On-Going Research Paper

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Design as process

Iteration of deconstruction and reassembly

Deconstruction of objects

The materiality of objects in various features

Towards multiple forms

Intertwined objects between physical and virtual form

Object menifesto

Instant objects in 3D space

Instant objects as craft

Further work

Finding the way of connection

Design as

Design as translator

Design as process

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ○ ○ ○ ○

For everyone, 2020 has likely been the year that people have had to stay at home for the longest period of time. Even if you are not at home, you may be living in a physical ‘space’ that belongs to somewhere, or someone else. In our physical space, we perceive light and shadow and from those we define ‘things’ that fill this space. It would present our reality and awareness that manifests in our taste, character, intelligence, culture, etc. We develop strong relationships and associations between our bodies and the ‘things’ that surround us. However, what about digital assets?. Many digital images are made as metaphors of physical objects’ shapes such as folders, bins and windows. This digital space gave rise to many forms such as 2D symbols and 3D images and expanded our concept of reality further. Now, it is hard to imagine our life without this expansion as we bounce between the physical and digital realms simultaneously without any perceived effort.

3 [1]
The Verge. 2016. How Silicon Valley Helps Spread The Same Sterile Aesthetic Across The World.
It’s easy to see how social media shapes our interactions on the internet, through web browsers, feeds, and apps. Yet technology is also shaping the physical world, influencing the places we go and how we behave in areas of our lives that didn’t heretofore seem so digital.1

As a designer, questioning is discovering. Graphic design recontextualizes the preexisting context, structures and systems that we have in place. I believe designers can derive questions from a process that I describe as the deconstruction and reassemble method. It could deconstruct visual designs and thereby make people aware of, and question, established structures by suggesting new scenarios. This design process also leads a designer to remake and reinterpret the context by decomposing features in different layers.

During the whole term, I am iterating the process of deconstruction and reassembling with various mediums, such as film, machines, clockwork and catalogues to better understand the system. I also formed the questions: ‘How the structures can be transitioned to another form?’, ‘Do they still show the key features?’, ‘Has it changed the function and meaning in a different format?’, or ‘Can they make a new narrative?’. I’m exploring the materiality of objects within different mediums to produce new narratives.

In this research paper, I plan to show you how physical objects influence digital assets and discover new values of objects by using 3D digital resources with the method previously described. This would create possibilities to discuss a variety of topics such as the value, narratives, technology translation, and authorship of objects.


Design as process Iteration of deconstruction and reassembly

I have been practising the process of disassembling and reconstructing systems since the last term. I started with discovering the essential languages to recreate the relationship between forms, visual codes and systems affecting people. I was able to compare the feasibility of which medium, topic, or context would work the best by using the same method for all projects. I could internalize the method used in my projects as I was working.

During the first term, ‘Film Machine’, which made mechanical movements with film sequences, was created by combining the clips of a movie and the movements of a machine. It showed new stories and interactions while displaying core mechanical functions using the film system. During my last project, I explored the disassembly and reconstruction of materials within clocks. By doing some iteration, I was able to get some insight. First, time was represented relative to the marking system of the clock. Second, the visual form was changed based on the amount of information received to the clock form. As a result, a clock recontextualizes between the object and subject. Lastly, during the current term, I am exploring ‘How objects can be generated and intertwined between the physical and digital space, I investigate this with the question ‘What happens if the objects are re-arranged by using 3D objects available in free digital archives?’.

By changing the format from illustration and photography to three-dimensional space, I needed to adjust the process as well. This also gave me more freedom to make new objects. Throughout this whole project, I could see how the process can be meaningful for designers and I would like to show how this process helps designers by introducing the potential benefits of using this method.


Thinking though making

Deconstructing as a ‘material’

‘Defined as “deriving ideas, tastes, style, etc., from various sources”’.2

Initiating a new idea is always hard for designers. That is why there are so many methods such as, more investigation, brainstorming, writing, and collecting to produce primary sources with different perspectives. Deconstructing gives basic materials for designers to generate different content, sources, essence, etc., that provides options to choose from according to an individual's interest. Also, it helps to make enquiries and extract key principles. In my project, I used the film ‘E.T’. a ‘RubeGoldberg’ machine, clocks, and other general objects. My project started off with a broader focus to initiate ideas since all of the systems were different in each project. I began decomposing based on the features of the film sequences, machine movement, time, and catalogue. This simple first step helped to narrow down ideas.

