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APSA Celebrates a Century of Success n Disease and Insect Guidebook n Size 4 to 6 Months Consumer Campaign A communication service of the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation.

Contents April 2019


Joy Carter Crosby Editor joycrosby@gapeanuts.com 229-386-3690

The American Peanut Shellers Association is the first peanut organization to reach a century of success this year. The association has reached many milestones through the years as the industry has continued to advance.

Director of Advertising Jessie Bland jessie@gapeanuts.com Contributing Writers Kaye Lynn Hataway klhataway@alpeanuts.com John Leidner johnleidner@bellsouth.net Southeastern Peanut Farmer P.O. Box 706, Tifton, Ga. 31793 445 Fulwood Blvd., Tifton, Ga. 31794 ISSN: 0038-3694 Southeastern Peanut Farmer is published six times a year (Jan./Feb., March, April, May/June, July/Aug., and Oct./Nov.) by the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation. The publisher is not responsible for copy omission, typographical errors, or any unintentional errors that may occur, other than to correct it in the following issue. Any erroneous reflection which may occur in the columns of Southeastern Peanut Farmer will be corrected upon brought to the attention of the editor. (Phone 229-3863690.) Postmaster: Send address changes (Form 3579) to Southeastern Peanut Farmer, P.O. Box 706, Tifton, Georgia, 31793. Circulation is free to qualified peanut growers and others allied to the industry. Periodical postage paid at Tifton, Georgia and additional mailing office. Editorial Content: Editorial copy from sources outside of the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation is sometimes presented for the information and interest of our members. Such material may, or may not, coincide with official Southern Peanut Farmers Federation policies. Publication of material does not necessarily imply its endorsement by the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation. For editorial concerns call 229-386-3690. No portion of this or past issues of the Southeastern Peanut Farmer may be reproduced in any form whatsoever without the written consent of the editor. By-lined articles appearing in this publication represent views of the authors and not necessarily those of the publisher. Advertising: The Publisher reserves the right to refuse any advertisement. Corrections to advertisements must be made after the first run. All billing offers subject to credit review. Advertisements contained in this publication do not represent an endorsement by the Southeastern Peanut Farmer or the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation. Use of trade names in this publication is for the purpose of providing specific information and is not a guarantee nor warranty of products named. For advertising concerns call 229-386-3472.

Peanut Shellers Celebrate a Century of Success


Disease and Insect Guidebook The 2019 Southeastern Peanut Farmer Disease and Insect Guidebook features information on new fungicides, false white mold, spotted wilt virus, leaf spot, thrips, burrower bugs, caterpillars, snails and more.


Early Introduction Consumer Campaign targets 4 to 6 months The National Peanut Board continues to advance the conversation around peanut allergy prevention with the launch of its 2019 early introduction consumer campaign that offers baby clothes sized at 4 to 6 months with unique designs.

Departments: Checkoff Report .................................................................................. 8 Alabama Peanut Producers Association, Florida Peanut Producers Association, Georgia Peanut Commission and Mississippi Peanut Growers Association

Washington Outlook ............................................................................ 28 Southern Peanut Growers Update ........................................................ 30 Cover Photo: A velvetbean caterpillar on a peanut leaf. Photo by Mark Abney, University of Georgia Research and Extension Entomologist.

April 2019 Southeastern Peanut Farmer



Calendar of Events

A Century of Success ery few businesses and organizations are able to achieve that century mark and celebrate 100 years of accomplishments, leaders, memories and more. To achieve a century of success is no small feat. When I think about all of the advances in the peanut industry and agriculture in general during the past 100 years, I’m amazed at the changes and advances made. This year two entities have reached their 100-year milestone, the American Peanut Shellers Association and the University of Georgia Tifton Campus. In 1919, I wonder what the group of commercial peanut shellers and crushers were thinking as they met in Atlanta to officially charter the Southeastern Peanut Association. The name was formally changed in 1993 to the American Peanut Shellers Association. Did they realize all of the advancements the peanut industry would make through the years? They would probably be amazed at the results today. As the American Peanut Shellers Association has been celebrating their 100th anniversary, they have released a series of videos reviewing the past and looking toward the future of the industry. In one of the videos I recall a peanut sheller discussing how shellers used to make their own equipment out of wood - the elevators, conveyors and sizing shakers. Today, the equipment is made with metal and many pieces of the equipment are made right here in Southwest Georgia. The peanut industry has definitely made an economic contribution to rural South Georgia through the years. In addition to the shellers association, the University of Georgia Tifton Campus will celebrate their 100th anniversary at a Centennial Celebration on May 3, 2019, in Tifton, Georgia. Scientists based at the University of Georgia Tifton Campus have reshaped agriculture worldwide for the past one hundred years. UGA-Tifton has been home to world-changing research by scientists like peanut scientist Frank McGill, whose package approach to peanut production drastically increased peanut yields in Georgia. More recently, peanut researcher Peggy Ozias-Akins, who helped map the peanut genome, call the campus home. Today, UGA-Tifton researchers and scientists are preparing the next generation of agricultural leaders to take the world’s stage. Research has always been a cornerstone of the peanut industry. Whether the focus has been on production research to help farmers, seed research or nutrition research to provide the industry with all of the benefits of eating peanuts and peanut butter; research has been the key to the industry’s success over the past 100 years. Today, technology continues to advance agriculture for another successful 100 years so I leave you with this quote included in the APSA century video from Sally Wells, vice president of supply chain and logistics with Birdsong Peanuts. “So, if our industry can get it right – if we can use the blend of technology that we have at our fingertips today and the appreciation of where we have come from and what we’ve been able to accomplish; I think we are on the verge of really being an extraordinary industry and being able to deliver to the world a product that is so healthy, so sustainable, and so good for the world. I think we are up to the challenge; I think we are going to do that.” t


Joy Carter Crosby Editor


Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2019

u University of Georgia Tifton Campus Centennial Celebration, May 3, 2019, Tifton, Ga. For information visit tifton.caes.uga.edu. u USA Peanut Congress, June 22-26, 2019, Amelia Island, Fla. For information visit peanut-shellers.org. u American Peanut Research Education Society Annual Meeting, July 9-11, 2019, The Hotel at Auburn University & Dixon Conference Center, Auburn, Ala. For more information visit apresinc.com or call 229-329-2949. u Stripling’s Irrigation Research Park Field Day, July 18, 2019, Camilla, Ga. For more details call 229-522-3623 or visit striplingpark.org. u Southern Peanut Growers Conference, July 18-20, 2019, Edgewater Beach & Golf Resort, Panama City Beach, Fla. For more details visit southernpeanutfarmers.org. u Sunbelt Ag Expo Field Day, July 25, 2019, Moultrie, Ga. For more information visit sunbeltexpo.com or call 229-985-1968. u American Peanut Shellers Association and National Peanut Buying Points Association Pre-Harvest Meeting, Aug. 7, 2019, The Bindery, Leesburg, Ga. For more information visit peanut-shellers.org or call 229-888-2508. u Georgia Peanut Tour, Sept. 17-19, 2019, Cordele, Ga. and surrounding area. For more information visit the tour blog online at georgiapeanuttour.com. u Brooklet Peanut Festival, Sept. 21, 2019. For more information visit the festival’s website at brookletpeanutfestival.com. u Plains Peanut Festival, Sept. 28, 2019. For more information visit plainsgeorgia.com. u Sunbelt Ag Expo, Oct. 15-17, 2019, Moultrie, Ga. For more information visit sunbeltexpo.com or call 229-985-1968. u Georgia Peanut Festival, Oct. 19, 2019, Sylvester, Ga. For more information visit gapeanutfestival.org. (Let us know about your event. Please send details to the editor at joycrosby@gapeanuts.com.


n late 1917 and early 1918, a group of Alabama, Florida and Georgia commercial peanut shellers and crushers gathered in Atlanta to form the Southeastern Peanut Association. In a downtown Atlanta hotel on April 5, 1919, the charter was officially signed. The association has now reached a milestone by celebrating a century of success in the peanut industry. The name was changed to the American Peanut Shellers Association on Nov. 30, 1993, and shelling companies from other states were included. Today, APSA includes 8 active shelling companies as members and 150 associate members from across the U.S. The members handle 80 percent of the peanuts grown in the United States. “Of the 30 plus peanut organizations, we are the very first to reach the century milestone. Over the years, the association has consistently taken the leadership initiative to expand and advance the American peanut industry,” says Karl Zimmer, president of APSA and president and CEO of Premium Peanut. “Our strength continues to be our members, our



committees and our board, working collectively to achieve annual goals and objectives,” Through the years, the association moved office locations from Americus to Albany, and completed their current office location in 1986. The APSA is known for their strength in being a voice legislatively in Washington, funding seed research and for their ability to look forward and see the need for developing an organization, The Peanut Institute, to focus on nutrition research. “The association has been very vital to everybody in the peanut shelling business. Some shellers have not joined, but it’s there loss in my opinion,” says J.W. Willis, former president of APSA and Damascus Peanut Company. “The association has helped with lobbying, keeping us updated on regulations, consolidating the industry by getting the Virginia and Southwest group to come together in the association instead of three different entities out there fighting each other.” Evans Plowden, general counsel for

Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2019

APSA says, “One of the accomplishments that I would hope lives on is our ability as an industry to bring all our factions together to support a farm bill that is good for all interests. No one segment can get wealthy at the expense of another.” According to many members of the association, the peanut industry is relatively small compared to other crops. The industry is a close-knit group and many of the functions are like family conferences. One of those events, USA Peanut Congress, was started by APSA in 1965. Today, the event continues to be an educational conference for all segments of the industry to attend, make industry connections and continue to learn about the latest trends, marketing and issues within the peanut industry. The APSA was also a leader in tackling an industry crisis during the low-fat craze when consumption was decreasing and news headlines were comparing fat found in peanuts to lard and bacon grease. According to Jeff Johnson, former president of The Peanut Institute and Birdsong Peanuts, the industry was dying

and really in bad shape but he remembers sitting in a marketing meeting and hearing about research to prevent heart attacks and how nuts were mentioned in the study. “From that meeting, the shellers thought we needed to coordinate and fund nutrition research which led to the creation of The Peanut Institute,” Johnson says. Today, The Peanut Institute coordinates a variety of nutritional type research studies using peanuts and peanut butter. The results of those studies are shared to consumers through infographics and easy to read fact sheets. In addition to nutrition research, seed research is another component of the association. The shellers committed $2 million to the peanut genome research project. According to George Birdsong, former president of APSA and CEO and general counsel for Birdsong Peanuts, the total project cost $6 million and was split between the three segments of the industry – growers, shellers and manufactures. Now that the project has ended, breeders can select specific genes for drought resistance, disease resistance and

American Peanut Shellers Association Time Line April 5, 1919 - The association was officially chartered at a downtown Atlanta, Georgia hotel. 1960s - The office was moved from Americus to Albany, Georgia. 1965 - The association co-sponsored the first USA Peanut Congress which is the largest meeting of all segments of the peanut industry. Nov. 30, 1993 - the association changed names from the Southeastern Peanut Association to the American Peanut Shellers Association. 1996 - The association founded The Peanut Institute. 2007 - The association founded The Peanut Institute Foundation. April 5, 2019 - The association celebrated their 100th anniversary. more. These traits are already in the wild species but now breeders can select these specific genes for breeding much more quickly than before. Through education programs, seed and nutritional research and promotional events, the association has completed a century of success and has a lot to look forward to in the next century. “We have an opportunity to grow our industry. We have the opportunity to take our peanut and make it into the superfood

that it is meant to be. We have the ability to take and add nutritional value to a child that may not have had the opportunity. The sky is the limit,” says Jamie Brown, director of sales and logistics for Olam Edible Nuts and vice president of APSA. “ The main thing is that we come together as one, as growers, as manufactures as processors, to take this industry and put it to places it’s never been.” t BY JOY CROSBY

April 2019 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


Checkoff Report Investments Made by Growers for the Future of the Peanut Industry.

National Peanut Month Promotions and provided television media news teams throughout Georgia with a gift basket of Georgia peanut products. GPC also exhibited at the Georgia Nutrition and Dietetics Meeting and Peanut Proud Festival. Throughout the month, GPC promoted peanuts online through digital advertising with Salem Media and held contests on the GPC’s social media pages.

Alabama The Alabama Peanut Producers Association partnered with 99.7 WOOF FM to promote peanuts during March for National Peanut Month. The “WOOF FM Morning Show with John Houston and Amy Dee!” kicked off National Peanut Month on March 1. Winners of Amy Dee’s daily mindbender trivia question received a prize pack of peanut products, including peanut butter, peanut butter powder, and a sandwich box. Twenty prize packs were awarded throughout the month, and five prize packs were awarded for the kid’s trivia during the promotion. A large basket filled with peanut treats and peanut-themed housewares was awarded on the last day of March, as well. As part of the campaign, 96 radio spots aired throughout the month promoting peanuts.

John Houston and Amy Dee from 99.7 WOOF FM are holding the prize packs from the Alabama Peanut Producers Association.

Georgia The Georgia Peanut Commission promoted peanuts throughout the month of March through a variety of promotions. The annual Georgia PB&J Day was held March 4, 2019, at the Georgia State Capitol in Atlanta. Exhibitors from the peanut industry served PB&Js, grilled PB&Js, country-fried peanuts, peanut


Governor Brian Kemp presents the Georgia Peanut Commission with a proclamation for National Peanut Month in March.

candy and more. During the special program, Sen. John Wilkinson and Rep. Tom McCall presented resolutions highlighting the importance of peanuts to Georgia’s economy. Also, GPC and Peanut Proud donated 14,400 jars of peanut butter to the Atlanta Community Food Bank to celebrate National Peanut Month during the annual PB&J Day. GPC sponsored a special series, Proud to be a Georgia Farmer, with WTOC-TV in Savannah and WALB-TV in Albany. The program highlighted farmers in the viewing area during the evening news in March. A special 30-min. show about the Georgia peanut industry aired near the end of the March, covering peanut production, export marketing, research and promotions. GPC teamed up with Parker Wallace, an Atlanta based food enthusiast and chef, for a March - National Peanut Month media campaign in Georgia. Wallace is creator of Parker’s Plate and she demonstrated a variety of peanut inspired recipes featuring PB&J Parfait, Spicy Peanut BBQ Wings and a Peanut Power Bowl. The media tour included television stations in Albany, Atlanta, Augusta, Columbus, Macon and Savannah. GPC provided peanuts and recipes to the state’s 11 welcome centers for tourists

Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2019

Mississippi During March National Peanut Month, Mississippi Peanut Growers Association prepared peanut goody baskets for television stations throughout the state. This is the sixth year MPGA has coordinated this promotion during March. This led to live interviews at television stations by Malcolm Broome, MPGA executive director. The baskets were used as talking points since they contained all kinds of peanuts, peanut products and peanut facts. During the interviews, Broome discussed peanut nutritional information as well as economic benefits of peanut production to Mississippi. The interviews aired early morning, midday and late afternoon and some stations taped additional interview footage to be shown throughout the month of March.

Malcolm Broome, right, Mississippi Peanut Growers Association executive director, coordinated live interviews with television stations throughout Mississippi.

Reports from the: Alabama Peanut Producers Association Florida Peanut Producers Association Georgia Peanut Commission Mississippi Peanut Growers Association

FPPA attends Taste of Florida Agricultural Reception During the first week of Florida’s Legislative Session the Florida Peanut Producers Association attended the Taste of Florida Agriculture reception at the Capitol in Tallahassee, Florida. This event is sponsored and coordinated each year by Florida Farm Bureau and draws large crowds of state legislators, Sherry Saunders and Roberta government officials and the general public from Stewart serve No Bake Peanut around the state. The FPPA served No Bake Peanut Butter Energy Squares and Butter Energy Squares, Sweet & Spicy Peanuts and Sweet & Spicy Peanuts at the Fresh From Florida Roasted Peanuts. Many Taste of Florida Agriculture Reception in Tallahassee. representatives of other commodity groups also attended and the crowds enjoyed a sampling of foods made from Florida grown products. The event is always a great way to kick off the state’s legislative session.

FPPA announces scholarship money available The Florida Peanut Producers Association announces the opening of their 2019 Scholarship Award Program. Two $1,200 scholarships will be awarded to deserving high school seniors and/or college students. The applicant or someone in the applicant’s family must be an actively producing peanut grower in Florida. It is the intent of the Scholarship Award Committee, however, that the award recipients attend a Florida junior college or four-year university. For an application contact the FPPA office at 850-526-2590 or visit the FPPA website at www.flpeanuts.com. The scholarship applications must be postmarked no later than July 1, 2019.

Research projects approved in Mississippi The Mississippi Peanut Growers Association and the National Peanut Board recently approved four research grants with Mississippi State University. The projects funded include: “Optimizing Fungicide Applications for Soil-Borne Disease as Influenced by Crop Rotation” by Brendan Zurweller and Alan Henn, “Evaluating the Impact of Row Patterns on the Performance of Peanut Varieties with Disparate Canopy Growth Habits” by Brendan Zurweller, “Improving Spray Application Practices of Peanut Growers” by Connor Ferguson and “Standardization of Mississippi Peanut Variety Trials” by Brad Burgess. These projects provide Mississippi growers with in-state research projects that will provide them valid information to use on their farm.

