FEMINISMS: ARTS OF A WOMAN.
WELCOME. How does creative practice and education value the narratives of the nuances of feminisms? ‘Much contemporary debate has posed the question of the relation between race and gender, in terms that attempt to parallel race and gender divisions. It can be argued that as processes, racism and sexism are similar. Ideologically for example, they both con- struct common sense through reference to “natural” and “biological” differences.’ Carby, H., 1996. White woman listen! Black feminism and the boundaries of sisterhood. Black British cultural studies: A reader, pp.61-86.
Today’s Itinerary. 12:15 Lunch available 12:30 Guests are welcomed in to the lecture room. 12:35 Panel Introductions 12:40 Panel discussion starts 13:15 Q&A session begins 14:00 EVENT ENDS
Our Safe Space Policy. Shades of Noir is committed to providing an inclusive and supportive space for all attendees at our events. SoN believes all guests should be free from intimidation or harassment, resulting from prejudice or discrimination on the grounds of age, disability, marital or maternity/paternity status, race, religious beliefs, sexual orientation, gender identity, trans status, socio-economic status, or ideology or culture, or any other form of distinction.
Interviews. We are very grateful for the number of individuals who have contributed to this zine. Unfortunately we haven’t had the space to feature the whole interviews or work, we would therefore encourage you to visit shadesofnoir.org.uk for further materials. 2 // FEMINISMS: ARTS OF A WOMAN
KEY QUESTIONS. What is femininity to you? What does womanhood mean to you? What are the Feminisms you feel are common within the UK arts context? How do your experiences as a woman influence your art? How do your experience as a woman defines your career in the arts? How can your art be an expression of Womenâ€™s liberation? Is there differences between equality and justice within the intersections of womanhood? What has been your experience as a woman at university/creative industries? What piece of advice would you give to women planning on entering the creative industries?
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Michelle Gamaker. Gamaker is an international moving image artist and researcher. Her works integrate performance through documentary and fiction modes to focus on the experience of individuals who forcibly or voluntarily become exiled or marginalised. Her current projects are The Fruit is There to be Eaten, a post-colonial, post-romantic exploration of British directors Powell & Pressburgerâ€™s female protagonists from Black Narcissus (1947) and the docu-fiction Brown Queers, which explores the multiplicities of identity for Queer people of colour. Her feature film,Violet Culbo, in development with Film London (FLAMIN) is a magic realist road movie through Britain. The film reflects on the culture of suspicion around group practice in the wake of extremism, ideas of belonging and migrant experience in the UK.
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Liberty Sadlers. Salders works with mediums of illustration and moving image to explore issues of 21st century body politics, with a focus on the experience of living in a female body in a ‘photo-shopped’ world; the new visual rhetoric of perfection through digital manipulation. Working within a socio-political context, her work uses character and playfulness to discuss themes of food, ‘femininity’ and sexuality. Liberty Antonia’s work aims to open discussion about vulnerability, imperfection and inequality, with characters’ bordering between a ‘parody of’ and ‘pride in’ being a woman [exploring Gender Performativity and female stereotypes]. The use of humour as a technique of critique is the basis of Liberty Antonia’s practice, aiming to use it as a device to answer the unspoken dogma of one’s body being one’s collateral. In homage to the traditions of political satire, often included within her pen & digital colour illustrations and performance video pieces, are slogans & text, to combine word & image in the creation of ‘Fine Art comedy’. Liberty Antonia was the Winner of 2015 Lowe Nova Awards, her work has featured in NYLON & Grazia and she currently illustrates for Metro. libertyantoniasadler.com
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Dana J Mohammed.
Mohammed was born on the island of Trinidad, spent her teenage summers in New York, then moved to London Town to pursue her rock & roll ambitions. This unique blend of influences is evident in her music. Her solo project Ms. Mohammed sees her tie in her ancestral roots in India to her upbringing in Trinidad. Beats and pervasive bass lines provided the soundtrack to her childhood, before being thrust in to the culture shock of NYC as a teenager, where the lure of the electric guitar would prove to be too much to resist. PJ Harvey would be one of the first and strongest influences on her dark, bluesy, guitar sound, spiked with punk attitude. Today, Ms. Mohammed effortlessly fuses blues with bhangra, punk with soca and rock with reggae. Lyrical themes explore systemic oppression and poetic retribution in the percussive drive of Alibi, to the inevitable drama of polyamorous relationships, in the indie disco anthem She Or I Go. She is also the founder of Clit Rock: music events created to celebrate the feminine and raise awareness and funds for the prevention of FGM. danajade.com
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Chardine Taylor Stone.
