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2,4-D, Dicamba Dangers Peanut Weed Guidebook Peanut industry donates to disaster relief efforts

A communication service of the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation.

Contents March 2017


Joy Carter Crosby Editor 229-386-3690

There are great risks to peanuts as more farmers apply herbicides consisting of 2,4-D and dicamba to crops genetically engineered to resist these herbicides. Extension sponsored training programs across the Southeast are helping to educate farmers about the risks.

Director of Advertising Jessie Bland Contributing Writers John Leidner Teresa Mays Southeastern Peanut Farmer P.O. Box 706, Tifton, Ga. 31793 445 Fulwood Blvd., Tifton, Ga. 31794 ISSN: 0038-3694 Southeastern Peanut Farmer is published six times a year (Jan./Feb., March, April, May/June, July/Aug., and Oct./Nov.) by the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation. The publisher is not responsible for copy omission, typographical errors, or any unintentional errors that may occur, other than to correct it in the following issue. Any erroneous reflection which may occur in the columns of Southeastern Peanut Farmer will be corrected upon brought to the attention of the editor. (Phone 229-3863690.) Postmaster: Send address changes (Form 3579) to Southeastern Peanut Farmer, P.O. Box 706, Tifton, Georgia, 31793. Circulation is free to qualified peanut growers and others allied to the industry. Periodical postage paid at Tifton, Georgia and additional mailing office. Editorial Content: Editorial copy from sources outside of the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation is sometimes presented for the information and interest of our members. Such material may, or may not, coincide with official Southern Peanut Farmers Federation policies. Publication of material does not necessarily imply its endorsement by the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation. For editorial concerns call 229-386-3690. No portion of this or past issues of the Southeastern Peanut Farmer may be reproduced in any form whatsoever without the written consent of the editor. By-lined articles appearing in this publication represent views of the authors and not necessarily those of the publisher. Advertising: The Publisher reserves the right to refuse any advertisement. Corrections to advertisements must be made after the first run. All billing offers subject to credit review. Advertisements contained in this publication do not represent an endorsement by the Southeastern Peanut Farmer or the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation. Use of trade names in this publication is for the purpose of providing specific information and is not a guarantee nor warranty of products named. For advertising concerns call 229-386-3690.

2,4-D, Dicamba dangers


Weed Guidebook The 2017 Southeastern Peanut Farmer Weed Guidebook features information on new herbicides for 2017, nozzle studies, residual activity of herbicides, new peanut variety response to common herbicides and weed control updates for 2017.


Peanut industry donates to disaster relief efforts The U.S. peanut industry united to donate more than 60,000 jars of peanut butter to victims of the recent tornadoes that swept across the Southeast. The tornado damage was widespread from Mississippi to Georgia.

Departments: Checkoff Report .................................................................................. 8 Alabama Peanut Producers Association, Florida Peanut Producers Association, Georgia Peanut Commission and Mississippi Peanut Growers Association

Washington Outlook ............................................................................ 24 Southern Peanut Growers Update ........................................................ 26 Cover Photo: A peanut field at the University of Georgia Southeast Research and Education Center in Midville, Georgia. Photo by Joy Crosby.

March 2017 Southeastern Peanut Farmer



Calendar of Events

The gift of peanut butter gift that saves lives and helps those in need. Not the traditional gift with a fancy bow and beautiful wrapping paper. This gift comes in a plastic round jar with a lid. However, the contents inside help sustain life and bring a smile or tear to someone’s face when they have lost everything in a natural disaster and do not know how or where they will have their next meal. The gift is simply - peanut butter. In early January, tornadoes swept through Georgia and then a second round of tornadoes swept through the Southeast from Mississippi to Georgia near the end of January. These tornadoes affected individuals and businesses across the Southeast. Southern Ag Carriers, a tremendous supporter of Peanut Proud, was affected by the tornadoes on Jan. 22, 2017. During the storm, their Albany terminal was destroyed along with damage to around 50 trailers and trucks. Southern Ag Carriers have been a tremendous supporter of Peanut Proud by delivering thousands of jars of peanut butter across the U.S. for disaster relief efforts. Following the storm, I was able to visit with Jason Bullard of Bullard Farms in Adel, Georgia, to view damage on their farm and deliver peanut butter for their workers. I was not prepared to see the empty place where Jason’s brother and sister in law, Jeff and Jody’s house once stood. The shrubbery still intact with a few pieces of furniture and other mementoes sitting in what used to be the front yard. They had tremendous damage to their buildings, tractors and other farm equipment but most importantly Jason says they are blessed that their family and workers are still alive. The last piece of advice from Jason was to never doubt what a tornado can do and heed the safety warnings. That’s so true and one that individuals across the Southeast will not forget any time soon! t Joy Carter Crosby



u Peanut Efficiency Award Deadline, April 15, 2017. For more information visit or call 662-624-8503. u USA Peanut Congress, June 24-28, 2017, Amelia Island, Fla. For more information visit or call 229888-2508. u American Peanut Research Education Society Annual Meeting, July 11-13, 2017, Alburquerque, NM. For more information visit or call 229-3292949. u Sunbelt Ag Expo Field Day, July 13, 2017, Moultrie, Ga. For more information visit or call 229-985-1968. u Southern Peanut Growers Conference, July 20-22, 2017, Sandestin Golf & Beach Resort, Miramar Beach, Fla. For more information visit or call 229-386-3470. u American Peanut Shellers Association and National Peanut Buying Points Association Pre-Harvest Meeting, Aug. 1-2, 2017, Lake Blackshear Resort and Golf Club, Cordele, Ga. For more information visit or call 229-888-2508.

u Brooklet Peanut Festival, Aug. 19, 2017. For more information visit the festival’s website at

TO: All members of Georgia’s peanut industry In 1982, after 31 years of service as a county agent and Extension peanut specialist, it was my time to move on to another challenge at M&M/Mars in Albany, Georgia. Dr. Ron Henning, who had been added to our Extension peanut team earlier, advised they would like to “pass the hat” and give proceeds for a scholarship to an agronomy major at the University of Georgia. I agreed, somewhat reluctantly, provided there would be a no “hide and tallow” fund raising campaign. Three months later, Dr. Henning advised that $35,000 had been contributed by Georgia’s peanut industry. Fast forward 30 years later to 2013 - A $2,000 annual scholarship (totaling $60,000) had been awarded to a rising junior at UGA each year from the proceeds of the original corpus with only minimum contributions being added during this 30-year period. The balance in that account in 2013 was $125,000. What a miracle! In 2015, this scholarship at UGA was increased to $3,500 per year! Thank you - Thank you - Thank you! Frank McGill Frank McGill Retired UGA Extension Peanut Specialist


Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2017

u Plains Peanut Festival, Sept. 23, 2017. For more information visit u Central Florida Peanut Festival, Oct. 7, 2017, Williston, Fla. For more information visit u Sunbelt Ag Expo, Oct. 17-19, 2017, Moultrie, Ga. For more information visit or call 229-985-1968.

u Georgia Peanut Festival, Oct. 21, 2017, Sylvester, Ga. For more information visit u National Peanut Festival, Nov. 3-12, 2017, Dothan, Ala. For more information visit

(Let us know about your event. Please send details to the editor at

Congratulations to these Door Prize winners!

Bennie Branch (right), president of Kelley Manufacturing Co., presents the Grand Door Prize to Aaron Cosby of Smithville, Georgia, during the Georgia Peanut Farm Show and Conference. Cosby received one season’s use of a new six-row KMC peanut combine and the option of purchasing the combine from a KMC dealer with $15,000 off the list price at the end of the 2017 season.

Walter Bloodworth (left) of Kelley Manufacturing Co., presents the door prize to Walter Oliver of Winona, Mississippi, during the Mississippi Peanut Growers Association Annual Meeting. Oliver received one season’s use of a new sixrow KMC peanut combine and the option of purchasing the combine from a KMC dealer with $15,000 off the list price at the end of the 2017 season.

Harvey Harrell of Campbellton, Florida, won the Kelley Manufacturing Co. door prize during the AL/FL Trade Show held in Dothan, Alabama. Pictured left to right: Jimmy Laska, KMC, Harrell, Miss National Peanut Festival Raeleigh Baldwin, Danny Bennett, KMC, Little Miss National Peanut Festival Chloe Hughes, and Melvin Tucker, KMC. Harrell received one season’s use of a six-row KMC peanut combine.

Mark Mathis (left) of Amadas Industries presents the Amadas door prize to Al Rowland of Wrightsville, Georgia, during the Georgia Peanut Farm Show and Conference held in Tifton, Georgia. Rowland received one season’s use of a new Amadas four-row or six-row peanut inverter or a certificate good for the amount of $10,000 towards the purchase of a new Amadas self-propelled peanut combine or $5,000 towards the purchase of an Amadas pull-type peanut combine.

