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Weed Guidebook Inoculant Guidebook 2016 Decisions

A communication service of the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation.

Contents March 2016


Joy Carter Crosby Editor 229-386-3690

The 2016 Southeastern Peanut Farmer Weed Guidebook features information on herbicide resistance, Cadre care, sicklepod resistance research and weed control updates for 2016.

Director of Advertising Jessie Bland Contributing Writers John Leidner Teresa Mays Southeastern Peanut Farmer P.O. Box 706, Tifton, Ga. 31793 445 Fulwood Blvd., Tifton, Ga. 31794 ISSN: 0038-3694 Southeastern Peanut Farmer is published six times a year (Jan./Feb., March, April, May/June, July/Aug., and Oct./Nov.) by the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation. The publisher is not responsible for copy omission, typographical errors, or any unintentional errors that may occur, other than to correct it in the following issue. Any erroneous reflection which may occur in the columns of Southeastern Peanut Farmer will be corrected upon brought to the attention of the editor. (Phone 229-3863690.) Postmaster: Send address changes (Form 3579) to Southeastern Peanut Farmer, P.O. Box 706, Tifton, Georgia, 31793. Circulation is free to qualified peanut growers and others allied to the industry. Periodical postage paid at Tifton, Georgia and additional mailing office. Editorial Content: Editorial copy from sources outside of the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation is sometimes presented for the information and interest of our members. Such material may, or may not, coincide with official Southern Peanut Farmers Federation policies. Publication of material does not necessarily imply its endorsement by the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation. For editorial concerns call 229-386-3690. No portion of this or past issues of the Southeastern Peanut Farmer may be reproduced in any form whatsoever without the written consent of the editor. By-lined articles appearing in this publication represent views of the authors and not necessarily those of the publisher. Advertising: The Publisher reserves the right to refuse any advertisement. Corrections to advertisements must be made after the first run. All billing offers subject to credit review. Advertisements contained in this publication do not represent an endorsement by the Southeastern Peanut Farmer or the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation. Use of trade names in this publication is for the purpose of providing specific information and is not a guarantee nor warranty of products named. For advertising concerns call 229-386-3690.

Weed Guidebook


Inoculant Guidebook Inoculants deliver live beneficial bacteria to the seed and soil. These bacteria live in nodules on the peanut roots and capture nitrogen from the air that is needed by the plants. Learn more about the benefits of inoculants and how to choose the best type in the 2016 Southeastern Peanut Farmer Inoculant Guidebook.


2016 Decisions The National Center for Peanut Competitiveness has released two documents providing information for farmers focusing on payment limits and base acres, and potential warehouse space issues that could arise in 2016.

Departments: Checkoff Report .................................................................................. 8 Alabama Peanut Producers Association, Florida Peanut Producers Association, Georgia Peanut Commission and Mississippi Peanut Growers Association

Washington Outlook ............................................................................ 24 Southern Peanut Growers Update ........................................................ 26 Cover Photo: Weed scientist Ramon Leon, University of Florida, says both cultural practices and herbicides are needed to control key weeds. Photo by John Leidner.

March 2016 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


Editorial Stewardship for Future Generations recently read this paragraph in the winning essay of the 2016 National Ag Day Contest by Emily Dougherty, Greenland, Indiana. “Awake before dawn and out past the sunset, farmers strive to be proper stewards of the land and to feed the growing world population. In 2050, there is a projected population of nine billion people on earth. To feed this population, farmers have to continue to enhance sustainable practices to keep our earth healthy. Since 1982, stewardship has reduced wind and water erosion of cropland by 50 percent. Biotechnology has reduced runoff by 70 percent and 41 percent of acres are farmed using conservation tillage. Still further, crop yields have continued to increase through management and technology. By practicing sustainable agriculture, farmers are ensuring that the earth will be healthy and productive to feed the population for generations to come.” I do not know Emily personally but I’m glad to see youth taking part in essay contests such as this one that helps promote agriculture. Today, you will find advertisements or social media attacks on agriculture being presented as fact when in reality many of the points made are misleading or not true at all. Fortunately, there are organizations, businesses and individuals trying to take a stand and present a clear message and facts about agriculture. Now, it’s up to consumers to listen to the truth and hopefully not be misled. Through the month, we have an opportunity to share our story since National Ag Day and National Peanut Month are both celebrated in March. By sharing simple facts about agriculture with others you will be helping the next generation as you do with the stewardship you practice on your farm. I now leave with you the final sentence in the essay by Emily which is very fitting as we celebrate the future of agriculture. “Generations after us will practice stewardship and face their own challenges; but the agriculture industry will succeed because of Joy Carter Crosby technology and a bountiful earth. t Editor


Celebrate March - National Peanut Month March is National Peanut Month, a time to celebrate one of America's favorite foods! Roasted in the shell for a ballpark snack, ground into peanut butter or tossed in a salad or stir-fry, peanuts find their way into everything from breakfast to dessert. National Peanut Month had its beginnings as National Peanut Week in 1941. It was expanded to a month-long celebration in 1974. Coincidentally, March is National Nutrition Month - a great time to recognize the nutritional value of peanuts. One serving of peanuts is a good source of protein, Vitamin E, Niacin, Folate, Phosphorus and Magnesium. Peanuts are naturally cholesterol-free and low in saturated fat. The Alabama Peanut Producers Association, Georgia Peanut Commission, Florida Peanut Producers Association, Mississippi Peanut Growers Association and Southern Peanut Growers have all planned special promotional activities during the month of March. Be sure to check out the upcoming April issue for special coverage of these events.


Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2016

Calendar of Events u Peanut Profitability Award Deadline, April 15, 2016. For more information visit or call 662-624-8503. u International Peanut Forum, April 13-15, 2016, Madrid, Spain. For more information visit u USA Peanut Congress, June 25-29, 2016, Charleston Place Hotel, Charleston, S.C. For more information visit or call 229-888-2508. u American Peanut Research Education Society Annual Meeting, July 12-14, 2016, Hilton Clearwater Beach, Clearwater, Fla. For more information visit or call 229-329-2949. u Sunbelt Ag Expo Field Day, July 14, 2016, Moultrie, Ga. For more information visit or call 229-985-1968. u Southern Peanut Growers Conference, July 21-23, 2016, Sandestin Golf and Beach Resort, Miramar Beach, Fla. For more information visit or call 229-386-3470. u American Peanut Shellers Association and National Peanut Buying Points Association Pre-Harvest Meeting, Aug. 2-3, 2016, Lake Blackshear Resort and Golf Club, Cordele, Ga. For more information visit or call 229-888-2508.

u Brooklet Peanut Festival, Aug. 20, 2016. For more information visit the festival’s website at u Georgia Peanut Tour, Sept. 13-15, 2016, Tifton, Ga. and surrounding area. For more information visit the tour blog at u Plains Peanut Festival, Sept. 24, 2016. For more information visit u Central Florida Peanut Festival, Oct. 1, 2016, Williston, Fla. For more information visit u Georgia Peanut Festival, Oct. 15, 2016, Sylvester, Ga. For more information visit (Let us know about your event. Please send details to the editor at

Congratulations to these Door Prize winners!

Bennie Branch (right), president of Kelley Manufacturing Co., presents the Grand Door Prize to Caleb Brown of Abbeville, Georgia, during the Georgia Peanut Farm Show and Conference. Cross received one season’s use of a new six-row KMC peanut combine and the option of purchasing the combine from a KMC dealer with $15,000 off the list price at the end of the 2016 season.

Hal Walker (right) of Kelley Manufacturing Co. presents the door prize to Eric Dickinson of Mantachie, Mississippi, during the Mississippi Peanut Growers Association Annual Meeting. Dickinson received one season’s use of a new six-row KMC peanut combine and the option of purchasing the combine from a KMC dealer with $15,000 off the list price at the end of the 2016 season.

Keith White of Dothan, Alabama, won the Kelley Manufacturing Co. door prize during the AL/FL Trade Show held in Dothan, Alabama. Pictured left to right: Danny Bennett, KMC, Miss National Peanut Festival Shelley Beaty, Little Miss National Peanut Festival Rosemary Andrews, White and Hal Waller, KMC. White received one season’s use of a new six-row KMC peanut combine.

Mark Mathis (left) of Amadas Industries presents the Amadas door prize to Wayne Sayer of Wray, Georgia, during the Georgia Peanut Farm Show and Conference held in Tifton, Georgia. Shivers received one season’s use of a new Amadas four-row or six-row peanut inverter or a certificate good for the amount of $10,000 towards the purchase of a new Amadas self-propelled peanut combine or $5,000 towards the purchase of an Amadas pull-type peanut combine.