Stone is a cultural producer, musician, DJ and activist. She was the program coordinator for the Black British Feminism: Past, Present and Futures 2015 conference, is one of the founder members of Reclaim Brixton and was recently featured in The Voice newspaper as one of the Women Who Rocked the World in 2015. She also plays drums in Black feminist punk band Big Joanie. As a writer and feminist activist her interests include art, Afrofuturism and music with a particular focus on the history of subcultures, Black womenâ€™s activism, working class feminism, Black queer identities and Black involvement in the esoteric, weird and downright bizarre! chardinetaylorstone.com
Zhang is primarily interested the presence of the digital human online, and its relationship with the physical corporeality as both an individual and social artefact. She employs performances, text and sculptures to attempt to locate the origin of shame and desire within both the corporeal and the digital body. In hope to answer the question: what makes us who we are in the digital age. Recent work focus on online dating, with outcome of her own experience conveyed through stand-up comedy and participatory performances. cai.gallery FEMINISMS: ARTS OF A WOMAN // 7
BA Fine Art-Central Saint Martins. Moving image and still image. Current Student
is not very inclusive of brown women, trans women and people outside of the binary. If feminism that is acknowledged by most people is the girl gang of all white and all hot women then i’m not up for it.
What is your work about currently? I‘m Interested in work as social object and how it is activated by the relationship between it and the audience viewing it. What does womanhood mean to you? The distinction between femininity and womanhood is important. Womanhood doesn’t particularly mean anything in to me, I do F**k with gender but use female pronouns, however I don’t identify with womanliness. What are your view on Feminisms? I’m more intrigued by womanism than feminism. I have felt that feminism 8 // FEMINISMS: ARTS OF A WOMAN
How do your experiences as a woman influence your art? I have a strange relationship with the way my identity affects my art. I used to paint naked white women , and one day in a crit someone standing next to my work raised the question; “you’re a brown woman, why are you painting white women?” I had never considered the way I exist in relationship to my work before. It was a fair point of course, my identity affects the work i make as it is engaged with critical theory surrounding race, cultural policy and racial politics. I probably wouldn’t be making this work if I was a white man, even though it would have been way easier to do so! Just because I’m a half muslim and a brown woman doesn’t mean that’s the only focus of my work. I do want my identity to inform my work but I wish my work could be viewed in the same subjective vacuum as white male artists. If you’re only being represented because of a specific aspect of your identity that’s a problem in itself.
What piece of advice would you give to women planning on entering the creative industries? When I decided to go to art school my parents were not too happy. Making art is exhausting, however if you really want it do it, even if your parents don’t want you to do it. Asian artists make so much more work than diaspora, people just want to reduce the work dilute it so it’s easier to explain. Really push the work so it is multifaceted.
What has been your experience as a woman in university? My experience as a brown woman in university has been alright, but I have heard some horror stories from other brown girls. Maybe art school is quite liberal in those terms. However, sometimes I see white girls wearing bindies and I think to myself “it’s 2016 I thought we were over that”. But then I feel too tired from sustaining that much anger, I’m too tired to call it out.
zarinamuhammad.com FEMINISMS: ARTS OF A WOMAN // 9
MA Fine Art at Chelsea College of Art and Design 2013-14
What is your work currently about? My work consists mainly of geometric shapes and pastel colours, and focuses on childhood memories. I have an obsession with the distant past and use certain colours which to me are childhood distilled.
“Put your hand in your pants. a) Do you have a vagina? and b) Do you want to be in charge of it? If you said ‘yes’ to both, then congratulations! You’re a feminist.”
Feminism is nothing more, nothing less: it is just about being in charge of What does womanhood mean to you? yourself and not letting people telling Womanhood is baring the world. you who you should be. What are your view on Feminisms? Caitlin Moran’s feminist test in How How do your experiences as a woman influence your art? to be a woman, 2011 is: My own experiences influence my art, not the fact that I’m a woman.
