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THE ATTRIBUTES I THINK CONSIST WITHIN MODERNIST DESIGN INCLUDES: the use of the overall layout using type and image within a structural form and grid structure following form and order. Modernists use: type universality, objectivity, and functionality. Simplicity, legibility and condensing is key in modernist design.

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By 1930, Modernism had entered popular culture. With the increasing urbanization of populations, it was beginning to be looked to as the source for ideas to deal with the challenges of the day. Popular culture, which was not derived from high culture but instead from its own realities (particularly mass production) fueled much modernist innovation. Modern ideas in art appeared in commercials and logos, the famous London Underground logo being an early example of the need for clear, easily recognizable and memorable visual symbols. One of the most visible changes of this period is the adoption of objects of modern production into daily life. Electricity, the telephone, the automobile—and the need to work with them, repair them and live with them— created the need for new forms of manners, and social life. The kind of disruptive moment which only a few knew in the 1880's, became a common occurrence. The speed of communication reserved for the stock brokers of 1890 became part of family life.

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(1914 – 1996) was a well-known American graphic designer, best known for his corporate logo designs. Rand's education included the Pratt Institute (1929–1932), the Parsons School of Design (1932–1933), and the Art Students League (1933–1934). He was one of the originators of the Swiss Style of graphic design. From 1956–1969 and beginning again in 1974, Rand taught design at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. Rand was inducted into the New York Art Directors Club Hall of Fame in 1972. He designed many posters and corporate identities including the logos for IBM and ABC. Rand died of cancer in 1996. Rand’s design experience has paralleled the development of the modern design movement. Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, a pioneer typographer, photographer, and designer of the modern movement and a master at the Bauhaus in Weimar, may have come closest to defining the Rand style when he said Paul was “an idealist and a realist using the language of the poet and the businessman. He thinks in terms of need and function. He is able to analyze his problems, but his fantasy is boundless.”

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(1911-1995) When it came to the blending of photography, typography and colour, nobody did it better than Brad Thompson . In his own quiet way, he expanded the boundaries of the printed page and influenced the design of a generation of art directors. Any analysis of Thompson’s style and any attempt to assess the value and extent of his influence leads irrevocably to one word: form. Whether by examining his precise cropping and careful placing of images on the printed page or studying his attention to typographic detail, his sense of order and structure cannot be missed. Recalling his early draftsman experience Thompson said, “It was a critical part of my training as a designer. It taught me discipline and, working with huge sheets of tracing cloth, I learned to cope with space in an orderly way.”

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(1898-1971) was a Russian emigrant photographer and designer who worked in Paris, then America, at the beginning of the twentieth century. He went on to become the art editor for Harper's Bazaar. He is considered to be one of the most influential 20th century designers in the field of graphic design. By the 1950s, Brodovitch had perfected his style of combining text and photography with copious amounts of white space. Despite his easily recognizable work, Brodovitch did not formulate a theory of design. “There is no recipe for good layout,” he said. “What must be maintained is a feeling of change and contrast. A layout man should be simple with good photographs. He should perform acrobatics when the pictures are bad.” Henry Wolf, Brodovitch’s successor at Harper’s Bazaar, commented on his unique approach to magazine layout. “Oh, of course he was a good designer and superb typographer and had an innate sense of elegance about space,” Wolf said. “But his layouts were done only as approximations. He stood in the middle of the room and, with a scissor, cut out photostats which he taped to a piece of paper. Others later straightened them. It was communicating an idea, a mood, a criticism that he was precise and masterful.”

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F O R T U N E

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Single copies of that first issue cost $1 at a time when the Sunday New York Times was only 5c. [3] At a time when business publications were little more than numbers and statistics printed in black and white, Fortune was an oversized 11"x14", using creamy heavy paper, and great art on a cover printed by a special process. Fortune was also noted for its photography, featuring the work of Margaret Bourke White and others. Walker Evans served as its photography editor from 19451965. An urban legend says that art director T M Clelland mocked up the cover of the first issue with the $1 price because nobody had yet decided how much to charge; the magazine was printed before anyone realized it, and when people saw it for sale, they thought that the magazine must really have worthwhile content. In fact, there were 30,000 subscribers who'd already signed up to receive that initial 184-page issue. Economic and social influence aside, Fortune magazine's creative staff set a trend in magazine and editorial design, from page layout to usage of photography, illustration and typography which is still in use widely today.

