make a fun free office, similar to an environment of studio. The office has spaces dedicated to different depar tments, namely called by team numbers. The door of the office opens upto an exposed brick wall with reception and a spiral staircase next to it leading upto the director’s cabin. The office has been largely divided into spaces which are compar tmentalized. A central passage way with low heighted planters forms an informal seating element. Typical to the old mils in Mumbai, this environment and context, architects from patch design studio, readdressed the idea of office space by introducing a new order and a set of chaotic elements – conflicting themes in a rhythm. Steel is used in proximity to wood and colors are used against polish.
F3.52 Entrance to the Office
DESIGN BRIEF The architects have approached this space with the idea of total reuse. The elements and materials inside which are used to built up the office are also reused materials. Hence the office has totally weathered quality about it.
F3.52 Entrance to the Office
The planning of the space is compar tmentalized which easily subdivides areas for respective teams. These spaces have emerged by strongly following the grid of the roof. The architects have utilized every volume available by this mill structure. The lower floor involves workspaces for the teams which opens onto a central passage. This passage is demarcated with strong yellow lines make a user perceive the space in two equal par ts. The team areas have desks aligned to the wall in a very typical manner. Each of the adjacent team areas are divided by a low heighted exposed brick wall with frames of aluminum and wood infilled tin sheets and wired glass up till the ceiling. The mezzanine above takes you directly inside the volume created by the roof profile. These spaces are itself subdivided by the trusses are they mezzanine levels upto the lower beam. These spaces within the trusses forms wokspaces as well. The direct connection of standing next to the nor th light allows one to perceive Mumbaiâ€™s highrise landscape through its history.
F3.53 Passage way between the workspace
F3.54 Offices in Trusses
Floor Pattern Creating Visual Division between Spaces
Foyer | Spiral Staircase leading upto Upper Level
F3.55 Lower Level | Scale 1:200
F3.56 Mezzanine Level | Scale 1:200
(i) MEMORY & MATERIALITY This space addresses the idea of memory with its materiality. With the idea of reuse, the materials here are also reused to define it in another manner. This approach deals with the aesthetics. To sit in coherently with the dysfunctional mill, the spaces have also been created to look old. The materiality defines the character. With the strong square columns painted black and yellow with the yellow tiles marking the passage makes a strong notion of movement. The space planning is set as well in the manner, following the roof strongly. Hence, the next step involves the designer to implement the ideas of materials. Aluminum, tin, wired glass, is the materials which one can get easily acquire and cheap as well. These materials come together to form interesting compositions that subdivide the spaces. Despite of being strongly divided, there is still an amount of randomness seen in the space. The objects on the desks also becomes a par t of the composition of the space. The passage leads straight to the steps that connect the upper level. These steps have an intermediate landing on which there is small deck like space, used by the employees during lunch. This deck then connects to the either sides to go to the mezzanine level. The steps are made up of checkered aluminum sheet. The in-between space of the trusses is the strongest point of the design. The space utilization completely transforms oneâ€™s perception of mill. The trusses, what once were visual experience has now a different meaning. To connect to the next space, there door in filled in the shape of the truss. This doors acts as par tition to separate the adjacent spaces.
(ii) SCALE SCALE The scale of the space are strongly perceived by two design positions -the passage F3.57 Entrance
-the offices in between trusses The passage makes you feel the ver ticality of the space. With painted columns on the either sides at smaller intervals this columns gives an impact of the height. The columns suppor t the mezzanine with also dividing the internal space. There is strong perpendicular axis formed due the columns. This act indicates the parallel nature of spaces versus its subdivisions. It also allows a user to perceive the width of the mill. The governing factor that rules such design position is the fact that the strong roof of the mill impacts a lot in the making on inside spaces. One may follow it, taking the pattern and deriving subdivisions or may look at it as a challenge to bring out a different notion (as seen in Kenil).
F3.58 Columns and the junction above
F3.59 Columns and the junction above
When these columns meet the trusses, it creates a notion of a space, as though it is the connects of the upper and the lower level. There is an interesting junction formed when the columns meet the beam. One side of the roof is open when one can look down, whereas the other side is sealed off to contain the offices.