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What piece of advice would you give to women planning on entering the creative industries? Work as hard as you can, be the woman you want to be. Don’t hope for someone to believe in you first, it’s your job to lead the way. Us (2015) is a series of three combining painting and digital illustration. Us is a political piece made shortly after the Charlie Hebdo attacks in Paris, January 2015. Although the intentions of the artists were similar - the need of expelling political and societal issues - the subjects are proper to each artist; terrorism for Sonya and feminism for Caroline. A collaboration with Sonya Korshenboym. carolinederveaux.com
What has been your experience as a woman in university? During my masters, I was working on a long series of sculptures representing my stomach, The Belly Project, and it shocked me how much people would interpret the sculpture as an ode to sensuality, beauty; where the work considered the female physicality of pre-motherhood, birth and women’s power and weaknesses. It made me think of how much we’ve been conditioned to look at the female form though a male gaze - even in museums.
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KEY WORDS. Binary: The classification of sex and gender into two distinct, opposite and disconnected forms of masculine and feminine. Black Feminism: The belief that sexism, class oppression, gender identity and racism are impossible to separate. These concepts relate to each other through intersectionality. Black: A member of a dark-skinned people, especially one of African or Australian Aboriginal ancestry. A term used in certain countries, often in socially based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity. Body politics: The term refers to the practices and policies through which powers of society regulate the human body, as well as the struggle over the degree of individual and social control of the body. The powers at play in body politics include institutional power expressed in government and laws, disciplinary power exacted in economic production, discretionary power exercised in consumption, and personal power negotiated in intimate relations. Capitalism: An economic system characterised by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, by investments that are determined by private decision, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market Cisgender: A person who identifies with the gender that was assigned for them at birth. Critical Race Theory: A theoretical framework in the social sciences focused upon the application of critical theory, a critical examination of society and culture, to the intersection of race, law, and power. Desi: Person of Indian, Pakistani, or Bangladeshi birth. Dual Systems Theory: According to Sylvia Walby (1990), dual systems theory represents the coming together of Marxist and radical feminism--in the belief that 12 // FEMINISMS: ARTS OF A WOMAN
the oppression of women results from a complex articulation of patriarchy and capitalism. Other feminist perspectives have been formulated. East-Asian: In general terms, consists of China, Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan, Japan, South Korea and North Korea; sometimes, Mongolia and Vietnam are included in the definition. Female genital mutilation (FGM): Female genital mutilation (sometimes referred to as female circumcision) refers to Femininity: Repeated performances of the female gender; these performances reproduce and define the traditional categories. Feminism: Fight for equality of genders. Feminisms: Accounts for the intersectionality of the feminist movements and histories culturally and globally. Gender: Gender is an expression of the re-enactment of certain roles it may differ from time to time. Intersectional Feminism: This is a type of feminism that doesn’t exclude people from the movement based on their Gender, Race and Class. Intersectionality: A theory coined by Kimberlé Crenshaw which examines how social identities are used as a way to discriminate against certain groups of people. Liberal Feminism: The idea that justice involves the assurance of equal rights for all individuals. Liberal feminists say that women have been oppressed as a group and that they have not had equal rights with men, that on average women make less money, that women are excluded from centres of power, and so on. In short, liberal feminism deals primarily with the public image and the rights of women. Marxist feminism: Marxist feminists focus on capitalism as the source of oppression. They argue that the domination of women by men is a consequence of capital’s domination over labour.
