March 2018 Southeastern Peanut Farmer

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Inside: n

North Alabama Peanut Acreage on the Rise n Peanut Weed Guidebook n Seed Cotton Provision Overview

A communication service of the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation.



Contents March 2018

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Joy Carter Crosby Editor joycrosby@gapeanuts.com 229-386-3690

Peanut production appears to be poised for growth in North Alabama by many farmers. A recent workshop for farmers in the Sand Mountain area of Alabama provided insite and education.

Director of Advertising Jessie Bland jessie@gapeanuts.com Contributing Writers John Leidner johnleidner@bellsouth.net Kaye Lynn Hataway klhataway@alpeanuts.com Southeastern Peanut Farmer P.O. Box 706, Tifton, Ga. 31793 445 Fulwood Blvd., Tifton, Ga. 31794 ISSN: 0038-3694 Southeastern Peanut Farmer is published six times a year (Jan./Feb., March, April, May/June, July/Aug., and Oct./Nov.) by the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation. The publisher is not responsible for copy omission, typographical errors, or any unintentional errors that may occur, other than to correct it in the following issue. Any erroneous reflection which may occur in the columns of Southeastern Peanut Farmer will be corrected upon brought to the attention of the editor. (Phone 229-3863690.) Postmaster: Send address changes (Form 3579) to Southeastern Peanut Farmer, P.O. Box 706, Tifton, Georgia, 31793. Circulation is free to qualified peanut growers and others allied to the industry. Periodical postage paid at Tifton, Georgia and additional mailing office. Editorial Content: Editorial copy from sources outside of the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation is sometimes presented for the information and interest of our members. Such material may, or may not, coincide with official Southern Peanut Farmers Federation policies. Publication of material does not necessarily imply its endorsement by the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation. For editorial concerns call 229-386-3690. No portion of this or past issues of the Southeastern Peanut Farmer may be reproduced in any form whatsoever without the written consent of the editor. By-lined articles appearing in this publication represent views of the authors and not necessarily those of the publisher. Advertising: The Publisher reserves the right to refuse any advertisement. Corrections to advertisements must be made after the first run. All billing offers subject to credit review. Advertisements contained in this publication do not represent an endorsement by the Southeastern Peanut Farmer or the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation. Use of trade names in this publication is for the purpose of providing specific information and is not a guarantee nor warranty of products named. For advertising concerns call 229-386-3690.

Peanut Acreage on the Rise in North Alabama

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Weed Guidebook The 2018 Southeastern Peanut Farmer Weed Guidebook features information on rotating herbicide groups, herbicide modes of action, a Valor injury update and information on the use of the newly labled Zidua herbicide.

21 Seed Cotton Provision Overview The U.S. Congress recently approved a budget agreement that allows seed cotton to become part of the programs offered in the commodity title of the 2014 Farm Bill. This legislation eliminates generic base acres for the 2018 crop. Farmers can learn more about this legislation and a decision aid tool available online. Departments: Checkoff Report .................................................................................. 8 Alabama Peanut Producers Association, Florida Peanut Producers Association, Georgia Peanut Commission and Mississippi Peanut Growers Association

Washington Outlook ............................................................................ 20 Southern Peanut Growers Update ........................................................ 22 Cover Photo: From left, regional Extension agent Eddie McGriff, talks peanuts with North Alabama growers Jimmy Miller, Marty Wootten, Jared Wootten, Nick McMichen and Lance Miller. Photo by John Leidner.

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Editorial Your Knowledge, Your Story griculture: Food for life is the theme of the 2018 National Ag Day. Not only does agriculture supply the food we need for daily living and nutrition but it also supplies us with clothing, our homes and much more. Sadly though, many consumers do not understand where their food comes and take it for granted that the grocery stores will always be full. We say it too often how important it is to tell our story - the agriculture story. I sometimes wonder if we are saying it too much to those involved in agriculture that everyone begins to think that another ag group is taking care of it for them. Well, there are plenty of ag groups sharing the story of agriculture but that’s not the same as one farmer sharing his or her story at a school full of inquiring young minds. The one-on-one atmosphere where a student can actually meet a farmer, see the tractor they drive, hear first-hand knowledge or stories will mean so much more than a person with an association or organization telling your story. Maybe you are shy, do not like to be in front of an audience, think you are too old and the kids will not want to hear from you and the list goes on. However, you couldn’t be farther from the truth! Consumers are yearning to meet a real farmer and hear stories from them. No one is better at telling your story that yourself. So, I encourage you to step a little out of your comfort zone and begin sharing your story. Maybe it’s saying a few positive words about agriculture to a fellow shopper looking at produce beside you in the grocery store or maybe it is entertaining children at your farm or visiting a local school. The options are endless on what you can do to share your story. Not only is National Ag Day celebrated in March but the entire month is celebrated as National Peanut Month. So, I encourage you to spread some peanut facts around as you share your agriculture story with others. You may never fully realize the impact you can make in support of agriculture by Joy Carter Crosby sharing your story. t Editor

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Georgia Peanut Commission referendum notice The Georgia Peanut Commission will hold a referendum March 16 through April 16, 2018, giving peanut producers an opportunity to vote on reaffirming the commission. State law mandates that a referendum be held every three years. Georgia peanut producers invest $2 per ton to fund the commission and its research, education, promotion and communication programs. The last referendum in 2015 passed with an 92.41 percent reaffirmation. Peanut producers who do not receive a ballot may obtain one by calling the commission at 229-386-3470. The commission requests that anyone who receives a ballot but is no longer farming to write, “no longer producing” on the certification envelope and return it to the commission. This will assist the commission in updating its mailing list. The commission’s address is P.O. Box 967, Tifton, Georgia 31793. The Certified Public Accounting Firm of Allen, Pritchett, and Bassett will count the votes.

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Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2018

Calendar of Events u National Ag Day, March 20, 2018. For more information visit agday.com. u Peanut Proud Festival, March 24, 2018, Blakely, Ga. For more information visit peanutproud.com. u Peanut Efficiency Award Deadline, April 15, 2018. For more information visit southeastfarmpress.com or call 662-6248503. u USA Peanut Congress, June 23-27, 2018, Ritz-Carlton, Amelia Island, Fla. For more information visit peanut-shellers.org or call 229-888-2508. u American Peanut Research Education Society Annual Meeting, July 10-12, 2018, Doubletree Hotel, Williamsburg, Va. For more information visit apresinc.com or call 229-329-2949. u Southern Peanut Growers Conference, July 19-21, 2018, Sandestin Golf & Beach Resort, Miramar Beach, Fla. For more information visit southernpeanutfarmers.org or call 229-386-3470. u Sunbelt Ag Expo Field Day, July 24, 2018, Moultrie, Ga. For more information visit sunbeltexpo.com or call 229-985-1968. u American Peanut Shellers Association and National Peanut Buying Points Association Pre-Harvest Meeting, Aug. 7-8, 2018, Lake Blackshear Resort and Golf Club, Cordele, Ga. For more information visit peanut-shellers.org or call 229-888-2508. u Brooklet Peanut Festival, Sept. 15, 2018. For more information visit the festival’s website at brookletpeanutfestival.com. u Plains Peanut Festival, Sept. 22, 2018. For more information visit plainsgeorgia.com. u Sunbelt Ag Expo, Oct. 16-18, 2018, Moultrie, Ga. For more information visit sunbeltexpo.com or call 229-985-1968. u Georgia Peanut Festival, Oct. 20, 2018, Sylvester, Ga. For more information visit gapeanutfestival.org.

(Let us know about your event. Please send details to the editor at joycrosby@gapeanuts.com.


Congratulations to these Door Prize winners!

Bennie Branch (right), president of Kelley Manufacturing Co., presents the grand door prize to Lamar Merritt of Wray, Georgia, during the Georgia Peanut Farm Show and Conference. Merritt receives one season’s use of a new KMC peanut combine and the option of purchasing the combine from a KMC dealer with $15,000 off the list price at the end of the 2018 season.