Chris Beaty (left) of Amadas Industries presents the Amadas door prize to Joe Morgan Jr., of Hattiesburg, Mississippi, during the Mississippi Peanut Growers Association Annual Meeting held in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. Morgan received one season’s use of a new Amadas four-row or six-row peanut inverter or a certificate towards the purchase of a new Amadas self-propelled peanut combine or pull-type peanut combine.

Sammy Brown of Andalusia, Alabama, won the Amadas door prize during the AL/FL Peanut Trade Show held in Dothan, Alabama. Pictured left to right: Miss National Peanut Festival Shelley Beaty, Chris Beaty, Amadas Industries, Brown and Little Miss National Peanut Festival Rosemary Andrews. Brown received one season’s use of a new Amadas four-row or six-row peanut inverter or a certificate towards the purchase of a new Amadas self-propelled peanut combine or pull-type peanut combine.

Thanks to KMC and Amadas for their generous donation! Contact KMC and Amadas at:  KMC 229-382-9393 Amadas (229) 439-2217 March 2016 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


AL-FL Peanut Trade Show breaks previous attendance records he 11th annual AlabamaFlorida Peanut Trade Show brought a record number of attendees to the National Peanut Festival Fairgrounds in Dothan, Feb. 11. More than 650 farmers and others associated with the agriculture industry helped make this year’s meeting the largest ever. During the morning expo, farmers were given the opportunity to learn about new technologies while talking to various industry representatives about what new items will be available for the 2016 season. A seed and production seminar was held in the afternoon that updated farmers on new varieties for this year as well as enlightened growers on possible marketing strategies for their farm. Henry County, Alabama peanut farmer, Thomas Kirkland, says he is happy to see the trade show expand over the years.


The 11th annual Alabama-Florida Peanut Trade Show brought a record number of attendees to the National Peanut Festival Fairgrounds in Dothan, Ala., Feb. 11, 2016. More than 650 farmers and guests visit with industry representatives to learn about new products and technologies.

American Peanut Growers Group, LLC Certified GA 06G Quality Seed Available 2,000 lb. Bulk Tote Bags or 50# Bags 100% Irrigated Production Grown in Seminole, Miller, and Decatur County, GA Minimum 1,000 lbs. Gypsum Applied Per Acre Cold Test Evaluated All Seed Delivered, Dried, and Handled at APGG

Contact: Mitchell Burke O: 229-524-8250 M: 229-254-4800

“I’ve been coming to this meeting since it started and I’m glad to see how much larger it has grown each year,” Kirkland says. “It gives me and other farmers a chance to talk with peanut specialists one on one and ask questions that are specific to my farm.” Houston County farmer Keith White won the Grand Door Prize donated by Kelly Manufacturing Co. while Sammy Brown of Andalusia, Alabama, was the recipient of the Grower Door Prize donated by Amadas Industries. Curtis Carpenter of Columbia, Alabama, was the winner of a trip for two to the Sandestin Golf & Beach Resort, Aaron Archer of Columbia, Alabama, won a Benelli shotgun and Jack Jesse Scott, peanut farmer from Geneva County, Ala., was elected Ulrich received a trip to the the Alabama Peanut Producers 2016 Southern Peanut Farmers to Association board of directors Growers Conference. during the annual meeting. Before lunch, the Alabama Peanut Producers Association, a division of the Alabama Farmers Federation, met and elected Jesse Scott of Geneva County as a new member to its board. Scott will fill the position formerly held by Charles Turner. t BY TERESA MAYS


Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2016

Mississippi Peanut Growers holds annual meeting and trade show Feb. 3-4 he Mississippi Peanut Growers Association held its annual meeting and trade show Feb. 3-4, 2016, at the Lake Terrace Convention Center in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. Throughout the course of the event, more than 190 growers and industry representatives had the opportunity to hear from peanut industry leaders, university specialists and visit with more than 38 agribusinesses during an exhibit trade show. During Wednesday’s session of the meeting, attendees heard from Malcolm Sumner, regents’ professor of environmental soil science emeritus, Univeristy of Georgia, about use of FGD gypsum to improve soil and crop yield, as well as Jay Chapin, Clemson University Extension specialist emeritus, on how to use a game plan in peanut production. To conclude Wednesday’s program, MPGA held its 11th annual meeting where reports were given from the American Peanut Council, Southern Peanut Growers and the Diabetes Foundation of Mississippi, an organization MPGA has worked closely with on various promotions. MPGA board members were also elected and include the following: Joe Morgan, district one representative and president; Lonnie Fortner, district two representative and vice president; Alan Atkins, district three representative; Dan Parrish, district four representative; and members at large Scott Flowers, Steve Seward and B. Jones. During day two, attendees heard from multiple Mississippi State faculty members. Mississippi Peanut Growers Association members elected board Bill Herndon, associate members during the annual meeting and trade show. Elected members pictured left to right: Joe Morgan, president and district vice president of the one representative; B. Jones, at-large member; Alan Atkins, Division of Agriculture, district three representative; Dan Parrish, district four Forestry and Veterinary representative; Scott Flowers, at-large member and Steve Medicine spoke on Seward, at-large member. Not pictured: Lonnie Fortner, vice president and district two representative. Mississippi State University and the Mississippi peanut industry, Darrin Dodds, MSU cotton agronomist discussed cotton production practices for 2016, Jason Krutz, MSU irrigation specialist discussed irrigation strategies for peanut production, Jeff Gore, MSU Entomologist gave an update on current insect research in Mississippi peanuts, Alan Henn, MSU plant pathologist gave an overview of peanut diseases and how to control them and Jason Sarver, MSU peanut agronomist discussed 2016 agronomics. Attendees also received a 2016 market outlook from Marshall Lamb, director of the USDA ARS National Peanut Research Lab, a National Peanut Board update from Cathy Johnson, NPB marketing and communications specialist, as well as a presentation on UAVs and USDA FSA program updates. The two-day meeting concluded with door prize drawings from Kelly Manufacturing Co. and Amadas Industries. For more information on the MPGA, visit t BY JESSIE BLAND


March 2016 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


Checkoff Report Investments Made by Growers for the Future of the Peanut Industry.

Florida peanuts promoted at the Florida State Fair in Tampa The Florida Peanut Producers Association attended and exhibited at the 2016 Florida State Fair in Tampa, Florida. The Fresh From Florida breakfast kicked off opening day of the state fair with FPPA serving the crowd grilled peanut butter and jelly sandwiches. The FPPA also distributed peanut recipe cards, nutritional Ken Barton, FPPA executive director, information, peanut seed kits, roasted distributes roasted peanuts and peanut seed peanuts and general information about to students at the Florida State Fair. peanut production in Florida to attendees. Other Florida commodity groups provided samples of citrus, strawberries, watermelon, honey, beef, pork and more. The Florida State Fair celebrates agriculture through the twelve day event that takes place every year in Tampa. One day was designated as Peanut Day at the Fair. The FPPA presented cooking demonstrations on the cooking stage in the Ag Hall of Fame Building. Large crowds gathered as recipes were prepared using peanut butter and then everyone enjoyed samples. “The Florida State Fair provides a great opportunity for us to showcase new recipes using peanuts and peanut butter,” says Ken Barton, executive director of the Florida Peanut Producers Association. “We also share the message of the health and nutritional benefits of consuming peanut products and provide information about peanut production in Florida.”

Mississippi Peanut Growers teams up with the Mississippi Diabetes Foundation at the Diabetes Super Conference The Mississippi Peanut Growers Association exhibited at the 2015 Mississippi Diabetes Foundation “Super Conference” in Jackson, Mississippi, Feb. 20, 2016. The MPGA distributed educational booklets on Peanuts and Diabetes, Diabesity and Heart-Healthy Peanuts. There were more than 400 attendees at the one-day Malcolm Broome, MPGA executive director, conference. visits with an attendee during the Mississippi “A surprising number of the Diabetes Foundation “Super Conference in attendees were not aware of the role Jackson, Miss., Feb. 20, 2016. peanuts or peanut butter could play in their diabetes management,” says Malcolm Broome, MPGA executive director. “The response was positive toward peanuts with many saying they were going to include them in their daily menu which they had not done before receiving this information.” This was the fourth year MPGA participated in the event and provided complimentary one ounce bags of peanut with the American Heart Association heart check mark and the Mississippi Diabetes Foundation logo.


Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2016

Florida Agriculture Literacy Day set for Tuesday, April 26 The 13th annual Florida Agriculture Literacy Day is scheduled for Tuesday April 26, 2016, and the second in a series of new non-fiction children’s books has been developed that will highlight Florida’s vegetable industry. The book, “Drive through Florida: Vegetables,” features an animated red truck named ‘Ole Red’ that takes students on a tour of Florida’s tomato, squash, snap bean, sweet corn, lettuce, bell pepper and potato industries, among others. Florida Agriculture Commissioner Adam Putnam, the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS) and Florida Agriculture in the Classroom (FAITC) invite farmers, Farm Bureau members, Florida cattlemen and cattlewomen, University of Florida IFAS extension and 4-H agents, master gardeners, FFA teachers and students and agriculture industry representatives to read in elementary classrooms around the state as part of the event. Readers are asked to schedule their classroom visits first, and then order materials on the FAITC’s website at Readers will receive one book, one disc with the book and teacher resources on it and classroom sets of stickers and bookmarks per classroom. Please allow two weeks for delivery. The deadline to register for materials is Tuesday April 12.

USDA Secretary, Tom Vilsack, USDA Rural Development Florida Director, Richard Machek and Ken Barton, FPPA executive director, discuss alternative uses for peanuts during the American Farm Bureau Convention in Orlando.

Reports from the: Alabama Peanut Producers Association Florida Peanut Producers Association Georgia Peanut Commission Mississippi Peanut Growers Association

Georgia Peanut Commission holds Research Report Day The Georgia Peanut Commission held the annual Research Report Day, Feb. 10, 2016, at the National Environmentally Sound Production Agriculture Laboratory (NESPAL), located on the University of Georgia Tifton Campus. The event provided growers and industry representatives an opportunity to hear the latest reports and newest information available on peanut research projects funded by GPC in 2015. Bill Tyson, Bulloch County “The commission works to wisely invest peanut Extension ag agent, discusses the results from on-farm research farmers’ dollars into research projects across Georgia in trials in Bulloch County made an effort to reduce production input costs and improve possible from the Georgia Peanut agronomic techniques,” says Donald Chase, GPC Commission research grant. Research Committee chairman. “Although some of the findings are preliminary, the projects are exciting and many times new recommendations or observations are announced.” The GPC, on behalf of Georgia’s 3,500 peanut farmers, awarded $398,630 to peanut research facilities in the state during 2015. This effort funds 31 research projects from the University of Georgia, Georgia Tech and the USDA Agricultural Research Service. The GPC’s research program continues to focus on a variety of topics such as breeding new cultivars for higher yields and improved quality; economics and farm policy studies; programs for county agents; irrigation and water management; pests, weed and disease management; peanut utilization and manufacturing; and allergen free peanuts. Research reports are available online at

Georgia Peanut Commission holds media training for farmers The Georgia Peanut Commission held a media training for peanut farmers, Extension agents and Young Farmer advisors, Feb. 9, 2016, at the National Environmentally Sound Production Agriculture Laboratory (NESPAL), located on the University of Georgia Tifton Campus. The event provided farmers an overview of media relations by Clint Thompson with the University of Georgia, Armond Morris, Georgia Peanut interview tips by Faith Peppers with the University Commission chairman, presents the of Georgia and social media tips by Joy Crosby and $500 door prize to representatives of Jessie Bland of the Georiga Peanut Commission. the Miller County Extension and Miller County Young Farmers. Pictured left to During the event a panel of media representatives right: Morris, Rick LaGuardia, Andy from Southeast Farm Press, Georgia Farm Monitor, Spooner, Brock Ward, Bert Bodiford, Southeast Ag Net, WALB, Southeastern Peanut Jeff Williams and Rod Bryan. Farmer and Rhea + Kaiser answered questions from the growers and gave interview tips and advice. At the close of the event, drawings were held for each county Extension program and Young Farmer chapter that had farmers in attendance. The winners, Miller County Extension Service and the Miller County Young Farmers Chapter, received $500 cash. Another drawing was held for registration and lodging to the Southern Peanut Growers Conference, July 21-23, 2016, at the Sandestin Golf and Beach Resort. Rick LaGuardia of Miller County received the growers conference trip.

Alabama peanut production meetings The Alabama Peanut Producers Association joined with Auburn University and the Alabama Pictured attending the Cooperative held at the Extension System meeting North Alabama Agriplex during February Center is left to right, and hosted seven Dewayne Reed of Lawrence County and production Tyler Sandlin of meetings for Limestone County. growers and industry representatives as preparation begins for this year’s planting season. One of the meetings was held in a Cullman, Alabama, which is a new peanut producing area in the state.

APPA partners with Wiregrass United Way The Alabama Peanut Producers Association recently partnered with the Wiregrass United Way for Alabama Peanut the Spotlight on The Producers Association Business. The donated a peanut gift Spotlight on basket for the Spotlight on Business Business is event in Dothan, Ala. sponsored by the Dothan Area Chamber of Commerce. The theme was “A Night at the Movies” and featured a red carpet, photo opportunities and a chance to win a peanut gift basket donated by APPA. The WUW serves a six county area in Alabama which includes: Barbour, Coffee, Dale, Geneva, Henry and Houston.

March 2016 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


2016 WEED GUIDEBOOK Possibility of herbicide-resistant sicklepod a potential concern for peanut farmers he possibility of sicklepod weed becoming resistant to herbicides is a potential concern for all Georgia peanut farmers, says Eric Protsko, a weed scientist with the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. Sicklepod weeds look similar to peanut plants, though the leaves are a little wider and a lighter green than those of the peanut plant. The weed is a concern for peanut farmers every year because the seed remains viable in the soil for at least five years and can germinate from a 5-inch soil depth. This makes the weed almost impossible to control with residual herbicides, and there are no peanut herbicides that provide adequate residual control. Sicklepod is especially threatening, considering it is self-pollinating, meaning it doesn’t require additional plants or insects to spread throughout a field. Approximately 14,000 seeds are produced per plant, far fewer seeds than Palmer amaranth. Cotton farmers have struggled to contain Roundup-resistant Palmer amaranth in recent years, and now some peanut farmers are having difficulty managing sicklepod. Through greenhouse research on the UGA Tifton Campus, Prostko is studying whether this is a production problem or a resistance issue. “Now that our senses are heightened because of our problems with Palmer amaranth, we are looking at whether



University of Georgia weed scientist Eric Prostko studies sicklepod in a greenhouse on the UGA Tifton Campus in 2015.

every failure we’ve had has been a true herbicide resistance problem. That’s the issue,” Prostko says. “Enough people start talking about it, a couple of good growers tell you they’re experiencing management concerns, then maybe we do need to take a closer look at it.” To complete this research, Prostko, UGA graduate student Wen Carter and fellow UGA weed science researcher Bill Vencill are studying the effects of the herbicide Cadre, which may be farmers’ best treatment option against sicklepod. The research project has more than a year left before it’s complete, as 30 populations need to be screened. In some preliminary screenings, Vencill identified a few suspect sicklepod populations, according to Prostko. “However, we don’t know how widespread it is or how much of a problem it is. I think there are other issues that might be going on, such as delayed applications or reduced spray coverage at

Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2016

faster tractor speeds. The only way to know for sure is for us to do what we’re doing and come up with a better picture of what might be out there,” Prostko says. Timing is crucial for the researchers as they don’t want to allow the test plants to produce seeds. “If we let them go to seed, you’ve just made a big deposit in the soil seed bank, which could be a potential problem,” Prostko says. Farmers’ best mode of action is to treat with Cadre; however, those actions may be futile if resistance is truly an issue. “I wouldn’t be surprised if we had a lot of resistance because it (the herbicide) has been around a while,” Prostko says. “I try to tell growers when we’re talking to them, ‘Just because you’ve had a failure, this doesn’t mean it’s always a resistance issue.’ But if you have a good grower who’s trying to do things right, and you know that grower is a good grower, if he observes something wrong, then it does make you wonder. That’s how it starts, somebody says, ‘I’m not really seeing what I used to see. What’s going on?’” Prostko says the best time to manage sicklepod is when it’s 2 to 3 inches tall. This can be hard to see later in the year, when the peanuts are covering the ground. As the weed increases in size, the success rate of treating it decreases. “By the time you do see it, it’s up to the top of the canopy, and it’s really too big to treat,” Prostko says. t BY CLINT THOMPSON UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA

Herbicide stewardship take care with Cadre adre, a herbicide first labeled for peanuts in 1996, has become a widely used tool for controlling peanut weeds. There would probably be more Cadre used in peanuts if it were not so damaging to cotton that follows peanuts in crop rotations. The Cadre label prohibits cotton on Cadre-treated land for 18 months after Cadre has been applied. Cadre is thought to have a 120-day half-life in the soil. Some farmers may try to use Cadre at reduced rates so it won’t harm cotton. Others may use Cadre only in banded applications, or only on irrigated fields because these practices are thought to reduce Cadre damage to cotton. One of the main reasons weed scientists discourage Cadre use at less than recommended rates is that this practice could lead to the development of weed resistance to the herbicide. If resistance has already started to develop, then this resistance could develop faster if Cadre is used at less than its labeled rate. Cadre controls a wide spectrum of peanut weeds, but it is especially useful in controlling nutsedge. Used properly,


