Self Help Africa - Annual Review 2010

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Self Help Africa

Annual ReVIEW 2010

Self Help Africa


Annual ReVIEW 2010

Letter from our CEO

It starts with a seed Hunger in Africa is concentrated in rural areas, in the districts where smallholder farmers struggle to eke out a living from their land. It is here that generational hunger and poverty begins - children don’t eat enough because the family farm doesn’t produce enough, poor nutrition stunts these children’s growth and development, and their parents are simply too poor to improve crop production on their small farm. Looked at from one perspective, there are many reasons for this hunger and poverty - farmers don’t have access to water, to good soil, to quality seed, to agricultural advice, to storage, to transport, to markets, to finance. Everything, it seems, that developed world farmers take for granted is in short supply in Africa. Add to this the complexities of world food markets and trading regulations, and you’d be forgiven for wondering if there’s any point in trying to tackle this problem at all. But at Self Help Africa, we look at it from another perspective. We know that small changes on a family farm can make a big difference. With just a five or ten per cent improvement in crop production, a family can be lifted out of hunger.

And when it comes to small changes, there is little as important as the seed. Across Africa, farmers simply cannot improve crop yields because they are unable to get their hands on improved seeds. More than any other factor, what a farmer sows affects what she reaps. For many years, Self Help Africa has concentrated much of its efforts on ensuring that farmers have access to better quality seed and to different varieties of seed. Much of this work takes place through cooperatives, where farmer members are taught to ‘multiply’ or grow more quality seed, which is then sold to other farmers. It’s part science and part organisation, and it’s all just part of the solution for farmers in Africa. But our work in providing tens of thousands of farmers with access to improved seed is breaking the cycle of hunger and poverty for hundreds of thousands of their dependents. This work would not be possible without the support of our donors. You are planting the seeds of hope across Africa. The journey starts with a seed, and ends, thanks to you, with a harvest.

Raymond Jordan

Tending a field of beans, Zambia



Self Help Africa

Annual ReVIEW 2010

Self Help Africa


AFRICA malawi






situated in the Eastern ‘Horn of Africa’, Ethiopia is landlocked, and bounded by Sudan in the East and by Somalia to its West.


Human Development Index:

(A comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy, education, and standards of living for countries worldwide): 157 out of 169 countries ranked


Population: togo

90,000,000, of whom 83% live in rural areas.

Economy: 85% of population are supported by small scale farming, 5% are employed in industry, and the remaining 10% in the service sector. Ethiopia’s main agricultural crops are cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, cotton, sugarcane, potatoes,qu’at, cut flowers, livestock and fisheries.



Agriculture accounts forghana almost 45% of GDP. The agricultural sector suffers from frequent drought and poor cultivation practices. Coffee is critical to the Ethiopian economy, withkenya exports of some $350 million in 2006, but historically low prices have seen many farmers switching to qu’at to togo supplement income. Under Ethiopia’s constitution, the state owns all land and provides longterm leases to the tenants; the system continues to hamper growth in the industrial sector as entrepreneurs are unable to use land as collateral for loans

Life expectancy at birth: 56.2 years. Self Help Africa: has been working in Ethiopia since 1984.

ERITREA Location: On the Red Sea in the Eastern ‘Horn of Africa’, Eritrea shares borders with Sudan to the West, Ethiopia to the south, and Djibouti to the east. Eritrea gained its independence from a federation with Ethiopia in 1992.

Human Development Index: (A comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy, education, and standards of living for countries worldwide) : Eritrea is one of just a handful of countries worldwide not to have a HDI ranking. This is as a result of unsufficient available data.

Population: 5,900,000, of whom 78% live in rural areas.

Economy: 80% of the

labour force are employed in agriculture. The remaining 20% work in services and industry.

Eritrea’s principal agriculture crops are sorghum, lentils, vegetables, corn, cotton, tobacco, sisal and livestock. Since the conclusion of the Ethiopian-Eritrea war in 2000, the government has maintained a firm grip on the economy. As a result few private enterprises remain in Eritrea. Eritrea’s economy depends heavily on taxes paid by members of the diaspora. Erratic rainfall, poor soil quality, and limited access to inputs affect agricultural productivity, and recent harvests have been unable to meet Eritrea’s food needs for the country. Self Help Africa: has been working in Eritrea since 1995.



Self Help Africa’s RUSACCO programme promotes saving, and supports the development of micro-finance amongst primary cooperatives and cooperative unions, so that households can have access to credit to establish business enterprise and income generating activities. More than 31,000 mainly women members are receiving financial services through the programme, which is working with over 200 primary co-operatives affiliated to five co-operative unions – Awash, Keleta, Ifa Boru, Yenetsanet Fana, and Sidama Chalala. The project is being implemented in collaboration with the Local Government and Regional and Federal Cooperative Agencies, and with donor and technical support from the Irish League of Credit Unions Foundation, and from Terrafina Micro Finance.



