City of Access - Realising the Walking and Cycling City

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The City of Access Realising the Walking and Cycling City

Shifting Gear Design Think Tank The London School of Architecture


Shifting Gear Design Think Tank Think Tank students: Joe Hicks Sebastian Maher Dominika Pilch Sam Pywell Elliott Rawlinson Emma Williams Think Tank Leaders: Petra Marko, Marko&Placemakers Steve Smith, Urban Narrative Think Tank Mentor: Cristina Gaidos, The London School of Architecture alumni Think Tank Sounding Board: Will Bradley, Principal Policy Officer, Active Travel, GLA Kathryn Timmins, Senior Project Officer, Regeneration, GLA George Warren, Project Manager, Climate Change Team, GLA © The London School of Architecture 2021


Contents

Part 1 - Building A Case

Part 2 - The City of Access

01 Introduction

06 Path to Progress

Realising the Walking and Cycling City The Vision 02 Methodology

City Scale Borough Scale Neighbourhood Scale 15 Minute City Concept 15 Minute Citizens 03 Why?

Air Pollution Public Health Climate Emergency What If? 04 How Did We Get Here? Timeline of Events The City of Mobility

05 What is Being Done?

London Policies Borough Strategy Cultural and Urban Design Precedents Visions of the Future

Future Assumptions Ambition Timeline

07 Realising the Walking and Cycling City Key Principles London Strategy Hackney Strategy Dalston Strategy Access on Demand App

08 Designing the Walking and Cycling City Contents of Drawings The Intensified City Street Life Reworking Infrastructure Repurposing Space

09 Expanding the Walking and Cycling City Scaling Up

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Executive Summary

“You never change things by fighting the existing reality. To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete.” - Buckminster Fuller 1

The City of Access outlines a radical alternative to the way we design our cities, prioritising active transport over cars. We are Shifting Gear, a design think tank at the London School of Architecture who are exploring how to realise the walking and cycling city. The following publication is the culmination of a fifteen-week design and research project, through which we have been aided by a sounding board made up of representatives from the Greater London Authority Good Growth team.

Through extensive research, we have discovered that the 20th century city has been shaped by the car, which has led to mobility between places being prioritised over access to the facilities required for daily life. As a consequence, the commercial logic of car use has distributed these facilities across wide urban geographies, destroying the intensity and attractiveness of metropolitan life in local neighbourhoods, particularly for non-car users. Our current over-dependency on the car is at the expense of people’s health, public space, and the environment. It is no longer acceptable for the pollution caused by cars to cause severe health problems or death, nor is it acceptable that the poorest sections of society are the worst affected. We believe that to address these urgent

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Executive Summary

1. R. Buckminster Fuller (St Martin’s Griifin 1982).


challenges and the existential threat of the climate crisis, we need to pursue radical alternatives to existing models. In addition to these, the COVID-19 crisis has challenged notions of how our cities are designed, from working patterns and commuting through to the essential needs of individual homes and our relationship with nature. We are now emerging into a radically transformed world and this provides us with a momentous opportunity to rethink how our cities work for us. During our work we have discovered much that is of merit currently being delivered by the city authorities. However, our research has revealed the urgent need for more radical change to address the social, economic and environmental issues outlined above. We have determined an undeniable need for an alternative approach to urban planning for the 21st century city. Therefore, we propose an alternative city model, one based on access not mobility and one based on people not cars. This will seek to reverse the damage caused to our cities over the last century and propose an exciting vision of the future. We will realise this across 3 key scales; the neighbourhood of Dalston, the borough of Hackney, and the city of London, applying a set of principles that can be replicated elsewhere to truly achieve the walking and cycling city.

Shifting Gear Think Tank proposes how to realise a walking and cycling city where: • Public space is for people and not for cars. • Quality of life is not pre-determined by the ill health of the surrounding environment. • Redistributed services serve local people within their local neighbourhoods. • Existing infrastructure is used more efficiently to facilitate easy access across the wider city and for intercity connections. • Neighbourhoods integrate working, living, play, learning and culture for all, within a dynamic, safe environment full of delight. • We can work within the ecological limits of the planet and repair the damage already done.

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The Team The Think Tank We are a team of six students from the London School of Architecture (LSA). We have been supported by Petra Marko of Marko and Placemakers, a city design and research consultancy, Steve Smith of Urban Narrative, an urban design consultancy and Cristina Gaidos, an alumni from the LSA.

Figure 1 Team Photo The Think Tank team From left to right: Petra Marko, Emma Williams, Joe Hicks, Sebastian Maher, Steve Smith, Dominika Pilch, Sam Pywell, Elliott Rawlinson.

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The Team


The Sounding Board The think tank has worked with a sounding board of representatives across the Greater London Authority (GLA). These include Will Bradley, Principal Policy Officer from the Active Travel team; Kathryn Timmins, Senior Project Officer from the Good Growth by

Design Team; and George Warren, Project Manager from the Climate Change Team. We have met with the sounding board at various stages throughout the project to help inform our proposals during their development, allowing us to test our ideas through a ‘real-world’ perspective.

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4

Figure 5

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Part 1- Building A Case



“Only a crisis actual or perceived - produces real change.” - Milton Friedman

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01 Introduction

Realising the walking and cycling city Cities around the world have experienced a radical transformation over the last century, as a result of prioritising the needs of cars over people - and London is no exception 2. Urban sprawl has led to our lives becoming increasingly fragmented, with essential services dispersed over vast distances. This means that citizens still rely on private modes of transport to navigate the city, due to the convenience and autonomy they provide us with. The Shifting Gear think tank proposes to turn this approach on its head by concentrating instead on the needs of people. This could be achieved by recalibrating the current hierarchy of movement, transforming major transport arteries, and using the principles of the 15-minute city to enable a shift in how people live and move around the city. This will be used as a prototype for a wider strategy that can be replicated along arterial routes within and beyond the city of London. Through the implementation of infrastructure that encourages active transport, we strive to create a city that is dynamic, safe and full of delight, helping to improve the health and wellbeing of citizens across the different scales of the city. The quality of life in cities is often pre-determined by infrastructure and infrastructural decisions made by planners and politicians, whose primary goal is to achieve minimum journey times and efficiency of routes. From the arrival of the first motor-vehicle in the UK in