Deconstructing as ‘critic’

‘Deconstruction asks how representation inhabits reality. How does the external image of things get inside their internal essence? How does the surface get under the skin?’.3

To decompose, designers have to question and critique the various structures, contexts, materialities, and etc., Deconstruction requires an attitude of critical thinking regarding the subject. To expand upon the term deconstruction, we could include ideas of anti-construction, decreation, anarchy and postmodernism.

This approach provides a chance to rethink the conventional role of the system in a different context. It is most effective to set specific conditions to follow throughout the process. These conditions lead to clear understanding, minimising the confusion that helps condense the first wave of ideas.

Design as process
Jencks, C. and Silver, N., 1972. Adhocism. Deconstruction and graphic design history meets-theory. 1980.

Toward new narration

While deconstructing and reassembling different systems and objects, I found that the ‘narrative’ is the most important factor. The reason is that 'Film Machine' showed the clearest narrative by using preexisting elements, such as movie sequences and machine movements. Even in the case of clocks, different stories are created through a specific subject of 'time'. What I learnt through each practice, new contexts and narrations would be produced by an interaction between object and subject.

Reassemble as ‘possible’

Reassembling is like creating new possibilities. No matter how futuristic or absurd an idea may be, in some contexts it may change from a ‘possibility’ to a ‘reality'. I am inspired by speculative design. Whereby I mean designing with intention towards future possibilities. It creates possible scenarios rather than predicting definite outcomes.


'In speculative design, however, the curriculum proposes a practice engaging with a social context, using design as a means of speculating about how things could be, examining also the possible negative implications of introducing a new product into everyday life – imagining possible futures'. 4

For me, the ‘what if’ statement was important for this triangulation project. This is because various stories can be created depending on how things are assembled after disassembling them. I tried to look at various perspectives of objects like form, function and interaction. What I discovered was not ‘how’ to assemble things, but ‘why’ to assemble them. A new narration could not be created without ‘thinking’ between

[4] Dunne, A. and Raby, F., 2013. Speculative Everything.
Design as process
Img. 1

the object and subject. This is why I started to think about the reason to make more possibilities: 'Who are the audience?', 'Why do I need to make this one?', 'What for?'.

Reassemble as ‘visible’

'The series clearly shows how forms experienced by a designer can be kept into memory and later injected into further projects of any size and scope. The drawings also emphasize the shifting in size and context, with the objects drawn out of scale as temples in the middle of a landscape, but still keeping the features of a common kitchen tool'. 5

Perhaps reassembling would not only show the future 'possibility’, but also give ‘visibility’ of a designers’ message. The process allows people to see different stories within existing structures unveiling the curtain of perception. Also, it helps to understand the back-end process of preexisting formation. When proceeding with the third triangular, I focused on ‘what message do I want to deliver to the audience?’. I thought about a relationship between the environments of physical and digital space within a technological aspect. To manifest the idea, I reassembled 3D objects from free archives that are influenced by designs of physical objects. These 3D objects become a part of the materials used to generate a digital asset as well. This circulation effect could explain the relationship of two different spaces. By reassembling the digital components, it could reveal other messages to people.

Therefore, The process could be used in multiple ways such as practice, outcome, and position of designers. This process provides designers with a useful tool or lens to look through. This also would play a role in gradually expanding the depth of thought through repetitive training.

Design as process

Deconstruction of objects

The materiality of objects in various features

We are living with objects. ‘Encountering things’ and discovering how we are communicating with things in different layers. These objects each have individual forms, functions and interactions. I have often wondered about the essence of objects from an ontological aspect. The fundamental sources that would communicate with people. In fact, the elements of objects such as form, function and interaction cannot separate all of these contexts because they would not function properly if the components do not work together. However, discovering the materialities could be part of the practice to expand the scope of thought by distinguishing the existence of objects. Then, how has this process been addressed during this term? My initial curiosity was about ‘How objects communicate with people?’. I looked at how things can be defined as an object itself. The scope was too broad to cover all objects, so I started my research using a book as the object I would focus on. A book would have a simple system. However, may have a longer history than any other object, from analogue to digital.