Elabared rural development programme is promoting water harvesting, early maturing crop, small scale horticulture, and livestock development amongst 5,000 farm households in the Elabared district of Anseba region of Eritrea.


Gogne rural development programme is being implemented to support agricultural production and water conservation amongst 3,300 households in the low-lying Gash Barka region of Eritrea’s south-west, with a particular emphasis on early maturing crop varieties, livestock development, and the establishment of catchment water harvesting schemes.


small buttons denote districts where rural programmes are being undertaken, larger shaded areas where regional development activities are taking place

Emni Haili rural development programme is working to improve food production and income generating activities amongst 20,000 households in 44 villages in the Debub region of Southern Eritrea. The project is also supporting the strengthening of agricultural extension services, is promoting a range of early maturing seed varieties, and supporting the development of irrigated horticulture, agro-forestry and natural resource management.

ETHEOPIA Self Help Africa’s ACDP is working with farmers co-operative unions to promote measures to increase farm production, diversification and marketing of produce. The project is being undertaken in collaboration with the Southern Region and Oromia bureaus of rural development and agriculture, and the farmers unions of Meki Batu Vegetable and Fruit Growers Cooperative Union; Walta Farmers Cooperative Union; Melik Farmers Cooperative Union; Raya Wakana Farmers Cooperative Union; and Siko Mendo Farmers Cooperative Union – who represent a total of 17,500 farming households (approx. 100,000 people). The scheme is being supported by the European Union and ICCO (the inter church organisation for development co-operation).


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KIMIRA WATER PROJECT Kimira Water is a micro-project that is aiming to improve access to water – for both human and livestock consumption, as well as for small-scale irrigationpurposes, around Kimira village in the Afambo district of Eritrea’s hot and dry Southern Red Sea region.


SODO II RDP Sodo II is a rural development programme that is seeking to improve food production, crop diversification and income generation amongst close to 5,500 households in the Sodo region of Gurage district. Communities are also being supported to combat soil erosion and land degradation, to have better access to water for drinking and irrigation, and to have a better access to services.

Self Help Africa’s national beekeeping development programme is supporting the promotion of apiculture as an income generating activity amongst rural households in the Mendefera, Elabared and Merhano regions of Eritrea. More than 1,500 bee colonies have been reared and distributed to rural farm households, while over 400,000 tree seedlings to provide forage crops were distributed and planted, and 1,000 rural farmers have taken part in technical training in different aspects of beekeeping.


Self Help Africa

Annual ReVIEW 2010

Self Help Africa

Annual ReVIEW 2010


AFRICA malawi





UGANDA Location:


Eastern Africa, west of Kenya, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and bounded by Lake Victoria to the east.


Human Development Index: (A comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy, education, and standards of living for countries worldwide) : 143 out of 169 countries ranked


Population: 34,612,000, of whom 87% live in rural areas kenya

Economy: 82% of the workforce is in the agricultural sector, 5% in industry, and 13% in the service sector, according to latest figures.


Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals, and recently discovered oil.


Coffee accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986, the government -has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages The global economic downturn has hurt Uganda’s exports, although GDP growth is still relatively strong due to past reforms, management of the downturn, and revenues from oil and taxes. Instability in southern Sudan is the biggest risk for the Ugandan economy in 2011 because Uganda’s main export partner is Sudan and Uganda is a key destination for Sudanese refugees. Life expectancy at birth: 53.2 years

Self Help Africa : has been working in Uganda since the mid-1990s.

KENYA Location:


Kenya is a republic in Eastern Africa, with borders with Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania and Somalia, and with a coastline to the east to the Indian Ocean. Human Development Index: (A comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy, education, and standards of living for countries worldwide) : 128 out of 169 countries ranked

Population: 41,000,000, of whom 78% live in rural areas. Kenya has a rapid rate of urbanization however, with rural to urban migration growing at 4% a year.

Economy: 75% of the labour force is employed in agriculture, with the balance in industry and the service sector. The country’s principal agricultural produce is tea,

coffee, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables, dairy products and meat. Although the regional hub for trade and finance in East Africa, Kenya has been hampered by corruption and by reliance upon several primary goods whose prices have remained low. Post-election violence in early 2008, coupled with the effects of the global financial crisis on remittance and exports, reduced GDP growth to 1.7 in 2008, but the economy rebounded in 2009-10

Self Help Africa: has been working in Kenya since the mid-1990s.





Kumi Bukedea rural development project is seeking to increase agricultural productivity for 6,800 households in seven sub-counties in North Eastern Uganda. Together with improving access to seed, to extension services, and to agricultural training and markets, the project also assists communities to access basic social services.

Rongai & Gilgil rural development is aiming to enhance food production and livestock development, and access to water for 1,000 rural households in Visoi and Lengenet areas of Rongai, and provide training and support to rural groups and institutions in Rongai and Gilgil division of Nakuru District of Kenya’s Rift Valley, so that they can diversify production, and successfully market produce

‘HIV/AIDS Awareness & CVT Programme’ is a scheme to reach out to most at risk groups, and support the provision of counselling, education and training to this group within the Naivasha District of Kenya. Training has been provided to 182 community educators, as part of an outreach programme that is targeting at risk groups including sex workers, bar and hotel hosts, prison inmates, uniformed officers and truck drivers in Naivasha District. Training and education has also been provided to more than 1,800 young people affiliated to 57 youth groups.