Glen Gulledge (left) and Walter Bloodworth (right) of Kelley Manufacturing Co., presents the grand door prize to Baylor Travis of Tchula, Mississippi, during the Mississippi Peanut Growers Association Annual Meeting. Travis receives one season’s use of a new KMC peanut combine and the option of purchasing the combine with $15,000 off the list price at the end of the 2018 season.

Glen Gulledge (left) and Danny Bennett (right) of Kelley Manufacturing Co., presents the grand door prize to Gena Walker of Glenwood, Alabama, during the Alabama/Florida Peanut Trade Show held in Dothan, Alabama. Walker receives one season’s use of a new KMC peanut combine and the option of purchasing the combine with $15,000 off the list price at the end of the 2018 season.

Mark Mathis (left) of Amadas Industries presents the Amadas door prize to Stanley Corbett of Lake Park, Georgia, during the Georgia Peanut Farm Show and Conference held in Tifton, Georgia. Corbett receives one season’s use of a new Amadas four-row or six-row peanut inverter or a certificate good for the amount of $10,000 towards the purchase of a new Amadas self-propelled peanut combine or $5,000 towards the purchase of an Amadas pull-type peanut combine.

Chris Beaty (left) of Amadas Industries presents the Amadas door prize to Crystal Mahalitc of Vicksburg, Mississippi, during the Mississippi Peanut Growers Association Annual Meeting held in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. Mahalitic receives one season’s use of a new Amadas four-row or six-row peanut inverter or a certificate towards the purchase of a new Amadas self-propelled peanut combine or pull-type peanut combine.

Chris Beaty (left) of Amadas Industries presents the Amadas door prize to Chris Parker of Headland, Alabama, during the Alabama/Florida Peanut Trade Show held in Dothan, Alabama. Parker receives one season’s use of a new Amadas four-row or six-row peanut inverter or a certificate towards the purchase of a new Amadas self-propelled peanut combine or pull-type peanut combine.

Thanks to KMC and Amadas for their generous donation! Contact KMC and Amadas at:  KMC 229-382-9393 www.kelleymfg.com

Amadas (229) 439-2217 www.amadas.com

March 2018 Southeastern Peanut Farmer

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From left, regional Extension agent Eddie McGriff, talks peanuts with North Alabama growers Jimmy Miller, Marty Wootten, Jared Wootten, Nick McMichen and Lance Miller.

North Alabama Peanut Acreage on the Rise Peanut production appears to be poised for growth in North Alabama by many farmers. Eddie McGriff, a regional Extension agent who works in several North Alabama counties, says North Alabama soils are conducive to growing underground crops such as peanuts. He says farmers in the Sand Mountain area of North Alabama have a long history of growing underground crops such as potatoes and sweet potatoes. Peanut farmers in North Alabama can

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produce dryland yields of at least 6,000 pounds per acre, according to McGriff. He says these farmers are controlling diseases with four applications using formulations of fungicides such as chlorothalonil and tebuconazole. Sand Mountain soils are also relatively high in calcium, a secondary nutrient needed by peanuts. “So you don’t need to add landplaster to make good peanuts unless you are growing them for seed,” McGriff says. The peanut farmers McGriff has worked with have been growing high

Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2018

oleic varieties, primarily Georgia-09B, TUFRunner 297 and TUFRunner 511. McGriff recently hosted two meetings to introduce new North Alabama growers to the possibility of growing peanuts. He started the meetings by passing out crop production budgets showing that peanuts compare favorably with other crops in producing net returns to growers. Joe Parker of Reeves West Bay Peanuts based in Wilmer, Alabama, has been buying high oleic peanuts from North Alabama on behalf of Golden


Peanut and Tree Nuts. Parker likens North Alabama to Southwest Alabama during the late 1990s as an area poised for rapid increases in peanut production. “It is similar to what we have recently seen among new peanut growers in Arkansas and East Georgia,” Parker says. “We’ve seen how peanuts help cotton and cotton helps peanuts. Peanuts can withstand crop stress and have a certain amount of hardiness in overcoming challenges from diseases, insects and weather.” Nathan Smith, Clemson University Extension ag economist, spoke at the meetings on the supply and demand for peanuts and likely costs and returns for new growers. Smith said that high overall production from the 2017 crop year could lead to a record carryover, and thus depress prices for 2018. New peanut growers should also consider using crop insurance, according to Smith. He noted that peanut yields tend to be high during the early years on land that is new to peanuts, and that good crop rotation will be needed to maintain high yields. Smith said many new growers have planted peanuts on land with a lot of generic base. However, the recent congressional budget agreement has established a new support program for seed cotton grown in 2018. As a result, generic base will no longer be available for farmers to use in planting peanuts. Smith says the $354 per ton loan rate is available to help growers in marketing peanuts, and that peanuts have a separate payment limitation under the current farm bill. Crop insurance is available for new growers, but it can be a challenge to get all of the necessary approvals, according to Steve Tate of Huntsville, Alabama, who sells crop insurance in North Alabama. “We can insure peanuts, but we can’t insure them well,” Tate says. “We can cover variable costs of about $350 to $360 per acre, but you won’t see fixed costs covered with crop insurance. You also need four years of production before you can use your actual yields as the basis for your crop insurance coverage.” Tate advised new peanut growers to contact their crop insurance agents well ahead of planting to start the paperwork process. The meetings also featured comments from new and experienced peanut

growers from North Alabama. Jimmy Miller who farms in Blount County, Alabama, has produced dryland peanuts yielding as high as 6,800 pounds per acre, along with average yields of 5,200 pounds per acre over the past nine years. Miller and most of the other farmers on the panel say they rotate their peanuts with corn or cotton. He started growing peanuts during the 1980s under the old quota program. Miller recalls that he planted the Sunrunner peanuts that produced yields of 3,100 pounds per acre. “I didn’t make any money because those were additional peanuts that had to be exported,” Miller recalls. “But I did learn that I could grow peanuts.” Once the quota program was eliminated, Miller decided to start growing peanuts again in 2009. His nephew Lance Miller also decided to start growing peanuts. The Millers have enjoyed some great years in growing peanuts, but they also faced setbacks. Jimmy remembers frost damage on one of his crops during the 1980s. In 2016 aflatoxin was a problem on their peanuts. And Lance recalls that drought and burrowing bugs caused yield and quality losses during 2014. They grew some no-till peanuts in 2016, but the drought that year made it difficult to dig the no-till peanuts, according to Lance. Their 2017 peanut crop was a good one with no aflatoxin and high grades. “The decision to start growing peanuts was the smartest move we’ve ever made,” Lance recalls. Lance says that he and his uncle mainly rotate their peanuts with cotton. Over the years, they stopped growing corn and they grew their last soybeans in 2016. Growing peanuts also benefits the cotton that follows, according to Lance. He notes that a ten-acre field of non-irrigated cotton yielded 1,942 pounds of lint per acre. Jimmy and Lance cut back on peanut acreage to about 120 acres in 2017, mainly to improve their crop rotation. They’ll probably increase peanut acreage in 2018 to about 200 acres which is close to the peanut acreage they normally plant. Marty Wootten of DeKalb County, Alabama, says he has a lot to learn about growing peanuts. He and his son Jared grew their first peanuts last year. Shortly after digging, they received a drizzling rain. While they were able to combine before the first freeze of the year, their

peanuts faced high drying costs due to heavy moisture, and peanut quality was hurt by the number of loose shelled kernels. “Cleaning and drying costs, and LSK’s ate our lunch,” Marty recalls. Jared says the late planted peanuts faced the most risk at harvest time, so the Woottens are hoping to start their 2018 peanut planting during the last week of April. Despite the moisture issues and the LSK’s, their yields were good in 2018, about 6,000 pounds per acre. Their planting was delayed last year when they used tillage to work up their ground, then were forced to wait for the land to dry out before they could start planting. The Woottens used deep turning on some of their land last year because they felt that plowing would help their peanuts escape damage from zinc which had accumulated in the topsoil. On the rest of their peanut land, they used a disk harrow and field cultivator for tillage. “We plan to use strip till planting in 2018,” Jared says. Nick McMichen of Cherokee County, Alabama, finished his first year of growing peanuts. “They turned out well, and we learned a lot,” McMichen says. “In one field, we used strip tillage and in another field we planted some no-till peanuts, and they all turned out well.” His overall yields last year were close to 6,000 pounds per acre. McMichen was so pleased with his first crop of peanuts that he plans to increase his peanut acreage by 50 percent during 2018. “Peanuts are a very interesting crop to grow,” McMichen says. “We are mainly cotton farmers. But nothing touches peanuts as far as money coming back to the farmer. Peanuts help us spread our risks and peanuts put money back into our pockets. One of our farms produced yields of more than 7,000 pounds per acre. And because we grew peanuts, our cotton should do better the next year in our rotation.” McMichen is planning to expand his peanut acreage in 2018, and will grow peanuts on land he farms across the state line in neighboring Floyd County, Georgia. These will be the first commercial peanuts ever grown in Floyd County, according to McMichen. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

March 2018 Southeastern Peanut Farmer

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Checkoff Report Investments Made by Growers for the Future of the Peanut Industry.