Cadre will control both yellow and purple nutsedge. Cadre is also a key to suppressing sicklepod. Nutsedge is one of the world’s worst weeds. While both yellow and purple nutsedge are listed as troublesome peanut weeds, purple nutsedge is the most harmful to peanut yields in the Southeast. Ted Webster, USDA-Agricultural Research Service agronomist in Tifton, Georgia, has conducted extensive tests on Cadre and nutsedge control. He points out that purple nutsedge is especially damaging because it produces underground tubers even in the absence of above-ground nutsedge shoots. “Cadre earns its money in the number of nutsedge shoots that do not emerge from the soil,” Webster says. His studies with University of Georgia weed scientists Tim Grey have examined the number of shoots that emerge from both untreated and Cadre-treated soils. They have seen a 93 percent reduction in the number of emerged nutsedge shoots from treated soils vs. untreated soils. The 93 percent reduction in shoots came from the normal recommended application rate of Cadre at four ounces per acre for peanuts.

Webster passes away Ted Webster passed away Feb.16, 2016. Webster was a research agronomist with USDA-ARS in Tifton, Georgia. Additionally, he was research leader of the Crop Protection and Management Research Unit. Webster was one of the agency’s newest research leaders having accepted the position in July of 2015. Webster joined USDA-ARS in 1998 as a research agronomist with Crop Protection and Management Research Unit. His research focused on the biology and management of difficult to control and/or herbicideresistant weeds (e.g. Palmer amaranth, Benghal dayflower, and purple nutsedge). Additionally, he was instrumental in research that developed cost-effective alternatives to methyl bromide fumigation in vegetable crop production. Webster was an active member of the Southern Weed Science Society and the Weed Science Society of America, generously volunteering service in numerous capacities for many years. In addition to his accomplishments and impact as a researcher, Webster was civic minded and contributed much to the Tifton community. Webster was also Scoutmaster for Troop 62 in Tifton.


Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2016

Webster hasn’t seen nutsedge resistance to Cadre. But scientists in Texas have identified yellow nutsedge populations with likely resistance. Their greenhouse tests showed that Cadre and Pursuit applications at four to eight times the recommended rates failed to control the yellow nutsedge. Also, Webster and his colleagues rated chlorosis or leaf yellowing on treated nutsedge shoots. They also weighed the shoots and tubers, and reported that for every one gram of foliar biomass, there is 3.4 grams of tuber biomass. “The tubers are the dangerous part of the weed,” Webster says. “For every aboveground shoot you see, there are four tubers underground.” The tubers also contaminate and lower the quality of harvested peanuts. “Herbicides are important in halting tuber production. Also keep in mind that purple nutsedge is a perennial or multi-year problem,” Webster says. University of Georgia Extension weed scientist Eric Prostko says Cadre is sometimes called “the glyphosate of peanuts” because it controls so many weeds. Under conditions of heavy weed pressure, applications of Cadre at 10 to 14 days following an at-cracking treatment of herbicides such as paraquat will often provide excellent weed control. For Cadre-free weed control, Prostko offers two suggested herbicide programs. One would feature Prowl or Sonalan, followed by Valor plus Strongarm, then a postemergence treatment of Cobra or Ultra Blazer plus Dual Magnum plus 2,4-DB. The second program would feature Prowl or Sonalan, followed by Gramoxone plus Storm plus Dual Magnum early postemergence, followed by Cobra or Ultra plus Dual Magnum plus 2,4-DB as a later postemergence treatment. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

Keep weed control


erbicide resistance is a big threat to sustainable peanut weed control, according to Ramon Leon, University of Florida weed scientist in Jay, Fla. He says that keeping herbicides effective will require farmers to alternate the classes of herbicides they use. Farmers also need to closely manage weed seed banks in their soils. It has been about 25 years since a herbicide with a new mode of action was introduced to the market, according to Leon. The pace of herbicide introductions has slowed, and there are no new modes of action on the horizon. Leon says farmers need to make sure existing herbicides remain effective. This requires knowing the mode of action for herbicides you currently use. For instance, Cadre, Strongarm Pursuit and Classic are acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors and are group 2 herbicides. “Weeds have become resistant to every herbicide mode of action,” says Leon. “We see weeds becoming resistant to two, three and even four modes of action. We also see weed seed banks increasing in farm soils.” Resistant weeds have changed how they grow, according to Leon. “Palmer amaranth is adaptive,” he says. “It seems to produce flowers, leaves and branches much earlier than when it was susceptible to herbicides.” While Palmer amaranth resistance is widespread, Leon says the resistance is less damaging in Florida, mainly because farmers there use herbicides with long residual control. It’s important to control weeds emerging early in the growing season, according to Leon. These weeds cause the most yield losses and produce the most seed. Leon says Palmer amaranth seed



remains viable for three to five years in the soil. “If you control this weed for five years, you can almost get down to having no Palmer amaranth in your field,” he explains. As new transgenic cotton and soybean crops with built-in transgenic resistance to 2,4-D and dicamba come into general use, the increased use of these herbicides might eventually set the stage for weeds becoming resistance to 2,4-DB, according to Leon. Where possible, use herbicides with different modes of action. For instance,

To control tropical spiderwort, Leon suggests using a cracking time spray mix of Gramoxone plus Dual Magnum plus Basagran. Leon says peanuts will recover from damage caused by Gramoxone plus Dual. Leon says 2,4-DB, Cobra and Ultra Blazer should control glyphosate resistant Palmer amaranth if the weed is less than four inches tall. Cultural practices will also help reduce weeds in peanuts, according to Leon. For instance, cleaning equipment will help prevent the spread of herbicide resistant Palmer amaranth. It can take 30 minutes to clean equipment with a pressure washer, but this will be a lot less costly than spending extra for herbicides later on. Leon says weed control could also become more difficult this year and next year if farmers shorten their crop rotations. Low prices for cotton and corn could prompt farmers in the Southeast to plant more peanuts. Leon says that

Weed scientist Ramon Leon, University of Florida, says both cultural practices and herbicides are needed to control key weeds.

Leon suggests using group 6 herbicide Basagran followed by group 14 herbicides. The group 14 herbicides include Valor, Ultra Blazer and Cobra (Valor should not be applied over-the-top of peanuts). Leon says group 22 herbicides can also be included in a weed control program focusing on resistance management. Group 22 herbicides include paraquat formulations sold as Gramoxone, Firestorm and Parazone. For early postemergence treatments, he suggests using 2,4-DB plus Cobra. He says Ultra Blazer plus Cadre should also provide acceptable early postemergence weed control.

Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2016

rotating peanuts with corn is especially helpful in controlling weeds. “Corn suppresses peanut weeds and allows you to rotate your herbicides,” adds Leon. Deep tillage with moldboard plowing is a cultural practice that can help manage Palmer amaranth, according to Leon. He advises using deep tillage if Palmer amaranth is out of control, but he warns that deep tillage as a cultural control will only work one time. Leon adds that mowing weeds before they produce mature seed can also reduce the number of seed that survive in the soil. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

2016 Peanut Weed Control Updates Recommended herbicides University of Georgia Extension weed scientist Eric Prostko has released a list of generally recommended herbicides for managing peanut weeds during 2016. These recommendations include Prowl or Sonalan as preplant incorporated or preemergence herbicides. For preemergence control, he suggests using Valor. Adding Strongarm to the Valor treatment will improve annual morningglory control, according to Prostko. For cracking time or early postemergence treatments, herbicides should be sprayed when the weeds are less than three inches tall. This will be about 15 to 25 days after planting. Prostko recommends paraquat formulations such as Gramoxone SL, Firestorm, Parazone or Helmquat. Along with the paraquat, he suggests adding Storm plus Warrant or Dual Magnum for the early postemergence treatment. At 30 to 40 days after planting, he recommends postemergence applications of Cadre or Cobra or Ultra Blazer plus Dual Magnum or Warrant plus 2,4-DB. For late postemergence applications, Prostko says 2,4-DB can be applied as needed.