1908, the space handed over to vehicles has reshaped the urban fabric so successfully that many of those who live in cities cannot imagine an environment without them 3. Charles Booth’s maps from the late 19th century, before the advent of the car, highlight that high streets were desirable places to live as many middle class families resided on them 4. Rapid development along main roads during the 20th century saw this completely change as London underwent the largest urban expansion in its history, and this has assisted in creating a polluted, noisy and harsh urban landscape 5. It is now the poorest sections of society that live in these areas, with a 2017 report finding that half of London’s most deprived areas exceed EU nitrogen dioxide limits, compared with only 2% of the wealthiest areas 6. It is time to rethink this outdated approach which currently impacts the poorest hardest, and set out a bold new vision for the future of our cities to create places centred around the wellbeing of people. “Only a crisis - actual or perceived produces real change. When that crisis occurs, the actions that are taken depend on the ideas that are lying around. That, I believe, is our basic function: to develop alternatives to existing policies, to keep them alive and available until the politically impossible becomes the politically inevitable.” - Milton Friedman 7 2. S Moss, “End of the car age: how cities are outgrowing the automobile”, in The Guardian, , 2015, <https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2015/apr/28/end-of-the-car-age-how-cities-outgrew-theautomobile> [accessed 8 March 2021] 3. “Model T: The First Car That Most People Could Afford to Buy”, in HISTORY, , 2021, <https://www.history. com/topics/inventions/model-t> [accessed 8 March 2021]. 4. C Booth, “Map | Charles Booth’s London”, in Booth.lse.ac.uk, , 2021, <https://booth.lse.ac.uk/map/14/0.1174/51.5064/100/0> [accessed 12 March 2021]. 5. R Flora & P Hudson, “The evolution of London: the city’s near-2,000 year history mapped”, in the


Realising the walking and cycling city Cities around the world have experienced a radical transformation over the last century, as a result of prioritising the needs of cars over people - and London is no exception 2. Urban sprawl has led to our lives becoming increasingly fragmented, with essential services dispersed over vast distances. This means that citizens still rely on private modes of transport to navigate the city, due to the convenience and autonomy they provide us with. The Shifting Gear think tank proposes to turn this approach on its head by concentrating instead on the needs of people. This could be achieved by recalibrating the current hierarchy of movement, transforming major transport arteries, and using the principles of the

Using the 15-minute city concept as a tool to enable a shift in how people live and move around the city.

Figure 6 15 minute cities plan Hackney Scale

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6. S Moss, “End of the car age: how cities are outgrowing the automobile”, in The Guardian, , 2015, <https:// www.theguardian.com/cities/2015/apr/28/end-of-the-car-age-how-cities-outgrew-the-automobile> [accessed 8 March 2021] 7. “Model T: The First Car That Most People Could Afford to Buy”, in HISTORY, , 2021, <https://www.history. com/topics/inventions/model-t> [accessed 8 March 2021]. 8. C Booth, “Map | Charles Booth’s London”, in Booth.lse.ac.uk, , 2021, <https://booth.lse.ac.uk/map/14/0.1174/51.5064/100/0> [accessed 12 March 2021].


The Vision

Our think tank proposes to reclaim major London roads for walking and cycling, radically improving how we live in the city.

15 minute cities Pedestrianised Roads Greening on top of rail lines

Figure 7. London designed to be a web of 15 minute cities

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The Vision Objective 1 - Access over Mobility Our daily lives in cities are dispersed amongst numerous places, which we travel to via multitudes of transport. Public transport networks continue to develop, facilitating new connections to different parts of the city; it is this ability to move freely through the city that makes urban life so exciting and diverse. However, it is the combination of dispersed city services with poor public transport connections in certain areas that increases the use of the car.

active or public transport, removing the need to make journeys by car. When a city has been designed around the car for centuries it is hard to imagine an alternative, yet the city has seen a glimpse of a more localised urban life due to the social restrictions in place during the COVID-19 pandemic. This has led to increases in active transport which have in turn led to dramatic reductions in emissions and more localised commercial models 9.

Combined with this, our cities have been planned around the car for the last century, allowing convenient and time-efficient mobility from point A to B. This has shaped the city of car-focused mobility, which has contributed to poor quality environments and pollution. Instead of having to travel long distances to access work, shops and day to day services, cities can be planned to make these services accessible via

The walking and cycling city will build upon successful existing transport networks, allowing greater connections across the city via sustainable means, whilst redistributing fragmented city services to better serve our local neighbourhoods. This will maximise the benefits of the current metropolitan lifestyle whilst simultaneously encouraging greater localisation of goods and services to serve the walking and cycling citizen.

Access

Not Mobility

Figure 8

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Figure 9

Part 1 | Introduction

10. ‘Covid-19 Lockdowns Have Improved Global Air Quality, Data Shows’ (the Guardian, 2021) <https:// www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/oct/08/covid-19-lockdowns-global-air-quality-india-london-uk> accessed 13 March 2021.


The Vision Objective 2 - People over Cars As the population of our cities grow, the demand for space increases, leading to housing shortages and increased demand for public services – as is currently the case in London. Yet, with road area currently accounting for half of public space in London, and with the GLA aiming to decrease the use of cars by 20% by 2041, we must rethink how public space is allocated in order to serve people, not cars, in the walking and cycling city. [10] [11] Car users and pedestrians are not mutually exclusive user groups. In order to achieve the walking and cycling city, active transport needs to be promoted as a healthy alternative to the convenience of the car. Through placing the emphasis on active transport modes in designing the walking and cycling city and providing incentives to users, we aim

to reach a point where the need to use a car evaporates as it no longer provides a viable means of transport compared to alternatives. By persuading a greater percentage of existing car users to use alternatives. We will be able to see the benefits a walking and cycling city has on the general wellbeing of the population, as people become more physically active and are able to enjoy increased access to safe, healthy and unpolluted public space.

People Figure 10

11. 'Road Length Statistics (RDL)' (GOV.UK, 2021) <https://www.gov.uk/government/statistical-data-sets/ road-length-statistics-rdl> accessed 13 March 2021. 12. Greater London Authority, ‘Mayor’s Transport Strategy’ (Greater London Authority 2018).

Not Cars Figure 11

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The Vision This will change everything Reimagining the mechanisms which have dictated urban design decisions over the past century will create a paradigm shift in the way we design our cities. It will create a ripple effect across all scales of the city, with consequences for all aspects of our urban lives. It will fundamentally change a city’s infrastructure, which will in turn revolutionise how we use and design our buildings and public spaces. This publication aims to imagine the walking and cycling city and assess the consequences it will have for architecture and urban design.

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Realising the walking and cycling city will change everything

Figure 14

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02 Methodology To achieve our stated objectives the publication will cover the following:

• In-depth research of the history of urban development in London, taking Dalston in the London Borough of Hackney as the primary study area.

• Speculative architectural designs which show the transformative social, economic, and environmental potential of realising the walking and cycling city, as part of an integrated vision for the future planning of central London.

• Research of relevant local and national government administrative policies.

• An application of the initiatives developed for the local study area to a larger area of central London.

• An appraisal of the current policy initiatives and projects directed towards improving conditions for walking, cycling and the wider environment.

• The preparation of a summary report of findings for use by local, city and national leaders and administrators to inform future-focused policy making.

• An exploration of a wide range of design options that build on, and go further than, currently defined initiatives. • Outlining a coherent medium-term vision for the transformation of the study areas, up to 2050. • Collation of qualitative and quantitative evidence in support of the think tank findings. • An exploration of options for the innovation and adaptation of systems, business, and spatial and utility infrastructures, in moving towards the walking and cycling city and realising the consequences of such changes for urban architecture.

The following pages introduce the extent of the different scales across the study area, and an explanation of why these were chosen to test the proposal.


City Scale Current condition London’s road network is formed of major arterial routes which had origins as Roman roads, connecting Londonium to wider Roman settlements in the United Kingdom.