Florida Peanut Producers attends school nutrition conference The Florida Peanut Producers Association attended and exhibited at the Annual Florida School Nutrition Association Conference recently held in Daytona Beach, Florida. Approximately 1,100 school nutrition personnel from across the state attended the conference. The attendees included school food service directors, managers, dieticians and cafeteria staff. Ken Barton, Florida Peanut Producers Sessions were designed to help build Association executive director, visits with stronger relationships with industry partners attendees at the Florida School Nutrition and to provide the continuing education to Association Conference in Daytona Beach. help school food service personnel provide Florida’s students with healthy, nutritious meals. “Attending the Florida School Nutrition Association Conference allows us the opportunity to collect useful data to determine peanut product usage in school districts across the state,” says Ken Barton, FPPA executive director. “By using the information collected at the conference we can focus on those schools and school districts that are not currently using peanut butter and other peanut products in their breakfast and lunch menus, and provide them with the health and nutritional information and planning guides to help get peanut products on their menu.”

Alabama Peanut Producers host state production meetings

Marshall Lamb of the National Peanut Research Lab, speaks to growers about the 2018 market outlook at the E.V. Smith Research Center in Shorter, Ala.

The Alabama Peanut Producers Association, along with the Alabama Extension System and Auburn University, coordinated nine peanut production meetings across the state. Growers were given the most up-to-date peanut research news on diseases, herbicide control, insect control, varieties, production, and the market outlook for 2018. The speakers were Dr. Austin Hagan, Dr. Steve Li, Dr. Ayanava Majumdar, Kris Balkcom, all from Auburn University, and Dr. Marshall Lamb, from the National Peanut Research Lab in Dawson, Georgia.

Hataway hired by Alabama Peanut Producers Association

Kaye Lynn Hataway

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The Alabama Peanut Producers Association welcomes Kaye Lynn Hataway as program coordinator of promotions and communications. Hataway will be responsible for a

variety of APPA’s promotions, communication and educational programs. “I’m very excited about working for Alabama’s peanut farmers,” Hataway says. “I love to promote and educate people about agriculture, so this position is a perfect fit for me.” Hataway most recently worked as a 4-H extension agent in Appling County,

Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2018

Florida Peanut Producers Association exhibits at Taste of Florida Agriculture reception The Florida Farm Bureau Federation recently hosted the “Taste of Florida” Legislative Reception in Tallahassee. Approximately 900 people attended the event where Florida agriculture commodity groups displayed their information and provided samples of their products. Governor Rick Scott, Commissioner of Agriculture Adam Putnam and a large number of state legislators attended and participated in this year’s reception. Representatives from most of Florida’s County Farm Bureau offices also attended to visit with legislators. The Florida Peanut Producers Association exhibited at the reception and provided roasted peanuts and peanut butter toffee dip with apple slices for everyone to enjoy. FPPA also provided recipe brochures, health and nutritional information and general information about peanut production in Florida.

Sherry Saunders with Florida Peanut Producers Association, offers samples and peanut recipes at the Taste of Florida Agriculture Legislative Reception in Tallahassee, Fla.

Georgia. She has a bachelor’s degree in agriculture education from Auburn University and a master’s degree in education from University of New England. Hataway is a native of Wetumpka, Alabama. She is married to Eric, and they have three children, Macy, Baker, and Tate.


Reports from the: Alabama Peanut Producers Association Florida Peanut Producers Association Georgia Peanut Commission Mississippi Peanut Growers Association

Georgia Peanut Commission holds Research Report Day The Georgia Peanut Commission held the annual Research Report Day, Feb. 7, 2018, at the National Environmentally Sound Production Agriculture Laboratory (NESPAL), located on the University of Georgia Tifton Campus. The event provided growers and industry representatives an opportunity to hear the latest reports and newest information available on peanut research projects funded by GPC in Mark Abney, University of Georgia Extension 2017. peanut entomologist, discusses the results of his “The commission works to wisely research projects funded by GPC in 2017. invest peanut farmers’ dollars into research projects across Georgia in an effort to reduce production input costs and improve agronomic techniques,” says Donald Chase, GPC Research Committee chairman. “Although some of the findings are preliminary, the projects are exciting and many times new recommendations or observations are announced.” The GPC, on behalf of Georgia’s 3,400 peanut farmers, awarded $523,496 to peanut research facilities in the state during 2017. This effort funds 32 research projects from the University of Georgia and the USDA Agricultural Research Service. The Georgia Peanut Commission’s research programs primarily focus on peanut breeding for higher yield and improved quality; economics; conservation methods; irrigation and water management; pests, weed and disease management; and peanut allergy research. Research reports are available online at www.gapeanuts.com.

Morris elected chairman of the Georgia Peanut Commission Armond Morris, peanut farmer from Tifton, Georgia, was elected chairman of the Georgia Peanut Commission during the monthly board meeting in February. “I look forward to serving Georgia’s peanut growers as chairman in 2018. It is a pleasure to serve peanut producers in the state of Georgia and the commission is continually working to serve all peanut farmers in the state through research, promotion and education,” Morris says. “This is a critical time for Georgia agriculture and peanut producers. As farm income has declined, the next farm bill will be even more important to our peanut producers and family farmers.” Other officers elected during the board meeting include Joe Boddiford, Sylvania, Georgia, as vice chairman and Rodney Dawson, Hawkinsville, Georgia, as treasurer. Board members Tim Burch, Newton, Georgia, and Donald Chase, Oglethorpe, Georgia, represent District 1 and District 5, respectively. Burch and Boddiford were both renominated without opposition to the Georgia Peanut Commission board of directors at nomination meetings held on Dec. 14, 2017. The Georgia Farm Bureau Federation conducted the nomination meetings for the commission’s district one and three. Now, after renomination, they will serve Georgia peanut farmers on the board for the next three years. The peanut producing counties of Georgia are divided into five districts in which peanut farmers elect a representative to serve on the Georgia Peanut Commission board.

Georgia EMC directors recognized for their service promoting Georgia peanuts The Georgia Peanut Commission recognized the dedication and service of two Mitchell Electric Membership Corp. (EMC) directors during their monthly board meeting in February. Mitchell EMC Directors Billy Sinkbeil of Sylvester, Georgia, and Ralph Davis of Camilla, Georgia, have promoted peanuts for many years at state and national EMC meetings.

Armond Morris, Georgia Peanut Commission chairman, presents a certifiicate to Mitchell Electric Membership Corp. directors Billy Senkbeil of Sylvester and Ralph Davis of Camilla for their efforts in promoting Georgia peanuts across the U.S. at EMC meetings.

During the presentation, GPC chairman Armond Morris read excerpts of a letter sent to GPC from Dennis Chastain, president and CEO of Georgia EMC. “These two gentlemen, who have dedicated their lives to agriculture, make annual deliveries of peanuts to the Georgia EMC Directors’ Association Annual Meeting and to the National Rural Electric Coop. Association’s annual meeting. I can say without hesitation that these two gentlemen have made it their lives’ mission to promote Georgia peanuts. By all accounts and estimates they have shared more than 40,000 of the iconic red foil bags of delicious Georgia peanuts with others.”