Self Help Africa’s Market Led Natural Resource Management Programme is supporting households, schools and farmers associations in Gilgil Division, Kenya, to market nature based enterprises, develop commercial and multi-purpose tree nurseries, and promote the use of energy saving devices, as a means of rehabilitating and sustainably managing the natural environment of the region around Gilgil and Elementaita in Rift Valley Province. 4,000 households have been supported with tree planting activities.

Increasing food production amongst 17,400 households, promoting diversification of household incomes, and promoting the participation of women in development activities are the primary objectives of the Kayunga RDP, which was started in Central Uganda in 2007. The project is also working to improve local access to hygiene and sanitation.


Annual ReVIEW 2010

Self Help Africa

AFRICA malawi



ZAMBIA Location:

Poverty remains a significant

burkinafaso problem in Zambia, despite a

Zambia is a Southern African republic situated to the east of Angola and south of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

stronger economy. Zambia’s dependency on copper makes it vulnerable to depressed commodity prices, but Human Development Index: ghanarecord high copper prices and a bumper maize crop (A comparative measure of life in 2010 helped Zambia expectancy, literacy, education, rebound quickly from the and standards of living for world economic slow-down countries worldwide) : 150 in 2008. out of 169 countries ranked kenya

Population: 13,800,000, of whom 62% live in rural areas.

Economy: 85% of the workforce is employed in agriculture, 6% in industry and 9% in services. Zambia’s principal agricultural crops are corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seed, vegetables, flower, tobacco, cotton, cassava, and sugar cane.


Life expectancy at birth: 52.36 years.


Self Help Africa: Has been working in Zambia since 1985.

MALAWI Location:

Agriculture has benefited from zambia fertiliser subsidies since 2006, The Republic of Malawi is a and accounts for more than onelandlocked country that is bounded third of GDP and 90% of export by Zambia and Mozambique in revenues. The performance of the Southern Africa, and is bounded burkinafasotobacco sector is key to short-term for almost its entire eastern border growth as tobacco accounts for by Lake Nyasa (Malawi). more than half of exports. The economy depends on substantial Human Development inflows of economic assistance Index: from the IMF, the World Bank, and ghana (A comparative measure of life individual donor nations expectancy, literacy, education, and standards of living for countries Malawi faces many challenges worldwide) :153 out of 169 however, including developing countries ranked a market economy, improving educational facilities, addressing kenya Population: environmental problems, and dealing with the rapidly growing 15,880,000, of whom 80% live problem of HIV/AIDS. in rural areas.



90% of the workforce is employed in agriculture, with 10% working in local industry and services. The country’s principal agricultural produce is tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea, corn, potatoes, cassava sorghum, pulses, groundnuts, Macadamia nuts and livestock.

Life expectancy at birth: 51.7 year.

Self Help Africa: Has been working in Malawi since 1995.



Annual ReVIEW 2010




The Seed Entrepreneurship for Economic Development and Food Security (SEEDFS) project is designed to enable 100,000 rural small-scale farmers in Zambia to produce and distribute their own locally produced good quality seed. The project is taking place across ten districts – in six of the countries provinces, and is being undertaken in collaboration with local development partners - Mthilakubili Sustainable Agriculture Project (MK-SAP); Eastern Province Farmers Cooperative (EPFC); Organization for Promotion of Meaningful Development through Active Participation (OPAD); Keepers Zambia Foundation (KZF) and NIRAS Zambia. The project is being funded by the European Union.

Liteta Project is working to improve food production, agricultural practices and management of natural resources amongst 2,000 households in Chibombo District in Zambia’s Central Province. The project is supported by UK Big Lottery Fund and Development Fund of Norway, and is being implemented by local partners OPAD(Organization for the Promotion of Meaningful Development through Active Participation).

The Project for the Reduction of Poverty (PROP) and Food Security & Nutrition for Vulnerable Households Project (FSSP) seeks to reduce poverty levels amongst 5,000 poor rural households in Zambia’s Eastern Province, and also to improve food security, livelihood and coping capacity of people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in Mwinilunga and Kabompo districts. The work focuses on community enterprise development, expanding access to financial services, improving basic business skills, and strengthening the capacity of partner organisations. Activities include the promotion of small-scale out-grower schemes and producer groups, technical support to develop and market produce, community based micro-finance, and business training. Half of the households participating in the scheme are female-headed.




Self Help Africa


Self Help Africa and local development partners KRAAD and FOCUS are working to strengthen agricultural extension services through a farmer to farmer approach for over 2,250 rural farming households, and promoting a range of crop diversification and income generating activities amongst 7,500 households in Northern Malawi.