Chris Beaty (left) of Amadas Industries presents the Amadas door prize to Matterson Flowers of Clarksdale, Mississippi, during the Mississippi Peanut Growers Association Annual Meeting held in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. Flowers received one season’s use of a new Amadas four-row or six-row peanut inverter or a certificate towards the purchase of a new Amadas self-propelled peanut combine or pull-type peanut combine.

Josh Grant of Uriah, Alabama, won the Amadas door prize during the AL/FL Peanut Trade Show held in Dothan, Alabama. Pictured left to right: Miss National Peanut Festival Raeleigh Baldwin, Grant, Chris Beaty, Amadas Industries, and Little Miss National Peanut Festival Chloe Hughes. Grant received one season’s use of a new Amadas four-row or sixrow peanut inverter or a certificate towards the purchase of a new Amadas self-propelled peanut combine or pull-type peanut combine.

Bennie Branch (left), president of Kelley Manufacturing Co., presents the second Grand Door Prize to Alex Hardy of Hawkinsville, Georgia, during the Georgia Peanut Farm Show and Conference. Hardy received one season’s use of a new KMC Digger Shaker Inverter and the option of purchasing the digger from a KMC dealer with 10 percent off the list price at the end of the 2017 season.

Thanks to KMC and Amadas for their generous donation! Contact KMC and Amadas at:  KMC 229-382-9393

Amadas (229) 439-2217

March 2017 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


2,4-D and Dicamba Dangers

here are great risks to peanuts as more farmers apply herbicides consisting of 2,4-D and dicamba to crops genetically engineered to resist these herbicides. New versions of these old herbicides are being introduced for use on resistant varieties of cotton and soybeans. Jimmy Webb, a peanut and cotton farmer from Leary, Georgia, represented the cotton industry on an advisory board that focused on development of the new Enlist 2-4,D product. “As a peanut grower, Enlist or 2,4-D, is a herbicide I could use on my farm,” Webb says. “I wouldn’t worry about drift on my cotton.” Webb has taken Extension-sponsored training required in Georgia before farmers can use the new systems for 2,4-D and dicamba. Webb credits Georgia Extension weed scientist Stanley Culpepper for providing excellent training



on the new weed control technology and how best to safeguard it. One of his main concerns is the wind speed requirement for spraying the Enlist Duo or 2,4-D product. “The label calls for spraying with wind between 3 and 15 miles per hour,” Webb says. “How am I going to know that? And how is that going to be policed?” These new weed control systems include Monsanto’s dicamba formulation called XtendiMax with VaporGrip herbicide. Monsanto’s Xtendimax contains dicamba-DGA. Another is BASF’s dicamba-BAPMA formulation called Engenia herbicide. It is important to know that Monsanto’s and BASF’s dicamba formulations are not the same. Dow’s Enlist Duo consists of both 2,4-D choline and glyphosate. While the new formulations of dicamba and 2,4-D will help in

Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2017

controlling glyphosate resistant Palmer amaranth, University of Florida weed scientist Ramon Leon warns that growers should continue using strong preemergence herbicide programs. “Otherwise, you could get 2,4-D- and dicamba-resistant Palmer amaranth,” Leon says. Dan Reynolds, Mississippi State University weed scientist, says a statewide farmer-led task force, organized by the Mississippi commissioner of agriculture, developed recommendations that Mississippi farmers take part in required training before they are allowed to use the new 2,4-D and dicamba weed control systems. Reynolds helped to develop the training program that focuses on topics such as herbicide resistance, herbicide modes of action, herbicide safety and related topics. Alabama Extension has also offered

farmers training for the use of dicamba and 2,4-D on crops resistant to these herbicides. A total of 14 training sessions throughout the state were scheduled for February and March of this year. All Alabama producers planning on using this technology are required attend one of the training sessions. Florida farmers, who were still awaiting approval of this new technology, were encouraged by their Cooperative Extension representatives to attend one of the Alabama training sessions if possible. Previous studies have shown that dicamba tends to cause more damage on peanuts than 2,4-D depending upon rate and time of application, according to Eric Prostko, University of Georgia Extension weed scientist. However, dicamba injury is not always worse than 2,4-D injury. The damage to peanuts and other crops can come from either vapor or particle drift, or from spray tank contamination. Prostko has tested Enlist Duo applied at its normal application rate of 56 ounces per acre to peanuts at 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after planting. Results showed 45 percent yield loss when applied at 15 days after planting, 61 percent yield loss when applied at 30 days after planting, 64 percent yield loss when applied at 60 days after planting and 56 percent yield loss when applied at 90 days after planting. Peanut yield losses were much less, ranging from 3 percent to 12 percent when the Enlist Duo was applied at 5.6 ounces per acre. In this test, the yield losses were highest in applications at 15 days after planting and were the lowest when applied at 90 days after planting. At this 5.6-ounce rate, the Enlist Duo is applied at 1/10th of its normal recommended rate. These losses in

peanuts were similar when Enlist Duo was applied to peanuts at 1/100th of its normal rate. These rates at 1/10th and 1/100th of the normal application rates were intended to represent potential drift exposure to peanuts. In another test, peanuts were treated with Engenia at 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after planting. At the normal application rate for Engenia, peanut yield losses from the dicamba in this product ranged from 38 percent to 87 percent with the greatest yield losses occurring with treatments at 15 days after planting and the 38 percent yield loss at 90 days after planting. At 1/10th of the normal rate, Engenia caused yield losses of 3 percent to 16 percent, with 3 percent losses at 90 days after planting and 16 percent losses for treatments 15 days after planting. When Engenia was applied at 1/100th of its normal rate, there were no yield losses at 90 days after planting, 3 percent yield losses at 60 days after planting, 8 percent yield losses at 30 days after planting, and 6 percent yield losses at 15 days after planting. Prostko says the applications at the 1/10th and 1/100th rates were designed to simulate herbicide drift and to observe the response of peanut plants. He notes that both Engenia and Enlist Duo have been approved for use this season. The Enlist cotton and soybean are both registered as is the herbicide Enlist Duo; however export approval for soybean have not yet been received. Overall, Prostko says he is impressed with the ability of peanuts to withstand some of these treatments. “Peanuts at 90 days of age are pretty tough,” he notes. While peanuts may be fairly tolerant

Engenia (dicamba) injury symptoms in peanut.

Peanut and cotton farmer Jimmy Webb of Leary, Ga., is concerned about wind speeds when applying new formulations of old herbicide products.

to some of these treatments, Reynolds at Mississippi State University points out that soybeans are extremely susceptible to both 2,4-D and dicamba. Reynolds says it is important for farmers to know that they cannot apply dicamba on Enlist crops, and that 2,4-D should never be used on Xtend crops. “Know which active ingredients can go on which crops,” Reynolds says. In general, non-Enlist cotton is most sensitive to 2,4-D while non-Xtend soybeans are most sensitive to dicamba, according to Reynolds. In addition, Reynolds says it is important to know the differences between particle drift and vapor drift. He says particle drift is called “near” drift, while vapor drift is volatile and can go into a gas and move for miles during a temperature inversion when wind speeds are less than three miles per hour. As Reynolds puts it, “It is easy to screw up with these herbicides.” A hooded sprayer will minimize but won’t eliminate drift problems, according to Reynolds. Also, these herbicides can injure crops such as peanuts if not completely cleaned from the sprayers after previous applications. For instance, the herbicide can become retained in booms, strainers, hoses and nozzles. This spray tank contamination can severely injure vulnerable crops such as peanuts. Reynolds suggests that triple rinsing will be required to completely clean out the herbicide residue from sprayer machinery. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

March 2017 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


Checkoff Report Investments Made by Growers for the Future of the Peanut Industry.