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2018 WEED GUIDEBOOK Rotate herbicide groups otation is one of those words that’s almost always positive in peanuts. It’s true for crops because rotation is a major cultural practice for raising yields. It’s true for fungicides. By rotating groups of fungicides, diseases are more easily controlled and will be less likely to develop resistance. And it’s especially true for herbicides that control peanut weeds. Rotation of peanut herbicides can be complicated because it’s not just certain herbicide names or active ingredients that need to be rotated. Herbicide rotation needs to include the mode of action for the herbicides used. Simply put, the mode of action is the way a herbicide works to kill weeds. But there’s nothing simple about mode of action. In fact, it is so complicated that weed scientists use their own jargon to name these modes. They use names like PPO inhibitor, ALS inhibitor and ACCase inhibitor. These are abbreviations for longer technical words that hardly anyone uses. It’s easier to use the abbreviations. Fortunately, two peanut weed scientists from the Southeast have tried to help us to simplify some of these technical concepts. University of Georgia Extension weed scientist Eric Prostko provided the table on the facing page. His counterpart Steve Li from Auburn University in Alabama provided the explanation of the modes of action for the most widely used peanut herbicides on page 12. Information on the herbicide’s mode of action can likely be found on the herbicide label. Knowing the mode of action for various herbicides would not be needed were it not for the ability of weeds to

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develop herbicide resistance. Prostko says resistant weeds can develop from selection pressure from either overuse of a single herbicide or overuse of herbicides with the same mode of action. Prostko says resistance is more likely when using the same herbicide multiple times during the growing season, using the same herbicide during consecutive growing seasons and using herbicides without other weed control strategies. Knowing the mode of action is now an important part of designing and implementing a successful weed control program. In past years, there was almost always a promising new herbicide on the horizon to test and develop for peanuts. That’s no longer the case, according to Prostko. Progress in developing herbicides has slowed, and no new modes of action are being developed by the ag chem industry. Mode of action is actually a sequence of events, according to Prostko. The first phase involves movement of the herbicide to the target. The second phase is the action of the herbicide at the cellular level of the target site. Prostko also warns farmers that not all weed control failures are due to weed resistance. Control failures may be due to weather conditions or mistakes such as using the wrong rates or applications on weeds that are too large. Knowing the mode of action is a first step in preventing herbicide resistance. Prostko says other steps include starting with a clean weed-free field at planting, using conventional tillage if needed, using a residual herbicide and preventing escaped weeds from going to seed. Strategies dealing with herbicide resistance should be pro-active rather than reactive, according to Prostko. It’s easier

Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2018

to delay resistance than to deal with it after it has occurred, and rotating modes of action is a big part of being pro-active. Once a population of weeds becomes resistant, this resistance is spread from farm to farm through either pollen drift from the weeds, or more likely, from the transport of resistant weed seed on farm equipment. That’s why it makes sense to thoroughly clean farm machinery that is moved from one location to another. Prostko says herbicide resistance can be either cross resistance or multiple resistance. Cross resistance occurs when a weed has gained resistance to more than one herbicide with the same mode of action. This can occur with herbicides from the same or from different families of chemicals. For instance, imidazolinone and sulfonylurea herbicides are different families but have the same mode of action. Cadre, Pursuit and Scepter are examples of imidazolinone herbicides. Accent, Classic and Envoke are sulfonylurea herbicides. Multiple resistance occurs when a weed has developed resistance to herbicides with different modes of action. According to Proskto, multiple resistance is a much more challenging problem. Prostko explains that genes for resistance already exist in many weed populations, but usually not in large numbers. The resistant population dominates only after repeated use of a single herbicide or herbicides from the same mode of action. Over time, the susceptible population declines and the resistant population survives and produces seed. The first herbicide resistance occurred during the late 1950s. Prostko says weed resistance increased rapidly during the 1990s when low-rate continued on page 12


Table 1. Herbicides labeled for use in peanut.

a

Application Method(s)a

Mechanism of Action (WSSA)

Common Name

Trade Name(s)

Important Weeds Controlled

acetochlor

Warrant

PRE AC POST

15 VLCFA inhibitor

acifluorfen

Ultra Blazer

POST

14 PPO inhibitor

acifluorfen + bentazon

POST Storm

14 + 6 PPO + photosynthesis inhibitor (site B)

annual morningglories, pigweeds, tropic croton, common cocklebur, hemp sesbania, hophornbeam copperleaf

6 photosynthesis inhibitor (site B)

cocklebur, coffee senna, eclipta, smallflower morningglory, yellow nutsedge

pigweed, tropical spiderwort, annual grasses

annual morningglories, pigweed, tropic croton, hemp sesbania, common ragweed, hophornbeam copperleaf

bentazon

Basagran Broadloom

POST

carfentrazone

Aim

Harvest-aid

14 PPO inhibitor

annual morningglory (except smallflower), pigweed, tropical spiderwort

chlorimuron

Classic

POST

2 ALS inhibitor

Florida beggarweed - 60 days after peanut emergence

clethodim

Arrow Select

POST

1 ACCase inhibitor

diclosulam

Strongarm

PPI PRE AC POST

2 ALS inhibitor

dimethenamid-p

Outlook

PPI PRE AC POST

15 VLCFA inhibitor

ethalfluralin

Sonalan

PPI PRE

3 microtubule inhibitor

flumioxazin

Valor SX Panther Rowel

PRE

14 PPO inhibitor

fluazifop

Fusilade

POST

1 ACCase inhibitor

lactofen

Cobra

POST

14 PPO inhibitor

morningglories, tropic croton, eclipta, pigweed, wild poinsettia, copperleaf

imazapic

Cadre Impose

POST

2 ALS inhibitor

yellow and purple nutsedge, sicklepod, annual morningglories, pigweeds, wild poinsettia, Florida beggarweed (< 2")

imazethapyr

Pursuit

PPI PRE POST

2 ALS inhibitor

yellow and purple nutsedge, wild poinsettia, annual morningglories, pigweeds, tropical spiderwort

paraquat

Gramoxone SL Firestorm Parazone Helmquat

AC Harvest-aid

22 PSI electron diverter

Florida beggarweed, sicklepod, annual grasses, tropical spiderwort, burndown for strip-tillage

pendimethalin

Prowl Pendimax Prowl H20 Satellite Satellite HydroCap

PPI PRE

3 Microtubule inhibitor

Annual grasses and small seeded broadleaf weeds (pigweed, Florida pusley)

pyraflufen

ET

Harvest-aid

pyroxasulfone

Zidua

POST

15 VLCFA inhibitor

sethoxydim

Poast Poast Plus

POST

1 ACCase inhibitor

s-metolachlor

Dual Magnum

15 VLCFA inhibitor

metolachlor

Stalwart Me-Too-Lachlor Parallel PCS

PPI PRE AC POST

sulfentrazone

Spartan

PPI PRE

2,4-DB

Butyrac Butoxone

AC POST

14 PPO Inhibitor

14 PPO inhibitor 4 Synthetic auxin

annual and perennial grasses bristly starbur, Florida beggarweed, Florida pusley, common cocklebur, common ragweed, eclipta, hophornbeam copperleaf, tropical spiderwort annual grasses (except Texas panicum), Florida pusley, yellow nutsedge, tropical spiderwort, pigweeds

annual grasses, Florida pusley, pigweeds

Florida beggarweed, tropic croton. eclipta, hophornbeam copperleaf, Florida pusley, pigweeds Annual and perennial grasses

Annual morningglory and small pigweed

Residual control of annual grasses and pigweed annual and perennial grasses

annual grasses (except Texas panicum), Florida pusley, yellow nutsedge, tropical spiderwort, pigweeds

annual broadleaf weeds including pigweed and morningglory annual morningglories, common cocklebur, sicklepod, citronmelon