MSUMBANKHUNDA 8,500 farming households are being assisted in a programme that supports crop diversification and livestock development, while rural farming communities are being assisted in promoting rural enterprise development, and mechanisms that can help to link farmer-producers to market, and to add value to their surplus agricultural produce.


LITETA DP MORE Self Help Africa’s MORE is the Rural Enterprise programme in four districts in Western and North Western Provinces. MORE worked with 4,100 household to improve crop, vegetable, livestock and honey production and access to markets. Self Help Africa worked with Keepers Zambia Foundation and the project was mainly funded by the European Union.

Local seed growers are being supported to produce and distribute high quality certified seed varieties to 8,000 households, a further 500 households are being assisted with horticultural production, and 600 farm households in livestock breeding. Self Help Africa is assisting and collaborating with 47 local development committees and agencies in Kalembo District.




Self Help Africa

Annual ReVIEW 2010

Self Help Africa

Annual ReVIEW 2010



AFRICA ghana




TOGO Togo is located in Western Africa, flanked on the east and west by Benin and Ghana respectively, and on the north by Burkina Faso. It has a narrow coastal strip to the Gulf of Guinea. Human Development Index: (A comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy, education, and standards of living for countries worldwide): 139 out of 169 countries ranked

Population: 6,771,993, of whom 57% live in rural areas.

Economy: This small, sub-Saharan economy suffers weak economic growth and depends heavily on



Togo is the world’s fourth-largest producer of phosphate. Economic growth prospects remain marginal however due to declining cotton production and underinvestment in phosphate mining.


62.7 years Self Help Africa: has been working in Togo since 2008

burkinafaso BURKINA FASO


both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for 65% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported, while cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings, with cotton being the most important cash crop.

Life expectancy at birth:







Ghana is situated in Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d’Ivoire and Togo.


Human Development Index: (A comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy, education, and standards of living for countries worldwide) : 130 out of 169 countries ranked 24,791,000, of whom 49% live in rural areas.

Economy: 34% of the workforce is employed in agriculture, 24% in industry, some of which is agri-processing, and 41% in the service sector. A majority of the population in the far north, where Self Help Africa works, are supported by small-holder agriculture. Ghana is well endowed

with natural resources and agriculture accounts for roughly one-third of GDP and employs more than half of the workforce. Gold and cocoa production and individual remittances are major sources of foreign exchange. Oil production at Ghana’s offshore field began late last year and is expected to boost economic growth. In 2009 Ghana signed a three-year Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility with the IMF to improve macroeconomic stability, private sector competitiveness, human resource development, and good governance and civic responsibility. Sound macroeconomic management along with high prices for gold and cocoa helped sustain GDP growth in 2008-10. Self Help Africa: has been working in Ghana since 2008

Location: Burkina Faso is a landlocked West African country situated north of Ghana, and south of Mali, on the fringes of the Sahara Desert. Human Development Index: (A comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy, education, and standards of living for countries worldwide) : 161 out of 169 countries ranked

Population: 16,751,000, of whom 74% live in rural areas.

Economy: 90% of the labour force are involved in agriculture, and 10% in the industrial and services sector. Burkina Faso is a poor, landlocked country that

relies heavily on cotton ghana

and gold exports for revenue. The country has few natural resources and a weak industrial base.

kenya Since 1998, Burkina

Faso has embarked upon a gradual privatization of state-owned enterprises and in 2004 revised its investment code to attract togo foreign investment. As a result, the country has seen an upswing in gold exploration and production. By 2010, gold had become the main source of export revenue.

Life expectancy at birth: 53.7 years Self Help Africa: has been working in Burkina Faso since 2008.




BURKINA FASO AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME Self Help Africa’s Agricultural Development programme is working to improve agricultural production for more than 2,500 households in more than a dozen villages in Zondome, Bazèga, Kourritenga, Boulgou, Doulougue, Central East, and Bam Provinces of Burkina Faso. Work is being undertaken in collaboration with local partners PER (Projet Ecologique et Reboisement) ORGANIC (Organisation pour une Nouvelle Initiative Communautaire) and ASCDIS (Association de Solidarite Communautaire pour un Developpement Integre au Sahel).

GHANA BOLGATANGA - POVERTY REDUCTION PROGRAMME Self Help Africa is working in collaboration with TRAX Ghana in Dachio and Pelunga areas of Bolgatanga in Northern Ghana to improve food production, and restore degraded farm land in the region. The project is developing local community based farm advisors to support project activities, and is promoting a range of alternate crops including groundnuts, soy bean and fruit tree production.




PROGRAMME FOR POVERTY REDUCTION Self Help Africa’s Programme for Poverty Reduction (PPR) is being undertaken in Tune, Tajoare and Kpendja districts of Northern Togo to assist 2,500 farm households with increasing food production and diversification of food production. Together with activities to improve agricultural development, the project is working to enable rural women to develop income generating activities, and to improve community access to safe and clean drinking water.