Florida peanuts promoted at 113th Annual Florida State Fair The 2017 Florida State Fair kicked off this year with much excitement. This marks the 113th year the Florida State Fair has celebrated agriculture through the twelve day event that takes place every year in Tampa. One day was designated as Peanut Day at the Fair. Florida Peanut Producers Association held cooking demonstrations on the cooking stage in the Ag Hall of Fame Visitors to the Peanut Pavilion were able to Building. Large crowds gathered as recipes choose from a variety of peanut recipe cards were prepared using peanuts and peanut and health brochures. butter and then everyone enjoyed samples. More than 600,000 people attended the Florida State Fair with more than 1,500 4-H and FFA students competing and displaying more than 5,000 animals. “The Florida State Fair provides a great opportunity for us to showcase new recipes using peanuts and peanut butter,” says Ken Barton, executive director of the Florida Peanut Producers Association. “We also share the message of the health and nutritional benefits of consuming peanut products and provide information about peanut production in Florida.” FPPA announces scholarship money available The Florida Peanut Producers Association announces the opening of their 2017 Scholarship Award Program. Two $1,200 scholarships will be awarded to deserving high school seniors and/or college students. The applicant or someone in the applicant’s family must be an actively producing peanut grower in Florida. It is the intent of the Scholarship Award Committee, however, that the award recipients attend a Florida junior college or four-year university. “The Florida Peanut Producers Association is committed to helping further the education of young people in Florida and the scholarship program is evidence of our commitment,” says Ken Barton, FPPA executive director. For an application contact the FPPA office at 850-526-2590 or visit the FPPA website at The scholarship applications must be postmarked no later than July 1, 2017.

Peanuts promoted at Taste of Alabama reception

Mississippi Peanut Growers Association and National Peanut Board present Don Self Memorial Scholarship The Mississippi Peanut Growers Association and the National Peanut Board presented Anne Marie Currie, Mississippi State University biochemistry major from Caruthersville, Missouri, with the first Don Self Memorial Scholarship. The presentation was made during the Mississippi Peanut Growers Association annual meeting in January. The scholarship, to be awarded annually by the MPGA, honors the late Hamilton, Mississippi, producer, Don Self, who was serving as National Peanut Board member from Mississippi at the time of his death in October 2014.

Ed White, chairman of the National Peanut Board, presents Anne Marie Currie, Mississippi State University biochemistry major from Caruthersville, Missouri, with the Mississippi Peanut Growers Association’s first Don Self Memorial Scholarship.

Alabama-grown food, flavors and political philosophies spiced up the Alabama Farmers Federation Taste of Alabama reception for around 250 legislators and farmers at the Montgomery Federation home office Feb. 15, 2017. Staff from the Alabama Peanut Producers Association grilled peanut butter and jelly sandwiches that are always a hit at this annual event. Legislators mingled with constituents and sampled down-home Southern staples from the Heart of Dixie. Attendees also savored the flavors of Alabama Peanut Producers Association promotes fried catfish, turnip greens, sweet peanuts at the Taste of Alabama event. Pictured left potatoes, chicken tenders, ice cream, to right, Carole Granger, APPA office manager, Alabama State Representative Paul Lee, and Caleb fried green tomatoes and lamb kabobs. Bristow, APPA executive director.


Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2017

Reports from the: Alabama Peanut Producers Association Florida Peanut Producers Association Georgia Peanut Commission Mississippi Peanut Growers Association

Georgia Peanut Commission holds Research Report Day The Georgia Peanut Commission held the annual Research Report Day, Feb. 9, 2017, at the National Environmentally Sound Production Agriculture Laboratory (NESPAL), located on the University of Georgia Tifton Campus. The event provided growers and industry representatives an opportunity to hear the latest reports and newest information available on peanut research projects funded by GPC in Mark Abney, University of Georgia peanut 2016. entomologist, discusses the results of research on “The commission works to wisely the burrower bug in peanuts. invest peanut farmers’ dollars into research projects across Georgia in an effort to reduce production input costs and improve agronomic techniques,” says Donald Chase, GPC Research Committee chairman. “Although some of the findings are preliminary, the projects are exciting and many times new recommendations or observations are announced.” The GPC, on behalf of Georgia’s 3,500 peanut farmers, awarded $423,036 to peanut research facilities in the state during 2016. This effort funds 30 research projects from the University of Georgia, Georgia Tech and the USDA Agricultural Research Service. The Georgia Peanut Commission’s research programs primarily focus on peanut breeding for higher yield and improved quality; economics; conservation methods; irrigation and water management; pests, weed and disease management; and peanut allergy research.

Morris elected chairman of the Georgia Peanut Commission Armond Morris, peanut farmer from Ocilla, Georgia, was elected chairman of the Georgia Peanut Commission during the monthly board meeting in February. “I look forward to serving Georgia’s peanut growers as chairman in 2017. It is a pleasure to serve peanut producers in the state of Georgia and the commission is continually working to serve all peanut farmers in the state through research, promotion and education,” Morris says. “This is a critical time for Georgia agriculture and peanut producers. As farm income has declined, the next farm bill will be even more important to our peanut producers and family farmers. We are excited to have national agricultural leaders like our future Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue and Zippy Duvall, American Farm Bureau president, who understand the importance of agriculture to the rural economy.” Other officers elected during the board meeting include Joe Boddiford, Sylvania, Georgia, as vice chairman and Rodney Dawson, Hawkinsville, Georgia, as treasurer. Board members Tim Burch, Newton, Georgia, and Donald Chase, Oglethorpe, Georgia, represent District 1 and District 5, respectively. The peanut producing counties of Georgia are divided into five districts in which peanut farmers elect a representative to serve on the Georgia Peanut Commission board.

Georgia Peanut Commission exhibits at Georgia Association of Conservation Districts annual meeting The Georgia Peanut Commission exhibited at the Georgia Association of Conservation Districts (GACD) annual meeting held Feb. 10-11, 2017, in Buford, Georgia. The GACD is a grassroots non-profit organization representing 40 Soil and Water Conservation Districts in Georgia.

Jessie Bland, Georgia Peanut Commission project coordinator, exhibits during the Georgia Association of Conservation Districts annual meeting held Feb. 10-11, 2017, in Buford, Ga.

The Georgia Peanut Commission was able to share information on the sustainability projects of the peanut industry and the management practices peanut farmers implement such as conservation tillage and crop rotation to conserve soil, water and energy resources on their farm. For more than 75 years, GACD members have volunteered in each of Georgia’s 40 soil and water conservation districts to promote conservation, educate citizens about the importance of conservation and inform policy makers about natural resource issues.

March 2017 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


2017 WEED GUIDEBOOK Possible new herbicides for 2017 t’s possible that three new herbicides could be labeled for use in peanuts this year, maybe. These include Zidua, Anthem Flex and Brake. Zidua from BASF contains the pyroxasulfone active ingredient. Anthem Flex is from FMC and contains a mix of pyroxasulfone and carfentrazone which is the active ingredient in Aim herbicide. The active ingredient in Brake is fluridone. Pyroxasulfone is the active ingredient in Zidua and is formulated in a premix with carfentrazone which has been marketed as Aim herbicide. This Zidua plus Aim product is being developed under the trade name Anthem Flex. Steve Li, Extension weed scientist with Auburn University in Alabama, says, Zidua is a new herbicide for peanuts. If Zidua label is approved, it will be a post emergence herbicide, according to Li. In plots with heavy weed pressure, Zidua performance looked very good. Li


Top Peanut Herbicides According to a National Agricultural Statistics Service survey, the top herbicides used in peanut farming include Valor, 2,4DB, Cadre and Prowl. While the survey was taken in 2013, current use is probably about the same as then because there have been so few new herbicides since then approved for peanuts. The survey showed that Valor is used on 62 percent of acreage, while 2,4-DB was used on 50 percent, Cadre was used on 47 percent and Prowl was used on 41 percent.


believes Zidua will be used in combination treatments with other common post emergence herbicides such as Gramoxone, Storm, Cadre or Blazer. “Zidua will be good to use in these combination sprays because Zidua is from the same family of herbicides as Dual Magnum and Warrant, so it will provide residual weed control if used along with postemergence herbicides,” Li adds. University of Georgia Extension weed scientist Eric Prostko said he and his colleagues have been evaluating the new herbicides for their potential use on peanuts. Prostko says University of Georgia weed scientists will provide recommendations regarding use of these products if and when they are labeled. Prostko sees no basic differences in weed control tests in comparisons of Zidua, Dual and Warrant herbicides. Prostko says the University of Georgia will not support preplant incorporated or preemergence treatments using Zidua. That’s because there is little margin of safety applying Zidua at high rates. “We saw seven percent peanut yield loss with twice the recommended rate with preemergence Zidua applications,” Prostko says. In other research, preemergence applications of Anthem Flex at 2X rates yield losses of 19 percent to 25 percent. Zidua also causes cupping of leaves and pruning of peanut roots at high rates, according to Prostko. Fluridone has been used in aquatic weed control and as a preemergence control in cotton as a premix with fluometuron or fomesafen. Fluridone can aid in controlling herbicide resistant Palmer amaranth in cotton and perhaps in peanuts as well. Studies in Texas and

Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2017

Oklahoma suggest that peanut injury is a potential problem with fluridone, and that fluridone should work better in cotton than in peanuts for controlling resistant weeds such as Palmer amaranth. Mike Marshall, Extension weed scientist in South Carolina, reported on fluridone-based herbicide programs in peanuts. He targeted glyphosate- and ALS-resistant Palmer amaranth in South Carolina. He says fluridone was first tested in 1976 in cotton, and is currently marketed by SePro as an aquatic herbicide named Sonar. In cotton, fluridone was good to excellent in controlling Palmer amaranth, pitted morningglory and large crabgrass. Its weakness is that it requires a minimum of 0.3 inches of rainfall for soil activation. Also it costs about $28-$35 per acre, according to Marshall. Fluridone plus Valor provided 100 percent control of Palmer amaranth in Marshall’s tests. He noticed that fluridone resulted in very little peanut foliar injury, less than 5 percent. Fluridone at 0.15 and 0.2 pounds of active ingredient per acre plus Valor provided 98 percent or better control of Palmer amaranth and pitted morningglory at 42 days after treatment. Floridone at these rates plus Valor also provided 95 percent or better control of large crabgrass at 42 days after treatment. Marshall said fluridone can provide an alternative mode of action tool for peanut weed control programs. However, he noted that moisture requirements, especially in non-irrigated fields, and herbicide costs remain big hurdles for this herbicide to overcome before it becomes widely used in peanuts. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

More herbicide damage on peanuts “We’re seeing more herbicide injury on peanuts,” says Ramon Leon, University of Florida weed scientist. “We’re seeing it more, in part, due to herbicide resistant Palmer amaranth.” As a group of herbicides, those known as ALS inhibitors face fairly good tolerance in peanuts. ALS inhibitor herbicides include Cadre, Strongarm and Classic. These herbicides have good residual activity. If damage occurs, it shows up as yellowing in younger leaves and stunted growth, according to Leon. He says that Classic is good for beggarweed control late in the growing season. He notes that the Georgia-06G variety is susceptible to injury from Classic, but that peanuts often recover from this damage. The herbicides Cobra and 2,4-DB can cause injury, up to 30 percent injury seven days after treatment. Yet peanuts typically recover from this damage, according to Leon. “We’ve seen no significant differences in yields, even if peanuts suffer 40 percent injury from these two herbicides,” Leon says. He says Valor is in the class of cell membrane disruptor herbicides. While

Valor can injure young peanut seedlings and result in lost plants, this damage can be lessened by adding water as a safener for the peanut plants. Leon adds that Valor has been helpful in controlling glyphosate resistant Palmer amaranth. Dual Magnum is one of the herbicides that he and others recommend for application at cracking with Gramoxone. Leon says Dual can result in deformed peanut roots, a risk that is higher with Dual applications at planting especially under wet and cool conditions. Gramoxone is another valuable peanut herbicide that can result in peanut leaf damage. “Gramoxone kills the first flush of weeds that hurt yields the most,” Leon says. “One week after application, you won’t have to pull weeds. The peanut plant also recovers well from the leaf damage.” He also notes that adding Basagran to Gramoxone will reduce peanut leaf damage. Herbicide carryover in the soil is another possible source of injury to peanut plants. Leon notes that atrazine and metribuzin applied to previous crops are two herbicides that can injure peanut

Ramon Leon University of Florida weed scientist

plants this way. Leon is concerned that peanuts will become accidentally injured through the misuse of herbicides such as 2,4-D and dicamba. These herbicides will likely see increased use this season and in the years ahead as a result of new transgenic crops that have been developed with resistance to these old herbicide products. Glufosinate or Liberty is another herbicide that will injure peanuts. This type of injury is likely from drift, according to Leon. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

Peanut variety response to common herbicides University of Florida weed scientist Barry Brecke has been studying how new peanut varieties respond to twice the normal application rates of several widely used peanut herbicides. He conducted these tests over six years at the West Florida Research and Extension Center in Jay, Florida. He measured peanut plant canopy width 30 days after application and also collected yield data for each treatment. He studied a total of eight varieties, and the herbicides he applied included Valor, Gramoxone, Cobra and Classic. Overall, he found that canopy width was reduced by several of these herbicides, but that canopy reduction did not predict overall yield reduction. For instance, if canopy reduction was 20 to 25 percent, yield loss was only about 5 percent. Varieties in his tests included Florida 07, Georgia-07W, Georgia-06G, TifGuard, Georgia Greener, TUFRunner


727, FloRun 107 and Georgia-09B. The herbicides he applied were Valor preemergence, Gramoxone early postemergence, Cobra postemergence and Classic 60 days after planting. He found that Valor reduced canopy width by about 20 to 25 percent, while yields were reduced only slightly. For instance, on the Georgia-06G variety Valor reduced canopy width by about 22 percent however yields were only reduced by about 8 percent. With Gramoxone, canopy width was reduced by about 20 percent for all varieties, however yield reductions ranged from about 2 percent to 10 percent. Cobra reduced yields by about 12 percent for Georgia-07W but had no yield reduction on Georgia Greener or TUFRunner 727. The biggest yield reductions were observed after applications of Classic. These yield reductions were about 3

Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2017

percent for Georgia Greener, but exceeded 15 percent for Georgia-07W, Georgia-06G and TUFRunner 727. In fact, the TUFRunner 727 yields were reduced by about 22 percent from Classic at twice the normal application rate. Brecke concluded that Georgia-07 and Georgia-06G suffered herbicide related yield losses that were twice those for Florida 07, TifGuard, Georgia Greener and Georgia-09B. He also concluded that chlorimuron sold under the trade name Classic caused the most consistent yield loss across most cultivars or cultivated varieties. He noted that Cobra treatments resulted in significant canopy width reduction but not much yield reduction. Classic was just the opposite with only about 5 to 10 percent canopy width reduction but 15 to 20 percent yield reduction. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

Nozzle studies for spraying herbicides on peanuts niversity of Georgia Extension weed scientist Eric Prostko and PhD graduate student O.W. Carter have conducted tests on four spray nozzles to see which ones work best in spraying herbicides on peanuts. In 2016, Prostko’s team conducted nozzle research studies applying Prowl, Valor and Strongarm preemergence followed by Cadre, Dual Magnum and 2,4DB at 45 days after planting. He used the 11002DG, TTI1102, 11002AIXR, and TADF02-D nozzles. All of these nozzles resulted in acceptable peanut weed control but studies are not complete. “We can’t yet say that the nozzles designed for applying dicamba or 2,4-D to tolerant cotton and soybeans will be okay for use on


peanuts,” Prostko adds. The nozzles for applying dicamba or 2,4-D to cotton and soybeans will produce coarse spray droplets aimed at reducing drift to other crops. Prostko also conducted studies on sprayer ground speed and boom height, and their impacts on spray coverage. “Huge sprayers are now being used, and we’ve been wondering about differences in performance between our small plots compared to large-scale farm fields where spray booms can be 80 to 120 feet wide,” Prostko says. He has seen that coverage was reduced at faster ground speeds when herbicides were applied by flat fan nozzles. In general, Prostko suggests using a system of GPA, speed, pressure and nozzles that will produce droplet

sizes appropriate for the herbicides being applied. The flat fan nozzles are in wide use on farms today. These nozzles apply small and fine spray droplets compared to the coarse droplets intended for applications with the new 2,4-D and dicamba formulations intended for crops that have been genetically engineered to be resistant to these herbicides. Prostko says the TTI11004 nozzle will be one type that will be required for use in applying dicamba to dicambaresistant crops. He says, “We haven’t seen any loss of pigweed control so far with this and the other nozzles we tested but the TTI tip provided less grass weed control when we used it.” t BY JOHN LEIDNER

2016 Nozzle Research Prowl + Valor + Strongarm (Pre) fb Cadre + Dual Magnum + 2,4-DB (45 DAP)





TADF02-D Nozzles March 2017 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


Peanut plant canopy key to controlling weeds

niversity of Florida weed scientist Ramon Leon is looking for canopy traits within peanut stands that can be helpful in suppressing weeds. “Tolerance to weed interference and weed growth suppression are traits that can increase the importance of the crop in integrated weed management strategies,” Leon says. He notes growth habit and canopy structure determine ground coverage and


light interception. Growth habit and canopy structure can both influence crop competition and weed suppression, according to Leon. Leon studied peanut growth habit or canopy architecture over three years by planting four varieties. One was Bailey, with erect growth and a tall canopy. Another was Georgia-06G, the widely planted variety known for its semi-bunch growth habit. The third was TUFRunner727 which is known for its prostrate

growth and dense canopy. The fourth was UFT 312, a line known for very prostrate growth. His treatments included complete weed control throughout the growing season, early season weed interference with no weed control during the first eight weeks after planting, and full-season interference with no weed control throughout the entire growing season. Leon classified these plots as clean, completely weedy, and intermediate with weeds. He measured canopy height and canopy width five times during the season. “During most years, there was no cultivar interference, so we were disappointed,” Leon says. “This tells us that in the canopies for commercial varieties, they all suppress weeds similarly. Basically, the canopy provides enough suppression for weeds. We did see a trend to taller peanut plants as the weed competition increased.” Leon says the studies also show that with weed competition, these commercial varieties will sacrifice yields before they sacrifice shoot growth and leaf production. “The studies also show that the peanut plant is very competitive and the peanut canopy is already very dense,” Leon says. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