3 [6]
Atzmon, L. and Boradkar, P., 2017. Encountering Things.
Things are changing. Building on the new interest in materiality in design studies, this collection foregrounds designed objects—objects conceived and produced through design processes—and designed things—things that are shaped through their interaction with human and nonhuman forces within a culture.6


'Form itself is indexical. By manipulating form, design reshapes that essential relationship. Form is replaced by exchange. The things we make negotiate a relationship over which we have a profound control'. 7

When people interact with objects, they first think ‘how does the design look?’. The interaction and interpretation then initiate from the form of objects. The form consists of visual appearances such as shape, colour, style, material and configuration.

It can also be a character of a person, company or creator. In fact, the form of a book design can be simpler than other objects. That is why it focuses on content design, such as cover design, texture, and layout, rather than physical design. Therefore, no matter how the shape changes, if it fits the definition of a book, with its content, it can be called a book.


'Functions can not be measured, and it is a possibility between the product and life. When Charles Yeames designed his chair, he did not really design a chair, but designed a sitting posture. In other words, he designed a function, designed for a function. He believed that function is not a physiological or physical system but a culture system. Designer’s responsibility is not to achieve function but to discovery the function'. 8

Objects can be used with a variety of functions depending on the context. To take a book as an example, it serves a variety of purposes, such as a catalogue, address book, sailing book, knowledge transfer, or archive. It can be said that the book does not simply store data, but functions as a communication tool. These functions can be changed in a variety of ways outside of the instruction given by designers.


A single book can interact with people in a variety of ways.

[7] 2x4. 2009. Fuck Content [8] Tang, L., 2020. Discussion On The Aesthetic Style Of "Memphis" Design. Deconstruction of objects

Physical interaction, sensory interaction, or interaction via its contents. I wanted to find out in a specific context that how books interact with people in different ways. For example, the IKEA catalogue is a function-oriented book. It conveys the message of the brand’s story and identity’s and introduces various objects in an object we call a ‘book’. The catalogue can link not only physical objects, but also contents with its audience. I have seen how IKEA communicates with their customers.

First, using a unique tone of voice as a language interact with people. IKEA uses some humour and a casual and intimate tone to explain the products. Also, they framed their product information and brand identity by repeating specific words to highlight their message. For instance, to empathise the function, they use words such as ‘separate’, ‘extra’ and ‘no need’. However, when they want to highlight sustainability, they use ‘zero’, ‘less’ and ‘raw’. These particular words formulate and reinforce their companies’ character.

Second, the digital and physical book experiences are provided in a similar form. Interestingly, although the digital catalogue could be designed by following a style of web design, it shows the same e-book style layout. This form of reducing the ‘huddle’ of interaction by delivering a similar experience to the physical reality rather than delivering a completely new experience to the user, is familiar. Therefore, the interaction could happen in various directions and shapes with form, function, or languages together.


The most interesting part is probably the context. The catalogue could change with different contexts, such as time, space, history, culture and technology.

Among those different contexts, I wondered how the catalogue is combined with technology. From a technology perspective, the catalogue implements various experiments, such as a digital catalogue with AR or 3D Generative-Adversarial Modeling (GAN). At IKEA, 70% of the catalogue images are

Deconstruction of objects

generated from 3D GAN and are replacing the actual furniture photography.

These newly created reproductions change the direction of feedback from physical to digital. In other words, It circulates the feedback. It would raise questions like ‘are these digital images made by reflecting the design trend in reality?’, Or ‘Is it creating an image by predicting a trend?’. This allows people to imagine the usage of products without an actual tactile experience. It also shows how physical objects can translate into the digital space. Consequently, if the context reshapes, the message would also constantly change.