Over time the sequential development of London from its beginnings within the City of London’s walls, has meant routes have developed around former agricultural boundaries at the cities edges, introducing an irregularity dissimilar to comprehensively planned gridded cities such as New York. As the medieval street grain at the centre struggled to adapt to increased car traffic in the 20th century, large motorway-style routes were created

in concentric rings around the city’s edges 12. The largest of these was the M25 which is sited at the edge of the Greater London boundary, forming a ring road and acts as a defined edge to the city to limit urban sprawl. Seen in the map is the former Old North Road, which is found on the historic path of the Roman road Ermine Street which connected London to York 13. This forms an important north-south connection in the city today and forms a bisecting route through the modern-day borough of Hackney, where it is now named Kingsland Road.

Borough of Hackney The Old North Road Figure 15. Kingsland Road, Hackney and London Map

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13. Peter Ackroyd, London (Vintage 2012). 14. ‘Ermine Street’ (Travelaboutbritain.com, 2021) <https://www.travelaboutbritain.com/routes/erminestreet. php> accessed 13 March 2021.


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Borough Scale Current Condition The borough of Hackney developed around the former town of Hackney and was formerly agricultural land that served the city. 14

In the south of the borough, at the intersection of the Old North Road with the city of London, is the former entrance into the city walls at Bishopsgate. This shows the importance of the Old North Road to London’s history. During the industrial revolution, Hackney became the centre of industry in London, and most of the changes in this period created the modern-day urban landscape, including the addition of the railways which now form the modern-day Overground network. 15

central London, Hackney does not have any stations on the London Underground network and has had to rely heavily on its bus connections and the Overground network. However, this unique condition has created above average active transport mode shares. In Hackney, 85% of commuters travel to work by active or public transport compared to 63% in London has a whole, with car ownership also falling in the borough. [16][17] It is due to these reasons that we are using the borough of Hackney to test the principles of the walking and cycling city.

The modern-day Hackney is a vibrant and multicultural place. Unlike the rest of

Figure 17

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Figure 18 15. ‘Hackney’S Heritage | Hackney Council’ (Hackney.gov.uk, 2021) <https://hackney.gov.uk/hackneyhistory> accessed 13 March 2021. 16. Ibid 17. Hackney Council, ‘Hackney Transport Strategy 2014-2024’ (Hackney Council 2014). 18. Greater London Authority, ‘Mayor’s Transport Strategy’ (Greater London Authority 2018).


Figure 19. Kingsland Road in the 15-minute city of Dalston compared to the context of Hackney map, 2021 The Old North Road

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Neighbourhood Scale Dalston focus area The area chosen as our neighbourhood scale is an area of approximately 500 hectares centred on the Dalston Kingsland overground station. This metropolitan centre of Dalston will form the area where our urban design and architectural proposals will be tested at a closer scale. The area is currently divided by the north-south Kingsland Road and the east-west connections of the Overground railway and Dalston Lane, which connects the area to the centre of Hackney. The modern-day urban centre of Dalston has evolved from a series of agricultural hamlets around Kingsland Road; these settlements were also found along former watercourses which were culverted during its industrialisation and now run underground. The largest of these was Hackney Brook, which ran from Islington through Dalston and Hackney until it joined the River Lea. 18 Dalston is currently a densely populated area of Hackney and has a lack of access to public green space compared with other areas in the borough. Combined with pollution along the arterial route of Kingsland Road, this makes the existing environment warrant the transformation proposed by the walking and cycling city.

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Dalston is currently a densely populated area of Hackney and has a lack of access to public green space compared with other areas in the borough.

19. 'London's Lost Rivers - The Hackney Brook' (London's Lost Rivers - Book and Walking Tours by Paul Talling, 2021) <https://www.londonslostrivers.com/hackney-brook.html> accessed 13 March 2021.


Hackney Downs Newington Green Kingsland Road Gillett Square

Ridley Road

Dalston Kingsland Station

De Beauvoir

Figure 20. Kingsland Road in the 15-minute city of Dalston, 2021

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Neighbourhood Scale Dalston focus area

Figure 21. Dalston Kingsland Station

Figure 22. Newington Green

Figure 23. Gillett Square

Figure 24. Hackney Downs

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Figure 25. Three Compasses Pub, Dalston

Figure 27. Ridley Road Market

Figure 26. Shacklewell

Figure 28. Rhodes Estate

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Neighbourhood Scale Kingsland Road

Figure 29. Roman Londinium, showing the Old North Road

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Kingsland Road

Ridley Road Market

Dalston Kingsland Station

Balls Pond Road

Figure 30. Kingsland Road 2021

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Neighbourhood Scale Kingsland Road Kingsland Road is a cramped and polluted space where pedestrians and vehicles fight for space. However, Dalston is also home to a vibrant community, including unique cultural amenities such as Ridley Road market and independent shops.

Figure 31. Gillett Square

Figure 32. Community Growing

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Figure 33. Ridley Road


Figure 34 . Cramped

Figure 36. Obstructive

Figure 35. Polluted

Figure 37. Dysfunctional

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Neighbourhood Scale Kingsland Road

Gillett Square

Dalston Kingsland Station

Ridley Road

East Elevation

K in g s la n d ro a d

Figure 38

Dalston Lane

Figure 40. Kingsland Road, existing urban fabric

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West Elevation Figure 39


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15 Minute City Concept The 15-minute city concept has been used as a tool in the Think Tank to help us realise the walking and cycling city.

The Colombian scientist Carlos Moreno first conceived the 15-minute city concept, before it was subsequently championed and implemented by Anne Hidalgo, the mayor of Paris, who has used the concept as the basis of her policies to restrict car use and encourage walking and cycling. 19 Simply put, it is the creation of city models where everything a resident needs is available within 15 minutes walking, cycling or public transport, hence removing the need to use cars. It imbues an importance on city planners to ensure that a resident’s job, food, entertainment, green space and healthcare can be located within their local area to remove the need to travel long distances to the currently dispersed facilities. The 15-minute city is also scalable, with more of the city being accessible depending on the mode of transport used. A cycling 15-minute city encompasses roughly double the area of a walking 15-minute city, with a 15-minute city via public transport larger still. This allows flexibility in how the city is planned to the principle, with city districts able to serve multiple 15-minute cities and retain the diversity of urban life and access to areas across the city. The original 15-minute city concept devised by Moreno had four key characteristics: 20 Proximity – Things must be close Diversity – Land uses must be mixed to

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provide a wide variety of urban amenities nearby Density – There must be enough people to support a diversity of businesses in a compact land area. Ubiquity – These neighbourhoods must be so common that they are available and affordable to anyone who wants to live in one. These principles are consistent with a number of great urban thinkers, such as Jane Jacobs in her work ‘The Death and Life of Great American Cities’ where she argued that the problems 20th century cities had encountered were due to the misunderstanding of the fundamental characteristic of a successful city: diversity of uses. 21 ‘Dull, inert cities, it is true, do contain the seeds of their own destruction and little else. But lively, diverse, intense cities contain the seeds of their own regeneration, with energy enough to carry over for problems and needs outside themselves.’ - Jane Jacobs 22