Self Help Africa

Annual ReVIEW 2010

Can Africa feed itself?

Self Help Africa

Today, one third of people in sub-Saharan Africa are chronically hungry, and rising food prices during 2010 and into 2011 are likely to push that figure higher.

The short answer is yes. To many observers, it seems as if the battle to end hunger in Africa cannot be won. In 1990, over 150 million Africans were hungry; by 2010, despite hundreds of millions of dollars in aid in the interim, that number had risen to almost 240 million. Today, one third of people in subSaharan Africa are chronically hungry, and rising food prices during 2010 and into 2011 are likely to push that figure higher. That paints a bleak picture - of human suffering and of government failures. But there is hope. While food production has grown globally by 145% over the past 40 years, African food production has fallen by 10% since 1960 . This is where Africa’s future food security lies - in gaining ground that it has lost to the rest of the world - and in the process sparking sustainable economic development. There are many reasons for Africa’s agricultural failure, but the main one is lack of investment. For decades, the world ignored African agriculture, and it shows. Just 4% of the continent’s crop land is irrigated, compared with almost 40% in South Asia. Quality seeds are expensive and in short supply. Access

Annual ReVIEW 2010

to markets is difficult, storage after harvest is poor and farming knowledge is limited. This can all be fixed, but it will take sustained investment. Investing in African agriculture makes sense from an economic standpoint - food aid typically costs more than $250 for each metric ton of cereals delivered in rural areas, while smallholder farmers can produce the same amount locally for $100 or less . Small increases in agricultural investment can make a massive difference not only to food security, but also to the local economy. In sub-Saharan Africa, agriculture directly contributes to 34% of GDP and 64% of employment . According to the world bank, growth in agriculture is at least two to four times more effective in reducing poverty than in other sectors. African governments have pledged to increase their own investments in agriculture - to at least 10% of national income - while donor governments have also promised to increase their supports. In some cases, those promises are starting to be delivered. Across Africa, smallholder farming communities hold the key to Africa’s future food security and economic growth.

Surveying a crop of upland rice, Uganda 12


Self Help Africa

Annual ReVIEW 2010

Will new farming technologies end African hunger?

Self Help Africa

The one factor that unites many of these farmers is their poverty. Most of the 80 million smallholder farmers in Africa live on less than $2 a day

There’s a saying - ‘When you’ve seen one farmer in Africa, you’ve seen one farmer in Africa’ that reflects the diversity of agricultural practices across the continent. Different climates and different soils have produced a wide range of farming practices based on many different food staples, livestock and fishing. The one factor that unites many of these farmers is their poverty. Most of the 80 million smallholder farmers in Africa live on less than $2 a day , and they are caught in a poverty trap. Unable to invest additional resources into their farms, they are condemned to a cycle of poor harvests and low incomes. For many developed world commentators, the solution to poor agricultural productivity depends on new seeds, including genetically modified seeds, together with the application of large amounts of chemical fertilizers. For Africa’s smallholder farmers, however, investing heavily in these new ‘farm inputs’ is wishful thinking. Most farmers


Annual ReVIEW 2010

use locally-sourced seed, which is very often an older, lower-yielding variety. The seed is saved from season to season, allowing subsistence farmers to plant with minimum investment. Buying new hybrid or GM seed every season - because this seed cannot be saved - is not something that most poor farmers can afford. African farmers also use very low quantities of fertilizer - just 10% of the world average of 100 kilos per hectare . Part of the reason for this is because fertilizer is so expensive - high transportation costs mean that fertilizer in Africa is two to six times the average world price. For most farmers, organic fertilizer – using crop waste and what local livestock produce - is a much more affordable option. For Self Help Africa, the question is not GM or traditional seed, organic or chemical fertilizer; it’s what solution can farmers afford. Our experience suggests that low-cost inputs - whether seeds or fertilizers - are most sustainable for smallholder farmers.


Self Help Africa

Annual ReVIEW 2010

Self Help Africa

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Why are women so important for African agriculture? In Africa, the hand that rocks the cradle also tills the fields.

In addition to caring for children and the elderly, collecting firewood and carrying water, women produce up to 80% of Africa’s food on small farms. Yet, they receive as little as 5% of the supports to do it. If African agriculture is underperforming, one of the reasons is because women do not have equal access to the resources and opportunities they need to be more productive. Just five percent of farm advice services around the world go to women , while they receive less than 10% of the credit directed to smallholders. In Kenya, women constitute 75% of the agricultural work force, farming mostly for subsistence. However, only 1% of women in Kenya own the land on which they work.” Closing this ‘gender gap’ would generate significant gains for the agriculture sector and for society. If women had the same access to productive resources as men, they could increase yields on their farms by 20 to 30 per cent. This could raise total agricultural output in developing countries by up to 4 percent, which could in turn reduce the number of hungry people in the world by up to 17 percent. In Africa, that would mean over 40 million fewer people going hungry every day. Equal treatment for women farmers will not be achieved overnight, as it involves challenging firmly-entrenched beliefs about a woman’s place in society, particularly in respect of land ownership. But progress is being made and sustained, particularly where small improvements in supports to women farmers have resulted in dramatic changes to family incomes.