Residual control test of herbicides Auburn University Extension weed scientist Steve Li has conducted tests in Alabama to evaluate the residual activity of a number of widely used soil herbicides applied to peanuts and cotton. He sprayed the herbicides on bare ground where no crops are growing, then assessed weed control in the following weeks. This field has high pressure of sicklepod, morningglory and grasses. “We applied the herbicides on bare dirt in late July when weed pressure was the highest,” Li says. “We wanted to show how long each herbicide lasts in the soil for residual weed control.” He found that Valor showed long residual control of broadleaf weeds. However, diuron sold under the trade name of Direx was not as effective as


Valor in holding back broadleaf and grass weeds. He noticed that the plot treated with Warrant and Strongarm looked clean, with few grasses and broadleaf weeds emerging from the treated soil as compared to other treatments. “We also saw a lot of grass weeds coming up in the plots treated with Cotoran and Reflex. Prowl H 2 O suppressed grasses but did not show any effect on sicklepod and morningglory,” Li says. No soil herbicides in this test has excellent control (>90 percent) of morningglory and sicklepod, but Valor, Strongarm and Warrant were able to hold them back for a while, he adds. He also studied the residual control of dicamba and 2,4-D in the same test, and found that both of these herbicides

Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2017

provided noticeable residual activity on sicklepod, morningglory and other broadleaf weeds. But Li says these two herbicides are not very persistent in soil, so the weed control could be transient and other soil herbicides are still needed to provide residual control in Enlist and Xtend cotton. With ample rainfall and high soil temperature, dicamba and 2,4-D can be fully degraded by soil microbes within 10-14 days. Residual control of dicamba may be more pronounced than 2,4-D, but more field studies is needed in 2017 to confirm this speculation and further evaluate soil herbicide persistence in a peanut-cotton rotation. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

2017 Peanut Weed Control Updates

Eric Prostko University of Georgia Extension weed scientist

Sinbar injury

Generic Valor update

Sinbar, a herbicide developed primarily for use on alfalfa and fruit trees, can be devastating if applied directly to peanuts. University of Georgia Extension weed scientist Eric Prostko conducted tests on Sinbar because it is also used in watermelons which are often grown adjacent to and in rotation with peanuts. He also notes that peanuts have a two-year rotation restriction following an application of Sinbar. Prostko applied Sinbar 80WG as a preemergence treatment for peanuts. Peanut stands were decimated at a rate of 4 ounces per acre, and were severely stunted when Sinbar was applied at a rate of 2 ounces per acre. Even a very low rate of 0.5 ounces per acre resulted in a 5 percent yield loss. t

The 2016 growing season saw the introduction of several generic brands of flumioxazin, the active ingredient in Valor herbicide. The new generic brands include Outflank, Panther, Panther SC and Rowel. Last year, Panther SC was the only liquid formulation of flumioxazin. This year, Valor EZ is being introduced as a liquid formulation. The liquid formulations should offer advantages to some in the form of easier mixing and loading. University of Georgia Extension weed scientist Eric Prostko says the Panther SC formulation has a specific mixing order on its label. For instance, the mixing instructions call for adding water soluble bags first, followed by dry formulations, flowables, emulsifiable concentrates and then solutions. The instructions also note that agitation should continue until all of the spray solution has been applied. Rowel FX herbicide should not be used on peanuts. This version is a premix of the active ingredients in Valor and Classic herbicides and is not labeled for use in peanuts. t

Prowl vs. Sonalan The peanut herbicides Prowl and Sonalan have been compared against each other for many years, and the two remain mainstays in getting weed control off to a good start for peanut farmers. University of Georgia Extension weed scientist Eric Prostko has reviewed research studies from both Texas and Georgia comparing the two herbicides going back to the early 1990’s. In most of the studies there were no differences in peanut yields and grades for treatments with either Prowl or Sonalan. Deciding which herbicide to use then may come down to experience, preference, and price. Prostko said average 2016 per gallon prices for popular formulations of these herbicides were $42 for Sonalan 3EC, $27 for Prowl 3.3EC and $35 for Prowl H20 3.8ASC. Prostko also notes that generic brands of pendimethalin are available that perform similarly to Prowl. While Prowl and Sonalan are primarily preplant incorporated herbicides, Prostko says either can be used as a preemergence treatment if the soil receives ½-inch to ž-inch of water within 48 hours of application. In such a situation, Sonalan or Prowl could be applied with Valor or with Valor plus Strongarm. t


J-Rooting Study Deformed and curled roots in peanuts are often called j-rooting because the peanut roots grow in the form of the letter J. J-rooting symptoms are often seen when peanuts emerge from cool and wet soils. Severely affected plants rarely recover fully from the initial injury. One of the herbicides often implicated as a cause of j-rooting in peanut is Dual Magnum. University of Georgia Extension weed scientist Eric Prostko conducted a test last season to evaluate this herbicide and its possible effects on J-rooting. He notes that J-rooting can occur even when no herbicides are applied. For instance, poor seedling vigor, cold and wet soils, soil compaction, and mechanical seed damage are other possible causes of J-rooting. His tests showed that 48 percent of the untreated peanut plants in the study showed J-rooting while 41 percent of the

Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2017

Dual Magnum-treated plants showed this root symptom. The Dual Magnum in this test was the 7.62EC formulation applied at a rate of at 42 ounces per acre. This is twice the normal application rate. The Dual Magnum plots yielded 4,930 pounds of peanuts per acre, while the untreated plots yielded 4,852 pounds per acre. t

Time of day spray for weed control After seeing how time of day influences the control of weeds in cotton from glufosinate or Liberty herbicide and after seeing how night-time spraying improves fungicide performance for white mold control, University of Georgia PhD graduate student O.W. Carter decided to test time of day effects on peanut herbicides. Tests were conducted in 2015 and 2016 in Tifton and Attapulgus, Georgia. He suggested that drift would be less of a concern if herbicides are applied at night. Wind speed is also slower during

the late evening and early morning hours. He also noted that herbicide recommendations are based on applications done during daylight hours. Carter applied two complete peanut herbicide programs at 7 a.m., 12 noon, 5 p.m. and 10 p.m. The programs included Gramoxone + Storm + Dual Magnum followed by either Cadre + 2,4-DB + Dual Magnum or Cobra + 2,4-DB + Dual Magnum. Generally results indicated that time of day did not have a significant effect on the control of Palmer amaranth, Florida

Herbicide resistant weeds University of Georgia weed scientists are investigating the potential of resistance to Cadre in several plant species such as sicklepod and yellow nutsedge. University of Georgia Extension weed scientist Eric Prostko says PPOresistance is on the rise in other parts of the U.S. Such resistance has been confirmed in 11 states to date, according to Prostko. He says at least three weed species have developed resistance to the PPO group of herbicides. Tall waterhemp, Palmer amaranth and giant ragweed are among the weed species with resistance to PPO herbicides. Some of the widely used PPO herbicides include Aim, Cobra, Goal, Reflex,

Spartan and Valor. Peanut weed control would be in serious trouble if farmers lose the effectiveness of Valor to resistance, according to Prostko. PPO is protoporophyrinogen oxidase inhibitor, the enzyme responsible for chlorophyll development in plants. The PPO herbicides work to kill weeds by inhibiting the enzyme. So far, PPO resistance has not been confirmed in Georgia, according to Prostko. He advises farmers to avoid repeated applications of PPO herbicides in the same year. Also, he calls for the hand-removal of escaped weeds before they mature and produce seed. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