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Masculinity Bias: Bias toward the observation of/interviews with males in a culture. Masculinity: The combination of socially-defined and biological factors, distinct from the definition of the male biological sex. Matriarchy: A social system in which females hold primary power, predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property at the specific exclusion of men, at least to a large degree. Muted Group Theory: A dominant discourse silences or muted groups that are not in societyâ€™s mainstream. Muted-Group Theory: According to Sylvia Walby (1990), dual systems theory represents the coming together of Marxist and radical feminism--in the belief that the oppression of women results from a complex articulation of patriarchy and capitalism. Other feminist perspectives have been formulated. For example, Rosemary Tong (1992) outlines seven feminist perspectives: liberal, radical, Marxist, psychoanalytic, socialist, existentialist, and postmodern. Non-Binary: A form gender identity which reject the gender binary. Oppression: Prolonged cruel or unjust treatment or exercise of authority. Patriarchy: A system of society or government in which men hold the power and women are largely excluded from. POC: People of colour Prejudice: Hatred towards someone based on their identity. Example: An oppressed person of colour can be prejudice against privileged races but cannot be racist. Privilege: A special right, advantage, or immunity granted or available only to a particular person or group procedures that intentionally alter or cause injury to the female genital organs for nonmedical reasons. Pronouns: A word that can function as a noun phrase used by itself and that refers 14 // FEMINISMS: ARTS OF A WOMAN
either to the participants in the discourse. People with various gender identities choose pronouns they feel comfortable with; some people may have more than one pronoun. Queer: An umbrella term for sexual and gender minorities that are not heterosexual or cisgender. Racism: The belief that all members of each race possess characteristics, abilities, or qualities specific to that race, especially so as to distinguish it as inferior or superior to another race or races Radical feminism: The term radical suggests the demand for basic redefinitions of all facets of society. This means that women must not only aspire to achieve the equal right to become a physician but that society itself must redefine the whole nature of medicine, especially in regard to how it treats the experience of women. Indeed, the answer to social problems can be a complete restructuring of how society defines human experience. Self Defining women: A person who identifies as a woman, regardless of what gender was assigned for them at birth. Sex: Denotation human females and males depending on biological feature. Sexual Orientations: A gender(s) sexual identity in relation to the gender to which they are attracted. Sexuality: Refers to a personâ€™s sexual orientation/preferences in terms of sexual activities. Trans Female: A transgender person who was assigned male at birth but whose gender identity is that of a woman. Trans Male: A transgender person who was assigned female at birth but whose gender identity is that of a man. White Feminism: A type of feminism that ignores the fight for equality of anyone who donâ€™t identify as white, cisgender and heterosexual. FEMINISMS: ARTS OF A WOMAN // 15
MA Painting, Royal College of Art, London. Chelsea College Alumni. Multi-media artist
What is your work about currently? I intend to express my experiences and observations as a woman today. “Ultimately, seeing alters the thing that is seen and transforms the seer”. Art historian James Elkin’s statement encapsulates my current artistic drive; to examine how visual culture and history alter our personal perception of our inner and outer ‘self’ or selves. The idealised versions of women presented at different times is a reflection upon societal projections of how women should look and behave. I wish to tap into these portraits and distort or present them anew through my own gaze. I look at current and past representations of femininity in contemporary culture and art history; drawing upon them, negating the obvious and allowing openness for interpretation. Through re-presenting and distorting elements of our current reality, paintings can create images that are at once removed from the every-day yet subtly allude to it. Representing stereotypes in artworks but with an absurd twist can be a way to highlight the absurdity that we in fact experience on a day-to-day basis.
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What does womanhood mean to you? For me womanhood is about feeling confident and comfortable with yourself. I strive to always push myself intellectually and personally, working on aspects of myself that I wish to be stronger and braver. This includes putting myself forward for things that I might not feel entirely comfortable doing but, having done it, gives me the satisfaction of pushing myself beyond my limits. I wish to continue in this vein my entire life.
also admiration and desire that stem from what I see or am driven by as a woman all fuel my artwork in different ways. Without always having a predetermined answer to some of my questions or concerns, through making an artwork I discover more about how I feel or what position it puts me in. In this way the artwork is a test for the results that a particular inquisitive urge can give rise to. At the same time as questioning ideals, I also want my work
How do your experiences as a woman influence your art? For me art is at its best when it can combine a material fascination, as with qualities of paint or colour, with a personal experience that comes from beyond the confines of the studio. I strive to make work that people can relate to on two levels and so my experiences as a woman have fed into and inspired me to make work. Feelings of anger and frustration but
to be bold and celebratory as I feel this is an element of femininity we should not forget to highlight. What piece of advice would you give to women planning on entering the creative industries? Have confidence in your artistic drives and desires, and to greedily indulge in these creative fantasies. neenapercy.com FEMINISMS: ARTS OF A WOMAN // 17
BA Fine Art, Central Saint Martin’s, Digital Art. Current Student
What is your work about currently? My work focuses very literally on the ethnic woman. In terms of my own experience I use the digital space in as a platform to discuss the ethnic self in regards to four aspects of minority: Caste, Gender, Sexuality and Race. What does womanhood mean to you? For me womanhood is sisterhood, it is the need to be hyper-vigilant and proving yourself. Being Indian, to be a woman is to be suppressed and overlooked. What are your view on Feminisms? I have always been somebody who has tried to move away from Feminism. I believe the ethos of feminism is still very white. When people talk about feminism it’s only including white men and women. For me it’s very difficult
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because if race isn’t an issue it will be caste, if caste wasn’t an issue it will be gender, etc. There are so many levels of oppression that feminism doesn’t address. I hate when people say if you believe men and women should have equal rights then you’re a feminist. I have a problem with labeling yourself as a feminist and not actively supporting the movement. I feel like I am becoming much more of what a feminist is through my work. In the future I hope to own a gallery that only/mainly caters to to ethnic women My feminist icons are the Gulaab (Pink) Gang, they are an all indian women gang who all wear pink saris and take matters of how men treat them into their own hands. This is the type of feminism I can relate to.