At-Plant help for spiderwort control University of Georgia Extension weed scientist Eric Prostko reports that farmers are using more Dual Magnum and Warrant herbicides to fight Palmer amaranth and tropical spiderwort in peanuts. For controlling Palmer amaranth, Prostko sees no advantage to using Dual Magnum or Warrant plus Valor at planting. For best results in controlling Palmer amaranth, he prefers seeing Dual or Warrant applied with other postemergence herbicides such as Cadre, Cobra, Gramoxone or Ultra Blazer. Better residual control of Palmer amaranth results from the postemergence applications, according to Prostko. However if tropical spiderwort is the main target weed, at-planting or preemergence treatments might be best. Tropical spiderwort is also called Benghal dayflower. Prostko says these earlier treatments with Dual or Warrant plus Valor should especially help on spiderwort for peanuts planted late in May or in June.

New varieties tolerate herbicides Field and plot studies from this past year confirm that new runner varieties hold up well in tolerating herbicide applications. University of Georgia Extension weed scientist Eric Prostko says the new varieties Georgia-12Y and Georgia-13M both have sufficient tolerance to the postemergence herbicides typically used in Georgia.

Continued on page 16 March 2016 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


2016 Peanut Weed Control Updates Continued from page 15

Valor goes generic Since its introduction in 2001, Valor has become one of the most widely used peanut herbicides. A recent survey from the USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service suggests that Valor is used on about 62 percent of the U.S. peanut acreage. New generic versions of Valor will be available for use during 2016, according to Eric Prostko, University of Georgia Extension weed specialist. Valor is Valent’s formulation of flumioxazin. The new generic versions of flumioxazin include Outflank from Adama, Panther and Panther SC from NuFarm, and Rowel from Monsanto. Prostko says Panther SC is the only liquid formulation of flumioxazin. He adds that the Panther SC has not yet been adequately tested by University of Georgia weed scientists.

Your 40-day deadline Select a target date of 40 days after planting to complete the bulk of your peanut herbicide applications, suggests Eric Prostko, University of Georgia Extension weed specialist. Completing your weed control treatments by this target date will help insure that your postemergence applications will be timely. Prostko says that applying the herbicides by this date also helps to reduce the risk of peanut plants being injured by the weed control chemicals. He notes that peanuts tend to be most sensitive to certain herbicide damage when the plants are in the R5 and R6 of stages of growth. In the R5 stage, seed within the pods are just beginning to grow. In the R6, seed are fully formed but are not yet mature. 2,4-DB is one of the safest postemergence herbicides to apply later in the peanut growing season.

Update on 2,4-DB Names of the herbicides sound similar, but there are significant differences in the effect on peanuts between the 2,4-D amine and the 2,4-DB herbicides. The differences are significant. The


2,4-D will kill or severely injury peanuts, while the 2,4-DB is an effective herbicide that can be safely used in peanuts to control damaging weeds. University of Georgia Extension weed scientist Eric Prostko says 2,4-D amine is not labeled for use on peanuts and can cause yield losses, depending on the rate and time of application. Only two applications of 2,4-DB are permitted per year on peanuts. According to the labels for 2,4-DB, the pre-harvest interval from the time of application until harvesting is from 45 to 60 days.

So far, large droplet nozzles okay for peanuts New weed control technology for 2016 could offer transgenic cotton and soybean varieties with built-in resistance to the widely used and broad spectrum 2,4-D and dicamba herbicides. These herbicides should help in controlling herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth and many other weeds. Farmers using this new technology in cotton and soybeans will be required to use nozzles that produce larger spray droplets to reduce herbicide drift. Many peanut herbicides such as Cobra, Gramoxone, Storm and Ultra Blazer require maximum coverage, according to University of Georgia Extension weed scientist Eric Prostko. He says small-plot research conducted in 2015 suggests that the large droplet, low-drift nozzles will be fine for use with peanuts when a system or program is used. Prostko says the 11002DG, 11002 AXIR and the TT102 nozzles all performed well for peanut weed control. He cautions that additional on-farm research with large commercial sprayers is needed to confirm these results. “If growers use low application speeds and maintain ideal spray boom heights, then it is very likely that these nozzles can be used in peanut production systems,” Prostko says.

was shown that peanut disease control could be improved with nighttime spraying. Improved weed control has also been shown to occur when the herbicide Liberty (glufosinate) is applied at certain times of the day to control weeds in cotton and soybeans. It’s not quite as straightforward for peanut weed control. University of Georgia Extension weed scientist Eric Prostko says studies from 2015 showed that the time of day did not affect the efficacy of cracking time or early postemergence herbicides applied to peanuts. The applications in the peanut tests included Gramoxone plus Storm plus Dual Magnum targeting Palmer amaranth. The applications in the test took place at 7 a.m., 10 a.m., 5 p.m. and 10 p.m. “The time of day had little effect on the performance of these cracking and early-postemergence applications,” Prostko says.

High-yield growers reveal weed controls Survey results revealed the weed control practices among the peanut farmers who participated in the Georgia Peanut Achievement Club for the 2014 crop season. The ten farmers recognized for their high yields produced an average of 6,312 pounds per acre in 2014. All ten used irrigation on their peanuts, and eight of the ten used a bottom plow for land preparation. All ten also planted in twin rows. One of the ten used a four-year crop rotation, while the remainder used a three-year rotation before planting peanuts again. University of Georgia Extension weed scientist Eric Prostko took note of the herbicides used by these high-yield peanut growers. He says eight of the ten growers recognized used Sonalan. Nine of the ten used Valor. Three of the ten used Dual. Six of the ten used Cadre. Three of the ten used 2,4-DB. Three of the ten used Strongarm. And two of the ten used Prowl. t

Time to spray Palmer Amaranth Time of day for spraying has become an important consideration ever since it

Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2016


Patterson named dean and director of Auburn College of Agriculte and AAES uburn University alumnus Paul Patterson has been named dean of the College of Agriculture and director of the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, effective immediately. Patterson has served as associate dean for instruction in Auburn’s College of Agriculture for almost seven years. “Dr. Patterson has an excellent connection with students, both in the classroom and in the field,” says Auburn Provost Timothy Boosinger. “His background in agricultural economics, especially in international research and marketing, will help Auburn continue its role as a leader in food production for the world. We look forward to his leadership.” In his role as dean, Patterson will report to Boosinger; as director of the AAES, he will report to Auburn President Jay Gogue. Patterson, an Auburn native who


graduated from the College of Agriculture in 1985 with a bachelor’s degree in agricultural business and economics, returned to his alma mater in June 2009 to serve as associate dean of the college. In that position, he was responsible for all instructional programs in the college’s eight academic units, nine undergraduate programs and 19 graduate programs. In that position, Patterson oversaw the development of five new undergraduate and graduate degree programs, increased alumni engagement with the college, improved academic advising services, expanded professional development opportunities for students, worked to enhance the college’s relationship with community colleges and led efforts to develop departmental promotion and tenure guidelines for faculty. “All these accomplishments were realized through working with great faculty and staff,” he says.

Patterson said he is grateful for the opportunity to move Auburn Paul Patterson agriculture Dean and Director of the forward. Auburn University College of Agriculture and “I am the Alabama Agricultural honored and Experiment Station humbled to be selected as dean and director,” he says. “The College of Agriculture and the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station have very important legacies at Auburn University and across the state and nation. We are at a pivotal point in history, where we must build for the future. “I look forward to working with the faculty and staff, our university partners and our stakeholders to strengthen the college and experiment station,” he says. “It is my goal to make sure that Auburn is among the premier colleges of agriculture.” t

March 2016 Southeastern Peanut Farmer



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Inoculants Low Cost Yield Boosters eanut farmer Corley Moses of Greenwood, Mississippi, says he uses inoculant every time he plants peanuts. “I even inoculate on land that has grown three crops of peanuts,” Moses says. “I’m not willing to take the chance of leaving inoculant out. I’ve seen what can happen when you don’t inoculate.” Inoculants deliver live beneficial bacteria to the seed and soil. These bacteria live in nodules on the peanut roots and capture nitrogen from the air that is needed by the plants. Like many farmers, Moses sees seed inoculation as a low-cost yet essential practice. A number of peanut agronomists and Extension specialists advise farmers not to eliminate inoculation, even during years such as 2016 when peanut prices are likely to be low. Georgia Extension crop budgets for


2016 peanuts estimate inoculant costs at $8 per acre. In poorly inoculated fields, it may be 45 days after planting before the peanut plants start showing signs of yellowing, according to Jay Chapin, recently retired Extension peanut specialist for Clemson University in South Carolina. Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for peanut plants that can be provided by the inoculant. “We’ve had good results with liquid in-furrow inoculants,” Chapin says. “It’s too important to mess up.” If inoculants fail, Chapin says yield losses can be as high as 1,500 pounds per acre. “You can spend a lot of money on nitrogen fertilizer after an inoculant failure, but you’ll never bring yields back up to what they would be from proper inoculation,” he explains. “It’s often the case that we see no response from supplemental nitrogen fertilizer on

A field trial in Mississippi showcases the skip rows where inoculants were not applied.


Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2016

peanuts. And we’ve never seen a positive response from foliar nitrogen applications.” Chapin advises farmers to use inoculants from major manufacturers who are willing to back up their products. “Most complaints about inoculants that we see are coming from poor application techniques,” he says. It’s important to be careful in applying inoculant, according to Chapin. He says that planting peanuts less than one and a half inches deep could be asking for trouble, because inoculant can dry out at shallow planting depths. University of Georgia cropping systems research agronomist Scott Tubbs says hot and dry conditions during inoculant application can result in a loss of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Also, he notes, extremely wet conditions can threaten the survival of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the soil. “Farmers have already seen an extremely wet winter so far in 2016 so inoculants could work even better in short rotations due to the natural bacteria not surviving the extremely wet year,” says Stan Deal, technical sales representative with Verdesian. Even though inoculant use may not increase yields every year, Tubbs says he and many of his colleagues view inoculants as cost-effective insurance. “It takes only a 50- to 80-pound yield increase to pay for the cost of inoculant application at planting,” Tubbs says.

Continued on page 20

Sponsored by


Choose the Best Type of Inoculant noculants are formulations available in different should be applied formulations, reports only if there is no University of way of applying Georgia cropping systems the other formulaagronomist Scott Tubbs. He tions. Such prodsays the number of viable ucts applied bacteria will vary by directly to the formulation. For instance, he seed will require says the liquid inoculants the seed to be supply the most bacteria, moist. If applied followed by the sterile peat to dry seed, the products. Granular inoculant coverage is often formulations typically provide inadequate. Inoculants deliver live beneficial the least number of viable Tubbs says bacteria to the seed and soil. These bacteria when applied at the granular inoculant bacteria live in nodules on the peanut labeled per acre rate. formulations are roots and capture nitrogen from the Agronomists prefer to see air that is needed by the plants. not the same as in-furrow liquid inoculants to the sterile be used for peanuts. peat/powder inoculants. He points out that Tubbs says sterile peat/powder the granular inoculant is a dry product but


Inoculants are low cost yield boosters continued from page 18 “I would not try to save money by eliminating inoculation,” says Jason Sarver, Mississippi Extension peanut agronomist. Speaking at the Mississippi Peanut Growers Association recent annual meeting, Sarver says stunted and yellowing peanut plants are often caused by poor inoculation. Such plants sometimes fail to close their canopies, and yield losses occur as a result. Sarver notes that official recommendations may only call for inoculation once every four years if a field has a history of peanut production. But he notes that top farmers are willing to pay the $8 per acre cost and often add inoculant every year. Sarver cites 35 tests over 15 years by researchers at North Carolina State University. These studies showed that on new peanut fields, inoculants increased yields by 1,565 pounds per acre. Even on fields with a recent history of peanuts, using inoculants increased yields in these tests by an average of 198 pounds per acre. There are other chemistries that can be added to the liquid in-furrow inoculant application so farmers can get multiple uses out of one application. According to Deal, farmers can include some fungicides, insecticides and nematicides in their application and that helps justify the extra expense and time in applying the liquid in-furrow application. t BY JOHN LEIDNER


Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2016

it is not applied to the seed prior to planting. Rather, the granular inoculants are metered through a dry metering box such as an insecticide/herbicide hopper and placed in the seed furrow ahead of the seed being dropped on top of it. In non-irrigated fields and under dry soil conditions, the granular formulation will remain in the bottom of the seed furrow while the liquid may move the beneficial bacteria away from the seed. Under these conditions, the granular may be the better formulation to use, although the preferred condition is planting into adequate soil moisture. On new peanut land where inoculation is critical to success, it may be good to use a liquid furrow inoculant along with a “backup” seed treatment inoculant. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

Inoculation Pointers • Be sure to use a peanut-specific inoculant. Inoculants for soybeans will not benefit to peanuts, and visa versa. • Use non-chlorinated water when mixing and applying inoculants in the seed furrow. • Apply the inoculant the same day you mix it. • If the inoculant directions call for one ounce per 1,000 feet of row, keep in mind that you’ll need to double the amount applied if you are planting in twin rows. Application rates for most inoculants were developed under single row peanut production systems and are on a per furrow basis. • For liquid inoculants, use a minimum of five gallons of water per acre. Make sure the inoculant stream hits in the center of the open furrow and not the dry furrow walls. You want to coat the seed as well as the soil around it. • Plant seed at least two and two and a half inches deep according to the University of Georgia recommendations. With shallow planting, the inoculant bacteria could dry out and die.

Dunaway named Outstanding Georgia Young Peanut Farmer rey Dunaway, Hawkinsville, Georgia, was named the Outstanding Georgia Young Peanut Farmer Award at the 40th annual Georgia Peanut Farm Show and Conference, Jan. 21, 2016, at the University of Georgia Tifton Campus Conference Center, Tifton, Georgia. The award is presented annually to one Georgia peanut farmer based upon the applicant’s overall farm operation; environmental and stewardship practices; and leadership and community service activities. The award is sponsored by the Georgia Peanut Commission and BASF. “This year’s winner demonstrates volunteerism and service to agriculture in his area,” says Eric Eade, business representative with BASF. Dunaway developed his passion for farming while growing up on a farm. He currently operates 2,000 acres of crops including peanuts, cotton, soybeans, corn and even shrimp aquaculture. On the farm, Dunaway utilizes technology through pivot monitoring using “Ag View” and Greenseeker technology to apply variable rate fungicide to his peanut crop. Both


Trey Dunaway, Hawkinsivlle, Ga., receives the Oustanding Georgia Young Peanut Farmer Award during the Georgia Peanut Farm Show and Conference held Jan. 21, 2016, in Tifton, Ga. Pictured left to right: Armond Morris, Georgia Peanut Commission chairman; Kate, Lauren, Ryan and Trey Dunaway; Mark Freeman, Pulaski County Extension agent; John Offenberg, crop consultant for Dunaway, and Eric Eade, business representative with BASF.

technologies allow him to be more efficient when activating or deactivating his pivots and applying more or less of the fungicide depending on the size of the peanut crop. Dunaway also utilizes 30” row spacing on all of his crops which allows him to be more efficient by planting 16 rows at a time.

GPC presents Outstanding Georgia Peanut Farmer of the Year The Georgia Peanut Commission and Agri Supply presented the Outstanding Georgia Peanut Farmer of the Year award to individuals representing each of the commission’s five districts during the Georgia Peanut Farm Show and Conference, Jan. 21, 2016, in Tifton, Georgia. The GPC board members started this award to honor farmers who have given life-long devotion to peanut farming and who have the passion, diligence, leadership and desire to see the peanut industry in the state of Georgia continue to represent the highest quality possible. Winners include: District 1 – Louie Grimes, Colquitt; District 2 – Wavell Robinson, Pavo; District 3 – Jimmy Five farmers receive the Oustanding Georgia Dixon, Girard; District 4 – Sam Floyd, Peanut Farmer of the Year award during the Danville; and District 5 – Wilbur Georgia Peanut Farm Show and Conference held Jan. 21, 2016, in Tifton, Ga. Pictured left to Gamble, Dawson. right: District 1 – Louie Grimes, Colquitt; District The farmers received a sign to 2 – Wavell Robinson, Pavo; District 3 – Jimmy display at their farm and a $100 gift Dixon, Girard; District 4 – Sam Floyd, Danville; card from Agri Supply. t and District 5 – Wilbur Gamble, Dawson.