After decomposing the features of objects, I combined the book with various objects to see what happens after the combination. Interestingly, I should have to consider the usages of objects to put the objects together. By assiging different mediums like drawings, photography and 3D, I was able to compare which medium is more effective to recreate new forms and narratives.

● Triangluar 1. Studio Reassembling in different mediums. Photography needed more context and articulate narratives. For me, Illustration delivered more interesting imagination than the pictures. I was confused by the meaning of photos.

Deconstruction of objects

Form + Form Form + Form Form + Function Form + Function

Towards multiple forms

Intertwined objects between physical and virtual form

I investigated the value of physical objects to reveal the fundamental system in triangular 1. However, I was able to expand my interest by reassembling the objects in various mediums which helped me think about the idea in a technological aspect. I circulated various objects and terms. It was not a linear investigation practice. Therefore, I would like to show different ideas from my practices in two different sections.

Digital metaphors to give information

Let's discuss the digital role of a catalogue which contains various objects a little more. Normally, a digital catalogue contains interactions in the form of e-books. This transfers information about the interaction and form of physical objects as a metaphor. Among them, the catalogue’s index probably has one of the most important roles in books and catalogues. This is because it is the first page that delivers information that interacts with users. So, what about an index in digital catalogues?

According to the meaning of ‘index’ in the dictionary, it is a system of numbers, a collection of information, something that shows how strong or common a condition is, etc. As a communication ‘tool’ of the IKEA catalogue, it provides direct interaction to convey brief product information for users in a printed book. In addition, the index gives some options and freedom to jump into specific content. Therefore, the index is the first interaction with people and gives primary information to showcase their highlights.

What about the index in their digital catalogue? It is translating the printed format into virtual space. As Ludovico

Towards multiple forms

Ludovico, A (2012)

‘Post-Digital Print: A Future Scenario’ and ‘Print vs. Electrons’ in PostDigital Print:

noted, ‘When everything is reduced to the display screen, some kind of ‘simulation’ of space becomes necessary since everything now must fit within these few inches. [...]Unfortunately, The result is that a so-called ‘clean’ virtual reading space remains more unfamiliar than the ‘messy’ physical one.’ 9 This could be one of the reasons for using the same format in a catalogue in physical and digital form to promote familiarity between them. However, there is a translation of the ‘tool’ from index to hyperlink. By implementing hyperlink, it allows people to connect with each content and highlight them.

3D assets by duplicating items of reality

Some digital objects are used completely differently. Instead of giving information, 3D objects convey ‘uncanny valley’ because it gives realistic qualities of the real world. The objects represent physical design, trend and tastes of people. I wondered how digital assets or products could be reassembled in a new form through the free 3D modelling archive. After disassembling the downloaded 3D products by various layers, I reassembled the product with different shapes and functions. I was able to quickly create a product without going through an actual mass-production process. Looking back on humanity, the development of faster production speeds played a key role in further progressing civilization. Maybe, using 3D assets would change the production process from man-made products to computer-generated products by replicating and predicting the trends of reality.

Creating a product does not end with the object, but is interpreted differently depending on the context it is placed in. I made a chandelier style toilet stand by combining a toilet stand and a chandelier 3D object. I needed to think about ‘What is the fundamental meaning of this product?’, ‘What is the usage of it?’, ‘What is its value?’. This suggests that the form, function and interaction of the product intertwine together as mentioned previously. I had an idea about how basic product value, such as product price, category and name, could be defined in real life. Of course, this would require further research on how things

Towards multiple forms

create value within society in terms of economic well-being. Secondly, the visualisation of the object in space is required. ‘Should it be put in the bathroom? Or should it be installed in a park or something else?’. Making objects need a frame of space. Also, the consideration of space leads to the story of the context in which the product was placed in this space. 3D digital images may broaden the idea and improve the capability of digital space analogous to how we think of objects within physical spaces. It provides an opportunity to see the viewpoint of the product from various angles.

Hence, the objects functioned, not only using physical interaction, but also as a guide to connect with digital space in digital catalogues, or 3D digital object assets.