How do your experiences as a woman influence your art? The subject matter of my work is enriched with issues I face as a woman of colour. It would be difficult to move away from these facts. Specially when the market is so self aware. Even if it’s quite light hearted there’s still a seeded message in there that shouldn’t be underestimated. I find it very problematic when men make work about women, it’s the same as white artists making work about people of colour. If I could change something about life in UK it would be the feeling of uncomfort. To get rid of what seems like even the littlest of things, like being able to freely listen to music in public that is a different language. I want diversity to be celebrated. I want people to acknowledge my culture. However just because a group of people are from the same country it doesn’t mean we are all the same if you consider issues of caste and colourism.
What has been your experience as a woman in university? There’s such small group of ethnic people in saint martin’s. so much so that I get excited when I see people of colour. It worries me thinking I might have been accepted into this university out of tokenism. But I’m very lucky to have a really good tutor who accepts the meaning of my work when I open up about it.
What piece of advice would you give to women planning on entering the creative industries? I’m sure many if not all ethnic women go through a situation where their parent(s) don’t support their wish to continue their education in a more artbased field. I have first hand experience of this, and I can honestly say that if I didn’t do what I needed to do for myself I would always love in regret. So my advice to WOC in an Arts university would be to pursue your dreams and keep going with it, I’m certain it’ll be more rewarding than any other path you’re My hope is to raise awareness of forced to go down. Always remember: these issues. you have a choice, and that choice matters. seemamattuworld.com FEMINISMS: ARTS OF A WOMAN // 19
FURTHER READING. All resources are avalible in the UAL Libary system or online at google scholar.
Baker Jr, H.A. and Diawara, M., 1996. Black British cultural studies: a reader. University of Chicago Press. Bow, L., 2011. Betrayal and Other Acts of Subversion: Feminism, Sexual Politics, Asian American Women’s Literature. Princeton University Press. Bulbeck, C., 1998. Re-orienting western feminisms: Women’s diversity in a postcolonial world. Cambridge University Press. Collins, P.H., 2002. Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. Routledge. Collins, P.H., 1986. Learning from the outsider within: The sociological significance of Black feminist thought. Social problems Corwin, A.I., 2009. Language and gender variance: Constructing gender beyond the male/female binary. Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality, 12(4). Cixous, H. and Calle-Gruber, M., 1997. Hélène Cixous, rootprints: memory and life writing. Psychology Press. Davis, A.Y., 2011. Women, race, & class. Vintage. Hill, D.B. and Willoughby, B.L., 2005. The development and validation of the genderism and transphobia scale. Sex roles. Hooks, B., 1982. Ain’t I a Woman Black Women and Feminism. Hooks, B., 2000. Feminist theory: From margin to center. Pluto Press. Jackson, S., 1998. Contemporary feminist theories. Edinburgh University Press.