PPI = preplant incorporated; PRE = preemergence; AC = at-cracking or early postemergence; POST = postemergence


continued from page 10

Herbicide mode of action groups

herbicides with single sites of action came into routine use. Herbicide resistance can be confirmed by collecting seed from suspected plants and then subjecting the plants from this seed to various rates of the suspected herbicides. This has become an important task for Extension and research weed scientists. This takes a lot of time and greenhouse space. Prostko and Li are concerned about the possibility of pigweeds developing resistance to the category of herbicides known as PPO inhibitors. PPO inhibitors include the widely used Valor peanut herbicide along with Ultra Blazer, Cobra and Aim. Southeastern cotton growers are also very fond of Reflex as well. “PPO-resistant pigweeds have not hit peanuts yet,” Li says. “We’re watching for this because it could cause huge trouble for peanut farmers. Growers do not have the option of using herbicides such as Liberty or dicamba to control pigweeds in their peanuts as compared in resistant cotton and soybean varieties.” Li hopes to begin monitoring a population of pigweeds in Talladega County, Alabama, that may have PPO resistance. A suspect site in Georgia is also under investigation. “We already have plenty of ALS-resistant pigweed, so Cadre, Strongarm, Pursuit and Classic are not effective,” Li says. “That is why farmers have turned to PPO chemistry, because Valor, Blazer and Cobra still control those pigweeds.” Li fears that PPO resistance and ALS resistance (i.e. multiple resistance) will be found in the same population. “That would become a huge challenge,” he says. If that happens, then cover crops will become more important in supressing these weeds, according to Li. If you also plant cotton, you may be using some of the same herbicides and mode of action groups that you use in peanuts, such as Reflex, Envoke and Staple. One of the best ways to rotate modes of action is to grow corn as your peanut rotation crop, if you can. “If you are a peanut farmer with a cotton rotation, then you need to do a good job of weed control in the cotton because you have more tools and chemistries” Li says. “Controlling weeds in rotational crops is also a big part

The Weed Science Society of America has classified groups of herbicides according to their mechanism or mode of action. Here is a simplified explanation of how major groups of peanut herbicides work to control targeted weed plants. VLCFA inhibitors (15): This group of herbicides inhibits the production of very long chain fatty acids. They typically affect susceptible weeds before emergence, but do not inhibit seed germination. PPO inhibitors (14): This group of herbicides inhibits protoporphyrinogen oxidase, an enzyme needed to produce chlorophyll. Photosystem ii inhibitors (6): This group of herbicides inhibit photosynthesis by binding a key protein in the plant chloroplasts. This results in radical oxygen species that damages plant cells and results in plant death. ALS inhibitors (2): This group of herbicides inhibits acetolactate synthase (ALS) and results in a shortage of three key amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine) in susceptible plants. ACCase inhibitor (1): This group of herbicides inhibits Acetyl CoA Carboxylase in grasses. This inhibition leads to a shortage of the lipids used in building new membranes required for cell growth. Microtubule inhibitor (3): This group of herbicides bind to tubulin, a major plant protein needed during cell division. As a result, affected cells in the root zone do not divide and elongate properly. Synthetic Auxin (4): This group of herbicides mimics an auxin that plants naturally produce. The specific binding site has not been identified. But this group of herbicides often results in abnormal or uncontrolled cell division and growth. PSI electron diverter (22): This group of herbicides divert energy being transferred through photosynthesis systems to themselves and produce radical oxygen species, resulting in leaf wilting and desiccation in a short period of time.

continued on page 13

Herbicide Programs for Peanut in Georgia Timing System

Tillage

Preplant Burndowna

PPI

PRE No Rain in 7-10 DAPb Paraquat + Prowl

strip-tillc

Glyphosate or Paraquat + 2,4-D

Rain in 7-10 DAPb

EPOST (~10-20 DAPb) Paraquat + Storm + Dual Magnum or Warrant or Zidua

POST (~30-45 DAP) ALS Resistance: Cobra or Ultra Blazer + (Dual Magnum or Warrant or Zidua) + 2,4-DB

Paraquat + Prowl + Valor

non-irrigated (dryland)

No PRE if rain is not expected in 7-10 DAPb conventional

Prowl or Sonalan

No ALS Resistance: Paraquat + Storm + Dual Cadred + (Dual Magnum or Magnum or Warrant or Warrant or Zidua) + Zidua 2,4-DB

Rain in 7-10 DAPb Valor strip-tillc

Glyphosate or Paraquat + 2,4-D

irrigated conventional

Paraquat + Prowl + Valor + Strongarmd Prowl or Sonalan + Valor + Strongarmd

a Apply at least 7 days before planting. If there will be a long delay between the burndown application and planting (>10 days), consider adding a residual herbicide (Valor or Dual Magnum or Warrant) to the burndown treatment. b DAP = days after planting. c Annual grass control in strip-tillage systems is often more difficult thus additional applications of a postemergence grass herbicide (i.e. Fusilade, Poast, and Select) may be needed. d Before using Cadre and/or Strongarm, rotational crop restrictions must be considered.

**SPECIAL NOTE: Dual Magnum and Warrant are in the same herbicide family and have the same mode of action (inhibit very long chain fatty acids). Zidua is not in the same herbicide family but has the same mode of action. Multiple applications (> 2) of these herbicides in a single year should be avoided to prevent or delay the evolution of resistance. These herbicides have no postemergence activity. Table developed by Eric Prostko, University of Georgia Extension weed scientist.

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Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2018


Make the most of Zidua herbicide idua herbicide is a newly labeled peanut herbicide that can effectively control some troublesome weeds, according to Steve Li, Alabama Extension weed scientist. He says Zidua is a group 15 herbicide with a similar mode of action to Dual Magnum, Warrant and Outlook herbicides. It controls weeds by inhibiting production of fatty acids in plant cells. Li says Zidua targets weeds during plant emergence, and that it is important to incorporate the chemical by rainfall or irrigation. Incorporation needs to take place after the herbicide is applied and before the weeds germinate. Li notes that Zidua won’t control any established weeds, similar to other group 15 herbicides such as Dual Magnum, Warrant and Outlook. Some of the problem weeds Zidua controls includes pigweed, nightshade, Florida pusley, carpetweed, prickly sida, common purslane, crabgrass, crowfootgrass, goosegrass and barnyardgrass. It also can suppress horseweed or marestail, morningglory, common ragweed, Texas millet and yellow nutsedge. Li adds that tank mixes or sequential applications are often required to provide complete control of these species. Li says the main benefit of Zidua for peanuts is that it provides residual weed control and will help to delay the occurrence of new weed resistance. He notes that Alabama fields have heavy infestations pigweed that are resistant to glyphosate and ALS-inhibitor herbicides. The residual control from Zidua will also prevent grass weeds developing resistance to glyphosate and ACCase inhibitors such as Poast and Select, since grass weeds can be a major issue in South Alabama fields. The Zidua label for peanuts allows

Z

early postemergence applications at rates of 1.5 to 2.1 ounces per acre. The application window for peanuts is from the first true leaf stage through the beginning of the pod development stage. Excessive peanut injury has not been a problem from Alabama Zidua tests at rates of up to 3 ounces per acre in preemergence applications. However, Li notes that peanut injury can occur from Zidua if excessive rains occur during the seedling emergence stage or if seed vigor is low. That’s why preemergence Zidua applications are not recommended. He says that sequential applications can be made by using at least a 14-day interval and by keeping the maximum total application rate at no more than 5 ounces per year. Zidua can be tank mixed with other herbicides, including Gramoxone, Storm, Cadre, Basagran, Poast, Pursuit, Ultra Blazer, Aim, 2,4-DB and Cobra. Li hasn’t seen significantly increased injury when Zidua is tank mixed with these herbicides up to 3 ounces per acre rate. However, he suggests avoiding sprays of Gramoxone plus Zidua on thrips-damaged peanuts, on weak stands and on stressed peanuts. Both irrigated and dryland tests with Zidua tank mixes have provided good results . These include Zidua mixed with Gramoxone plus Storm/Basagran, Gramoxone plus 2,4-DB, Cadre plus 2,4-DB, Ultra Blazer plus 2,4-DB, Cobra plus 2,4-DB, and Storm plus 2,4-DB. Treatments using Gramoxone + 2,4-DB + Zidua or Cobra + 2,4-DB + Zidua constantly produced 4,000 to 5,500 pounds per acre of peanuts in dryland or irrigated fields. Timely application is always needed with these tank mixes, according to Li. He adds that nothing will completely