(iii) FUNCTION The users in any media office require a sense of freedom to work. Their spaces require a studio like atmosphere which allows one to explore. The activities have been typically divided into rigid rectangular spaces with wall aligned desks. The spaces for each team are arranged one by one with every spaceâ€™s threshold demarcated by the yellow tile line on the floor and the planters. The function typically requires studio like spaces for explorations. The members of each space are allotted workspaces. These spaces then act as their canvas to por tray themselves onto it. Its because of the materials used there is a sense leniency. The lunch space for employees there takes space on the upper level in between trusses. These spaces become a lounge space with bean bags and coffee lying around. The conference room is an open able space with sliding folding aluminum shutters right at the entrance. These shutters control the openness and it. While not in use, the conference room becomes becomes an audition space for music bands to per form.
F3.60 Spaces in between Trusses
F3.61 Columns and the junction above
F3.62 Columns and the junction above
F3.63 Openable Doors
INFERENCE In par ticularly this project the idea of reuse has been given impor tance. The decision to take reuse existing materials is the strongest approach. In par ticularly standard places to create an office, nowadays the approach towards office design are towards a mentally relaxed place. Only Much Louder, deals with music and graphics a lot yet there is a cer tain formality maintained in which the way spaces are organized. It has step to step approach strongly divided but blurred by the materiality which creates a peaceful and free atmosphere inside. The flexibility is seen in the attached desks to the walls which saves the space of a table and the surrounding. The par tition walls of glass tin and wood, creates semi opaque divisions of the workspaces allowing one to visual connect. The cement floor governs all the acts. It does not make a user conscious of its materiality. Hence, here, a lot of factors in the space are governed by the materials used.
CONCLUSION As seen in previous case studies, there are four factors which affects the design positions in reuse of industries. There can be lot of strategies developed on fur ther from this. The four defining factors: Memory (Existing Building) Scale Function Materiality can be considered to be oppor tunities in reuse of industries. While designing, the consideration of these factors can define a lot of these things in the process. These vary from small design decisions to take a stand. In the case study , Kenil Industries, the design stand taken upon by the architect to totally change the language inside lead to a new perspective to reuse these spaces. The idea of literally defining the volume created experiential spaces which also changed the perspective of the building typology as well. While in contrast to, OML Office strongly follows the grid to create physically mundane spaces. However, in that project the use of materials made difference in perceiving it. CafĂŠ Zoe, is one project where there was a subtle line maintained between the rough raw character to highly polished interiors defining its strong space planning. In all three projects, the commonly retained par t of the structure was the trusses. In Zoe, the wooden replaced the metal but yet it belonged to that era. The typical roof profile of this structure governed lot of factors in making. OML, incorporated spaces in between the trusses, which one can also say it was an act of space utilization. ZOE, tried and defined the profile with white plaster line neatly tracing it. In KENIL, however, the profile was not so prominent because of the towering volumes inside. The cluster of volumes were a visual barrier throughout the space. One can look upon these factors as an oppor tunity. Constraints come when one star ts implementing
it. Similarly these factors have been taken under as an oppor tunity by the architects and faced lt of constraints while working on it OBSERVATION
With the play of volumes, which exploited the scale more than addressing the existing, here I think retaining the spatial quality was a constraint, as there arenâ€™t any approaches addressing it.
By taking a stand to minimally intervene in terms of space planning, the mill character does not loose it impor tance. Other design decisions are precisely taken to not to overpower it.
The expanse one gets while reuse of any industry is not similar in other building typologies. Here, the architect has totally exploited the scale of the space in an interesting manner with creating new spaces inside it.
The space planning takes care of the scale by making the double volume feel as a contained space. So the boundaries of this contained space are very prominent, in here the white wall, exposed wall and the L shape mezzanine.
Functions in this office were taken at granted by availability of ample amount of space at one go. Hence, the architect took it as an oppor tunity to define each of these activities as single entities.