Alabama peanuts promoted at Geneva County Dirt Day

Kaye Lynn Hataway, APPA, teaches students about peanuts at Geneva County Elementary School.

The Alabama Peanut Producers Association helped students increase their knowledge about peanuts at the 2nd annual Dirt Day at Geneva County Elementary School on March 15, 2019. Approximately 180 4th grade students in Geneva County attended this “Celebration of Dirt,” and learned about the products that come from the soil below their feet. Other stations included cotton, soil layers, soil senses, painting with soil, edible soil, and Alabama History, including George Washington Carver. APPA also provides educational materials on their website at www.alpeanuts.com.

Peanuts promoted at Nutrition and School Board Conferences Grower organizations in Alabama, Georgia and Mississippi recently attended conferences where they could highlight peanut nutrition and allergy information to attendees. All of the organizations provided samples of peanuts as well as pamplets regarding health and nutrition as well as allergy information. Alabama Food Service and Nutrition Expo The Alabama Peanut Producers Association provided information on peanut allergies and nutrition at the Alabama Food Service and Nutrition Expo in Montgomery, Alabama, on March 8, 2019. Attendees to the EXPO included members of the Alabama Association of Nutrition & Foodservice Professionals, Alabama Dietetic Association, and the Alabama School Nutrition Association. Georgia Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Conference The Georgia Peanut Commission, along with Southern Peanut Growers, attended the Georgia Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Conference, March 19, 2019, in Athens, Georgia. While exhibiting, representatives from GPC and SPG had the opportunity to visit with attendees about peanuts and peanut nutrition. Peanut samples, recipe cards and the most up-to-date research information was provided to approximately 200 attendees. Mississippi School Boards Association Conf. The Mississippi Peanut Growers Association promoted peanuts recently at the 47th Annual Conference of the Mississippi School Boards Association in Jackson, Mississippi, Feb. 18-20, 2019. This was the second time for MPGA to have an exhibit booth at the conference with nearly 400 attending from across the state.

April 2019 Southeastern Peanut Farmer




No Worries with False White Mold alse white mold is to southern stem rot or white mold as irregular or funky leaf spot is to late leaf spot. It won’t cause yield losses. Both false white mold and funky leaf spot are oddball diseases that occasionally show up in peanut plants but generally cause no more damage than creating a little anxiety on the part of growers. Bob Kemerait, University of Georgia Extension plant pathologist, says false white mold is caused by the Phanerochaete fungus. He says this is not the white mold or stem rot that causes so much damage to peanuts and growers should not spray anything for it. Kemerait says false white mold does not harm peanut plants, and the real damage from false white mold is causing growers to spend money unnecessarily in fighting it. False white mold is often found in conservation tillage peanut fields, where the white fungal growth covers both peanut limbs and previous crop residue. Early in its growth, the Phanerochaete fungus appears to resemble the white mold/stem rot pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii. However, as false white mold ages, it turns a yellow-orange color and takes on


Photo credit: Bob Kemerait, University of Georgia.


False white mold is caused by the Phanerochaete fungus and does not harm peanut plants. Early in its growth, the Phanerochaete fungus appears to resemble the white mold/stem rot pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii. However, as false white mold ages, it turns a yellow-orange color and takes on a toothed or hairy appearance.

a toothed or hairy appearance. False white mold never produces the BB-sized sclerotia as Sclerotium rolfsii does,

Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2019

according to Kemerait. Sclerotia are the survival structures continued on page 11

There’s Still a Place for Sulfur hen used alone for leaf spot control, the strobilurin group of peanut fungicides have not performed as well in recent years as they did prior to 2015, according to Albert Culbreath, University of Georgia plant pathologist. Strobilurin fungicides include products such as Headline and Abound. Culbreath noted that Priaxor, which includes the active ingredients pyraclostrobin and fluxapyroaxad, is comparable to or better than Bravo for leaf spot control. He notes that both Priaxor and Bravo are superior to Headline used alone for leaf spot. He says resistance to the strobilurin fungicides has not been confirmed, but is strongly suspected. He also notes that a mixture of fungicides with two different modes of action can help prolong the useful life of the products, even when resistant populations of leaf spot develop


to one of the fungicides in the mixture. According to Culbreath, examples of fungicides with two different modes of action include Priaxor and Elatus. It’s bad enough that strobilurin fungicides have lost effectiveness, but Culbreath reports that sterol inhibiting fungicides have also started performing poorly. He reports that prothioconazole, sold under the trade name Proline, is the only sterol inhibiting fungicide that has not lost its effectiveness in controlling leaf spot. However, leaf spot control with Provost, a mixture of prothioconazole and tebuconazole, has also decreased in recent years. In an effort to improve leaf spot control with these older products that may be losing effectiveness, Culbreath has been adding sulfur at rates of five pounds per acre. “Sulfur is a 2,000-year-old chemistry that has long been used to help control plant diseases and sulfur may help us with

resistance management,” Culbreath says. During his tests in 2017 and 2018, he found that sulfur alone does not provide much leaf spot control. However, when he added a micronized sulfur from a Microthiol Disperss formulation, he significantly improved the leaf spot control from either Provost or Alto used alone. Mixtures of the micronized sulfur with Priaxor also enhanced leaf spot control compared to Priaxor applied alone. Culbreath also added the sulfur product to the HelmStar Plus which contains a mix of the active ingredients azoxystrobin and tebuconazole. In these tests, adding the sulfur resulted in leaf spot control that was superior to the chlorothalonil standard. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

continued from page 10

produced by the fungus after it has killed the plant tissue. Sclerotia start out about the size of a mustard seed and change colors over time from white to tan to dark brown. A final difference is that false white mold does not produce lesions or scar tissue on plants beneath the fungal growth as is often the case with Sclerotium rolfsii. Kemerait also reminds growers not to confuse the white growth of false white mold and the white growth of white mold with the white growth found on Sclerotinia blight, another potentially dangerous peanut disease. “Timeliness is critical in the management of all diseases affecting the peanut crop and timeliness is especially critical for control of white mold,” Kemerait says. He advises growers who find what appears to be false white mold in their crop to consult their county agent for confirmation. t BY JOHN LEIDNER April 2019 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


Early and Late Leaf Spots icholas Dufault, Extension plant pathologist with the University of Florida says it is important to know which leaf spot you have in your peanuts, so that you can select the most appropriate fungicide. For instance, he says the fungicide product tebuconazole is good on early leaf spot. However, neither Abound (a.i. azoxystrobin) nor Headline (a.i. pyraclostrobin) control early leaf spot well. They tend to be better for use on late leaf spot. If rust is the problem, then azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin are still good fungicide choices, according to Dufault. Pyraclostrobin is a component of Priaxor but can still be found as the solo active ingredient in Headline. He adds that both Abound and Headline are better for rust control than tebuconazole products, but tebuconazole can provide some rust management. Dufault notes that older chemistry such as Topsin (a.i. thiophanate-methyl) will help control leaf spot, but should not be applied alone or used in consecutive sprays. Mancozeb is another older

Photo credit: Bob Kemerait, University of Georgia.


Photo credit: Bob Kemerait, University of Georgia.

Which Fungicides Work Best?

Early Leaf Spot

Late Leaf Spot

chemistry that may work well in controlling leaf spot. Dufault says mancozeb is fair on leaf spot control, and has been comparable to chlorothalonil in his research trials. He cites tests in Alabama showing that mancozeb and Topsin applied together worked well in controlling leaf spot. He adds that tebuconazole can still provide quality white mold control, but should not be the only compound used in heavily infested fields. Also, he notes that Miravis will provide excellent leaf spot

control, especially when applied early in the epidemic, but is not active on white mold. So growers will need to consider adding a white mold control product if Miravis is part of their spray program. Dufault also reminds growers to check the preharvest interval listed on fungicide labels. He notes that Convoy cannot be applied within 40 days of harvest while Elatus must be applied prior to 30 days before harvest. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

Added Benefits from Propulse he active ingredient called fluopyam helps provide nematode and disease control in both Velum Total and Propulse. Propulse has mainly been used as a pegging time treatment for nematode control, according to University of Georgia plant pathologist Tim Brenneman. He noted that many of the original studies of Propulse were from chemigation treatments. In Brenneman’s studies, he found that conventional application of Propulse, followed by irrigation, was just as effective as chemigation treatments. His tests in 2017 and 2018 showed that Propulse sprayed on and watered in gave significant control of leaf spot and white



mold. It was also a viable option for providing mid-season nematode control. As to timing of these Propulse treatments, some of Brenneman’s best results were from applications at 45 to 75 days after planting. “If I were using Propulse, I would use it 60 days after planting,” Brenneman says. “That may be the ‘sweet spot’ for when to apply it for the best overall results on nematodes, leaf spot and white mold.” He also studied when to apply the irrigation after spraying Propulse on peanuts, and found that the fungicide was quite flexible. He obtained good results, whether irrigation to water in the product was applied anywhere from one hour to

Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2019

66 hours after the fungicide was applied. Under moderate nematode pressure and when using the Georgia-06G variety, Brenneman obtained some of his most profitable yields by using Velum Total applied in-furrow followed by Propulse at pegging. Under heavy nematode pressure, Brenneman notes that the new nematode resistant varieties Georgia-14N or TifNVHigh 0/L would be better choices and more profitable than planting Georgia06G. “This is especially true if there is a $50 per ton bonus for planting high oleic peanuts,” Brenneman says. t


he insecticide Thimet not only reduces thrips populations, it remains the only product farmers can treat peanuts with that will typically reduce tomato spotted wilt, caused by tomato spotted wilt virus. University of Georgia plant pathologist Albert Culbreath has been testing Thimet to see if it provides additional control of spotted wilt on newer varieties that show improved resistance to this devastating peanut viral disease. The varieties included Georgia06G, Georgia-12Y, Georgia-13M, Georgia-14N, Georgia-16HO, TUFRunnerTM ‘297’, TUFRunnerTM ‘511’, FloRunTM ‘331’, TifNV High O/L and AU-NPL 17. Culbreath reported that spotted wilt increased in several fields during the 2018 growing season. On TUFRunnerTM ‘511’, for example, the incidence was 37.9 percent on untreated plots compared to 18.1 percent in plots where Thimet was applied. Spotted wilt in Georgia-06G reached 20.2 percent in untreated plots, but only 9.1 percent where Thimet was applied. When averaged across all varieties, Thimet applications reduced spotted wilt incidence from 13.5 percent to 7.6 percent. Culbreath noted that the newer runner varieties Georgia-12Y, Georgia-13M, Georgia-14N, AU-NPL 17 and TifNV High O/L all had a spotted wilt incidence of 7.4 percent or less, even where no Thimet was applied. “Better field resistance to TSWV in several of our newer varieties allows growers more options for thrips control and still provide control of spotted wilt,” Culbreath says. “We’ve had excellent results with Georgia-12Y in organically managed plots where we used no insecticide at all.” Thimet increased the yield of TUFRunnerTM ‘297’ by 600 pounds per


Photo credit: Albert Culbreath, University of Georgia.

Thimet Helps Control Spotted Wilt Virus T

Damage from tomato spotted wilt virus to a peanut plant.

acre, however there was no significant yield increase from Thimet for other varieties tested. Culbreath says yields exceeded 7,300 pounds per acre in Georgia-16HO plots whether or not Thimet was applied. Although Georgia-06G has a good level of field resistance to TSWV, it is not as resistant as varieties like Georgia-12Y, Georgia-13M, Georgia-16HO or TifNV High O/L, and often will respond to treatments such as Thimet in situations with heavy pressure from spotted wilt. In a separate test featuring early planting of Georgia-06G and reduced seeding rates, Culbreath used in-furrow applications of Velum Total, Admire Pro, Propulse and AgLogic and measured their impact on thrips damage, spotted wilt incidence and yield. He found that thrips control from Velum Total and AgLogic was comparable to that from Thimet. Admire Pro also provided acceptable thrips control. Thimet reduced spotted wilt incidence from 37.3 percent in untreated plots to 19.7 percent where in-furrow Thimet was applied.

Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2019

Neither Velum Total, Admire, Propulse, nor AgLogic reduced spotted wilt incidence in this trial. Those results were not surprising, based on previous work. Culbreath says yields were highest in plots where Thimet or a combination of Propulse and Admire were applied. Culbreath also collaborated with Dan Anco, and his graduate student, Mitch Haynes at Clemson University in South Carolina on a gel product applied with in-furrow insecticides. Culbreath says the super-absorbant gel is similar to gels used in disposable diapers. While Thimet alone reduced the incidence of spotted wilt, applying the gel with Thimet provided additional suppression of spotted wilt in Georgia-06G, and even more suppression of spotted wilt in TUFRunnerTM ‘511’ which is more susceptible to the virus. The gel alone had no effect on spotted wilt incidence. While this is still in the experimental stage, it does appear that using absorbent gel with Thimet may have potential for providing additional suppression of spotted wilt. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

Miravis Extends Leaf Spot Control he new fungicide Miravis is showing great potential for improving peanut leaf spot control, according to Albert Culbreath, University of Georgia plant pathologist. He reports that Miravis was labeled and used on a limited basis in 2018. “It is the most effective leaf spot fungicide ever evaluated in our program,” Culbreath says. He adds that Miravis does not control white mold, and it is weak on rust, but it could be applied with other fungicides to control these diseases. “We’re still learning how to best use Miravis,” Culbreath says. “According to the label, it can be applied no more than four times in a season. However, due resistance management concerns, as well as the cost, I would not want to see it used more than two times.” Much of Culbreath’s work with Miravis has focused on applications at


about 60 days after planting in combination with Elatus (for soilborne disease control), following an application or two of chlorothalonil or a mixture of chlorothalonil and cyproconazole, with a second application of the Miravis + Elatus mixture twenty-eight days later, and finishing the season with chlorothalonil. “Leaf spot control with those applications and similar regimes have been amazing,” Culbreath says. “In this coming season, I plan to look at applying Miravis at 60 days after planting along with a white mold fungicide, and then follow with chlorothalonil or other fungicides with different modes of action, with what is needed to for white mold for the remainder of the season.”

Miravis provides exceptional residual control of leaf spot, according to Culbreath. He says one application is capable of providing at least 30 days of leaf spot protection in peanuts, but spray intervals should not exceed 28 days because of resistance concerns and to be compliant with the label. Long residual effects can help with disease management, but also represent tremendous selection pressure if resistant isolates of the leaf spot pathogens emerge. Like any fungicide, Miravis should be applied before leaf spot epidemics start. “Although I like to see growers use varieties with resistance and/or tolerance to leaf spot if possible, Miravis would be a good fungicide to use if a grower were planting a variety such as Georgia-13M, a runner peanut that is extremely susceptible to late leaf spot,” Culbreath adds. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

Check out Lucento ucento fungicide from FMC has been given the go-ahead for use in peanuts during the 2019 growing


season. In peanuts, Lucento will target white mold and leaf spot. It is also cleared for use on a wide variety of diseases in other crops such as corn, soybeans, sugar beets and wheat. There are two active ingredients in Lucento. These include bixafen, a group 7 fungicide and flutriafol, a group 3 material. FMC officials say Lucento offers curative and preventive control of leaf spot and white mold, while the active ingredients in Lucento should play a role in preventing these two major peanut diseases from developing resistance to fungicides. The new fungicide is known for its high residual activity and its ability to move within the peanut plant. Lucento has provided excellent control of leaf spot and good control of white mold. In tests, Lucento was compared to Bravo and Abound, and it has performed well under

heavy disease pressure, according to FMC officials. FMC will be recommending Lucento in two applications during the growing season, and they feel this will help comply with recommendations of the industry’s Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) aimed at prolonging the useful life of fungicides by preventing the development of resistance to them by plant diseases. Bruce Stripling, a technical service manager with FMC, suggests Lucento would be a good choice to alternate with a tebuconazole fungicide. He says growers may want to target their Lucento applications at 45 days after planting in the early leaf spot spray or at 60 to 105 day after planting for white mold control. “If you have used Lucento at the 45 DAP spray, then that will leave either the 60, 75, 90 or 105 DAP slot for your second application in the white mold sprays,” Stripling says. “We are targeting Lucento for two applications in peanuts and it speaks to the versatility of the product for the flexible positioning.”

Bruce Stripling, a technical services manager with FMC, stands in a disease-free peanut plot treated with the new Lucento fungicide.

After Lucento is applied, Stripling suggests waiting 24 hours, and then irrigating to move the fungicide to the crown area of the plant where it’s most effective on white mold. Stripling adds that Lucento works well on rust, and that is an advantage over the new Miravis leaf spot fungicide. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

April 2019 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


Getting a Handle on Thrips Populations

University of Georgia Extension entomologist Mark Abney has been trapping and counting thrips at six locations in South Georgia. He is reporting the numbers weekly and working with other researchers to help develop a mathematical model that will help predict the occurence of thrips flights. The model can be helpful for growers trying to manage thrips injury.

arly in the growing season, Georgia Extension entomologist Mark Abney has been trapping and counting thrips and then reporting thrips numbers on his weekly blog. He also worked with counterparts at North Carolina State University to help develop a mathematical model that will predict the occurrence of thrips flights.