Steve Li Alabama Extension weed scientist control pigweed, sicklepod and coffeeweed that are more than six inches tall. Carryover should not pose much of a threat to later rotational crops, according to Li. He says to follow label restrictions when planting crops after Zidua applications. If Zidua is applied at a rate of 2 ounces per acre, Li says corn can be planted after two months. Likewise, sorghum can be planted after six months, wheat after one month and cotton after two months. Soybeans tolerate Zidua and can be planted at any time after a Zidua application. Overall, Zidua is not expected to cause the carryover problems seen with Cadre on cotton and Strongarm on corn. However, Li cautions growers to beware that crops such as canola, carinata, grass cover crops and winter vegetables may be negatively impacted by earlier Zidua applications. Li says the persistence of Zidua in the soil is expected to be similar as for Dual Magnum, Warrant and Outlook. He says tests are being conducted to see how much rainfall is needed to activate Zidua, along with studies on Zidua persistence in dryland fields. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

continued from page 12

of preventing resistance. Corn is especially good as a rotation crop and for suppressing pigweed because it is a C4 crop that can grow tall and quickly and you can use HPPD inhibitors such as Callisto.” Li also asks farmers to be on the lookout for PPO herbicide resistance. “If

you used Valor, Blazer or Cobra when the pigweeds were small and you got 40 percent control instead of 90 percent control that you used to have, then I hope you will contact your local Extension office and allow us access to those plants,” Li says. “One symptom of possible herbicide resistance will be if you see live pigweeds and dead pigweeds

together in the same spot after a herbicide treatment.” If resistance is the cause, it is important to confine the suspect weeds to a small area where they can be controlled by other herbicides or by hand weeding. Larger weeds are much more difficult to control. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

March 2018 Southeastern Peanut Farmer

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Valor injury update alor has quietly become the most widely used herbicide in commercial peanut farming, according to University of Georgia Extension weed specialist Eric Prostko. He frequently cites a 2013 USDA-National Agricultural Statistics Service survey that shows 62 percent of the U.S. peanut acreage was treated by Valor. Prostko says that Valor is even more popular among Georgia peanut growers. He estimates that more than 70 percent of Georgia peanuts are currently treated with Valor. He also notes that 86 percent of the high-yield peanut growers recognized by the Georgia Peanut Achievement Club are Valor users. Unfortunately for many Georgia growers, Valor injury to peanuts was a big issue during the 2017 growing season. “We’ve seen a lot of concern among growers over Valor injury,” Prostko notes. Valor injury is most often associated with cool and wet soil conditions during seedling emergence. With rainfall at the time the peanut seedlings begin to crack the ground, Valor herbicide will almost

V

always cause some crop injury, according to Prostko. Prostko says he has evaluated Valor for 20 years. He saw severe injury from Valor during certain years such as in 2001, 2009 and 2013. While some years are worse than others, Prostko says he has seen some Valor injury every year he has been in Georgia. “Whether you get injury or not often depends on when your peanuts get rain,” Prostko says. Extension recommendations for using Valor are aimed at getting the best weed control while also minimizing injury from Valor to the peanuts. Prostko says Valor is recommended to be applied at a rate of 3 ounces per acre, and he adds that Valor should not be applied later than two days after planting. This past year, Prostko started getting calls about Valor peanut injury from growers and county Extension agents in mid-May and especially during the week of May 20-24. This coincided with heavy rainfall totals over most of the peanut growing regions of South Georgia, according to Prostko.

Jeff Gore, Mississippi State University entomologist, conducted a recent study on the interactions of herbicide injury and thrips feeding. In the trial he noticed the peanuts on the left without a Valor application and the peanut plants on the right with a Valor application showing signs of injury.

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Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2018

In several tests over the years, Prostko has seen Valor injury on peanuts when he applied the herbicide at a rate of 6 ounces per acre (two times the labeled rate). However, even with this injury at the excessive Valor rate, the injury did not cause a significant peanut yield loss. While Georgia tests show no yield losses from Valor injury, that has not been the case in Mississippi. Jeff Gore, entomologist at the Delta Research & Education Center in Stoneville, Mississippi, conducted a recent study on the interactions of herbicide injury and thrips feeding. “After Valor injury, we saw a big yield increase from spraying peanuts for thrips,” Gore notes. “We saw yield losses up to 250 pounds per acre from plots with severe Valor injury, especially in the Delta region where we are planting peanuts on finer textured soils,” Gore says. “We were able to offset that yield loss by spraying acephate to manage thrips.” In these tests, at 64 days after planting, the peanut plant canopy coverage was about 70 percent where Valor had injured the stand, but 85 percent where there was no Valor injury. Where foliar insecticides were applied to control thrips, the peanut plants were able to recover from the Valor injury faster and canopy coverage was more similar to where Valor was not used, according to Gore. Prostko says some of the crop injury factors that influence Valor injury include the herbicide’s rate, planting depth, time of Valor application, presence of moisture, and, perhaps, seed quality. “Our recommendations are designed to minimize the contact of the emerging peanut to potentially toxic levels of the herbicide,” Prostko says. “Plant high quality seed at least one and a half inches deep, and apply Valor at a rate of 3 ounces per acre no later than two days after planting,” Prostko says. “Also, irrigate with a half inch of water.” t BY JOHN LEIDNER


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Mississippi Peanut Growers holds annual meeting and trade show Jan. 31-Feb. 1, 2018 he Mississippi Peanut Growers Association held its annual meeting and trade show Jan. 31-Feb. 1. 2018, at the Lake Terrace Convention Center, Hattiesburg, Mississippi. Throughout the course of the event, more than 175 growers and industry representatives had the opportunity to hear from peanut industry leaders, university specialists and visit with more than 35 agribusinesses during an exhibit trade show. The annual meeting kicked off on Jan. 31 with a legislative update and status on the 2018 Farm Bill from Bob Redding of The Redding Firm in Washington, D.C. MPGA members received an update on the promotional activities and financial report of MPGA from Malcolm Broome, MPGA executive director, and Lonnie Fortner, chairman of the Mississippi Peanut Promotion Board. Members also received an update on the activities of the Southern Peanut Growers from Leslie Wagner, executive director of SPG. The association held its annual meeting where Mississippi peanut growers elected MPGA board members. The MPGA board members elected include the following: Joe Morgan, district one representative and president, Hattiesburg; Lonnie Fortner, district two representative and vice president, Port Gibson; Alan Atkins, district three representative, Hamilton; Patrick Martin, district four representative, Greenwood; and members at large Scott Flowers, Clarksdale; Van Hensarling, Richton; and

T

Mississippi Peanut Growers Association members had the opportunity to visit with industry representatives during the MPGA annual meeting and trade show held Jan. 31 - Feb. 1, 2018, at the Lake Terrace Convention Center in Hattiesburg, Miss. Pictured left to right: Keith Driscoll, Grand Bay, Ala., Charles Haubold, sales representative with Teva Corporation, and Bud Seward, Lucedale, Miss.

B. Jones, Yazoo City. During day two, attendees heard from multiple Mississippi State faculty members and industry experts. Mike McCormick, president of Mississippi Farm Bureau, provided a policy update, while Ryan Lepicier, senior vice president of National Peanut Board, presented an overview of current NPB activities. Mississippi State University factulty presented a report on the various research projects involving peanuts. Jason Sarver, MSU peanut agronomist, discussed production practices and variety trial research results in Mississippi. Growers also received updates on insect and

Mississippi Peanut Growers Association Board Members President Joe Morgan (District 1) Hattiesburg, Miss. Vice President Lonnie Fortner (District 2) Port Gibson, Miss.

District 4 Patrick Martin, Greenwood, Miss. Members At Large Scott Flowers Clarksdale, Miss.

District 3 Alan Atkins Hamilton, Miss.