OPPORTUNITY All the functions in here have neatly defined without defining any boundaries. The smaller acts of book rack, shelves adds to the functionality in a very subtle manner.
Materiality, to define a character, had been taken upon as an oppor tunity by introducing contrast materials inside it. The materials also reflected the personality of the owner of the mill.
Materials used here are not too raw or not to glossy. Hence there is a balance maintained in the way materiality of the space has been thought of. It does not objectify the space.
OML OPPORTUNITY The strongest design position was taken when the designer star ted perceiving activities in between the massive trusses. It visually is exciting and the office space is now turned as an attic spaces.
OPPORTUNITY The advantage lies here, in the fact that each and every corner of the mill is accessible to the user which in itself is the experience of the scale.
CONSTRAINT The functions defined in here are in very standard way, which is balanced if not otherwise with use of materials. The office workspaces are more lively than the way it has been planned out.
OPPORTUNITY To address reuse by reusing existing materials is a very impor tant criteria. Such acts are been practiced at larger levels when any industries are dismantled, some par ts of the structural members are reused.
In conclusion to, While looking at all the four factors and zooming back out on to a larger perspective, one can see major influences from the practice of reuse of industries; AESTHETICS, out of all the observations from the use of materials and implementation of concepts, one can define it as rough interiors, or industrial interiors. The association goes to the aesthetics of ruined industries, by associating it with “Raw/Rough/Crude/ Harsh” Interiors. What once, was a weathered wall of an industry is nowadays taken upon as a design decisions in projects of different building type. In interiors, using a material in its raw form is also directly associated with “industrialness”. The core of this term can be related to the ruined and reused industries. The use of these materials also comes from the fact that the spaces are for temporary uses. There is also a consideration of cost due to the spaces given on rental basis. In relation to aesthetics, it is also associated with economical aspects too. As observed in Cafe Zoe, it foster interests in a user group from upper classes. Cer tain spaces are richly designed in a way which invites par ticular group of people. Hence, in a way there is subdivision observed in the community when such spaces are implemented. The reuse of industries is looked upon as an oppor tunity where one can relate to the term “from rags to riches”. The transformation seen in abandoned ruined industries to a sumptuous happening spaces, can be observed in the city of Mumbai as well. A lot of interventions in mills across the city do follow similar traits “from rags to riches”. And unfor tunately, it has been a parasitic growth in the area of Lower Parel. So, if there is one such intervention, then a lot more after that are bound to follow, unless there comes an effor t of a cultural intervention to reunite the broken communities together.
BIFR – Board Reconstruction
BIR – Bombay Industrial Relations BMC – Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation INTACH – Indian National Trust for Ar t and Cultural Heritage MHADA – Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Agency MIDC – Maharashtra Corporation
MMR – Mumbai Metropolitan Region MMRDA – Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority MOA – Mill Owners’ Association MSTC – Maharashtra State Textile Corporation NTC – National Textile Corporation