● Triangluar 1. Studio

3D objects questioned 'what is the fundamental function or form of this product?'. It also needed to consider social values to produce the catalogue such as price, size, usage of objects.

https://files.cargocollective.com/c942651/ catalogue.pdf

Towards multiple forms

Object manifesto

Instant objects in 3D space

Value of objects

Then, what if a computer creates products and gives the values instead of pre-defined product values from preexisting products in reality? My second triangular question started with what the computer-generated random objects could mean. In reality, we often use IKEA assembly-set to make things to improve productivity. Also, an object is created by assembling parts. I used the data from Shape.net which provides 3D meshes by collecting the items in free 3D archives and categories such as name, function and tags to define physical objects. This site categorizes real-world objects and defines a standard for how they are used in society. I was curious to see how these previously defined data sets could be interpreted in new ways using the database.

To do this, I had the computer randomly create an object and give it a random name. Interestingly, even though I did not think of an object with any particular function, I thought to give meaning to the object correlating with the word given. This shows that the value of an object does not exist only in the corresponding interaction, but can also be associated with the word assigned to it. Also, the digital object can be viewed only once. Objects in real life usually persist or even last forever, but this digital product does not. When refreshed, it changed to another object, and the value of the object thus changed too.

Instant objects

'Could we classify the luxuriant growth of objects as we do a flora or fauna, complete with tropical and glacial species, sudden


mutations, and varieties threat-Need by extinction?'.10

System of objects by Baudrillard shows how objects are being defined in various aspect. He entertained the idea that what is objects are, resemble species or new creatures in the world. It could have different values in the creatures’ condition. They might have ‘time’ as birth and death, their own languages or their own characters. The point being that it helps to understand what the value of the objects are and how it communicates with us in a different point of view.

Instant objects initiated from the idea to see different perspectives of objects. To create instant objects, I tried to combine 3D meshes by using computer processing. As the two objects overlapped, strange shapes were created. They are meaningless shapes. They do not have any useful actions and functions. Then, ‘can those shapes be called objects?’, ‘is there any meaning from this objects?’. It brings a radical question. It forced me to consider alternate ideas. Interestingly, by assigning a random word to the wired objects, I started thinking about the condition and values of the objects. Perhaps, words would give value to objects in reality. I constantly questioned, ‘What is the value of the instant object?’, ‘How I can explain this project?’,’ What is the meaning of the project for designers?’. This selfreflection helped to formulate theoretical thinking. I could think about how it has different values compared with physical objects. I defined three aspects of the mass-production process.


During this mass-production period, we are manufacturing huge amounts of the same product. The object above is ‘only one’ representing a potential many. Although this object started from ready-made 3D product archives, a digital process generates new random products reassembling the old to new.


If you do not press the refresh button on the instant object website, the product will not change. However, in this digital

○ ○ Object manifesto

space, can you keep this object forever without refreshing?. How could you keep this virtual object in your digital space?


Perhaps, If you see only the image, you would not guess the usage of this object. By suggesting a word alongside the image, you can begin to imagine the potential of the design. The word given is a powerful way to initiate the possible life of the object.

○ Object manifesto
● Triangluar 2. Studio These 'instant objects' give you some ideas to think about the value and condition of items. https://instantobjects.cargo.site/

Process statement

Instant objects as craft

I adapted the idea of ‘Web Design as Architecture’ which found a similarity between web-design and architecture to reinterpret the structural aspect. By using the same method, I connected and made a statement of instant objects with a hand-craft process. This specific statement shaped the message of my project.

Instant objects are made by a simple tool.

The craft requires specialised equipment or skills to produce objects. ‘instant objects’ use simple computer processing. It gives a wide range of creative shapes like glassblowing or model making.

Instant objects are unexpected.

Mistakes arise as part of the crafting process. Sometimes, ‘instant objects’ create an unexpected outcome. ‘instant objects' come from combing random objects with words. This often is a mismatch between the definition and the produced image.

Instant objects are non-repeatable.

While craft uses a simple machine, it makes a unique design. It is not a ready-made product or a mass-production design. ‘Limitation’ creates one of the biggest values in hand-craft.