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Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2018

Van Hensarling Richton, Miss. B Jones Yazoo City, Miss.

disease management from Jeff Gore, MSU entomologist, and Alan Henn, MSU plant pathologist. Chad Abbott, MSU research extension associate, provided results of 2017 on-farm growth regulator in Mississippi. Attendees also received an overview of peanut digging efficiency and effects on yield from Kendall Kirk, precision ag engineer at Clemson University, a 2018 market outlook from Marshall Lamb, director of the USDA ARS National Peanut Research Lab. The two-day meeting concluded with door prize drawings from several businesses and organizations including Kelley Manufacturing Co. and Amadas Industries. Baylor Travis, Tchula, Mississippi, received the Grand Door Prize of one season’s use of a new KMC peanut combine and Crystal Mahalitc, Vicksburg, Mississippi, received one season’s use of a Amadas four-row or six-row peanut inverter or certificate towards the purchase of a new Amadas self-propelled peanut combine or pull-type peanut combine. For more information on MPGA, visit www.misspeanuts.com. t BY JOY CROSBY



Georgia Peanut Farm Show provides a day of education ore than 1,300 attendees were able to fine-tune their farming operations with information gained at the 42nd annual Georgia Peanut Farm Show and Conference on Jan. 18, 2018, at the University of Georgia Tifton Campus Conference Center in Tifton, Georgia. The show is sponsored by the Georgia Peanut Commission. The one-day show offered farmers a chance to view the products and services of more than 109 exhibitors, as well as a day of education from the University of Georgia peanut production seminar and the industry seed seminar. The Georgia Peanut Commission presented awards to individuals and businesses for their service to the peanut industry and promotion of peanuts across the United States. The award recipients are: Distinguished Service Award – Jeff Johnson, retired president of Birdsong Peanuts; Research and Education Award – Albert Culbreath, University of Georgia plant pathologist; Media Award – Craig Harney, video producer of special projects at WTOC; and Georgia Peanut Special

M

The Georgia Peanut Commission presented awards to individuals and businesses for their service to the peanut industry and promotion of peanuts across the United States during the 42nd annual Georgia Peanut Farm Show held Jan. 18, 2018, at the University of Georgia Tifton Campus Conference Center, Tifton, Ga. Pictured left to right: Armond Morris, GPC chairman; Media Award – Craig Harney with WTOC; Research & Education Award – Albert Culbreath, University of Georgia plant pathologist; Special Award – Matt Baldwin, professional bullfighter and Outstanding Georgia Young Peanut Farmer Award – Elton Baldy, Norman Park, Ga. (Not pictured: Distinguished Service Award – Jeff Johnson with Birdsong Peanuts.).

Award to Matt Baldwin, professional bullfighter who promotes Georgia peanuts. The Outstanding Georgia Young Peanut Farmer Award, sponsored by the

Outstanding Georgia Peanut Farmers of the Year

Five farmers receive the Outstanding Georgia Peanut Farmer of the Year award during the Georgia Peanut Farm Show and Conference held Jan. 18, 2018, in Tifton, Ga. Pictured left to right: Armond Morris, Georgia Peanut Commission chairman from Tifton; District 1 – Ike Newberry, Arlington; District 2 – Chip Dorminy, Fitzgerald; District 3 – Charles Smith Jr., Wadley; District 4 – James ‘Roy’ Malone Sr. (not pictured), Dexter; District 5 – Marvin (not pictured) and Dania DeVane, Cuthbert; and Matt Cato with Agri Supply. The farmers received a sign to display at their farm and a $100 gift card from Agri Supply.

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Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2018

Georgia Peanut Commission and BASF, was presented to Elton Baldy of Norman Park, Georgia. The award is presented to one Georgia peanut farmer based upon the applicant’s overall farm operation; environmental and stewardship practices; and leadership and community service activities. Baldy’s farming operation includes 750 acres of cropland where he grows peanuts, soybeans, corn, wheat, hay and vegetables. In addition to the Outstanding Georgia Young Peanut Farmer Award, the Georgia Peanut Commission and Agri Supply presented the Outstanding Georgia Peanut Farmers of the Year Award to individuals representing each of the commission’s five districts. This award honors farmers who have the passion, diligence, leadership and desire to see the peanut industry in the state of Georgia continue to be the highest quality. Winners are pictured to the left. For photos and additional information on the Georgia Peanut Farm Show and Conference, visit the Georgia Peanut Commission website at gapeanuts.com. t BY JOY CROSBY


Alabama-Florida Peanut Trade Show held in February he 13th annual Alabama-Florida Peanut Trade Show was again deemed a huge success. The event was held on February 8, 2018, at the National Peanut Festival Fairgrounds in Dothan, Alabama. This year’s attendance reached more than 400 with the largest number of exhibitors ever participating. Peanut producers, along with others interested in the peanut industry and in agriculture as a whole attended the one-day event. In addition to the trade show, a marketing and crop outlook for the upcoming growing season was presented by Marshall Lamb from the National Peanut Research Lab in Dawson, Georgia. Several door prizes were given away throughout the day, including Kelly Manufacturing Company’s Grand Door Prize that was won by Gena Waller of Glenwood, Alabama. The Grower Prize, presented by Amadas, was presented to Chris Parker of Headland, Alabama. Winner of a Remington shotgun was Reginald Britt of Campbellton, Florida. Winning a free trip to the 2018 Southern Peanut Growers Conference was David Davis of Cottondale, Florida. t

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BY KAYE LYNN HATAWAY

Marshall Lamb, research leader at the National Peanut Research Laboratory, provides a marketing and crop outlook for 2018 to attendees at the 13th annual Alabama-Florida Peanut Trade Show held at the National Peanut Festival Fairgrounds in Dothan, Ala., Feb. 8, 2018.

March 2018 Southeastern Peanut Farmer

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Washington Outlook by Robert L. Redding Jr.

Cotton moves into Title 1 Programs for the 2019 Crop

Secretary Perdue briefs House Ag Committee on rural economy

The U.S. Congress has approved and sent to the President the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations legislation that contains seed cotton language allowing seed cotton to become part of the programs offered in the commodity title of the 2014 Farm Bill. This eliminates generic acres for the 2018 crop year. Growers will have some options for choosing what crops to allocate to their generic base. The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Farm Service Agency has not released guidelines to date as to how this new law will be applied to the current 2014 Farm Bill. On page 21, Stanley Fletcher of the National Center for Peanut Competitiveness outlines what these changes mean for growers.

The House Agriculture Committee hosted U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue as he briefed members on the current state of the rural economy and the agency’s recently released farm bill priorities. Following the hearing, House Ag Committee Chairman Mike Conaway, R-Texas, made the following remarks: “We are writing this farm bill under dramatically different circumstances than we were four years ago, when prices were high and rural America was thriving. Today, a host of factors — including natural disasters and high foreign subsidies, tariff and non-tariff barriers — have all contributed to chronically depressed prices. Sec. Perdue and his team understand the hard times facing farmers and ranchers across this country and will be helpful allies in getting this bill across the finish line. I thank Sec. Perdue for coming before the committee today and look forward to continuing to work together to move legislation that restores certainty to all of rural America.” In a statement to the committee, Sec. Perdue commented: “In updating you on the state of the rural and agricultural economy today, I can report that farmers are continuing to adjust to low commodity prices using a number of strategies, such as by borrowing, which has increased overall debt-toasset levels in the farm sector. However, while conditions are testing the resilience of the American farmer, the Trump Administration and USDA are focused on creating economic conditions where they can prosper. With the help of farm disaster programs and crop insurance, many producers are recovering from some difficult times following a series of disastrous droughts, wildfires, and hurricanes in many parts of the country. The U.S. farm sector has faced declining prices and farm incomes following the near record levels reached in 2014, leaving some producers more vulnerable to the production disruptions posed by natural disasters. Net farm income has fallen nearly 50 percent from its peak in 2013, as most commodity prices have fallen over the past 4 years while global stock levels have rebounded with several years of record production. We project continuing low commodity prices and trade challenges in the face of large global supplies and a relatively strong dollar for the coming year. As a result, many farmers will continue to face tight bottom lines, even negative returns in some cases. In 2016, for example, almost half of wheat farmers had negative cash farm income and higher levels of debt relative to assets compared to other farm sectors. We are seeing the effects of those conditions across the agricultural economy, as farmers cut costs by spending less on inputs, services, and capital investments.”