Through our prioritisation of access over mobility and the subsequent intensification of uses this will cause, we can see the antidote to the dispersed and dull 20th century city of mobility as the rich diversity that a 15-minute city will create. This will provide the neighbourhood with the density of uses sufficient to install a regenerative system to preserve the diversity and vibrant condition long into the future. 20. Patrick Sisson, 'What Is A 15-Minute City? - City Monitor' (City Monitor, 2021) <https://citymonitor.ai/ environment/what-is-a-15-minute-city> accessed 13 March 2021. 21. Carlos Moreno, ‘Transcript Of “The 15-Minute City”’ (Ted.com, 2021) <https://www.ted.com/talks/ carlos_moreno_the_15_minute_city/transcript#t-460702> accessed 13 March 2021. 22. Jane Jacobs, The Death And Life Of Great American Cities (Random House 2011). 23. Ibid


Figure 41. Anne Hildago, 15-minute city diagram

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15 Minute Citizens How do they feel about a radical shift away from cars? Social restrictions in place throughout this project have prevented us from meeting and interacting with the existing residents of Dalston, who will make up our client body for the walking and cycling neighbourhood. As an alternative, we have used imaginary characters to help guide the proposal. We have created a cross-section of the population, representing different needs, cultures and opinions, with the idea to have a balance of citizens who would be for and against our ideas. These characters will be used as a narrative tool throughout the rest of the publication to help explain our proposals from their perspectives and narrate their concerns.

I ride my bike to school with my sister. Making it less noisy and more colourful sounds really fun!

Amelia, 8

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I’m always walking to the shops so subsidising it would be fantastic. If the cars were off the road I might think about getting one of those electric bikes.

Derek, 70

Retired Postal Worker

I hate breathing in car exhaust on my way to work and getting sworn at by irresponsible drivers. I can’t wait for cars to be off the road.

Olive, 25

Software Engineer


I pay my road tax and I’m entitled to drive my car around the city. Not all of us want to put on lycra and ride our bikes to our shiny offices.

If they take cars away I’ll have to rely on public transport to get to gigs and it’s such a pain to carry all the gear.

John, 45

Estate Agent

Muhammed, 36 Musician

I’m worried that cycling will take over the roads and the car journeys I need to make will take forever. Farrah, 58 Local MP

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03 Why? This project comes at a critical time for public health and the environment. There are many pressing forces we need to address as architects and urban designers. The walking and cycling city will aim to propose solutions to some of these - as explained in this section.


Air Pollution In December of 2020, a coroner ruled in a landmark case that air pollution had contributed significantly to the death of Ella Kissi-Debrah, a 9-year-old girl living near one of London’s busiest roads. 23

This incredibly saddening case highlights the severity of the air pollution crisis we now face in London, and the urgency with which we must work to reverse it. Air pollution still causes at least 40,000 early deaths per year in the UK from lung and heart disease, and is a risk factor in a multitude of morbidities. 24 It is no longer reasonable or humane to allow this level of pollution to continue causing preventable illness or death in our population. Air pollution levels have been falling in London due to the addition of stringent policies on car use and polluting vehicles, this has seen the number of people living with illegal pollution levels fall by 94% since 2016. However, 99% of London is still above the safe particle pollution levels set by the World Health Organisation (WHO). 25 At a national level, action is also being taken to reduce emissions. The UK Government is committed to meeting the ban on new petrol and diesel car sales by 2030, which is the second most ambitious removal policy in the world bar Norway’s 2025 deadline. 26 It is clear this is a now a central issue for governments and we welcome the advances in recent years to address the urgency of the issue.

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However, it is a fact of the climate crisis that the issue has been left unchecked for too long, which has created the unsafe environment we now live in. Pollution levels in our cities were left to increase for a prolonged period over the 20th century, and it is now too late to prevent the deaths they will cause over the years it will take to reduce them – Unless we make radical changes. We believe that with the breadth of health problems caused by air pollution and the fact that it is those who are poorest who are disproportionately affected 27, we are facing a health and social injustice which must be treated with the same urgency being used to tackle the COVID-19 crisis. We can prevent deaths by radically decreasing the inhumane levels of air pollution we currently see.

Air pollution causes at least 40,000 early deaths per year in the UK 24. 'Air Pollution A Cause In Girl's Death, Coroner Rules In Landmark Case' (the Guardian, 2021) <https:// www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/dec/16/girls-death-contributed-to-by-air-pollution-coronerrules-in-landmark-case> accessed 14 March 2021. 25. ‘Air Pollution Falling In London But Millions Still Exposed’ (the Guardian, 2021) <https://www.theguardian. com/environment/2019/apr/01/air-pollution-falling-london-millions-still-exposed> accessed 14 March 2021. 26. ‘‘Dramatic’ Plunge In London Air Pollution Since 2016, Report Finds’ (the Guardian, 2021) <https://www.


Figure 42

Figure 43

Figure 44

Articles by The Times and The Guardian between in December 2020 and March 2021

theguardian.com/environment/2020/oct/03/dramatic-plunge-in-london-air-pollution-since-2016-reportfinds> accessed 14 March 2021. 27. ‘Ban On New Petrol And Diesel Cars In UK From 2030 Under PM’s Green Plan’ (BBC News, 2021) <https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-54981425> accessed 14 March 2021. 28. ‘Europe’s Most Deprived Areas ‘Hit Hardest By Air Pollution’ (the Guardian, 2021) <https://www. theguardian.com/environment/2019/feb/04/europes-most-deprived-areas-hit-hardest-by-air-pollution> accessed 13 March 2021.

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Air Pollution Pollution levels in London and Dalston Every member of society has the right to live in a safe environment, and in order to facilitate this we must shift away from the use of polluting vehicles. Figure (something) shows a map of air pollution levels in London, with the WHO safe limit marked on the scale. This shows that 99% of Central London is above the safe limit 28, and that its main roads far exceed safe levels of pollution – with Kingsland Road providing an unfortunate example.

99% of Central London is above the safe limit of pollution

Figure 45. GLA and TFL Air Quality, London pollution map,

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29. ‘‘Dramatic’ Plunge In London Air Pollution Since 2016, Report Finds’ (the Guardian, 2021) <https://www. theguardian.com/environment/2020/oct/03/dramatic-plunge-in-london-air-pollution-since-2016-reportfinds> accessed 14 March 2021


Figure 46. Air pollution data overlayed on Kingsland Road

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Public Health We currently face an inactivity and obesity crisis in the UK, with 4 in 10 adults so immobile they risk their longterm health. 29 The increase in physical activity that a walking and cycling city could provide would offer solutions to the ‘ongoing pandemic’ of inactivity and obesity. 30 Although levels of walking and cycling have increased during the Covid-19 pandemic, Sport England have subsequently found that overall activity levels fell for both adults and children over this period. 31 The cost of physical inactivity to public services in the UK is immense. It is estimated to cost the NHS £1 billion per year, with indirect costs of £8.2 billion. 32 The negative impact that the car’s convenience has had on our lifestyle is clear to see, and by increasing walking and cycling, the government could save billions of pounds to spend on alternative initiatives. This money could also be used as a subsidiary to incentivise active transport and dissuade people from using their cars.