The model can be helpful for growers trying manage thrips injury and fighting the tomato spotted wilt virus that is transmitted by thrips to peanuts. Abney placed sticky traps at six locations in South Georgia. Local Extension agents helped select the locations in peanut production regions. The traps were located at sites in Tift, Worth, Brooks, Colquitt, Mitchell and

Decatur counties. The traps were installed at locations near the edges of fields where peanuts were scheduled to be planted in 2018. Trap data are being used to validate the computer model, and Abney hopes the traps will encourage growers to use scouting and schedule foliar insecticidal thrips treatments based on the number of thrips collected in the traps. The thrips forecasting model has been very accurate at predicting thrips flight activity in Georgia over the last couple years, and this new tool could prove very useful to growers who must make decisions about insecticide applications. The populations of tobacco thrips spiked in mid-May in 2018 and was the highest recorded in the five years of Abney’s monitoring program. The number of thrips captured in the traps declined rapidly the next week. Abney believes that the rapid decline in thrips numbers and the lack of significant injury to peanuts can be explained by the high rainfall totals in the three weeks following the peak trap capture. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

A Treatment Threshold for Thrips ny one source of stress, be it from herbicide injury, thrips infestations, saturated soil or cold weather can have a big impact on peanut yields, according to Mississippi State University entomologist Jeff Gore. “Injury extends the time we have to manage peanuts for the year,” he adds. One form of injury that Gore sees is from the herbicide Valor applied to peanuts growing in Delta soils. “Valor injury seems to be more severe in the Delta,” Gore adds. One of his main peanut research projects involves looking at thrips and developing strategies to manage thrips in peanuts. In one of these studies, he counted thrips and measured yields for two peanut varieties, the short-season QR-14 variety developed by Algrano Peanuts, a Texas-based peanut company,



and Georgia-06G, a widely grown runner released by the University of Georgia. In his side-by-side comparisons, the short season QR-14 variety lapped the row middles faster than Georgia-06-G. “We saw some good yields from QR-14,” Gore says. When both varieties were planted on May 7, QR-14 had slightly lower but comparable yields to the widely grown Georgia-06G. However, when both varieties were planted on May 30, the QR-14 significantly outyielded Georgia-06G. Insecticides used for thrips control in the test included Admire Pro, Thimet, or acephate. When each of these three insecticides were applied, the QR-14 yields exceeded 7,000 pounds per acre for the May 30 planting. Even the untreated plot of QR-14 yielded 6,818 pounds per acre. “We saw more seedling vigor in the

Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2019

QR-14 peanuts planted on May 30,” Gore says. In general, Gore had his highest yields in peanuts receiving two treatments for thrips when three thrips per plant were observed. Yields were also good when peanuts received one treatment for thrips when six thrips per plant were seen and this treatment was most economical from a management standpoint. Gore believes that six thrips per plant would be a good treatment threshold. “Growers should stick with that if they don’t use an at-planting insecticide. If they use an at-planting insecticide such as Thimet or imidacloprid, the threshold should still be six thrips per plant, but I would add the caveat of having immatures present,” he concludes. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

Caterpillars T he old question of how much leaf loss can peanut plants stand is being answered in research by Mississippi State University scientists. Graduate student Brittany Lipsey has been studying leaf loss by insects in a followup study to earlier research conducted by former graduate student Chad Abbott. In a study that used hand removal of leaves to simulate insect defoliation, Abbott found that peanuts lose about 14 pounds of yield per acre for every one percent defoliation. Lipsey conducted her studies at the Delta Research and Extension Center in Stoneville and at the R. R. Foil Research Facility in Starkville by infesting peanut plots with live caterpillars to more accurately define the impacts of defoliation that occurs over time on peanut yields. “In one study, our losses matched up well with Chad’s research,” Lipsey says. “We had a 15-pound yield loss per acre with every one percent of defoliation.” Even when she added hundreds of third instar fall armyworms to her plots, Lipsey was only able to achieve a maximum of 50 percent defoliation in that study. “In other studies, we were only able to achieve 10-15 percent defoliation and we saw little to no yield loss below 10 percent defoliation,” Lipsey adds. Third instar fall armyworms are maturing worms. They produce a total of six or seven instars in their life cycle. Most of the feeding and leaf damage occurs during the final instars as the worms mature. When she added 40 worms per ten feet three times per week, she only obtained a 50 percent defoliation. In Abbott’s studies, yield losses were more when defoliation occurred at 80 days after plant emergence rather than 40 days after emergence. Lipsey’s main yield


losses coincided with defoliation from the time of pegging until pod fill. “We have found that peanut plants put on more leaves than the caterpillars can The current threshold in Mississippi recommends that growers treat their keep up with,” fields when there is an average of 8 caterpillars per row foot. Lipsey says. them with the drop cloth, according to The current threshold in Mississippi recommends that growers treat their fields Gore. In some scenarios, even small when there is an average of 8 caterpillars amounts of defoliation can potentially per row foot. decrease peanut yields, according to “That seemed like a very high Lipsey. She says a defoliation threshold infestation level, but peanuts are putting may be helpful for growers in making on new leaves at a rate greater than what spray decisions. the pests can eat, so it appears that Gore also believes that grass weed threshold is fairly accurate,” Lispey adds. control has a bearing on defoliating The problem with that threshold is that most consultants and scouts are using insects. “If we don’t get good grass weed a sweep net and there are no thresholds control, then the grass may be hosting fall based on that sampling method. armyworms. When we use Select Lipsey says farmers use different herbicide to kill the grass, we see the fall scouting or sampling methods in making armyworms move to peanuts and cause their decisions on spraying caterpillar severe defoliation quickly because they insects. Some farmers use insect counts are already in the later instars,” Gore from drop cloths and others use counts from sweep nets. She surveyed caterpillar says. The main thing for growers and pests around the state using both drop consultants to remember is that there are cloths and sweep nets to get accurate a number of moving parts in a biological counts of caterpillars in peanuts. She system that can impact how peanuts believes we can correlate insect numbers respond to defoliation. Being able to from sweep nets and drop cloths to utilize multiple sampling methods and calibrate the thresholds to the sweep net. thresholds will likely improve our overall Mississippi State University knowledge of insect management in entomologist Jeff Gore, Lipsey’s major peanuts and make growers more timely professor, says some defoliating with insecticide applications. caterpillars are more accurately counted A realistic defoliation treatment by drop cloths than by sweep nets and threshold would be about 20 percent, others are more accurately counted with according to Gore. He says that at 70 to sweep nets. For instance, he noted that 90 days after plant emergence, and Lipsey caught more bollworms with after the defoliation percentage exceeds sweep nets than drop cloths, but she 20 percent, then yields begin to drop. t caught almost no granulate cutworms with the sweep nets. She only caught BY JOHN LEIDNER

Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2019

Photo credit: Mark Abney, University of Georgia.

Peanut Leaf Loss from

Burrower Bug Research Continues etting a handle on the biology of burrower bugs in peanut fields is the focus of studies being conducted by Mark Abney, University of Georgia research and Extension entomologist. The burrower bug represents a significant threat to peanuts grown in the Southeast, according to Abney. He uses light traps to capture burrower bugs. “Other pests are attracted to the light traps,” reports Abney. “And the traps we’ve used are expensive to operate and maintain.” Research into the pest’s flight behavior shows that they are most active in the first hour after sunset. “We catch 91 percent of our burrower bugs between 8:30 p.m. and 9:30 p.m.,” Abney says. This information not only increases knowledge about the bug’s biology, but it also allows the research team to save on maintenance costs by only running traps from dusk until midnight instead of all night. Several other patterns have been observed in the trapping data including monthly peaks in trap capture and a lack of flight activity on nights with late evening rain showers Abney’s research studies in 2018 focused on evaluating commercial runner peanut varieties to see if they have resistance to burrower bug feeding damage. He also evaluated the effect of insecticides on burrower bug populations and damage in Georgia. Burrower bugs are active from June through September in peanut fields, and peak populations occur every 30 days, according to Abney. “It takes one month for one generation to grow from an egg to an adult,” he adds. Among varieties, Abney says Georgia-12Y has the least amount of damage in on-farm research trials three years in a row. Tillage can help reduce burrower bug populations in peanuts. Abney says a trial in Brooks county had very low levels of damage where the field was bottom plowed, and significantly higher damage where strip tillage was used. While tillage helps reduce risk,

Photo credit: Mark Abney, University of Georgia.


University of Georgia Research and Extension Entomologist Mark Abney uses light traps to capture burrower bugs. Burrower bugs are active from June through September in peanut fields, and peak populations occur every 30 days.