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The posters of the WPA In stark contrast to the opulence of Art Deco was the poverty generated by the Great Depression in the United States. Interestingly enough, some of the most beautiful graphic design work comes from the WPA, which was a work relief program that provided jobs and income to the unemployed during the Great Depression in the United States. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project. Until it was closed down by Congress in 1943, it was the largest employer in the country--indeed, the largest employer in most states. Only unemployed people on relief were eligible for most of its jobs. The wages were the prevailing wages in the area, but workers could not work more than 20-30 hours a week. Before 1940 there was no training involved to teach people new skills.

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(1901 – 1968) was an influential Ukrainian-French painter, commercial poster artist, and typeface designer. Cassandre became successful enough that with the help of partners he was able to set up his own advertising agency called Alliance Graphique. Serving a wide variety of clientele, during the 1930s, his creations for the Dubonnet wine company were among the first posters designed in a manner that allowed them to be seen by occupants in fast-moving vehicles. His posters are memorable for their innovative graphic solutions and their frequent denotations to such painters as Max Ernst and Pablo Picasso. With typography an important part of poster design, the company created several new typeface styles. Cassandre developed Bifur in 1929, the sans serif Acier Noir in 1935, and in 1937 an all-purpose font called Peignot. In 1936, his works were exhibited at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City which led to commissions from Harper's Bazaar to do cover designs.

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also known as Style Moderne or 1925 Style, was a twentieth century movement in the decorative arts that grew to influence architecture, design, fashion and the visual arts. The name Art Deco derived from the Exposition Internationale des Arts DĂŠcoratifs et Industriels Modernes, a World's Fair held in Paris, France in 1925, though the term was not used prior to the late 1960s. Art Deco was influenced by many different cultures, particularly pre-World War I Europe. The movement occurred at the same time as, and as a response to, the rapid social and technological advances of the early 20th century. Link to which I got all these images from: http://www.citrinitas.com/history_of_viscom/modernists.html

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P O S T M O D E R N I S T

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THE ATTRIBUTES I THINK CONSIST WITHIN POSTMODERNIST DESIGN INCLUDES: the use of collage, vibrant and powerful colours, experimentation, playfulness and freedom of typography, iconic, open style and powerful imagery, the overall layout using type and image undermining old concepts, questioning conventions and creating a new voice within design and the combination of textures and colours. Postmodernism tends to go against whatever modernism is trying to achieve. Postmodernism is a reaction to modernism. Some may see postmodernism as a rejection to modernism and rejection of the truth. Like modernism, postmodernism rejects all boundaries. Postmodernism speaks for it self and embraces all opinions.

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i – D

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i-D, no 28. The Art Issue, August 1985. Styled by William Faulkner, design by Terry Jones, photograph by Nick Knight, featuring Lizzy Tear. Museum no. NAL.PP.22.J. Photograph Š V&A Museum. I-D, the British youth culture magazine, quickly became an iconic representation of the new-wave and postmodern graphic design graphic design aesthetics upon its publication in 1980. The magazine was designed by Terry Jones who utilized aggressive collages, heightened use of colour, and experimental typography to achieve a striking, dramatic design aesthetic. As postmodernism favours expressive designs and a rebellion against for strict constraints, and many of the designers who pioneered this movement were young, the design aesthetics of a magazine centred around a postmodern youth culture proved to be a perfect catalyst for such experimentations in typography and image manipulation. An important facet of postmodern design theory is the idea of anti-humanism, which explains that a universal principle cannot possibly be shared by all human beings, and insists that any principles must be determined historically and culturally. Other magazines I have looked at include: wallpaper, ray gun (by David Carson), and creative link and eye magazine. These will have an influence on my cover design.

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M A S T H E A D D E V E L O P M E N T S

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S U B H E A D I N G D E V E L O P M E N T S

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L A Y O U T R O U G H S

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M F C T D

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Z I N E T R B N A I L G N S S H A B A N A

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F I N A L M A G A Z I N E D E S I G N P A G E S

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mod/postmod overview