Diclosulam only fair on nutsedge University of Georgia research weed scientists have been taking a new look at Strongarm to see if it can provide good control of purple and yellow nutsedge. Diclosulam is the active ingredient in Strongarm. Purple and yellow nutsedge are damaging weeds in peanuts because the tubers of these weeds closely resemble the size and appearance of harvested peanuts. Purple nutsedge especially is a damaging weed because it can significantly reduce the yield and quality of harvested peanuts. “Diclosulam doesn’t work on purple nutsedge as well as we hoped,” says University of Georgia MS graduate student Danielle Simmons. These tests show

that the herbicide Cadre is still the standard for purple nutsedge control in peanuts. Shortly after these herbicides were introduced, studies in Texas showed that Cadre provided 92 percent control of purple nutsedge while Strongarm provided 70-72 percent of purple nutsedge. Throughout the length of these studies, Strongarm was never more

beggarweed, and annual grasses. However, Carter did observe reduced control of sicklepod from the spray applications at 10 p.m. He also noticed reduced peanut leaf burn from Gramoxone with the 10 p.m. treatment. There’s less peanut burn from Gramoxone at night because Gramoxone is activated by light, according to Carter. “Sicklepod plants, much like peanut plants, close their leaves at night, so don’t apply herbicides at night to control this weed,” Carter says. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

Beware of late season weed escapes Jay Ferrell, University of Florida weed scientist, says farmers shouldn’t relax their weed control efforts late in the growing season, especially after harvesting cotton or peanuts. Depending on when these crops are harvested, there may still be time for damaging weeds such as Palmer amaranth seed to germinate, emerge from the soil and still produce a seed crop. After harvesting peanuts or cotton, farmers can use inexpensive herbicides such as 2,4-D or Weedmaster that are highly effective on Palmer amaranth, even those weeds of this species that are resistant to glyphosate, Cadre or both. According to Ferrell, one application of 2,4-D or Weedmaster will likely provide enough control that a later Palmer amaranth crop will not have time to develop before cool weather brings seed germination to an end. t BY JOHN LEIDNER effective than Cadre in controlling purple nutsedge. University of Georgia Extension weed scientist Eric Prostko says, “Cadre is the only herbicide we really have for controlling purple nutsedge.” t BY JOHN LEIDNER

March 2017 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


Florida Peanut Producers Association holds 42nd Annual Membership Meeting large crowd of farmers and their families attended the 42nd Annual Membership Meeting of the Florida Peanut Producers Association held February 16, 2017, in Marianna, Florida. The evening’s events included the election of directors, FPPA and National Peanut Board activities report and the presentation of the Florida Young Peanut Farmer award. Michael Nowling, Jay, Florida, was elected to serve a three-year term on the FPPA board during the annual meeting. He replaces Steven Godwin, Jay, Florida, who retired due to term limits. The FPPA officers elected include President - Andy Robinson, Williston, Florida, Vice President - Michael Davis, Graceville, Florida and Sec./Treas. - David DeFelix, Campbellton, Florida. Stephen Roach, loan officer with Farm Credit of Northwest Florida, presented the Young Peanut Farmer of the Year Award to Josh Davis of Jackson County, Florida. Davis grew up around farming, working with the family operation. His family has been farming in Jackson County and surrounding counties for more than 100 years. Their operation has consisted of row crops, a dairy, and beef cattle. Five brothers have been running the family operation for more than 45 years


Josh Davis of Jackson County Florida receives the Farm Credit - Florida Peanut Producers Association Young Peanut Farmer Award during FPPA’s annual meeting Feb. 16, 2017, in Marianna, Fla. Pictured left to right: Josh, Bryleigh, Branson and Meleah Davis.

now. The next generation has been heavily involved for the past 15 years now. Davis is the oldest of the next generation involved in this large farm family. He also has several cousins who have chosen farming as their career. Davis started his own operation in 2001 with 40 acres of peanuts and 40 acres of cotton. At the same time he was starting his farm operation, he was traveling back and forth between the farm and Tallahassee. He finished his degree in Environmental Studies and Geography from Florida State University in 2002. In 2016 Davis grew about 275 acres of peanuts and plans for about 300 acres in 2017. In addition to peanuts, he grows about 600 acres of cotton. In the past he has also grown soybeans and oats. Andy Robinson, (right) FPPA president, presents Steven Davis has been involved with Godwin of Jay, Fla., with a plaque in recognition of his the Cotton Council, serving as an dedicated service while serving on the FPPA Board of alternate. He participated in the Directors.


Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2017

Peanut Leadership Academy in 20082009. When asked what he likes best about growing peanuts, Davis says, “The taste! I enjoy the fruits of my labor. I would rather grow and harvest peanuts than any other crop. I like being around peanut fields in the fall. The smell of the peanut harvest can’t be beat.” Davis has been married to Meleah for 15 years and they have an 8 year old son, Branson, and an 18 month old daughter, Bryleigh. On the rare occasions he has free time, he likes to hunt, primarily deer and hogs. Often the hog hunting is necessary to protect crops from damage. As a family they enjoy spending time at Crystal Lake where everyone enjoys swimming and boating. They also enjoy going to Florida State University (FSU) football and basketball games. t


Mississippi Peanut Growers holds annual meeting and trade show Jan. 25-26, 2017 he Mississippi Peanut Growers Association held its annual meeting and trade show Jan. 25-26, 2017, at the Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi. Throughout the course of the event, more than 175 growers and industry representatives had the opportunity to hear from peanut industry leaders, university specialists and visit with more than 35 agribusinesses during an exhibit trade show. During the annual meeting, attendees received an update on the activities of the Mississippi Peanut Growers Association and the National Peanut Board. The association held its annual meeting where Mississippi peanut growers elected MPGA board members and nominated representatives to serve on the National Peanut Board. The MPGA board members elected include the following: Joe Morgan, district one representative and president, Hattiesburg; Lonnie Fortner, district two representative and vice president, Port Gibson; Alan Atkins, district three representative, Hamilton; Dan Parrish, district four representative, Greenwood; and members at large Scott Flowers, Clarksdale; Van Hensarling, Richton; and B. Jones, Yazoo City. During the annual meeting Jason Sarver, Mississippi State University (MSU) peanut agronomist, recognized two graduate students who recently won first place in a graduate student poster


Jason Sarver, (left) Mississippi State University peanut agronomist, presents Chad Abbott, MSU agronomy graduate student, with a plaque for winning first place in the graduate student poster competition at the Crop Science Society of America Annual Meeting. His poster focused on evaluating the impact of canopy defoliation at two critical timings in peanut.


Mississippi Peanut Growers Association members elected board members during the annual meeting and trade show. Elected members pictured left to right: Alan Atkins, district three representative, Hamilton; Lonnie Fortner, vice president and district two representative, Port Gibson; Scott Flowers, at-large member, Clarksdale; Joe Morgan, president and district one representative, Hattiesburg; B. Jones, at-large member, Yazoo City; Dan Parrish, district four representative, Greenwood; and Van Hensarling, at-large member, Richton, Mississippi.

competition at national meetings. Sarver recognized Chad Abbott for receiving first place in the poster competition at the Crop Science Society of America Annual Meeting for his poster, “Evaluating the impact of canopy defoliation at two critical timings in peanut.” Sarver also recognized Stephen Leininger for his first place poster at the American Society of Agronomy meeting titled, “Establishing soil moisture sensor thresholds for furrow irrigated peanuts in Mississippi.” During day two, attendees heard from multiple Mississippi State faculty members. Bill Herndon, associate vice president of the Division of Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine spoke on MSU and the Mississippi peanut industry while Jason Sarver, MSU peanut agronomist, discussed production practices and variety trial research results in Mississippi. Growers also received updates on insect and disease management from Jeff Gore, MSU entomologist, and Alan Henn, MSU plant pathologist. Dan Reynolds, MSU weed scientist, discussed requirements for herbicide applications in auxin tolerant crops in Mississippi.

Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2017

Attendees also received an overview of the peanut grading system from Jeff Jeffers, Alabama Federal State Inspection Services director; 2017 market outlook from Marshall Lamb, director of the USDA ARS National Peanut Research Lab, a National Peanut Board update from Cathy Johnson, NPB marketing and communications specialist, as well as a presentation from Eric Prostko, University of Georgia weed scientist, on auxin herbicide effects on peanuts. The two-day meeting concluded with door prize drawings from several businesses and organizations including Kelley Manufacturing Co. and Amadas Industries. Walter Oliver, Winona, Mississippi, received the Grand Door Prize of one season’s use of a new sixrow KMC peanut combine and Matterson Flowers, Clarksdale, Mississippi, received one season’s use of a Amadas four-row or six-row peanut inverter or certificate towards the purchase of a new Amadas self-propelled peanut combine or pulltype peanut combine. For more information on MPGA, visit t BY JOY CROSBY

Alabama-Florida Peanut Trade Show held in February he 12th annual Alabama-Florida Peanut Trade Show was again deemed a huge success. The event was held on February 9, 2017 at the National Peanut Festival Fairgrounds in Dothan, Alabama. This year’s attendance reached more than 600 with the largest number of exhibitors ever participating. Peanut producers, along with others interested in the peanut industry and in agriculture as a whole attended the one-day event. In addition to the trade show, a marketing and crop outlook for the upcoming growing season was presented by Marshall Lamb from the National Peanut Research Lab in Dawson, Georgia. Several door prizes were given away throughout the day, including Kelly Manufacturing Company’s Grand Door Prize that was won by Harvey Harrell of Campbellton, Florida. The Grower Prize, presented by Amadas, was presented to Josh Grant of Uriah, Alabama. Winner of a Remington shotgun was Ricky Wiggins of Andalusia, Alabama. Winning a free trip to the 2017 Southern Peanut Growers Conference was Gerald Parmer of Atmore, Alabama. t



The 12th annual Alabama-Florida Peanut Trade Show brought a record number of attendees to the National Peanut Festival Fairgrounds in Dothan, Ala., Feb. 9, 2017. More than 600 farmers and guests visit with industry representatives to learn about new products and technologies.