Abney says, “I can’t guarantee you will have no burrower bugs if you deep turn land.” “Any tillage probably helps you with burrower bugs,” he adds. “For instance we saw some reduction in damage in vertical tillage treatments in one on-farm trial. Vertical tillage is essentially a light form of disking and while it will not be as consistent or effective at reducing the risk of injury as deep turning, any tillage seems to be better than none. Also, some people wonder if disking alone will help on burrower bugs. It might.” The 2018 tests showed that AgLogic and Thimet insecticides applied in the furrow at planting did not reduce burrower bug damage, but overall pressure from the pest was low at that study site, according to Abney. Fewer burrower bugs were captured in light traps in 2018 than in previous years, and while the total amount of segregation 2 peanuts was lower in 2018 than 2017, burrower bug damage levels across Georgia were actually higher than the

previous year. Lower trap captures might have been due to the frequent rainfall in 2018. So far, granular chlorpyrifos applied over the peanut row in mid to late summer is the most effective insecticide for managing the pest, and it is the only one recommended by UGA Extension. “There are no guarantees when it comes to burrower management, but when bugs are present in a field it makes sense to apply chlorpyrifos. Pre-plant incorporated application of liquid chlorpyrifos did not reduce bug density in the field or damage at harvest,” Abney says. He also notes that chlorpyrifos may soon be banned because it is being targeted by environmental groups and environmental regulators. Abney believes the best approach to fighting burrower bugs will be integrating a combination of tactics including tillage, insecticide, and host plant resistance. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

April 2019 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


Fighting the Other Soil Insect Pests s bad as burrower bugs can be on peanuts, there are other more common soil insects that can cause worse damage. And one of the worst of the worst is lesser cornstalk borer. “It thrives in hot, dry sandy soils,” says Mark Abney, University of Georgia research and Extension Entomologist. Lesser cornstalk borer is also difficult to target with insecticides. Abney notes that granular chlorpyrifos was historically the most effective insecticide for managing lesser cornstalk borers. While it can be effective, chlorpyrifos is difficult to apply, requires rainfall for activation, and destroys beneficial insects. His research on the foliar insecticides Prevathon and Diamond, showed that both can provide good control of the pest. Growers apply these products as a standard foliar spray, and they are not as detrimental to beneficial insects as chlorpyrifos. While no insecticide is perfect, these products give growers much needed options for managing one of the major insect threats to peanut. Rootworms also cause significant damage in peanuts, according to Abney. These are the same insects that are known as the spotted or banded cucumber beetles in their adult form. While the adults do not cause any damage to peanuts, the immature stages feed below ground directly on the plants roots and pods. “It only survives in moist soil,” Abney says. Rootworms are typically found in heavy soils with a high clay content or significant organic matter. Abney adds, “If you have center pivot irrigation on a sandy soil, then that field is not likely wet enough for the rootworm to survive. Even so, sandy fields can be infested with rootworms in a wet year like 2018. Though overall insect



pressure was light in peanuts last year, rootworm infestations in many areas were much worse than usual due to the abundant rainfall. Granular chlorpyrifos is the only insecticide currently recommended for rootworm control in peanut. Abney and his research team are evaluating alternative insecticides, but more data are needed before recommendations can be made. In Alabama, Extension entomologist Ayanava Majumdar has not observed any major outbreaks of southern corn rootworm in peanut fields in recent years. Weather patterns and careful management of irrigation along with other cultural control tactics give more reliable longterm control of soil insect pests compared to insecticide applications. In extreme drought conditions in 2012, aphid infestation on peanut pegs caused injury to peanuts in the Panhandle of Florida. Growers should be very vigilant during drought conditions as insects tend to migrate deeper into soil layers to seek moisture and protection that can result in crop loss or contamination. Wireworms are the immature stage of click beetles. Abney says there are many species of wireworms. Some have multiple year life cycles and some have multiple generations per year. Abney also notes that wireworms vary in their susceptibility to insecticides. “There has been little research on wireworm control in peanuts,” Abney says. “Your management options for wireworms include chlorpyrifos, either a preplant incorporated treatment or a pegging time granular treatment. Wireworms probably cause more losses than we realize.” t

Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2019


Lesser cornstalk borer The insect thrives in dry and hot conditions, bores into the stems and pods of peanut plants.

Rootworms - While the adults do not cause any damage to peanuts, the immature stages feed below ground directly on the plants roots and pods.

Wireworms - The immature stage of click beetles. Photo credit: Mark Abney, University of Georgia and Ayanava Majumdar, Alabama Extension Service.

Snails Sneaking into Harvested Peanuts nails aren’t insects. They don’t eat enough peanut plants to cause any significant yield loss. But they are on the radar of Georgia research and Extension entomologist Mark Abney. So far, he characterizes the snails as mostly an Alabama-Florida peanut problem. The big fear is that snail shells will not be removed during the marketing, processing and storage of harvested peanuts. “If they’re not removed, they could contaminate harvested peanuts and end up in finished products,” Abney says. “We’ve heard a number of complaints and concerns about snails in Alabama and Florida, and there is no question that we will need to take a close look at snails as a potential problem for the peanut industry. Unfortunately, snails are hard to control and there is no good control we can recommend.” Ayanava Majumdar, Extension entomologist in Alabama, reports that snails have hard shells that can cause crop contamination when infestations occur late in the season. He notes that slugs can also occur in peanut fields. However, slugs lack the hard shells that serve to protect the snail mollusks from predators. While there is no known economic threshold for snails in peanut fields, Majumdar suggests monitoring areas of


Snails have hard shells that can cause crop contamination when infestations occur late in the season. There have been a number of concerns about snails in Alabama and Florida and the big fear is that snail shells will not be removed during the marketing, processing and storage of harvested peanuts.

fields with high organic matter or areas with high soil moisture. Wet and cool summers tend to encourage the population buildup of snails. Majumdar says insecticides do not control snails. There are two mulluscicides available but he notes these are expensive and come with severe label restrictions. One is named Bug-N-Sluggo that consists of iron phosphate and spinosad. The label prohibits more than three applications per season and it is labeled for peanuts. One reason it might be expensive is that it is applied on fields

at a rate of 20 to 44 pounds per acre. The other product is called Deadline and it consists of metaldehyde. It is not labeled on peanuts but can be applied to corn and soybeans. Tillage may help control snails, according to Majumdar. Tillage alone may destroy the snails, or it could help by exposing the snails to their predators. Majumdar explains that snails are able to produce an acidic material that dissolves calcium from the soil. The calcium then becomes part of their protective shells. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

Fire Ants are Beneficial in Peanuts Jason Schmidt, an entomologist at the University of Georgia Tifton Campus, is focusing a portion of his research on biological controls of peanut pests. “Don’t apply an insecticide if it not needed,” Schmidt says. As part of his research, he is counting predators in peanut fields, and of central interest is answering the question “who is eating whom,” as he puts it. In particular, he’s looking at what insects may be feeding on burrower bugs and other peanut pests. He’s using molecular probes to help determine the predators feeding on insect pests in peanuts. Schmidt is working on the burrower bug phase of the project with Mark


Abney, UGA Extension entomologist. Lacewings are among the beneficial insects that feed on crop pests. Schmidt notes that soil-dwelling springtail arthropods, aphids, thrips, and flies provide much of the menu for feeding beneficial insects in row crop fields. Mostly these are non-pest prey that “fuel” the growth of beneficial populations that provide biological control on crop pests. After analyzing more than 2,000 predator samples, he determined that predator food webs are quite complex in peanut crops. “After our first year of study, we found there are a few things that feed on burrower bug,” Schmidt says. “One that

Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2019

does is fire ants. Others that eat burrower bugs include damsel bugs, big-eyed bugs and spiders. We actually found a diversity of predators in peanuts feeding on lots of pest and non-pest insects.” Although we have a nice set of preliminary data on peanut systems and the structure of these beneficial insect communities, additional studies are needed to determine the full extent of burrower bug predation by ants and the shape of complex peanut food webs, according to Schmidt. He adds that these studies may also reveal environmental aspects that favor the population growth of ants and other beneficials in peanut crops. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

Conservation Stewardship Program Deadline The next deadline for Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP) applications to be considered for funding in fiscal year (FY) 2019 is May 10, 2019. USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) plans to invest up to $700 million for new enrollments and contract extensions in fiscal year 2019. The 2018 Farm Bill made several changes to this critical conservation program, which helps agricultural producers take conservation activities on their farm or ranch to the next level. “CSP continues to be a very effective tool for private landowners working to achieve their conservation and management goals,” says Terrance O. Rudolph, NRCS state conservationist in Georgia. “It is the largest conservation program in the United States with more than 70 million acres of productive agricultural and forest land enrolled.” While applications are accepted throughout the year, interested producers should submit applications to their local NRCS office by May 10, 2019, to ensure their applications are considered for 2019 funding. Changes to the Program The 2018 Farm Bill authorizes NRCS to accept new CSP enrollments from now until 2023, and it makes some important improvements to the program. These updates include: • NRCS now enrolls eligible, high ranking applications based on dollars rather than acres. For fiscal 2019, NRCS can spend up to $700 million in the program, which covers part of the cost for producers implementing new conservation activities and maintaining their existing activities. • Higher payment rates are now available for certain conservation activities, including cover crops and resource conserving crop rotations. • CSP now provides specific support for organic and for transitioning to organic production activities and a special grassland conservation initiative for certain producers who have maintained cropland base acres. For additional information about CSP, contact your local USDA service center. t