Grinding maize in the traditional manner, Togo



Self Help Africa

Annual ReVIEW 2010

Does the smallholder farmer have a future?

Self Help Africa

In time, African farms are likely to begin to consolidate, following the pattern experienced elsewhere in the world.

In the developed world, farms have gradually become larger as farmers benefit from increased mechanisation and economies of scale. Across Africa, however, small farms are the norm and in many countries they are getting smaller. Some commentators view this as a problem, equating small farms with poorer productivity. In fact, small farms have several advantages over large farms, including their greater economic efficiency, their contributions to creating more employment, reducing poverty and improving food security, and their consumption patterns which help vitalize the rural nonfarm economy. Many studies have shown an inverse relationship between farm size and land productivity . Small farms typically achieve their higher productivity with lower capital intensities than large farms. These are important efficiency advantages in Africa, where land and capital are scarce relative to labour. The greater efficiency of small farms stems from the absence of economies of scale in most types of farming, and their greater abundance of family labour per hectare farmed.

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(hence land productivity) and they use labour-intensive methods rather than capital-intensive machines. In poor, labour-abundant economies, not only are small farms more efficient, but because they also account for large shares of the rural poor, small farm development can be a “win-win” proposition for growth and poverty reduction. Asia’s green revolution demonstrated how agricultural growth that reaches large numbers of small farms can transform rural economies and raise enormous numbers of people out of poverty. Small farms also contribute to greater food security, particularly in areas with poor infrastructure where high transport costs make locally produced foods less costly and less risky than many purchased foods. In time, African farms are likely to begin to consolidate, following the pattern experienced elsewhere in the world. The question of land rights and land ownership does need to be addressed in many countries in subSaharan Africa, but for the foreseeable future, the small farm will continue to be critical to Africa’s economic growth.

Small farms exploit labour using technologies that increase yields

Three generations, at work in the fields, Uganda



Self Help Africa

Annual ReVIEW 2010

Self Help Africa

Chairman’s Report This report records the financial activities and accomplishments of Self Help Africa across nine country programmes during 2010, together with some of the notable activities and achievements that took place across the organisation during the year. It is heartening to be able to report that the organisation has attained a considerable level of financial stability in the two years since the successful merger created Self Help Africa, and has achieved this at a time of considerable economic uncertainty and insecurity in the wider global economy. During 2010 we forged valuable new funding partnerships with the European Union, and saw the commencement of major new programmes in both Ethiopia and Zambia as a result of that support.

At a fundraising level, Self Help Africa performed strongly in 2010. At a time of economic downturn we maintained funding levels across a number of different income streams, and actually grew significantly the backing we are receiving from trusts and foundations.

Annual ReVIEW 2010

Financial Report

At organisational level Self Help Africa, work was almost completed during 2010 on a new strategic plan, which will guide the organisation for the next five years. We also strengthened our financial reporting and operational systems with the recruitment of heads of programmes and of heads of finance in each of our African country offices, while in Ireland we appointed a head of policy & strategy to our management team.

2010 was the penultimate year of the Irish Government’s multiannual programme scheme (MAPS), in which Self Help Africa has been a participant since the inception of the programme in 2003. We received e2.8 million from MAPS in 2010, and are grateful for the continuing backing that we receive from Irish Aid under this scheme.

A large group of people have contributed to this success in 2010. In particular, I want to thank all our donors, large and small, for their continued support for this work during difficult economic times. Thanks also to our fundraisers and our field staff - two vital groups at opposite ends of our work. I am also very appreciative of the continuing contribution of our board, and to the Irish Farmers Organisation, for selecting Self Help Africa as their charity of choice.

It was also the first full year of operations since the formal registration and attainment of charitable status for Self Help Africa Inc. in the United States, and it was with great pleasure that I joined our American colleagues and supporters for a very successful gala fundraising ball in Manhattan in November.

Tom Corcoran

The road to market, Malawi



Self Help Africa

Annual ReVIEW 2010

Self Help Africa

Unrestricted Restricted Total Total Funds Funds Funds Funds 2010 2009 Notes e e e e

Unrestricted Restricted Total Total Funds Funds Funds Funds 2010 2009 GBP GBP GBP GBP

Incoming resources Income resources from charitable activities - Grant income 257,895 4,647,751 4,905,646 5,524,696 Income resources from generated funds - Voluntary income 1,555,969 612,149 2,168,117 1,989,868 Other Incoming Resources - Interest & investment income 3,245 38 3,283 43,616 ------------ ------------ ------------ -----------Total incoming resources 1,817,108 5,259,938 7,077,046 7,558,180 ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------

221,255 3,987,432 4,208,687 1,334,908 525,179 1,860,087 2,784 33 2,817 ------------ ------------ ------------ 1,558,947 4,512,644 6,071,591 ------------ ------------ ------------