National Peanut Board allocates $1.8 million for FY-17 production research projects The National Peanut Board held its quarterly board meeting in Atlanta Feb. 7-8, and addressed funding for FY-17 state production research projects. Recommendations for 69 project proposals totaling $1.8 million were reviewed and approved. “High-quality peanut research matters to today’s peanut farmer as we address challenges of disease management, conservation of resources and cost efficiencies,” said Ed White, NPB chairman and Alabama member. “Our research dollars simply ensure peanuts will remain a competitive, sustainable commodity now and into the future.” Since 2001, NPB has invested $29 million in production research and $12 million over the past five years. Funding production research to increase efficiencies for America’s peanut farmers and their families is a core part of the Board’s mission. The next meeting of the National Peanut Board will be held April 5 and 6 in Starkville, Mississippi. March 2017 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


Branch named Outstanding Georgia Young Peanut Farmer randon Branch, Baxley, Georgia, was named the Outstanding Georgia Young Peanut Farmer Award at the 41st annual Georgia Peanut Farm Show and Conference, Jan. 19, 2017, at the University of Georgia Tifton Campus Conference Center, Tifton, Georgia. The award is presented annually to one Georgia peanut farmer based upon the applicant’s overall farm operation; environmental and stewardship practices; and leadership and community service activities. The award is sponsored by the Georgia Peanut Commission and BASF. “This year’s winner demonstrates volunteerism and service to agriculture in his area,” says David Hinson, business representative with BASF. Branch, a third-generation farmer, developed his passion for farming while growing up on a farm. He was active in the Appling County FFA and worked on the family farm during high school while focusing his FFA Supervised Agricultural


Brandon Branch, Baxley, Ga., receives the Outstanding Georgia Young Peanut Farmer Award during the Georgia Peanut Farm Show and Conference held Jan. 19, 2017, in Tifton, Ga. Pictured left to right: Armond Morris, Georgia Peanut Commission chairman; Branch and David Hinson, business representative with BASF.

Outstanding Georgia Peanut Farmers of the Year

Five farmers receive the Outstanding Georgia Peanut Farmer of the Year award during the Georgia Peanut Farm Show and Conference held Jan. 19, 2017, in Tifton, Ga. Pictured left to right: Matt Cato with Agri Supply, District 1 – John Bridges Sr., Brinson; Tim Burch, GPC board member from Newton; District 2 – Kenneth Hall Sr, Tifton; Armond Morris, GPC chairman from Tifton; District 3 – Rep. Jon Burns, Newington; Joe Boddiford, GPC board member from Sylvania, District 4 – Richard Nutt, Pitts; Rodney Dawson, GPC board member from Hawkinsville; District 5 – Glen Lee Chase, Oglethorpe; and Donald Chase, GPC board member from Oglethorpe. The farmers received a sign to display at their farm and a $100 gift card from Agri Supply.


Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2017

Experience in Diversified Crop Production. After graduating from high school, he joined his father, Randy, in a farming partnership producing corn, soybeans and wheat on 3,000 acres. Together, they expanded the partnership to incorporate a custom farming, harvesting and hauling enterprise. During this time, Branch started planning his future farming enterprise and today farms 1,500 acres of peanuts, cotton, corn, soybeans and wheat as well as his own custom harvesting enterprise. In order to secure a future in peanut production, Branch also became a stockholder with Premium Peanut LLC which allows him control of his peanut crop from field to finished product. Branch is also active in the agricultural industry and his community. He is president of the Appling County Young Farmers and serves as the South Region Junior Director for the Georgia Young Farmers Association. He is also active with the Appling County Farm Bureau and serves on the Appling County High School Agriculture Department Advisory Committee. Branch is married to Jodie. Branch receives a sign to display at his farm and a trip to the Southern Peanut Growers Conference in July. t BY JOY CROSBY

Peanut industry provides relief in times of disaster


he U.S peanut industry united to donate more than 60,000 jars of peanut butter to victims of the recent tornadoes that swept across the Southeast. Peanut butter has seven grams of protein per serving, is shelf stable, requires no refrigeration or special preparation and is enjoyable for all age groups, making it a natural choice for those who suddenly find themselves suffering from food insecurity or in a natural disaster. In early January, after the first round of storms, Peanut Proud donated 2,000 jars of peanut butter which was used in Dougherty County, Georgia, food relief packages. The packages went to lowincome school children in a hard hit area. These kids were out of school and their damaged homes were without power for over 10 days. All were on free school lunch/breakfast program and did not have access to this program with the schools closed and without power. Teachers from the affected schools delivered the

packages to their students. Thousands of PB&J sandwiches in bag meals were distributed daily all over the area to storm victims in the weeks following the storm. A second set of storms hit the Southeast Jan. 21 and 22 affecting Petal, Mississippi and several towns in Southwest Georgia with major damage in Albany, Ashburn and Adel. Since those storms, Peanut Proud has raised more than $50,000 in donations from the Georgia Peanut Commission, the National Peanut Board, Texas Peanut Producers, Olam Edible Nuts, Birdsong Peanuts, National Peanut Buying Point Association, the American Peanut Shellers Association, LMC and Peanut Butter for the Hungry. Peanut Proud also received peanut butter donations from Kroger Company, J.B. Sanfilippo & Son and Golden Boy Foods. “We are overwhelmed by the continuing generosity of Georgia’s farming community,” says Eliza McCall, chief marketing officer with Second Harvest of South Georgia. “This donation

The Georgia Peanut Commission delivers peanut butter to Bullard Farms in Cook County, Georgia. Pictured left to right are Joy Crosby, GPC director of communications, Jason Bullard, farmer from Adel, Ga., and Lamar Ray, director of the Cook County Emergency Management Agency.

from the peanut industry will go a long way toward helping us care for our neighbors in need.” The peanut butter has been delivered to disaster relief organizations, local churches and food banks in Georgia and Mississippi. For additional information on the project, visit t BY JOY CROSBY

March 2017 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


Washington Outlook by Robert L. Redding Jr.

U.S. Senate Agriculture Committee kicks off farm bill hearing at Kansas State University The U.S. Senate Agriculture Committee held its first hearing on the 2018 Farm Bill at Kansas State University on Feb. 23, 2017. Committee Chairman Pat Roberts, R-Kansas, provided the opening statement at the hearing titled “Hearing from the Heartland: Perspectives on the 2018 Farm Bill from Kansas.” “We start the journey to a successful and timely 2018 Farm Bill in the Heartland, because that is where it matters most…on our farms, ranches, businesses, and city and county halls across the countryside,” Roberts says. “Producers, agribusinesses, and our rural communities

are the ones who sign up for programs, comply with regulations, and feel the pain first-hand of over-burdensome or under-supportive policies.” “So it is only right that we start this conversation here, with you. No one understands the impacts of farm bills or policies set in Washington like America’s farmers, ranchers, and rural communities. Your experience – your story – is what we need to hear before we start writing a new Farm Bill,” Roberts adds. The committee also heard testimony and was welcomed by U.S. Representative Roger Marshall of Kansas’ Big First District, a member of the U.S.

House Agriculture Committee, as well as Kansas Secretary of Agriculture Dr. Jackie McClaskey and President of Kansas State University and Retired U.S. Air Force General Richard Myers. Chairman Roberts and Ranking Member Debbie Stabenow, D-Michigan, heard from two panels of witnesses representing agriculture and other stakeholders in rural communities. The next field hearing, for the committee, is scheduled for Michigan, home of the committee’s ranking member Stabenow.