April 2019 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


NPB’s New “Size 4 to 6 Months” Consumer Campaign Encourages Early Introduction of Peanut to Infants Campaign features new baby clothing line, benefits peanut allergy solutions he National Peanut Board continues to advance the conversation around peanut allergy prevention with the launch of its 2019 early introduction consumer campaign, “Size 4 to 6 Months.” When the guidelines for early introduction of peanut foods to help prevent allergies were released by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), the National Peanut Board took a bold step to help make this new research part of public discourse. As a new generation of parents are born every year, the need for ongoing awareness around the guidelines remains germane. To continue this important work, the National Peanut Board is releasing a limited edition baby fashion line. The “Size 4 to 6 Months” babywear is comprised of 10 bodysuits and tees featuring 8 unique designs, sized exclusively for 4 to 6 month-year-olds, and will debut to national media, social media influencers and consumers today. All bodysuits and tees are available for purchase on preventpeanutallergies.org through May 2019. Baby clothing is made in specific age-related sizes, such as 3 to 6 months, 6 to 9 months and so on. The window to begin early introduction is also very specific: 4 to 6 months. Drawing upon this truth, National Peanut Board’s new “Size 4 to 6 Months” campaign links the behavior of shopping for a child’s clothing during a specific time period to this crucial time for introducing peanut

Photo credit: National Peanut Board.


The “Size 4 to 6 Months” babywear is comprised of 10 bodysuits and tees featuring 8 unique designs, sized exclusively for 4 to 6 month-year-olds, and will debut to national media, social media influencers and consumers today. All bodysuits and tees are available for purchase on preventpeanutallergies.org through May 2019.

foods. The campaign’s built in call-toaction is anchored by informative and educational care instructions on the simple ways that parents with newborns or who are expecting can introduce peanut foods to infants. “Equipping families and caretakers with the knowledge and tools on how to manage and now help prevent a peanut allergy remains one of the most important initiatives we do,” explains Bob Parker, the National Peanut Board’s president and CEO. “Alongside the allergy community and our partners, the National Peanut Board is committed to helping create a world free from food allergies.” National Peanut Board’s latest effort

is in partnership with the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), American College of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (ACAAI) and the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Connection Team (FAACT). To ensure all efforts benefit peanut allergy prevention and management, each purchase of “Size 4 to 6 Months” apparel directly supports the advancement of allergy solutions through a donation to the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. The National Peanut Board will not be receiving any money as a result of sales. t BY CATHY JOHNSON NATIONAL PEANUT BOARD



preventpeanutallergies.org peanutallergyfacts.org 24

Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2019

Hartley hired as Extension Sustainability Educator unding from and partnership with Cotton Inc., the Georgia Cotton Commission, the National Peanut Board, the American Peanut Council, and the Georgia Peanut Commission, has allowed the University of Georgia to hire an Extension Sustainability Educator, Anna Hartley, to address the need of developing sciencebased data to support the dramatic improvements in sustainability that cotton and peanut production in the United States has made over the past three decades. Hartley will be working with Field to Market’s Field Print Calculator, a program designed to increase the productivity of agriculture while lessening the environmental impact. The alliance strives to help farmers meet present needs while simultaneously focusing on protecting the future by providing measurement tools to analyze the efficiency in the areas of soil conservation, energy use, land use, soil carbon, greenhouse gas emissions, water


quality, irrigation water use, and biodiversity. The individual farm Fieldprint allows the producers to understand in what areas they are outperforming the state, regional and national average in and in what areas they could improve their performance which can result in an improved profit margin because the efficiency of the farming operation is improved. Hartley will be working with both UGA County Agents and growers to set up meetings with cotton and peanut growers to collect information about field characteristics and management practices. The information will be input into the calculator to determine scores on the 8 metrics that can then be used to determine future management practices. The data will be used to create a baseline comparison to show the change in sustainability over time and educate growers in the state of Georgia and the general public alike on how sustainable producers in the state of Georgia are through the creation of workshops at the local and regional scale.

Florida farmers seek low interest emergency loans from state government Six months after the devastation caused by Hurricane Michael many Florida farmers in the Panhandle are still cleaning up debris, rebuilding homes, barns and farm infrastructure and wondering how they will be able to obtain financing to get the 2019 crop planted. A group of farmers working with the Florida State Legislature and encouraging them to try to find funding for emergency low interest loans have made some progress. The Chairman of the Florida Senate Ag Committee along with several committee members toured the impacted areas in the Panhandle and met with farmers to try to find a solution. The results were, Senate Bud Baggett, farmer from Bill 1804 - Agricultural Economic Development and Marianna, Fla., speaks to the Disaster Loans Program. The Bill would provide no Florida Senate Ag Committee in interest loans to farmers to restore or replace essential support of Senate Bill 1804, Agricultural Economic physical property, remove debris from farms and Development and Disaster farmland, pay all or part of production cost associated Loans Program. with the disaster year or restructure farm debts. The loan amounts will be from $30,000 up to $500,000 and the loan term will be 10 years. Senate Bill 1804 passed out of the Senate Ag Committee by a unanimous vote and will move to the full Senate soon for debate and a vote. However, at the time this article was written, little to no support has been gained in the Florida House of Representatives for the Agricultural Economic Development and Disaster Loans Bill.

Anna Hartley Extension Sustainability Educator University of Georgia

Hartley is a native of Moultrie, Georgia. She received her bachelor’s degree in agricultural education and master’s degree in agricultural and environmental education from the University of Georgia, as well as a certificate in international agriculture. t

USDA releases prospective plantings report The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Agricultural Statistics Service recently released the prospective plantings report showing a slight increase over 2018 planted acres of peanuts. The total estimate indicated by reports from farmers show a 2 percent increase with the U.S. total peanut planting intentions at 1.4 million acres. According to the report, farmers plan to increase peanut acres in Alabama, Florida and Georgia while decreasing in Mississippi and South Carolina. Alabama farmers intend to plant 170,000 acres, up 3 percent from 2018. In Florida, farmers estimate 170,000 acres, up 10 percent from 2018. Georgia farmers plan to plant 670,000 acres, up 1 percent from 2018. Peanut acreage is estimated at 20,000 acres in Mississippi, down 20 percent from 2018 and 65,000 acres in South Carolina, down 25 percent from 2018. Farmers also report decreases in planted peanut acreage in Arkansas, New Mexico, North Carolina and increases in Oklahoma and Texas while remaining the same in Virginia compared to 2018.

April 2019 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


Georgia Peanut Commission Increases Funding for Research Projects in 2019 he Georgia Peanut Commission (GPC) board of directors has approved $653,901 in research project funding for the 2019-20 research budget year. This action was taken during the commission's March board meeting. The research projects approved include 35 project proposals submitted from the University of Georgia, USDA Agricultural Research Service and Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College. “We are proud of our partnership with research institutions in the state and are excited about the potential benefits of these projects for farmers in the state and the entire peanut industry,” says Donald Chase, GPC Research Committee chairman. “As a peanut grower, I’m proud to invest in the Georgia Peanut Commission and in the future of the peanut industry by supporting research that continues to demonstrate a return on our investment.”


Georgia’s peanut growers invest $2 per ton annually toward GPC programs which includes research, promotion and education. The research programs primarily focus on peanut breeding, conservation methods, irrigation and water management, as well as, pests, weed and disease management. Additionally, GPC manages funding for the Southeastern Peanut Research

Initiative which includes research funding of $1,239,098 for projects in Alabama, Florida and Georgia. These projects are funded through the National Peanut Board checkoff dollars from farmers. For additional information and a complete list of the research projects funded by the Georgia Peanut Commission visit www.gapeanuts.com. t BY JOY CROSBY

National Peanut Board Referendum until May 31 For the first time, eligible peanut producers can opt to vote electronically or by paper ballot. he U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has published a notice in the Federal Register announcing a referendum among eligible producers of peanuts to determine whether they favor continuance of the Peanut Promotion, Research and Information Order (Order), which authorizes the National Peanut Board. The referendum will be conducted from April 15 through May 3, 2019. USDA will provide the option for electronic balloting. Further details will be stated in the official ballot instructions, which will be sent by regular U. S. mail to all eligible peanut producers. Voters must return ballots postmarked by May 3, 2019. Ballots returned via express mail or electronic means must show proof of delivery by no later than 11:59 p.m. Eastern Time (ET) on May 3, 2019.