Instant objects are material-based design.

Materials and textiles are the most important part of the handcraft. These materials produce various shapes. By using 3D

[11] Müller, M., 2019. Webdesign As Architecture. 1 2 3 4
● Triangluar 3. Writing
Object manifesto

5 6 7

mesh as digital materials, it provides a wide range of sources to generate objects.

Instant objects are self-production.

Craft allows people to satisfy the work through the creative process and have their own creations. Likewise, ‘instant objects’ provides to join the creative process by clicking a refresh button ‘Create Instant Object’ in the website.

Instant objects engage in a conversation between people.

Craft encourages various conversations between art and design. It requires additional interpretation to create hybrid objects. The instant objects also need to discuss the usage and meaning in various aspects.

Instant objects are educational.

One of the craft activities aims would be education for students to understand the materials that surround us for environmental purpose. Instant objects give better opportunities to understand the materiality of the objects which derive questions such as ‘What is the function of this form?’, ‘How does it interact with people?’.

This practice aims to understand the values between physical and digital objects and how it could change meaning within technology. ‘Instant objects’ as a digital craft is opposite to the mass-production process. Although it started using 3D assets as materials in object archives, it offers unique value when compared to physical products. Physical objects persist over time, but instant objects remain only for a moment until clicking the refresh button to discover something new and forgetting the previous model.

This helps to understand the objects’ value of persistence.

Object manifesto

Also, by associating a word with a shape, it formulates a context or visualisation. The instant object encourages ‘instant’ thought regarding physical and digital space. After making the statement, I could formulate a frame of my project. It is a process-based project similar to hand-craft. It allows people to provoke the work themselves. Interestingly, the confusion of objects raises new questions of ‘What is the real object's value, What should be considered the most important value or What usage is given?’. Probably, conversation and provocation would be an important message to this work.

Authorship of digital objects

[12] 2016. Shiv Integer.


There are other possibilities to discuss the project. I used free archive 3D objects as digital material. This gave me more freedom and confidence to try a new challenge which is generating the 3D random objects. Nowadays, many things are translated into digital assets or form. We easily share the sources. Then, how can we define the first creator?. The digital form needs to consider not only the creation but also creator. 'The process follows a lineage of Dadaist readymade and chance art, but also explores the authorship-inheritance of Creative Commons licensing, as well as performing an archiving of an Internet subculture, taking cross-database snapshots of 3D-Print culture.' 12

I used free archive 3D objects as digital material. This gave me more freedom and confidence to try a new challenge: generating the 3D random objects. Nowadays, many things are translated into digital assets. We easily share the sources. Then, how can we define the first creator? The digital form needs to Img. 3 Object manifesto

consider, not only the creation, but also creator. The instant object was inspired by Shive Integer. Customized software adds new meaning to the object by combining 3D objects. The authorship boundary becomes ambiguous with free archives. ‘Who is the author?’, ‘Is it the archive site?. The 3D creator who was influenced by physical object design, or the designer who created the software?’. These 3D designs were created with a lot of influence from physical designs or brands as well. ‘How we can define the author?’. This shows that the boundaries between the creators of digital and physical design are broken, and they create new ideas by influencing each other. The instant object is a similar idea. I would be one of the contributors to the creation of this project along with many others as I used shared 3D meshes.

Object manifesto

Finding the way of connection

I could find a lot of potential from the last triangular such as improvisation of a random object generating, authorship of digital assets, process-based design practises, a tool to provoke the conversation between people and new visual production as reassembling.

First, I would think about how physical objects can affect digital objects, or the other way around. It would need to prove the circular relationship between the two spaces, or need to think about the ecosystem between two spaces. I came across the interesting word ‘craft’. In a mass-production society, craft may mean the total opposite.