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ILLUSTRATION CREDITS The illustrations not mentioned here are by author. CASE STUDY: Site Plans & Sections given by respective firms. COVER PAGE: Shailja Patel & Tarun Jangid INTRODUCTION F0.1- D’Monte, Darryl, ed. Mills for Sale : The Way Ahead. Mumbai, India: Marg Publications, 2006.p.26. CHAPTER ONE F1.1- Google Images F1.2- Google Images F1.3- Cedrice Price, The Capacity of Linkages F1.4- Google Images F1.5- Google Images F1.6- Google Images F1.8-http://uk.phaidon.com/agenda/photography/picturegalleries/2011/november/18/how-the-bechers-made-the-boringbeautiful/?idx=15 F1.9-http://uk.phaidon.com/agenda/photography/picturegalleries/2011/november/18/how-the-bechers-made-the-boringbeautiful/?idx=15 F1.10-http://uk.phaidon.com/agenda/photography/picturegalleries/2011/november/18/how-the-bechers-made-the-boringbeautiful/?idx=15 F1.11-http://uk.phaidon.com/agenda/photography/picturegalleries/2011/november/18/how-the-bechers-made-the-boringbeautiful/?idx=15 F1.12-http://www.moma.org/collection/ works/48957?locale=en F1.13- By Author F1.14- Google Images F1.15- Google Images F1.16- Google Images CHAPTER TWO F2.1- D’Monte, Darryl, ed. Mills for Sale : The Way Ahead. Mumbai, India: Marg Publications, 2006.p.91. F2.2- http://millmumbai.tiss.edu/resources/photos/ F2.3- http://millmumbai.tiss.edu/resources/photos/ F2.4- http://millmumbai.tiss.edu/resources/photos/ F2.5- http://millmumbai.tiss.edu/resources/photos/ F2.6- http://millmumbai.tiss.edu/resources/photos/ F2.7- http://millmumbai.tiss.edu/resources/photos/ F2.10- Tiranshti, Julian and Elisabeta Gjoklaj. “Potential in Mumbai’s Post-Industrial Waste Landscapes.” Shannon, Kelly and Janina Gosseye. Recliaming (the Urbanism of) Mumbai. Sun Academia, n.d. F2.13http://mumbaipaused.blogspot.in/2014/03/nm-joshimarg.html F2.14- Google Earth
F2.15- www.zomato.com F2.16- Google Earth F2.17- http://www.serie.co.uk/html/Projects/tote.html F2.18- http://www.serie.co.uk/html/Projects/tote.html F2.19- http://www.serie.co.uk/html/Projects/tote.html F2.20- http://www.serie.co.uk/html/Projects/tote.html F2.21- http://www.snkindia.com/interiors.php?project=CONS ERVATION&catgid=30&projid=3&catgname=ADAPTIVE%20 REUSE F2.22- http://www.snkindia.com/interiors.php?project=CONS ERVATION&catgid=30&projid=3&catgname=ADAPTIVE%20 REUSE F2.23- http://www.snkindia.com/interiors.php?project=CONS ERVATION&catgid=30&projid=3&catgname=ADAPTIVE%20 REUSE F2.24- http://www.snkindia.com/interiors.php?project=CONS ERVATION&catgid=30&projid=3&catgname=ADAPTIVE%20 REUSE F2.25- http://www.snkindia.com/interiors.php?project=CONS ERVATION&catgid=30&projid=3&catgname=ADAPTIVE%20 REUSE F2.26- http://www.snkindia.com/interiors.php?project=CONS ERVATION&catgid=30&projid=3&catgname=ADAPTIVE%20 REUSE F2.27- http://www.snkindia.com/interiors.php?project=CONS ERVATION&catgid=30&projid=3&catgname=ADAPTIVE%20 REUSE CHAPTER THREE F3.3- Dâ€™Monte, Darryl, ed. Mills for Sale : The Way Ahead. Mumbai, India: Marg Publications, 2006.p.117. F3.4- http://www.theloft.in/ F3.5- http://www.theloft.in/ F3.10- www.zomato.com F3.15- By Mitali Dhruva F3.16- By Mitali Dhruva F3.17- By Mitali Dhruva F3.18- Setti, Giulia, Recomposing Urban Fragements, Reuse | Recycle of Industrial / Urban Architecture. F3.20- Google Earth F3.21- Google Earth F3.22- By Mayuri Talaviya & Author F3.23- By Dhruv Patel F3.31- By Jignesh Doshi Architects F3.35- By Jignesh Doshi Architects PG 60 & 61- By Jignesh Doshi Architects PG 62- By Author F3.37- By Jignesh Doshi Architects F3.39- By Jignesh Doshi Architects F3.40- By Jignesh Doshi Architects F3.41- By Jignesh Doshi Architects PG 70- www.facebook.com/cafezoebombay F3.60 F3.61 F3.62- By Patch Design Studio
Shailja Patel Undergraduate Thesis Faculty of Design CEPT University
Published on Apr 14, 2019
Shailja Patel Undergraduate Thesis Faculty of Design CEPT University