We currently face an inactivity and obesity crisis in the UK, with 4 in 10 adults so immobile they risk their long-term health. 29

In order to tackle the health emergency caused by COVID-19, there has been an urgent and rapid response from governments. We are arguing for a similar urgency in tackling the health crisis caused by physical inactivity; if we walked and cycled more, we can help the NHS, and ultimately save lives.

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30. '‘Inactivity Is An Ongoing Pandemic’: The Life-Saving Impact Of Moving Your Body' (the Guardian, 2021) <https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2021/feb/06/inactivity-is-an-ongoing-pandemic-the-lifesaving-impact-of-moving-your-body> accessed 14 March 2021. 31. Ibid 32. Ibid 33. Department for Transport, ‘Gear Change: A Bold Vision For Cycling And Walking’ (Department for Transport 2020).


Figure 48. London underground campaigns

Figure 49 Free cycling online course during pandemic

Figure 47

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Climate Emergency In 2019, the UK declared a climate and environment emergency, passing legislation which commits to achieving net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. 33 Transport is the largest source of carbon emissions in the UK, accounting for 34% in 2019, with the vast majority of transport emissions coming from the roads. 34 The extent of the damage being done to the planet by our vehicles is becoming increasingly clear. But through implementing the walking and cycling city we can prevent further damage being done. The main way the UK is affected by the climate crisis is through increased extreme weather events. The increase in temperature each summer is currently leading to 900 extra deaths a year in England, and our cities must adapt to create safer environments that mitigate against extreme heat. 35 As explained previously, 50% of our public space is made up of road area, which currently absorbs this extra heat and warms our urban areas disproportionately to rural ones. This surface is also impervious to water and increases surface runoff, reduing the ability to remove rainfall quick enough and leading to flash flooding events. It is clear the 20th century city is not designed to mitigate against the unpredictable environmental conditions it is creating. “We face so many overlapping and intersecting crises that we can’t afford to fix them one at a time. We need integrated solutions, solutions

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that radically bring down emissions while creating huge numbers of good, unionized jobs and delivering meaningful justice to those who have been most abused and excluded under the current extractive economy.”- Naomi Klein 36 In her book ‘On Fire,’ Naomi Klein sets out the case for a Green New Deal to revolutionise national policy, and use the full force of the state to tackle the climate crisis. We believe a walking and cycling city should form a key part of a future Green New Deal in this country. A walking and cycling city is an integrated solution to this crisis. It will reduce emissions from transport drastically, with the phasing out of cars creating green jobs in efficient and sustainable new modes of transport. It will also lead to the creation of new industries which focus on reuse and upcycling models – repurposing the outdated transport infrastructure to provide social, economic, and environmental benefits.

Figure 50

34. 'UK Becomes First Major Economy To Pass Net Zero Emissions Law' (GOV.UK, 2021) <https://www.gov. uk/government/news/uk-becomes-first-major-economy-to-pass-net-zero-emissions-law> accessed 14 March 2021. 35. ‘Provisional UK Greenhouse Gas Emissions National Statistics - Data.Gov.Uk’ (Data.gov.uk, 2021) <https://data.gov.uk/dataset/9a1e58e5-d1b6-457d-a414-335ca546d52c/provisional-uk-greenhousegas-emissions-national-statistics> accessed 14 March 2021.


Rail

Buses <1%1% Other 2%

Transport

34%

Transports contribution to UK C02 Emissions

Car 56%

HGVs

Split of C02 Emissions from Transport

15%

Vans 15%

Reduction 3% Reduction 62% Reduction in emissions from Energy since 1990

Reduction in emissions from Transport since 1990

Figure 51. Graphs of transport emissions 36. Damian Carrington, ‘Heatwaves In 2019 Led To Almost 900 Extra Deaths In England’ (the Guardian, 2021) <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jan/07/heatwaves-in-2019-led-to-almost-900-extradeaths-in-england> accessed 14 March 2021. 37. Naomi Klein, On Fire (Simon & Schuster 2019)

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What If? Space currently devoted to the car Space currently devoted to the car could be used in different ways The 6.8 million car parking spaces in London equate to a total area of 8,000 hectares, accounting for 5% of the city. This equates to the size of Westminster, Camden, Islington, City of London and Hackney combined. In a walking and cycling city we would aim to drastically reduce this figure, and as a thought exercise we have looked at how that combined area could better serve the residents of a future walking and cycling city.

Figure 52. Car parking area in London

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Part 1 | Why?

The space in the city taken up by parked cars equates to 5% of London’s total land area. 37

38. WSP, Parsons Brinckerhoff, Farrells, 'Making Better Places: Autonomous Vehicles And Future Opportunities' (WSP, Parsons Brinckerhoff 2016). 39. ‘Households On Local Authority Waiting List, Borough – London Datastore’ (Data.london.gov.uk, 2021) <https://data.london.gov.uk/dataset/households-local-authority-waiting-list-borough 40. Greater London Authority, ‘The Draft London Plan 2017 - Topic Paper Housing Density’ (Greater London Authority 2017). 41. ‘How Many People Are Homeless In The UK? And What Can You Do About It?’ (The Big Issue, 2021)


1,600,000 Homes

246,575 people are currently on London’s social housing waiting list 38, assuming an average density of 200 units per hectare, which is the GLA’s lower limit for an ‘urban’ density 39, this would yield 1,600,000 homes. This could meet the current social housing waiting list roughly 6 times, as well as house the UK’s total number of homeless people 40. 12,000,000 Trees

Assuming a planting density of 1500 trees per hectare 41, this would yield 12,000,000 trees, or a woodland three times the size of Epping Forest 42. This could sequester vast amounts of the existing emissions in the air over time.

12,000,000 Trees

<https://www.bigissue.com/latest/social-activism/how-many-people-are-homeless-in-the-uk-and-whatcan-you-do-about-it/#:~:text=How%20many%20people%20are%20homelessness,figures%20for%20 Scotland%20and%20Wales.> accessed 14 March 2021. 42. ‘How Many Trees Can Be Planted Per Hectare? | NHS Forest’ (Nhsforest.org, 2021) <https://nhsforest. org/how-many-trees-can-be-planted-hectare#:~:text=As%20many%20as%20you%20want,to%20 2500%20trees%20per%20hectare.> accessed 14 March 2021. 43. ‘Epping Forest - Forest In Loughton, Epping Forest - Epping Forest’ (Visiteppingforest.org, 2021) <http:// www.visiteppingforest.org/things-to-do/epping-forest-p1389551> accessed 14 March 2021.

1,600,000 Homes

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Part 1 | How Did We Get Here?


04 How Did We Get Here? To consider the future walking and cycling city, we must analyse the history of movement in our cities to ensure we do not make the same mistakes.

This chapter will explore how the current City of Mobility has been created and the current consequences it has for people’s lives in the city.


Timeline of Events Bike and pedestrian

Figure 53

1500s

1600s

Through the Middle Ages London’s streets served as open sewers, running alongside footpaths in the city and into the River Thames. This, along with high density and overcrowding, led to multiple outbreaks of disease.