1. HOW YOUR MONEY WAS SPENT: Charitable activity generating voluntary income governance costs

(94%), (5%), (1%)

1,771,978 38,840 -----------6,730,559 ------------

Resources Expended Charitable activities Costs of generating voluntary income Governance costs Total resources expended

1,596,917 372,015 43,473 ------------ 2,012,405 ------------

5,812,634 - 24,226 ------------ 5,836,860 ------------

7,409,551 372,015 67,699 ------------ 7,849,265 ------------

6,159,462 484,156 72,764 ------------6,716,382 ------------

1,370,039 319,162 37,296 ------------ 1,726,497 ------------

4,986,817 0 20,784 ------------ 5,007,601 ------------

6,356,856 319,162 58,080 ------------ 6,734,098 ------------

5,485,002 431,141 64,797 ------------5,980,940 ------------

Gain/(loss) on revaluations of investment assets









Transfers between funds









Net incoming resources Funds at beginning of year

------------ (119,853)

------------ (650,369)

------------ (770,222)


------------ (660,794)






------------ ------------ (102,825) (557,969) 1,136,817 1,175,808



Exchange gain on consolidation Funds at end of year

14,360 ----------- 1,157,919 =======

55,131 ----------- 711,505 =======

69,491 ------------ 1,869,424 =======

(117,943) -----------2,570,155 =======

(37,333) ----------- 996,659 =======

(42,756) ------------ 1,609,075 =======

(234,207) -----------2,312,625 =======

(5,423) ----------- 612,416 =======

Annual ReVIEW 2010

2. MAJOR DONORS Irish Aid General Donations EU Trust/Foundations/Others

euro 2,802,500 2,171,400 1,293,145 810,001

3. SHARE OF OVERALL EXPENDITURE Food Security - Sustainable Rural Livelihoods - Building Community Capacity - Research, learning, advocacy -

2,559,486 (34%) 3,743,875 (51%) 964,614 (13%) 141,576 (2%)


Self Help Africa

Annual ReVIEW 2010

Self Help Africa

Fundraising Self Help Africa is grateful to the many groups, individuals and organisations who lent backing and funding support to our work during 2010.

with previous years, while we also benefited from a number of generous legacy gifts in 2010.

Charity giving has come under considerable pressure in the current global economic recession, yet Self Help Africa’s fundraising portfolio strengthened, and recorded growth in a number of key areas during the year.

Amongst the highlights on the fundraising calendar was Self Help Africa’s inaugural US Ball – an event that attracted close to 350 friends to a function in New York, and generated nearly several hundred thousand dollars in fundraising support.

We have benefited from enormous support and goodwill from our supporters in Europe and the United States. Backing received from Trusts and Foundations grew significantly in 2010, as did the range and variety of fundraising events and activities taking place in support of our work.

The ‘Change Makers Ball’ was held at the exclusive Chelsea Pier’s in Manhattan, and was MC’ed by Bloomberg TV presenter Margaret Brennan, and addressed by a range of speakers including former Irish and British Lions Rugby Star and Self Help Africa Ambassador Dennis Hickie.

At the same time donations from regular givers and cooperative farmers, and from public collections were in line

Also during the year our newly established US operation hosted their inaugural ‘Street Fest’ on New York’s popular Stone Street, with bars and restaurants contributing a percentage of their profits on ‘streetfest’ to support a programme of water development activities in Togo. The event netted in excess of $20,000.

e25,000 from a hugely successful Monster Raffle that they organised. In the Autumn the Combines 4 Charity group launched their own ‘charity farm’, a 100-acres enterprise in Meath which the members will farm voluntarily, with all profits from the enterprise going to support their designated charities.

In the United Kingdom we benefited for our third successive year from the annual ‘Big Give’ appeal, which allowed us to double to £80,000 contributions that were made by our supporters towards our work, in the lead up to Christmas.

Elsewhere, the trans-African charity cycle undertaken by Dublin accountant Paddy Berkery netted nearly e15,000, Donegal supporter Albert Doherty staged his popular Derry to Greencastle Charity Boat Race, and Summer Solstice ‘Yoga for Africa’ marathon was staged for its third successive year in Dublin. The National Dairy Council lent their support at the National Ploughing Championships, Self Help Africa continued to receive generous backing from community bodies such as the Skerries Sodo group in North Dublin and the Laois-Rongai Project, and we hosted more than 100 friends and supporters at our second annual Christmas charity lunch, in Dublin.

And in the Autumn our annual Harvest Appeal took place for its 13th year, on the theme ‘Fruits of the Earth’. The campaign attached the support of several hundred churches across the United Kingdom, and raised upwards of £20,000. Meanwhile, the support of high street shoppers for a range of new products – including soap and toilet roll, launched by Global Ethic’s One Foundation reaped a remarkable dividend for Self Help Africa, with more than £100,000 received to fund vegetable garden development, pit latrine construction and sanitation, and smallholder poultry enterprise development in Malawi.