Administration’s budget includes elimination of separate peanut payment limit As part of the Administration’s Fiscal Year 2019 Budget Proposal, they have targeted the elimination of the Separate Peanut Payment Limitation. This separate payment limit was established in the 2002 Farm Bill as part of the agreement to eliminate the peanut quota program and move to a more market-oriented marketing loan program. The Budget proposes to eliminate an unnecessary and separate payment limit for peanut producers and limit eligibility for commodity subsidies to one manager per farm. The Southern Peanut Farmers Federation testified at both the U.S. House and Senate Agriculture Committees’ hearings in support of maintaining the separate limit as a critical piece of the peanut program. Senate Chairman Pat Roberts, R-Kansas, and House Chairman Mike Conaway, R-Texas, released the following statement on the proposed budget: “As chairmen of the Agriculture Committees, the task at hand is to produce a farm bill for the benefit of our farmers, ranchers, consumers and other stakeholders. This budget, as with every other president’s budget before, will not prevent us from doing that job. We are committed to maintaining a strong safety net for agricultural producers during these times of low prices and uncertain markets and continuing to improve our nation’s nutrition programs.”

USDA announces Farmers.gov tool U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue recently unveiled Farmers.gov, the new interactive one-stop website for producers maintained by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Farmers.gov is now live but will have multiple features added over the coming months to allow agricultural producers to make appointments with USDA offices, file forms, and apply for USDA programs. The website gathers together the three agencies that comprise USDA’s Farm Production and Conservation mission area: the Farm Service Agency, the Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the Risk Management Agency.

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Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2018


Center for Agribusiness and Economic Development & National Center for Peanut Competitiveness

Seed-Cotton Provision in Regards to Payment Yield and Generic Base Acres 1. Seed-cotton is now designated as a covered commodity in the 2014 Farm Bill. 2. Reference price for seed-cotton is $0.367 per pound. 3. Payment yield equals 2.4 times the payment yield for cotton that was in effect on September 30, 2013. 4. Owner of the farm has a one-time opportunity to update the payment yield of cotton which would then be used using method from point 3 to calculate the seed-cotton payment yield. 5. Payment Acres (i.e., bases) a. Not later than 90 days after the enactment of this seed-cotton provision the owner must allocate ALL generic base acres on the farm. b. If no covered commodity including seed-cotton was planted or prevented from being planted on the farm for the crop years 2009-2016, the generic acres for that farm are classified as unassigned crop base which no ARC/PLC payments can be made. c. If the farm did have a covered commodity including seed-cotton planted or prevented planted on the farm for the crop years 2009-2016, the owner of the farm has two options to allocate the generic base assigned to that farm. d. Option 1: must be the greater of the two sub-options i. 80% of the generic base or ii. Average seed-cotton acres planted or prevented planted during the 2009-2012 crop years. However this cannot exceed the generic base acres on the farm. iii. If the greater of the two sub-options is less than the generic base acres for that farm, the remainder of the generic base acres for that farm will be allocated to unassigned crop base which no ARC/PLC payments can be made. e. Option 2: i. Average acres planted or prevented planted for crop years 2009-2012 for all covered commodities including seed-cotton must be computed. ii. Based on the average acres determined, each covered commodity and seed-cotton share of the total planted or prevented planted of all of the covered commodities plus seed-cotton must be computed. The sum of all of the shares will be 100%. iii. The generic base acres for that farm are then multiplied by each covered commodity plus seed-cotton share to allocate the generic base acres to the respective covered commodity plus seed-cotton. These new bases become permanent bases which would be added to the already existing 2014 covered commodity bases for that farm. iv. Under Option 2, there will not be any unallocated generic base acres and thus there will not be any unassigned crop base for that farm. 6. If the owner/owners of the farm cannot agree to the option to be used to allocate the generic base acres which lead to a failure to allocate, that farm will have to use Option 1 for the allocation of the generic base acres. 7. The producers on the farm will be given a one-time election for seed-cotton to designate whether that farm for seed-cotton will be enrolled in the ARC or PLC program. 8. If all the producers cannot agree as to which election to select (ARC or PLC), that farm will have the seed-cotton enrolled in the PLC program. 9. An Excel spreadsheet decision aid is available online for owners and producers to aid them in the decision process. It is strongly encouraged that the 2018 FSA-156EZ and the 2008-2012 FSA-578 forms be assembled for each farm serial number and the associated tracts for that farm serial number.

Download the 2018 Seed-Cotton Generic Base and Payment Yield Updating Calculator online at southernpeanutfarmers.org. March 2018 Southeastern Peanut Farmer

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Southern Peanut Growers March is National Peanut Month March is National Peanut Month, a time to celebrate one of America’s favorite foods! Roasted in the shell for ballpark snacking, ground into peanut butter or tossed in a salad or stir-fry, peanuts find their way into everything from breakfast to dessert. Today there are even more ways to enjoy our favorite food as manufacturers introduce new products like powdered peanuts or Elmhurst’s new Milked Peanuts. Pillsbury and JIF have even teamed up to offer peanut butter frosting and peanut butter chocolate frosting! Expand your peanut usage with one of these new products today!

Southern Peanut Soup Ingredients: 3 tablespoons butter 1 small Vidalia onion, chopped 1 stalk celery, finely chopped 1 carrot, finely chopped 2 cloves garlic, minced 2 tablespoons flour 3-4 cups hot chicken stock or broth 1/2 cup heavy cream 1 cup natural peanut butter (no sugar added) Juice of 1/2 – 1 lime (to taste)

Peanut Chocolate Shake Ingredients: 1 cup Elmhurst Milked Peanuts™ with Chocolate 1 frozen banana, cut into pieces 1 Tablespoon creamy peanut butter

Directions: Blend together Milked Peanuts with Chocolate, frozen banana and peanut butter until smooth.

Directions: Melt butter in saucepan over medium low heat, add onions, celery and carrots and cook for about 10 minutes, until onions become translucent. Add garlic and cook for an additional 2 minutes. Whisk flour into the onion mixture, cook for 1 minute, then whisk in the hot chicken stock. Turn the heat up to medium. While stirring, cook 5 minutes until moderately thickened. Next, whisk in the heavy cream and peanut butter, heat the soup through but do not bring to a boil. Stir in the lime juice. Serve with optional toppings such as chopped toasted peanuts, scallions, cilantro, cayenne or hot sauce. This soup also is delicious served chilled.

Overnight Oatmeal Ingredients: 1 cup old fashioned oats ½ cup Jif® Peanut Powder ¼ cup vanilla Greek yogurt 2 tablespoons honey Pinch of salt Toppings of your choice

Visit Southern Peanut Growers at these upcoming events • March 23-25 – Southern Women’s Show, Savannah, Georgia • March 28 – Georgia Association of Nutrition & Dietetics, Atlanta, Georgia • April 5-8 – Southern Women’s Show, Nashville, Tenn.

Directions: Combine oats, peanut powder, yogurt, honey and salt in a bowl. Cover and refrigerate overnight.

• April 13-14 – Georgia School Nutrition Association Meeting, Savannah, Georgia

To serve: heat on high in the microwave for 30 seconds and top with your favorite toppings (like chopped peanuts, sliced banana, dried cranberries, etc.).

• April 21-23 – Women Chefs and Restaurateurs National Conference, Minneapolis, Minn.

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Southern Peanut Growers 1025 Sugar Pike Way · Canton, Georgia 30115 (770) 751-6615 · FAX (770) 751-6417 email: lpwagner@comcast.net Visit our website at http://www.peanutbutterlovers.com



Southern Peanut Growers Conference SANDESTIN GOLF & BEACH RESORT July 19-21, 2018 Miramar Beach, Florida

l a u n n A 20th nt! Eve

Key topics: Legislation, Research and Promotion For more information contact: Alabama Peanut Producers Association P.O. Box 8805 Dothan, AL 36304 334-792-6482 Florida Peanut Producers Association 2741 Penn Avenue, Suite 1 Marianna, FL 32448 850-526-2590 Georgia Peanut Commission P.O. Box 967 Tifton, GA 31793 229-386-3470

Brought to you by the: Alabama Peanut Producers Association Florida Peanut Producers Association Georgia Peanut Commission Mississippi Peanut Growers Association

Mississippi Peanut Growers Association P.O. Box 284 Petal, MS 39465 601-606-3547

Registration opens April 1, 2018. www.southernpeanutfarmers.org