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Figure 54

Figure 55

Figure 56

1666

1671

1700s

1750

The Great Fire of London destroyed a third of the city of London in 1666. 43 The event highlighted the need for regulation in the design of the city and improvements to infrastructure.

The Act for Paving and Cleansing the Streets was passed, requiring all roads to be paved and cesspools to be created under houses which led into the Thames. 44

Few people walked for pleasure and the lack of street lighting meant streets were dangerous places. Therefore, the wealthy employed ‘Link Boys’, or torchbearers to light the way. 45

Westminster Bridge is completed and is the first bridge to be constructed over the Thames since the Romans. This expands pedestrian routes into the south of London. 46

Part 1 | How Did We Get Here?


Figure 57

Figure 58

Figure 59

1756

1766

1793

The New Road formed London’s first bypass road and is now part of Euston Road. It was a drover’s road to take livestock to Smithfield Market. London’s arterial roads were initially designed for these purposes. 47

London Paving and Lighting Act. 48 Increases in private horse powered transportation had led to streets becoming dirty. This required that streets and pavements be cleansed and swept regularly.

There were 50,000 prostitutes in London. 49 Walking the street was enough for a woman to be considered a prostitute one of the main occupations that gave women the freedom to be on the street.

1800s

Figure 60

1823 At this point there were 40,000 gas streetlamps, across 215 miles of streets. The city became noteworthy for the brightness of its streets, shopfronts, and interiors at night compared to other European cities. 51

1817 A German baron named Karl von Drais made the first major development in cycling when he created a steerable, two-wheeled contraption in 1817. 50

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Timeline of Events Bike, car and pedestrian

Figure 61

Figure 62

1848

1863

1866

The Public Health Act became law. This led to: improved drainage; the provision of sewers; the removal of refuse from houses and the provision of clean drinking water. This law still forms the basis of public health measures today. 52

The London Underground opens, with the first line: the Metropolitan Line running from Farringdon to Paddington. 53

Most of London is now connected to a sewer network designed by Joseph Bazalgette and radically improving public health. 54

1850 Inventors in the UK continued to develop forms of human powered transport, through “tricycles” or “quadracycles”. But none of these achieved much popularity

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Part 1 | How Did We Get Here?

Figure 63

1868 London was the site of the world’s first traffic lights, installed at the crossroads of Bridge, Great George, and Parliament Streets outside the Houses of Parliament. 55

1870 One of these iterations became popular in the UK with the front wheel becoming larger, this would come to be called a Penny Farthing. 56

Figure 64

1894 Southwark Bridge, Waterloo Bridge, Hungerford Bridge, Tower Bridge, Lambeth Bridge, Vauxhall Bridge, Victoria Bridge, Wandsworth Bridge were all built over the 1800s to 1894 58.

1890 The invention of the “safety bicycle”, whose gear ratios allowed smaller wheels without a concurrent loss of speed. Following this, the inflatable bicycle tire was also invented. 57


Figure 65

1900s 1907 Addition of four new London Underground lines between the start of the 1900s and 1907 59.

Figure 66

1915

1941

Zeppelin raids target London during World War One, making using the streets a dangerous activity again. 61

10th - 11th May saw the worst bombing raid on the city with the area of destruction double that of the Great Fire of London. 63

1900s

1900s

Figure 67

1952 The great smog of London kills 12,000 people in one year. The dramatic increase in car use and subsequent rises in pollution are now a public health crisis. 66

1934

1948

London’s first cycle track was introduced in 1934, between Hanger Lane and Greenford. Segregation was opposed by cycling organisations at the time, fearing loss of rights on the highway. 62

Bicycle routes were integrated into the new towns built at this time, with cycle tracks built near important distributor roads. This was informed by Ebenezer Howard’s Garden City movement. 65

1908 The Model T Ford arrives in the UK from the USA. 60

1947 Horse drawn Hackney Carriages are replaced with vehicle taxis across the city. 64

Figure 68

1960

1970

There are now 1.5 million private vehicles registered in the capital showing the increased popularity of private automotive transport. 67

The ringway road network begins to be built over London. This was a series of concentric motorway style elevated routes to alleviate congestion. 68

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Timeline of Events Bike, car and pedestrian

Figure 69

Figure 70

Figure 71

2000s

2005

Ken Livingstone becomes the first elected mayor of London and sets a target of reaching a 400% increase in walking and cycling spending. 71

7th July London Bombings force the closure of tube lines which sees commuters move to bicycles and walking for their commute. For some this was seen as a permanent shift to a safer method of transport. 72

1999

2000s

2008

The Green Commute Initiative is formed, marking the start of the ‘Cycle to Work’ scheme. 70

1990 London meets peak car usage and private car ownership begins to fall. 69

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Some industry analysts see signs of surging bicycle popularity with suggestions this was due to the financial crisis. 73

2000s

2003 The congestion charging zone comes into operation. The use of cars in the city centre is now controlled.

Figure 72


Figure 73

2010 Cycle Superhighway 3 and 7 open - expanding the segregated bicycle lanes in the capital. In the same year, 6,000 bicycles became available for short-term rental from TfL under the Barclays Cycle Hire scheme. [74][75]

Figure 74

Figure 75

2012

2020

The British press cite 2012 as a bike boom, fuelled by the successes that summer of UK cyclists in the London Olympics and Tour de France. 76

During the COVID-19 pandemic, people used bicycles as an alternative to public transport that allows for distancing and minimizes infection risk. 77 We are looking to build on this increase in our think tank.

2019 The ultra-low emission zone expands to include the area bounded by the North - South Circular charging vehicles based on their envirionmental credentials.

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The City of Mobility Space in the city In Dalston, roads and pavements make up 92% of all public space As we have found through historical analysis, our city is now one based on mobility. The city is designed for the car and this impacts all aspects of our lives. However, the city of mobility is also hugely inefficient in its use of space, as seen in the diagrams on this page. The city of access can make efficient use of the space formerly taken up by cars, and still provide us with net increases in our public space, purely by using forms of transport that take up less area. This could revolutionise the design of localities currently without access to adequate green space, such as Dalston.

In Dalston, roads and pavements make up 92% of all public space* *Based on the 100 ha of Dalston.

Figure 76. Space taken up 60 people using various modes of transport,

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Part 1 | How Did We Get Here?


Public space Private space Green space Figure 77. Amount of public space in Dalston

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The City of Mobility Perception of cycle safety on our streets Half of British adults believe their local roads are too dangerous to cycle on. 78 The current barriers to cycling are clear – the number of cars on the roads has created dangerous levels of pollution which can pose a health risk to cyclists. The risk of collision also forms a point of concern, with larger vehicles posing a threat to the relatively ill protected cyclist. Therefore, to increase rates of cycling and persuade people who currently perceive it as too dangerous, we need to reduce the amount of cars on the road in some places, and provide adequate segregated routes in others.

cultural barriers to women, ethnic minorities, and disadvantaged groups of society. A report by the charity Sustrans found that 55% of people from ethnic minority groups who don’t currently cycle would like to start, but 33% of them were not confident in their cycling skills. 79 Transport for London (TFL) are determined to remove these barriers and are currently rebranding the misleading Cycle Superhighways to Cycleways, as well as pursuing a £2 million training plan for cycling skills to democratise access to cycling. [80][81]

The second main barrier is an anecdotal perception that cycling is an elitist and expensive activity typically made up of white males. This can provide harmful

55%

45%

39%

61%

Figure 78. Pie charts showing how people in different age groups view cycling.