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James, S.M. and Busia, A.P., 1993. Theorizing Black feminisms: The visionary pragmatism of Black women. Psychology Press. Kolawole, M.E.M., 1997. Womanism and African consciousness. Africa World Press. Lorde, A., 2012. Sister outsider: Essays and speeches. Crossing Press. Luke, C. and Gore, J., 2014. Feminisms and critical pedagogy. Routledge. Mock, J., 2014. Redefining realness: My path to womanhood, identity, love & so much more. Simon and Schuster. Ogunyemi, C.O., 1985. Womanism: The dynamics of the contemporary black female novel in English. Signs, 11(1), pp.63-80. Pollock, G., 2003. Vision and Difference: feminism, femininity and the histories of art. Psychology Press. Robinson, H., 2001. Feminism-art-theory: 1968-2000. Wiley-Blackwell. Russell, K., 1996. Divided sisters: Bridging the gap between Black women and White women. Doubleday. Smith, B., 1983. Home girls: A Black feminist anthology. Rutgers University Press. Weed, E. and Schor, N., 1997. Feminism meets queer theory (Vol. 2). Indiana University Press. Weiner, G., 1994. Feminisms in education an introduction. Wolf, N., 2013. The beauty myth: How images of beauty are used against women. Random House.s FEMINISMS: ARTS OF A WOMAN // 21
MA Fine Art at Chelsea College of Art and Design 2013-14.
What is your work about currently? I’m currently exploring topics of femininity and sexuality, with a focus on the concept of personal “agency” [bell hooks, Feminism is for Everybody: Passionate Politics, 2000]. I’m interested in the concept of internalized misogyny, and the reinforcement of social stigmas, particularly in reference to body image and personal sensuality. I also work with role play, turning myself into whichever ‘woman’ (persona) I need to be at that thought process conjuncture [Judith Butler, Gender Trouble, 1990]. If ‘DRAG’ means “dressed as girl”, then I ‘DRAW: ‘dress as woman’; I draw with my pen and my body, a DRAW queen!
beyond the dogma of vulnerability within ‘Girlhood’ (female adolescence), and into a more personally secure approach of being connected to one’s body (and accepting ‘flaws’) and trusting & owning one’s decision making. It can also be self identifying, there shouldn’t be a biological requirement I don’t think.
What are your view on Feminisms? I feel the discussion of Feminism is at pivotal moment, because the conversation is going into much more depth in regard to specific topics such as race, class, disability, gender identification & trans persons. The analysis of privilege within the term has now become more widespread, which I think is very positive. It moves What does womanhood mean to you? the conversation away from being I feel that Womanhood is a state solely about heteronormative affluent of understanding. It is about moving
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historical figures/myths and text. What has been your experience as a woman in university? The discussion of Gendering of Art has never been so prevalent in my education as it is on my current course, MA Fine Art. I feel there is a state of flux happening within the Arts in terms of gender equality with women make up the majority of students within art courses, but the actual art world is still majority male (or at least the work sells for higher sums). I was speaking with students on Sotheby’s MA Curation course and they reiterated the same shift within curating: more and more women are entering the field. The binary approach labelling ‘Male Work’ persons and onto why and how such and ‘Female Work’ is something that I a flawed social structure has been find uncomfortable and saturated with formed, and how things can change hierarchy, and discussions of this can for the better. be fiery to say the very least. How do your experiences as a woman influence your art? The exchange of experiences is the basis for use of subjectivity within my practice. I know my more difficult experiences being a woman are shared by many other people, including the spectrum of physical aesthetics, the unspoken dogma of one’s body being one’s collateral & the ongoing acceptance of oneself (in mind, as well as body); these things inform my work everyday. I want to represent personas and bodies that some may brand as imperfect, but to do so in a positive light, using interpretations of stereotypes,
What piece of advice would you give to women planning on entering the creative industries? Ignore statements like “It’s a Man’s World” because the creative arts should be a meritocracy. Encouraging other practitioners, I think, is also an important element. The more each woman succeeds, the better representation there is, meaning young women will be able to see more grown women succeeding, not to the detriment of anyone else or to fill a quota, but because they are best at what they do. libertyantoniasadler.com FEMINISMS: ARTS OF A WOMAN // 23
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WITH THANKS TO. OUR PANELISTS & CONTRIBUTORS. Michelle Gamaker. Liberty Sadlers. Chardine Taylor Stone. Dana J Mohammed. Cai Zhang. Zarina Muhammad Caroline Derveaux Neena Percy Seema Mattu
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WE SALUTE YOU!
Feminisms: Arts of a Woman Â© Shades of Noir 2016
How does creative practice and education value the narratives of the nuances of feminisms? ‘Much contemporary debate has posed the question...