To be eligible to vote in this continuance referendum, persons must have produced peanuts and been subject to assessments during the representative period from June 1, 2017 through May 31, 2018. Under the Commodity Promotion, Research and Information Act of 1996 (Act), the U.S. Department of Agriculture must conduct a referendum every five years or when 10 percent or more of the eligible peanut producers petition the Secretary of Agriculture to hold a referendum to determine if persons subject to assessment favor continuance of the Order. The Department of Agriculture would continue the Order if

Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2019

continuance is approved by a simple majority of the producers voting in the referendum. Jeanette Palmer and Heather Pichelman, PED, SCP, AMS, USDA, Stop 0244, Room 1406-S, 1400 Independence Ave., S.W., Washington, D.C. 20250-0244, are designated as the referendum agents to conduct this referendum. The referendum agents will distribute the ballots and voting instructions by U.S. mail or through electronic means to all known producers prior to the first day of the voting period. Persons who produced peanuts and were subject to assessments during the representative period are eligible to vote. Any eligible producer who does not receive a ballot should contact the referendum agent as soon as possible. t BY CATHY JOHNSON NATIONAL PEANUT BOARD

Washington Outlook by Robert L. Redding Jr.

2018 Farm Bill Implementation The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) held a listening session for initial input on the 2018 Farm Bill. USDA has been seeking public input on the changes to existing programs implemented by the Farm Service Agency, Natural Resources Conservation Service and the Risk Management Agency. “The 2018 Farm Bill is intended to provide support, certainty and stability to our Nation’s farmers, ranchers and land stewards by enhancing farm support programs, improving crop insurance, maintaining disaster programs, and promoting and supporting voluntary conservation,” says Under Secretary for Farm Production and Conservation Bill Northey. “We are seeking input from stakeholders on how USDA can streamline and improve program delivery while also enhancing customer service.” The USDA also received public comments through their website. Prior to the listening session. Under Secretary Northey stated, “Truly this is a Farm Bill that improves farm safety net programs, protects federal crop insurance, and preserves strong rural development and research initiatives. At USDA, we are eager to hear from our stakeholders on policy recommendations, so we can start working on implementing these important Farm Bill provisions.” Under Secretary Northey is planning to visit Georgia soon to hear directly from growers on Farm Bill and other issues. The Georgia Peanut Commission will participate in this meeting.

Ag Disaster Update As of this writing, the U.S. Senate is debating the supplemental appropriations legislation for Hurricane Michael disaster relief. Included in the bill, is $3 billion for agricultural relief. U.S. Senators David Perdue, R-Georgia, and Johnny Isakson, R-Georgia, have been leading the Senate effort on disaster legislation. The bill includes a WHIP program for 2018 crop losses as well as a block grant program for states. The 2018 WHIP program has been improved over the 2017 program with a new floor factor of 70 percent and an increase in the cap factor to 90 percent. Once the bill passes the Senate, the U.S. House of Representatives will consider the legislation. Due to differences over some disaster provisions including aid to Puerto Rico, it is anticipated that the House will have to conference with the Senate. As has been previously mentioned in the SEPF, Congressmen Sanford Bishop, D-Georgia, and Austin Scott, R-Georgia, were successful in adding $1.9 billion to a previous House passed disaster bill which brought this package up to a much-needed $3 billion for agricultural assistance. Press time update: The U.S. Senate defeated two separate ag disaster bills, voting mostly along party lines, members of the House and Senate, in Hurricane Michael impacted areas, continue to seek a path to get a bill to the President.


Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2019

Peanut Industry leaders meets with U.S. Trade officials The Georgia Peanut Commission and the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation participated in meetings with top U.S. trade officials and policymakers during a recent Washington, D.C. fly-in. The National Peanut Buying Points Association and the American Peanut Shellers Association also participated. Capitol Hill meetings included policymakers involved in trade policy, Chief Deputy Whip Drew Ferguson, R-Georgia, and House Foreign Affairs Committee’s Asia Subcommittee Ranking Member Ted Yoho, R-Florida. The peanut trade delegation also met with USDA’s trade team and U.S. Trade Representative Greg Doud, the top U.S. trade agricultural negotiator. Important issues in the discussions included: Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP): The peanut industry supports new trade agreements with former Trans Pacific Partnership partners Japan (first priority) and Vietnam, as well as a return to regular trade with China. If the UK leaves the European Union, the industry supports continued duty free access to that market too. TPP would have increased peanut exports, not only because it took away tariffs in Japan but in isolating China in additional Asian markets. If there is a bi-lateral agreement with Japan, the industry would be supportive. Japan has been a prime example of trading partners that apply harmful trade caps through the years. Japan maintains a 75,000-ton WTO tariff rate quota (TRQ) for peanuts, with an out-of-quota duty of approximately 600 percent. Japan has a 10-percent in-quota tariff on peanuts. The total import market for 2018 was about 91,000. China Tariffs: Peanut exports to China declined as soon as the tariffs were announced, but the U.S. still sold 55,000 MT to the market. We believe Japan presents an opportunity for the peanut industry and are investing the bulk of our ATP funds there to make an impact on overall consumption. Peanuts still face a tariff there though.

Peanut Industry leaders meet with USDA officials trade team during their recent Washington, D.C. fly-in. Peanut industry representatives pictured left to right: Joe Parker, Lonnie Fortner, Michael Davis, Malcolm Broome, Ken Barton, Don Koehler, Marty McLendon, Monty Rast, Joel Sirmon, Armond Morris and Mark Kaiser.

April 2019 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


Southern Peanut Growers March - National Peanut Month The Southern Peanut Growers (SPG) celebrated March, National Peanut Month with a series of Instagram contests. SPG partnered with Bob’s Red Mill to kick off the month. Bob and Charlee Moore started Bob’s Red Mill more than 30 years ago after Charlee decided to create a healthier life for her family by feeding them wholesome natural foods. Today Bob’s Red Mill has a new line of five different bars made with whole grain oats, peanut butter, and honey. The first promotion resulted in a 680 percent increase in engagement on SPG’s Instagram and 563 new Instagram followers. The second promotion in March featured a peanut butter lovers basket for one lucky winner from everyone who tells us their favorite peanut butter combination. The third and final March, National Peanut Month promotion was an Instagram contest in partnership with RXBAR. RXBAR began when two friends started Crossfit and found that the current selection of protein bars left something to be desired. They created a line of bars using whole foods like egg whites, nuts and dates and putting all the ingredients right on the front of the package so you know exactly what you’re eating. RXBAR has since expanded their line to include singleserving squeeze packets of regular and chocolate peanut butter.

Georgia Peanut Commission and Southern Peanut Growers Team Up at The Bloody Mary Festival The Georgia Peanut Commission and Southern Peanut Growers teamed up to promote peanuts at The Bloody Mary Festival in Atlanta on March 24. Nearly 800 people got to experience peanuts and peanut butter in a new way as a garnish for their favorite brunch beverage. The Peanut Praline Candied Bacon was a huge hit which people were overheard talking about through out the event. The celery dipped in peanut butter came as a surprise to many as the creamy goodness of the peanut butter worked with the spiciness of the Bloody Mary Mix to create an unexpected umami flavor sensation. This candied bacon is easy to make at home and can also be used as a topping for a sundae (try vanilla ice cream, candied bacon and chocolate syrup) or a hamburger (try grape jelly and fresh jalapeno sliced on the bottom bun and top the burger patty with peanut butter, candied bacon and lettuce).

Peanut Praline Candied Bacon and celery dipped in peanut butter provided a suprise creamy goodness for attendees at The Bloody Mary Festival in Atlanta, Ga.

Peanut Praline Candied Bacon Ingredients: Thick-cut bacon ½ cup chopped peanuts ½ cup brown sugar

Directions: Line a baking pan with aluminum foil and top with a baking rack. Lay bacon on baking rack and bake in a 375 degree oven for approximately 15 minutes. (Time will vary depending on thickness of bacon but edges should be starting to brown and curl up as the bacon is nearly done.) Remove from oven sprinkle brown sugar and chopped peanuts on top of each strip of bacon. Return to oven and broil until brown sugar is melted and bubbly. Watch them closely during this step so they don’t burn.

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Southern Peanut Growers 1025 Sugar Pike Way · Canton, Georgia 30115 (770) 751-6615 email: lpwagner@comcast.net Visit our website at http://www.peanutbutterlovers.com

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April 2019 - Southeastern Peanut Farmer  

April 2019 - Southeastern Peanut Farmer