Annual ReVIEW 2010

Charity giving has come under considerable pressure in the current global economic recession, yet Self Help Africa’s fundraising portfolio strengthened, and recorded growth in a number of key areas during the year.

Students across the country played their part too – with Clonkeen College, Dublin raising tens of thousands to support a school project in Kenya, and dozens of other school groups around the country organising fundraising events and activities to support our programmes during 2010.

The company is now selling toilet paper and handwash at Sainsburys, Morrisons and Co-Op, ‘One Egg’ brand at Tesco, One Vitamin Water at World Duty Free, and Snack Packs at World Duty Free. In Ireland Self Help Africa continues to be the designated overseas charity of the Irish Farmers Association, and met thousands of our rural supporters at the National Ploughing Championships, which took place in Ireland in the Autumn. During the year we again benefited from the efforts of the ‘Combines 4 Charity’ cereal farmers group, receiving



Self Help Africa

Annual ReVIEW 2010

Advocacy Campaigning and advocating in favour of small-holder farmers and rural communities in Africa has become a major new focus of attention for Self Help Africa, as it seeks to play a role in influencing policy formulation, funding, and attitudes and approaches to development and poverty eradication in sub-Saharan Africa. By collaborating with like-minded organisations, participating in development fora, and gathering examples of best practice both from within its own programmes and by learning from the practices of others, Self Help Africa has sought to build a platform from where experience and lessons learned can be utilized to advance a wider advocacy agenda. The efforts to influence and raise awareness of both the challenges, and the possible remedies that can be adopted are spread across a wide constituency – from major donor agencies, development specialists and policy makers on the one hand, to African farming communities, members of the general public, and students in the classroom on the other. During 2010 Self Help Africa successfully advanced this advocacy agenda in a number of areas.

Self Help Africa

• In Spring the organisation presented members of the European Union committee on development with copies of ‘Climate Frontline’ at a formal launch of the report in Brussels. A publication that highlights the stories of how ordinary Africans are already adapting to life on the frontline of climate change, the publication was a collaborative effort between Self Help Africa and a number of other European agencies. • Self Help Africa also participated with a number of UK based agencies in producing ‘Africa’s Smallholder Farmers: Approaches that Work for Viable Livelihoods’, which was formally launched by the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Overseas Development in London. • The organisation also hosted its first ever academic conference – an event, which was held as part of Ireland’s celebrations of ‘Africa Day’ that was hosted by University College Dublin’s School of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, and included amongst its speakers the co-winner of the Nobel Prize, Professor John Sweeney of NUI Maynooth. • Self Help Africa also collaborated with The Irish Times newspaper and with young journalist Ciara Kenny on the presentation of ‘A Village in Africa’, an innovative five-weeks long blog that was hosted by the national newspaper’s online edition, and which featured daily reports posted by the journalist on the lives, the issues and

the challenges affecting the rural community of Makwatata, Eastern Zambia, where she lived for the duration of the assignment. • In 2010 Self Help Africa also hosted a major workshop on the development of systems to improve farmer access to improved seed, in Ethiopia. Hundreds of representatives of farming bodies, the development sector and research institutions attended the event, which sought to promote approaches to local seed multiplication designed to improve production in rural areas. • In the schools sector a wide range of educational workshops and lectures were presented, new educational resources were produced, while students at St. Wolstan’s College, Celbridge, were the lead school in producing the second edition of Self Help Africa’s award-winning MDG books series ‘Twenty-Fifteen – Thoughts and Reflections on Universal Primary Education’. Meanwhile, Cork teenager Richard O’Shea became the fourth winner of the Irish Aid sponsored ‘Science for Development Award’ at the annual BT Young Scientists Exhibition.

“Self Help Africa is supporting a wide ranging programme of multi-annual rural development activities in SubSahara.“


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Annual ReVIEW 2010

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IRELAND Annefield House Dublin Road, Portlaoise, Co. Laois, Ireland Tel +353 (0) 578 694034 USA Self Help Africa Inc. 41 Union Square West, Suite 631 New York, NY 10003, USA Tel. +1 212 206 0847 UK Westgate House, Hills Lane, Shrewsbury SY1 1QU, UK Tel +44 (0) 1743 277170 ETHIOPIA PO Box 1204, Bole Road, Addis Ababa, Tel. +251 115 522313 ERITREA PO Box 9313, Asmara, Tel. +291 118 8382 Tel. +265 1750568 KENYA PO Box 2248 Code 20100, Nakuru, Tel. +254 O51 2212291

MALAWI PO Box B-495 Lilongwe, Tel. +265 1750568 UGANDA Plot 14 B, Off Naguru 2 Rd PO. Box 32249, Kampala, Tel. +256 414 286305 WEST AFRICA 12 PO Box 315, Ougadougou 12, Burkina Faso Tel. +226 50 36 89 60 ZAMBIA 181 Bishops Road, Kabulonga, PO. Box 37484, Lusaka Tel. +260 211 265384