“I have been very impressed with Trey’s agricultural knowledge, stewardship practices and his use of technology on the farm,” says Mark Freeman, Pulaski County Extension agent. “He excels at growing high yield crops and believes in the work of Extension.” Dunaway utilizes a variety of stewardship practices on the farm including conservation buffer strips, rotation of crops, integrated pest management, conservation tillage with a cover crop, variable rate applications, irrigation scheduling methods and aerial imagery. Dunaway is also active in the agricultural industry. He is a member of the Pulaski County Extension Program Development Team and committee member of the Pulaski County Farmer’s Appreciation Banquet. He has also received state awards for the soybean, grain sorghum and corn yield contests. Dunaway is married to Lauren, and they have two children, Ryan and Kate. Dunaway receives a sign to display at his farm and a trip to the Southern Peanut Growers Conference in July. t BY JOY CROSBY

March 2016 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


Time to get agricultural irrigation systems checked and fixed eaky pipes, flat tires and rodent-infested electrical boxes are issues that should be addressed now by farmers with irrigation systems, says University of Georgia Cooperative Extension precision agriculture and irrigation specialist Wes Porter. “We want those irrigation systems up and running when we need them. We don’t want to be midway through the production season, needing to apply water, and all of a sudden have a breakdown. Say you notice a leak in your irrigation system while you’re irrigating corn, that could have been fixed right now,” Porter says. Southeastern corn growers begin planting in March, so the time is now for producers to address any irrigation issues. According to Porter, the main concerns are with leaks, those in pipes that are visible as well as those that might affect the amount of water being evenly distributed. Turning the pumping system on and letting it run allows producers to check for proper flow rates and pressures throughout the pivot. Farmers are also encouraged to check the power systems. Whether the system is operated by electricity or a diesel engine, it may be time for service. Growers are advised to change air filters and oil filters, check wires to make sure nothing has chewed on them and check to see if any rodents or bees have started nesting inside electrical boxes. While leaks are mostly visible, sprinkler uniformity isn’t always easy to see. “If you look at each of the sprinkler heads on a system, it looks like they’re all doing what they’re supposed to be doing, they’re all applying the same amount. However, you may have one that is different from the others,” Porter says. Without proper uniformity in your system, certain areas may not get the same amount of water as the rest of the field. Knowing this before crops are planted allows growers to be proactive. “One way to check for uniformity is by putting cups under the pivot and



letting it walk to see if all your sprinklers are operating correctly. If all of a sudden you see very low numbers or very high numbers in the amount of fluid you caught, then you can go back and target that area to correct it and see what’s happening,” Porter says. “You could have a stopped-up nozzle, potentially. You could have a leaky nozzle or torn-up nozzle that needs to be corrected.” Learn more about proper procedures to check pivot uniformity through the UGA fact sheet found online at Farmers may not realize the tires on the pivot need to be checked, too. Just like the tires go flat on a car that’s left

Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2016

unused for an extended period of time, so too can the tires on irrigation systems that haven’t been used since last fall. “It’s something that can be easily fixed right now when you’re out in an open field away from crops. You get that system in the middle of a crop, it’s really hard to get out there with some tools and get that tire pulled off without being just miserable out there, sitting on your knees. We don’t want (you) to have to do that,” Porter says. Growers with irrigation concerns are advised to contact their local UGA Extension agent for more information. t BY CLINT THOMPSON UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA

Peanut farmers recognized at Georgia Young Farmer Convention he Georgia Young Farmers Association presented awards to members during their state convention held Jan. 29-30, 2016, at Jekyll Island, Georgia. Two Georgia farmers who produce peanuts were recognized as the state winner for the Farm Family Award and the Young/Beginning Producers Award. Rick LaGuardia of Miller County was honored as the state winner of the Farm Family Contest which is sponsored by the Georgia Development Authority. He is married to Becky and they have two sons, Quinn and Lance. LaGuardia began farming on his own in 1990 and planted 75 acres of wheat, oats, corn, and peanuts. Since then, he has expanded the farm to 1,200 acres of corn, peanuts, and cotton. “Spending most of my childhood at my grandparents’ farm, I learned to love and appreciate the land,” LaGuardia says. “I want to pass this love of the land on to our children. With me, it’s not just a piece of dirt. It’s a heritage with deep roots that I want to see preserved for future generations.” LaGuardia ensures the farmland and environment is protected by participating in the Conservation Stewardship Program sponsored by the USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Services. He also


Andrew Grimes, Tifton, Ga., receives the state award for the Young/Beginning Producer Award at the Georgia Young Farmer State Convention held Jan. 29-30, 2016, at Jekyll Island, Ga. Pictured left to right: Derick Wooten, GYFA president, Grimes and Carl Nichols, Tift County Young Farmer advisor.

The Georgia Development Authority (GDA) presents the LaGuardia family as the state winner for the Outstanding Farm Family program at the Georgia Young Farmer State Convention held Jan. 29-30, 2016, at Jekyll Island, Ga. Pictured left to right: Derick Wooten, GYFA president, Allen Morrow, GDA loan specialist; Rick, Becky and Lance LaGuardia, Colquitt, Ga.; Bert Bodiford, Miller County Young Farmer advisor; Donald Wilder, GDA; and Thomas Carter, GDA executive director.

utilizes low pressure high efficiency nozzles on the pivot irrigation, plants his crops using strip-till into a cover crop and uses GPS technology when applying chemicals and fertilizer to avoid over spraying. LaGuardia has been a member of the Miller County Young Farmers since he began farming and has served as secretary. LaGuardia is also a graduate of the Peanut Leadership Academy. Tift County Young Farmer Member Andrew Grimes received the State Young/ Beginning Producer Award at the state convention. Grimes developed his passion for farming while growing up on a diversified row crop operation including peanuts, cotton, corn, wheat and vegetables. On the farm, he is very involved in stewardship and conservation practices. He utilizes GPS technology, plants a cover crop, and uses twin-row planting and a three-year rotation to aid in crop efficiency and replenishing the soil with nutrients. His farming practices continue to help him achieve high yields annually

with an average of 7,200 pounds per acre for peanuts. Grimes is also active in the agricultural industry. He is chairman of the Tift County Farm Bureau Young Farmer Committee and an active member of the Tift County Young Farmers. Grimes volunteers within the school system teaching Ag in the classroom and by taking equipment to the schools for the children to see. As a Tift County Young Farmer, Grimes has been recognized with many other awards in the agriculture sector. Grimes was South Georgia Chevy Dealers Farmer spotlight in 2011, He and his family were in a Young Farmer Families Commercial in 2013, in 2013 Grimes was awarded the 9th district Young Farmer Leadership Award, for outstanding involvement through Farm Bureau. Grimes was also awarded Young Peanut Farmer of the Year Award from the Georgia Peanut Commission in 2015. Grimes and his wife Lauren who works on the farm with him have three children, Drew, Will & Mallory Jane. t BY JOY CROSBY

March 2016 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


Washington Outlook by Robert L. Redding Jr.

USDA implements Commodity Certificate program GPC supported certificate initiative The U.S. Congress included authorization for a Commodity Certificate Exchange Program in the Fiscal Year 2016 Consolidated Appropriations Act at the end of 2015. This legislation allows the Commodity Credit Corporation to issue commodity certificates to growers that can be exchanged for marketing assistance loans (MAL) beginning with the 2015 crop year. The Georgia Peanut Commission and the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation encouraged members of Congress to support commodity certificate authorization in the appropriations bill. According to the Farm Service Agency, commodity certificates: • allow producers with outstanding MALs to purchase certificates and then exchange the certificate for their outstanding loan collateral rather than forfeit that loan collateral to CCC at loan maturity; • are available to the loan holders to use in exchanging MAL commodities pledged as collateral to CCC for a nonrecourse commodity loan; • are available to loan holders with outstanding nonrecourse MALs made for wheat, upland cotton, rice, feed grains, pulse crops (dry peas, lentils, large and small chickpeas), peanuts, wool, soybeans and designated minor oilseeds; and • are intended to minimize the potential costs of delivery and storage of agricultural commodities by the CCC that were pledged as collateral and forfeited as full payment for the loan.

Congress yet to schedule TPP Despite the President signing the Trans-Pacific Partnership, Congress has yet to schedule a vote on the agreement. Congress has an abbreviated schedule this year due to the presidential and congressional elections. Congress will be in session through mid-July then recess and return briefly in September. The TPP agreement includes twelve countries, the U.S., Australia, Japan, Canada, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Vietnam, Chile, Brunei, Singapore, and New Zealand.


GPC joins efforts to prevent budget cuts U.S. House and Senate discuss next steps on budget The Georgia Peanut Commission and the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation have joined agricultural, conservation, credit and nutrition organizations to oppose cuts to the 2014 Farm Bill. The U.S. House and Senate are considering the 2017 Budget Resolution. Although the House will likely move forward, it is unlikely the Senate will move a budget package. In a letter supported by the GPC and the SPFF, the coalition stated: Two years ago, Congress passed a bipartisan farm bill that made a significant contribution to deficit reduction. This bipartisan legislation was estimated to contribute $16 billion to deficit reduction over 10 years. These difficult cuts resulted from hard choices made to reform and reduce the farm safety net, conservation programs and nutrition assistance programs. Some of the reforms made in the new farm bill are still being implemented. We urge you to oppose any additional cuts for the Agriculture Committees in the FY 2017 appropriations process as well as proposals to re-open any title of the farm bill during the consideration of the 2017 Budget Resolution. The Congressional Budget Office projects that mandatory farm bill spending will decline over the next five years, while mandatory federal spending outside the Agriculture Committees’ jurisdiction will rise over the same time period.