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79. 'On Your Bike. Cycle Sales Boom During Olympics.' (ITV News, 2021) <https://www.itv.com/news/london/ update/2012-08-02/on-your-bike-cycle-sales-boom-during-olympics/> accessed 8 March 2021. 80. ‘New Report Shows Large Unmet Demand For Cycling From Ethnic Minority And Disadvantaged Groups’ (Sustrans, 2021) <https://www.sustrans.org.uk/our-blog/news/2020/july/new-report-shows-largeunmet-demand-for-cycling-from-ethnic-minority-and-disadvantaged-groups> accessed 14 March 2021. 81. Ross Lydall, ‘Cycle Superhighways Rebranded To Banish The Image Of Lycra Louts’ (Standard.co.uk,


Figure 79. Cyclists on a London bridge 2018) <https://www.standard.co.uk/news/transport/cycle-superhighways-rebranded-to-banish-the-imageof-lycra-louts-a4019251.html> accessed 8 March 2021. 82. ‘Mayor Launches First Online Cycle Training Course For Londoners’ (London City Hall, 2021) <https://www.london.gov.uk/press-releases/mayoral/mayor-launches-first-online-cycle-trainingcourse#:~:text=TfL%20has%20also%20secured%20%C2%A3,Skills%20training%20from%20August%20 onwards.> accessed 14 March 2021.

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Part 1 | What is Being Done?


05 What is Being Done? There are multiple policies currently being implemented at City, Borough and Neighbourhood-scale which will influence our design for the walking and cycling city. This chapter highlights the relevant policies that can help to achieve our vision, and includes precedents that have helped to shape our proposal.


London Policies As explained previously, the promotion of major walking and cycling initiatives has increased in response to the environmental and health crises. Governments have become more committed to promoting walking and cycling, in order to create healthier and safer places across the city. The following policies have been the most relevant to our think tank. Gear Change – A Bold Vision for Cycling and Walking Department for Transport, 2020

This national policy provides £2 billion funding over the next 5 years and aims to encourage a six-fold increase in dedicated walking and cycling initiatives. It will create more Low Traffic Neighbourhoods (LTNs), which restrict residential roads to one-way access only, and increase the current number of school streets. The policy’s ultimate vision for the UK is for half of all journeys in towns and cities to be walked or cycled by 2030. 82

minutes of active travel a day, ultimately aiming to reach a zero-pollution London transport system by 2050. 83 Making London Child Friendly

Greater London Authority, Good Growth by Design Team, 2019 84 This report outlines design principles which aim to make places and streets that work for young people in London. It aims to provide children and young people with a safe public realm, which encourages independent mobility within their local neighbourhoods. It argues that by designing safe environments in our cities for all ages, we can create inclusive environments which foster children’s social development.

Mayor’s Transport Strategy

Greater London Authority, 2018

This forms the GLA’s primary policy for London’s transport system. Its main aim is for 80% of trips to be made by walking, cycling or public transport by 2041, with these currently forming 60% of all trips. In addition, it promotes the Healthy Streets agenda, a set of principles which create safe and sustainable streets in the city. Alongside these, it sets a target for all Londoners to participate in at least 20

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Part 1 | What is Being Done?

83. Department for Transport, 'Gear Change: A Bold Vision For Cycling And Walking' (Department for Transport 2020). 84. Greater London Authority, ‘Mayor’s Transport Strategy’ (Greater London Authority 2018). 85. Greater London Authority, Good Growth by Design, ‘Making London Child Friendly’ (Greater London Authority 2019).


batch 1

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systrategy document, 2041. g and cycling’ is used nd-to-end fully active soughout strategy document, this strategy . Most of these are document, g and cycling’ iscycling’ used term ‘walking and d, but the term is used is used nd-to-end fully active a range of end-to-end fully active made by Figure wheelchair 81 des of travel. Mostare of these are . Most of these oter, rollerblades and ked or cycled, but the term is used d, but the term is used active mobility. The term nclude trips made by wheelchair made by wheelchair oalso all by forms of cycling scooter, rollerblades and oter, rollerblades and ilar forms of active mobility. The term made using tricycles, active mobility. The term refers to all forms of cycling dling’ other adapted cycles, to all forms of cycling uding trips made using tricycles, made using d-cycles and tricycles, other adapted cycles, de-bikes. other adapted cycles,

FIGURE 2: AND MODE SHARE 2015, CURRENT EXPECTED MODEAND SHARE, 2015 AND 2041 2041 (EXPECTED) FIGURE 2: AND MODE SHARE 2015, CURRENT EXPECTED MODEAND SHARE, 2015 AND 2041 2041 (EXPECTED)

37%FIGURE 2: AND MODE SHARE 2015, CURRENT EXPECTED MODEAND SHARE, 2015 AND 2041 2041 (EXPECTED)

37%

2015

26.7 million 2015 daily trips

37%

26.7 million 2015

26.7 million daily trips

63%

Reduced car dependency in 2041 means less car parking needed 20%

63%

20%

20%

2041

33 million 2041 2041 daily trips

million 3333million daily trips daily trips

80% 80%

Walking, cycling & public transport

Walking, cycling & public transport

Figure 82

63%

daily trips

80%

Car, taxi and private hire vehicle Car, taxi and private hire vehicle

Walking, cycling & Car, taxi and private public transport vehicle Figure 83. Pie charts showing thehire vision for active transport in London in 2041, from Mayor’s Transport Strategy

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‘ ‘i io ‘T L o is o oL o Lo o t oo

ot tr


Borough Strategy Hackney council strategy As explained in chapter 2, Hackney has above average levels of active transport use compared with London as a whole. It also has lower levels of car ownership and subsequent use. 85 Therefore, Hackney has an ambitious walking and cycling agenda, which aims to build upon its existing progress towards increased active transport. The current Hackney council strategy (shown opposite) is to turn local access roads into low traffic neighbourhoods, to decrease car use in residential streets and reduce ‘rat-running’. Arterial routes in Hackney, such as Kingsland Road, are seen as essential to facilitating efficient movement through the city and therefore cars face no restrictions.

Figure 84

The current Hackney Council transport strategy is leaving the major roads until last. However, our analysis has proven that these are the most polluted, and typically house the poorest sections of society. 86 In this think tank we want to change the current emphases in walking and cycling policies. We believe by focusing on restricting car access to major roads first, we can make a significant step towards a walking and cycling city.

Figure 85

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Part 1 | What is Being Done?

86. Hackney Council, 'Hackney Transport Strategy 2014-2024' (Hackney Council 2014). 87. ‘Europe’s Most Deprived Areas ‘Hit Hardest By Air Pollution’ (the Guardian, 2021) <https://www. theguardian.com/environment/2019/feb/04/europes-most-deprived-areas-hit-hardest-by-air-pollution> accessed 13 March 2021.