U.S. House Ag Committee holds hearing on economic challenges facing rural America

Governor Perdue nomination hearing update

The House Agriculture Committee held a hearing on Feb. 15, 2017, to review the economic challenges facing rural America. Members heard from several witnesses who highlighted these factors, including low farm commodity prices, declining net farm income, tightening credit conditions, a strong dollar, and unfair trade practices by foreign competitors. “There is real potential for a crisis in rural America,” says House Ag Committee Chairman Michael Conaway, R-Texas. “Net farm income for America’s farmers and ranchers has fallen 50 percent over the past four years with the collapse in commodity prices. As we begin the farm bill process, these economic realities must be front and center. The farm bill serves as a safety net for producers, helping manage risk in difficult times. We are in those times now, and we must deliver solutions that work for our nation’s farmers and ranchers.” Witnesses during the February hearing included: n Dr. Robert Johansson, chief economist, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. n Dr. Nathan Kauffman, assistant vice president and Omaha Branch executive, Omaha Branch - Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Omaha, Nebraska n Dr. Joe Outlaw, professor and Extension economist, Texas A&M University, Department of Agricultural Economics, College Station, Texas n Dr. Patrick Westhoff, professor, director for the Food and Agricultural Research Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri n Dr. D. Scott Brown, assistant extension professor, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri The committee’s next scheduled 2018 Farm Bill hearings are as follows: n Subcommittee on Livestock and Foreign Agriculture - The Next Farm Bill: International Development n Subcommittee on Conservation and Forestry - The Next Farm Bill: Conservation Policy.

House Ag Subcommittee chair addresses peanut industry


Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2017

Governor Sonny Perdue’s nomination hearing for U.S. Secretary of Agriculture has been scheduled for March 23, 2017. The Senate continues to move forward on President Trump’s nominations. Over 600 agricultural and rural organizations including the Georgia Peanut Commission and Southern Peanut Farmers Federation sent a letter supporting Governor Perdue’s nomination.

At the National Peanut Buying Points Association annual meeting, U.S. House Agriculture Committee’s Subcommittee for Biotechnology, Horticulture, and Research Chairman Rodney Davis, R-Illinois, discussed the importance of the peanut industry’s involvement in the 2018 Farm Bill debate. Chairman Davis also noted the importance of agricultural regions working together in the development of the farm bill.

House Ag Committee marks up two pesticide bills The House Agriculture Committee approved two measures regarding the regulation of pesticides. H.R. 953, the Reducing Regulatory Burdens Act, would clarify congressional intent regarding pesticide regulation in or around waters of the United States. A 2009 court decision in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit erroneously applied the provisions of the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permitting process under the Clean Water Act (CWA) to pesticide applications that were already fully regulated under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). This resulted in costly and duplicative burdens for many farmers, ranchers, water resource boards and public health professionals involved in mosquito control, all without providing quantifiable public health or environmental benefits. “The Agriculture Committee has now passed the Reducing Regulatory Burdens Act five times. This unnecessary permitting process has not only cost American farmers time and money, it has also had implications for public health. It was never Congress’ intent to create two different permitting requirements. It is time for Congress to finally act to correct a misguided court decision and give farmers and pesticide applicators much needed relief from this costly and duplicative regulation,” says House Ag Committee Chairman Michael Conaway, R-Texas. H.R. 1029, the Pesticide Registration Enhancement Act, reauthorizes the Pesticide Registration Improvement Act (PRIA). PRIA was intended to create a more predictable and effective evaluation process for affected pesticide decisions by coupling the collection of fees with specific decision review periods. It also promoted a shorter decision review period for reduced-risk pesticides. PRIA has been reauthorized three times, with the most recent reauthorization due to expire on September 30, 2017. In addition to extending provisions, the bill adjusts fee amounts, increases transparency, encourages Good Laboratory Practices (GLP), and adds flexibility to the use of collected fees.

USDA announces enrollment period for safety net coverage in 2017 Producers on farms with base acres under the safety net programs established by the 2014 Farm Bill, known as the Agriculture Risk Coverage (ARC) or Price Loss Coverage (PLC) programs, can visit their local FSA office to sign contracts and enroll for the 2017 crop year. The enrollment period will continue until Aug. 1, 2017. Since shares and ownership of a farm can change year-to-year, producers on the farm must enroll by signing a contract each program year. If a farm is not enrolled during the 2017 enrollment period, the producers on that farm will not be eligible for financial assistance from the ARC or PLC programs for the 2017 crop should crop prices or farm revenues fall below the historical price or revenue benchmarks established by the program. Producers who made their elections in 2015 must still enroll during the 2017 enrollment period. The ARC and PLC programs were authorized by the 2014 Farm Bill and offer a safety net to agricultural producers when there is a substantial drop in prices or revenues for covered commodities. For more details regarding these programs, go to or visit a local FSA office.

March 2017 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


Southern Peanut Growers Southern Peanut Growers partners with Johnny Rockets on Peanut Butter Banana Shake

New Peanuts and Diabetes brochure

Southern Peanut Growers has partnered with Johnny Rockets and the movie Kong: Skull Island to promote a Peanut Butter Banana Milk Shake starting February 20 in anticipation of the March 10 launch of the movie. Johnny Rockets is printing several different point-of-sale pieces to promote the shake including window clings, table tents, counter cards, table decals and digital menu boards. All point-of-sale materials feature the Southern Peanut Growers logo. Johnny Rockets operates more than 340 franchise and corporate locations in 26 countries around the world. Each year, Johnny Rockets serves 17 million hamburgers, 11.3 million soft drinks, 8.3 million shakes and malts, 8 million pounds of fries, 2.1 million orders of onion rings and 815,000 gallons of ice cream.

Southern Peanut Growers (SPG) contracted with Kristina LaRue, a registered dietician and food blogger (Love & Zest), to develop six all new recipes appropriate for people managing their blood sugar. “These new recipes are right on-trend and really delicious,” says Leslie Wagner, executive director of SPG.

Baked Salmon with Peanut Butter Glaze Ingredients: 1 pound salmon 1 teaspoon olive oil freshly ground pepper 1/4 cup creamy peanut butter 2 teaspoons chili garlic sauce 1/4 cup 100% orange juice

LaRue also did the food photography and wrote an introduction to the brochure talking about the power of plant proteins—and especially peanuts and peanut butter—in helping to manage blood sugar. She especially highlighted the new research showing the power of plant proteins and their potential to cut the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. Substituting plant based proteins for animal proteins, refined grains or potatoes resulted in a 7-21 percent reduction in diabetes risk. LaRue already has featured two of the new recipes on her blog and is likely to feature the others as well.

Visit Southern Peanut Growers at these upcoming events

Directions: Preheat oven to 400° F and line baking sheet with aluminum foil. Place salmon on baking sheet, drizzle with olive oil and season with pepper. Bake salmon for 15— 20 minutes until cooked through. In small sauce pot over medium low heat, whisk together peanut butter, chili garlic sauce and orange juice and cook until warm. To serve, pour peanut butter glaze over salmon.

• March 15 – Georgia Association of Nutrition & Dietetics, Savannah, Georgia

Nutrition Facts (per serving): 342 calories, 23g total fat, 4g saturated fat, 50mg cholesterol, 98mg sodium, 5g carbohydrate, 1g fiber, 2g sugar, 27g protein, 0% vitamin A, 8% vitamin C, 4% calcium, 3% iron

• March 30 - April 2 – Southern Women’s Show, Nashville, Tenn.

Serves 4

Marketing arm of

• March 24-26 – Southern Women’s Show, Savannah, Georgia

• April 20-22 – Georgia School Nutrition Association Meeting, Jekyll Island, Georgia

Southern Peanut Growers 1025 Sugar Pike Way · Canton, Georgia 30115 (770) 751-6615 · FAX (770) 751-6417 email: Visit our website at

Southern Peanut Growers Conference SANDESTIN GOLF & BEACH RESORT July 20-22, 2017 Miramar Beach, Florida

l a u n n A 19th nt! Eve

Key topics: Legislation, Research and Promotion For more information contact: Alabama Peanut Producers Association P.O. Box 8805 Dothan, AL 36304 334-792-6482 Florida Peanut Producers Association 2741 Penn Avenue, Suite 1 Marianna, FL 32448 850-526-2590 Georgia Peanut Commission P.O. Box 967 Tifton, GA 31793 229-386-3470

Brought to you by the: Alabama Peanut Producers Association Florida Peanut Producers Association Georgia Peanut Commission Mississippi Peanut Growers Association

Mississippi Peanut Growers Association P.O. Box 284 Petal, MS 39465 601-606-3547

Registration opens April 1, 2017.

March 2017 - Southeastern Peanut Farmer  
March 2017 - Southeastern Peanut Farmer