USDA Secretary rejects cottonseed program proposal U.S. Department of Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack stated in early February that USDA would not implement a cottonseed program as proposed by the cotton industry. Secretary Vilsack reiterated this message in testimony and in response to congressional inquiries at a House Agriculture Committee hearing on the State of the Rural Economy. House Agriculture Committee Chairman Mike Conaway, R-Texas, responded to the decision by stating: The Secretary argues that Congress removed cotton from Agriculture Risk Coverage (ARC) and Price Loss Coverage (PLC) in the 2014 Farm Bill and, thus, his hands are tied. Here’s what Congress actually did in the 2014 Farm Bill: As a result of a WTO settlement with Brazil, Congress effectively removed cotton lint from ARC and PLC. Cottonseed has not historically been a covered commodity, and Congress never discussed adding cottonseed to the list of covered commodities. Rather, Congress left intact the Secretary’s authority to designate any oilseed as an “other oilseed.” The Secretary has elsewhere argued that canons of statutory construction prevent him from acting. That is not the case. The statute in question plainly states that an “other oilseed” includes “any oilseed designated by the Secretary.” There is only one canon of statutory construction necessary to move forward with designating cottonseed as an “other oilseed”: the ordinary meaning of the statutory language. This is the canon the U.S. Supreme Court looks to before all others. The Secretary has also argued he cannot designate cottonseed as an oilseed because the provision is reserved for “emerging oilseeds.” That is also not the case. The Farm Bill defines an oilseed as “a crop of sunflower seed, rapeseed, canola, safflower, flaxseed, mustard seed, crambe, sesame seed, or any other oilseed designated by the Secretary” (emphasis added). The Farm Bill does not restrict this authority to “emerging oilseeds.” The Secretary imposes this limitation on himself.

Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2016

2016 Decisions

Peanut Program Pointers

eing fully informed of the current peanut program can help many farmers avoid issues for the 2016 growing season. That’s one reason, the Georgia Peanut Commission continues to fund research with the National Center for Peanut Competitiveness. The research continues to provide information for farmers focusing on payment limits and base acres, and potential warehouse space issues that could arise in 2016. “We do not want to be alarmists, but we want to be assured farmers are fully informed as to the current program,” says Don Koehler, Georgia Peanut Commission executive director. “While 2015 outcomes are unavoidable at the present time, farmers can resolve the issues with their 2016 farm operations decision.” According to Koehler, there has never been a greater need for farmers to consult with their local FSA office, attorneys or accountants as they make cropping decisions for 2016 and beyond. One consideration is the need to maximize allowable entities on the farm. Since most peanut industry experts are predicting 2016 peanut acreage to be comparable to the 2015 acreage then farmers need to make decisions to fully utilize the safety net provisions in the 2014 Farm Bill. Many farmers may have addressed their farm entities based on the 2014 PLC rate of $95 without consideration as to what would happen with significant peanut production leading to even lower peanut prices, according to the “Peanuts 2016: Payment Limit vs. Acreage Planted” report from the NCPC. For the 2015 peanut crop, USDA provided an estimate for the national seasonal average price for peanuts of $366 per ton which translates into a projected PLC rate of $169 per base ton. As the PLC payment rate goes higher on peanuts, it takes fewer base acres to reach the payment limit per entity. Also, USDA’s recent rules on Direct Attribution have also made it harder to qualify additional entities. As an example, a farming operation with two entities such as a husband and wife and a payment yield of 1.75 tons per acre, the maximum peanut base acres for the 2014 crop would have been 1,769.13 acres. For the 2015 crop, the maximum peanut base acres can range from 994.48 to 1,1051.71 acres. However, if the average price is the loan rate for either 2015 crop or the 2016 crop, the maximum peanut base acres for two entities would be reduced to only 933.71 acres. According to the NCPC, as a farm’s payment yield increases, the maximum peanut base acres reduces significantly. “Decisions made for the 2015 crop year cannot be changed and unfortunately many farmers will not see the full PLC safety net payment,” says Stanley Fletcher, director of the NCPC. “However, farmers can make decisions now to ensure that the situation does not occur for the 2016 peanut crop.” This past winter many farmers have attended county extension peanut production meetings and through those meetings, it has become clear the need to maintain proper crop rotation with peanuts, Koehler says. Disease pressure has increased significantly while many farmers are shortening or even eliminating proper peanut rotation. Increased disease pressure leads to significantly higher chemical costs which could lead to negative cash flowing. The final concern for 2016 includes warehouse space. The space for peanut storage may be tight in some cases as the 2016 harvest approaches. Growers cannot get a Marketing Assistance Loan without an approved warehouse receipt; therefore, farmers are encouraged to have a contract for warehousing before you plant your crop. Farmers can view the complete documents on “Peanuts 2016: Payment Limit vs. Acreage Planted” and “2016 Estimated Peanut Supply vs. Storage” on the Georgia Peanut Commission website at t


• You cannot get a marketing assistance loan without a warehouse receipt and warehouse receipts are only accepted from CCC approved warehouses. Farmers should not plant unless they know they have access to an approved warehouse. Peanuts can be sold directly to the sheller without going in the loan but the price could be below the loan rate. • Payment limits apply to marketing loan gains under this farm bill. Farmers should know what their limits are and be sure to use certificates to manage payments in order to not let loan gains reduce PLC payments on a farm. • Remember, with far higher PLC payments, you will reach your payment limit wall on far fewer acres. Know your history and manage acres accordingly. • Farmer and sheller should agree up front on redemption procedures to avoid payment limit issues. Farmers should consult their FSA office to determine which approved power of attorney form is the proper form for each situation. • If a buying point allows a peanut to be graded and they have warehouse approved warehouse space they cannot deny a farmer access to the warehouse. A buying point can refuse to grade peanuts and they are then exempt from providing warehouse space. • Farmers have improved quality protection from Crop Insurance and a revenue assurance program. • June 01, 2016 is the last day to add a person, spouse or legal entity to the farming operation for Payment Limitation purposes • USDA’s Farm Service Agency (FSA) has announced that producers who chose coverage from the safety net programs established by the 2014 Farm Bill, known as the Agriculture Risk Coverage (ARC) or the Price Loss Coverage (PLC) programs, can begin visiting FSA county offices starting Dec. 7, 2015, to sign contracts to enroll in coverage for 2016. The enrollment period continues until Aug. 1, 2016.

BY JOY CROSBY March 2016 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


Southern Peanut Growers Southern Peanut Grower’s national recipe contest honors peanut butter’s place in our lives Why did you last dig a spoon into a jar of peanut butter? Was it to top your morning oatmeal and power your day? Or to make a decadent dessert celebrating yet another milestone in life? Honoring peanut butter’s unwavering spot in our lives and on our pantry shelves, Southern Peanut Growers is hosting a national PB My Way: For Life recipe contest at Launching March 1 for the beginning of March, National Peanut Month, and now in its seventh year, the 2016 PB My Way recipe contest will seek the peanut butter recipes Americans turn to for life’s adventures – from meals in a busy daily routine to post-workout snacks or sweet treats enjoyed with family and friends.

PB My Way: For Life recipe contest details • From March 1 to April 15, 2016, people can submit peanut butter recipes at • Recipes should fall into the categories of Snack Time, Fit Fuel, Family-tested and Sweet Celebrations. • One grand prize winner will receive a Vitamix® highperformance blender (value of $449). Additionally, winners in each category will be awarded a box of peanut butter goodies, including classic PB as well as new products.

Southern Peanut Growers events The Southern Peanut Growers has represented producers at a variety of events including the Georgia Peanut Farm Show, Alabama Florida Peanut Trade Show, Florida Peanut Producers Annual Meeting, Cherokee County Farm Bureau Exhibition, the Georgia Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics Meeting. In April, SPG will continue to promote peanuts at the Southern Women’s Show in Nashville, Tennessee, April 14-17, 2016.

Peanut Butter Toffee Dip Ingredients 8 ounces cream cheese, softened 1 cup light brown sugar 2/3 cup creamy peanut butter 1 teaspoon vanilla 1 cup toffee bits (plan or chocolate covered), divided apples, Nilla Wafers®, or celery for dipping Directions Place softened cream cheese in a medium bowl and whip with hand-held mixer until smooth. Add the brown sugar, peanut butter and vanilla and beat again until creamy. Fold in the toffee bits, reserving some to sprinkle over the top as a garnish. Serve immediately with sliced apples, Nilla Wafers® or celery or store covered in the refrigerator until ready to serve.

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March 2016 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


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March 2016 - Southeastern Peanut Farmer  

March 2016 - Southeastern Peanut Farmer