‘Radical Matter’ shows how conventional manufacturing can be changed with technology. ‘In the digital age, designers and makers are looking to blend the digital seamlessly with the tactile to combine the efficiency, autonomy and productivity of digital fabrication with the emotional resonance of crafted imperfection’. 13 By using the random generator, the ‘instant object’ has a character as a craft process. It also allows people to think about how we could make the values of objects rather than manufacturing. It could be reinterpreted or recontextualized the decentralized production and process in the digital world somehow. ‘Digital craft’ would expand the role of designers. I would like to explore more about transformative moments between physical and digital spaces, sensual experiences, neofunctionalism and materialism, to make a bridge between two spaces. This experiment would suggest a way of communication between humans and technology.

Second, I was inspired by Bouequet from Amy Ireland. 'These works are poems that have been deconstructed from their original forms in linear language into 3D ‘flowers’ –

Franklin and Till,
Further work

[Img.4], [14] Ireland, A., 2016. Bouequet, Stealth Poetry Module 02.

computer-generated objects made up of pictorial synaesthetic phonemes'.14

By recontextualizing the human language as 3D objects, it derives the connection between human and digital objects. Also, 3D printing helps to translate digital forms to the material world and into human perception. Img. 4


Design As

Design as translator

'This is based on the assumption that the act of design is, in essence, the clarification of material or the remodelling of content from one form to another. The ultimate goal is the expression of a given content rendered in a form that reaches a new audience'.15

My project focuses on how the existing system can be newly recontextualised in the digital age. The meaning of existing objects creates a new context in digital space as different formats, such as digital archives and random generating code. I believe that one of a designer’s roles would be to restruct the existing form to provoke and illuminate different perspectives as a communication tool. The reconstruction can be interpreted in various contexts like a story, visual, concept or system. As a translator, I tried remodelling the system of objects by converting the contents of things from a physical to a digital form. This intertwined transformation between two formats and expanded the designers’ boundary to provide a new viewpoint for the audience.

Design as process

'We live in a dynamic, data-driven society that is continually sparking new forms of human interaction and social contexts. [...] Our work focuses on processes rather than products: things that adapt to their environment, emphasize change and show difference. [...] The process is the product. The most important aspects of a process are time, relationship and change'. 16

Conditional design says that rather than fitting a design

2x4. 1996. Designer As Author
2014. Conditional Design

to a specific form, a process according to a different context should present the form and product of the design. The important aspects of the process are time, relationships and change. Designers should consider the process not only the final outcome, but also the value of the process of discipline. In conclusion, I believe that designers would recontextualise preexisting structures by using technology and digital mediums with a process of deconstruction and reassembly. This could provoke conversations for various audiences and suggest different perspectives in our world.

Design As

Atzmon, L. and Boradkar, P., 2017. Encountering Things.

Baudrillard, J. and Benedict, J., 1968. The System Of Objects.

Conditionaldesign.org. 2014. Conditional Design - Conditional Design. [online] Available at: <https://conditionaldesign.org/ manifesto/index.html> [Accessed 26 November 2020].

Deconstruction and graphic design history meets-theory. 1980. [online] Available at: <https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/ visiblelanguage/pdf/28.4/deconstruction-and-graphic-designhistory-meets-theory.pdf> [Accessed 18 November 2020].

Dunne, A. and Raby, F., 2013. Speculative Everything.

Drummond, H. (2019) Parts of something/part of some things, Lecture notes, Mini-Studio, Central Saint Martins University, [Delivered 03/02/2020].

En.wikipedia.org. 2020. Handicraft. [online] Available at: <https:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Handicraft> [Accessed 25 November 2020].

Fabrizi, M., 1987. Indian Memory: A Series Of Ceramics By Ettore Sottsass Jr. (1972-73). [online] SOCKS. Available at: <http://socksstudio.com/2017/06/12/indian-memory-a-series-of-ceramics-byettore-sottsass-jr-1972-73/> [Accessed 20 November 2020].

Franklin, K. and Till, C., 2018. Radical Matter.

Friedmanbenda.com. 2020. Split Personality - ExhibitionsFriedman Benda. [online] Available at: <http://www.friedmanbenda. com/exhibitions/upcoming/split-personality/3> [Accessed 24 November 2020].

Ireland, A., 2016. Bouequet, Stealth Poetry Module 02. [online]

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