Arterial Routes Connector Routes Local Access Routes Figure 86. Hackney Council road strategy

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Cultural and Urban Design Precedents Car free London

Figure 87

London’s Car Free Day

London Car Free Day sees roads closed in central London and performances and activities filling the streets. It is a day to put people first on London’s streets. The level of participation shows the desire of people to reclaim these spaces.

Figure 89

Extinction Rebellion Pink Ship

In April, 2019, Extinction Rebellion used a pink boat, parked on Oxford Street, as a stage for their environmental protest

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Part 1 | What is Being Done?

Figure 88

Summer Street, Regents Street

Summer Streets is an event which removes cars from Regent Street every Sunday to allow the space to be used for activities, entertainment, food and drink. It is a commercial boost for business in the area.

Figure 90

London Marathon

The London Marathon is a mass participation event occurring annually in London which closes several roads in the capital, and generates an enormous amount of donations to charities.


Figure 91

Mini Holland Walthamstow London

Mayor’s Healthy Streets Approach and is aimed specifically at outer London boroughs where residents are more cardependent than inner London.

Figure 93

River Lea Towpath

River Lea Towpath is a loved and cherished space that draws people all year round. Not only it provides a link from Cheshunt to Greenwich available to people walking and cycling but also is a leisure destination.

Figure 92

Regents Canal

The Regents Canal is an extremely popular walking route which provides a connection between areas in North London, from Paddington to the River Thames.

Figure 94

Cycleways

Will Norman, the Mayor’s walking and cycling commissioner, said there was a need to rebrand cycling infrastructure to attract more people to get on their bikes and avoid causing undue alarm to others

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Cultural and Urban Design Precedents Go Dutch In the 1960s the Netherlands followed a similar pattern of growth to many other Western countries – there were many cars and other motor vehicles on the roads. However, car use in the Netherlands peaked in 1972, much earlier than in London; in that year, 400 children died in traffic accidents. This loss led to a number of social protests of great magnitude, and ultimately dissuaded widespread car use. The largest and most notorious of this was ‘Stop the Kindermoord’ (‘stop the child murder’). This trend was further accelerated due to fuel costs associated with the 1973 oil crisis, with the Netherlands now seen by the rest of the world as a cycling Mecca. 87 The diagrams on this page present the extent to which existing commuters in Hackney are likely to commute via cycling. Compared with the rest of

Figure 95. Existing propensity to cycle in Hackney

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Part 1 | What is Being Done?

London, Hackney shows a greater percentage of such commuters. However, the diagram on the right shows what would happen if attitudes to cycling were to change to current Dutch levels. This shows the amount of improvement possible if Hackney were to ‘Go Dutch’.

This data suggests that Hackney has the potential to ‘Go Dutch’. 88

Figure 96. Proposed propensity to cycle in Hackney

88. 'Stop De Kindermoord – BICYCLE DUTCH' (BICYCLE DUTCH, 2021) <https://bicycledutch.wordpress. com/2013/12/12/amsterdam-children-fighting-cars-in-1972/> accessed 8 March 2021. 89. Ibid


Figure 97

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Visions of the Future Alternative realities Before setting out our own alternative reality, we looked back at past visions of the future to inspire our own.

Figure 98

A Message From the Future

The Green New Deal is a call for public policy to address the climate emergency, as well as other pressing social issues, such as economic inequality. In recent years it has significant support, notably from the European Union.

Figure 99 In 1962 this Italian magazine published this vision of the future of urban transport, as a response to the problem of grid-lock

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Part 1 | What is Being Done?

Figure 100 They were responding to a challenge of their time and their vision now seems strange. It illustrates the difficulty of planning for the long-term future.


Figure 101

VeloCity

VeloCity is a strategic approach to growth and placemaking, centred on a re-imagining of the village for the 21st century developed by a team of industry experts.

Figure 103

Fleet Street Pedestrianisation, concept by WATG

Figure 102

Heatherwick’s Garden Bridge

Aimed to make communiting safer, easier and more enjoyable. The scheme was scrapped in 2017 for economic reasons.

Figure 104

Fosters+Partners’ SkyCycle

proposes elevated cycle routes above existing railways throughout the city.

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Part 2 - The Walking and Cycling Cit


ty


The Walking and Cycling City In this section we will outline the consequences of this proposal on the architecture and urban design of London. The following page provides a high-level summary of our proposals and our position on the future of transport in the walking and cycling city. Our position on the future of transport: We believe that for the reasons outlined in Part 1, the car cannot be the primary mode of transport in the City of Access.

Instead, we are proposing the primary mode of transport will be walking and cycling. We understand that the advances in private transportation made during the City of Mobility have brought huge benefits for people in their day to day lives, we also understand that the car has brought independent mobility to people who themselves have reduced mobility. We understand we cannot remove cars completely from our cities, there are certain aspects of their use that provide essential city services for which there are no current alternatives, as well as user groups who rely on them due to reduced mobility and health conditions. These may be developed in the future but for now we are assuming that for these essential purposes, fully electric vehicles will be used. As discovered through our extensive research the car has created huge

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harm in our cities and we must create a new mobility system which provides a new transport model which is just as convenient. Therefore, for the rest of the population, we are envisaging that by 2050 the city of access and expansion of existing public transport networks will remove the need for the private ownership of cars. This is an approach currently being pursued in Helsinki, with the city aiming to make the need to use cars pointless, due to the efficiency of public transport and the provision of safe routes for walking and cycling. 89 In the next section we aim to show the benefits of the walking and cycling city and outline a path to how we can create a viable alternative future for our cities, without the car. City Scale – London:

We are proposing to reclaim major arterial routes within inner London for walking and cycling. These will be within an area bounded by the current North-South Circular and will exist as the primary active transport distributors for the city, with secondary and tertiary routes connecting to other parts of the city via public transport. Borough Scale – Hackney:

We are proposing to reclaim Kingsland Road for walking and cycling.

90. 'Helsinki's Ambitious Plan To Make Car Ownership Pointless In 10 Years' (the Guardian, 2021) <https:// www.theguardian.com/cities/2014/jul/10/helsinki-shared-public-transport-plan-car-ownership-pointless> accessed 14 March 2021.


The current north-south connecting route will form part of the first reclaimed route of the city: The Old North Road from Tottenham to Clapham and serve a series of walking 15-minute cities along its route. Neighbourhood Scale – Dalston:

We will create a new walking 15-minute city centred on Dalston Kingsland Overground station and show the architectural and urban design characteristics of the walking and cycling city along Kingsland Road. At this scale we will outline how the new movement hierarchy will radically alter the existing urban condition and demonstrate potentials for how the space formerly used by cars can be used to serve the local people of Dalston.

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Part 2 | Path to Progress


06 Path to Progress The path to progress establishes how the walking and cycling city will be realised.

Taking into consideration our assumptions of the future and our ambitions for the project, we have established a timeline towards our 2050 vision of achieving the walking and cycling city. This sets out an example of how the walking and cycling city will unfold within the context of the city’s wider development, at the scales outlined in the methodology.


Future Assumptions In order to realise our vision, we have made a number of future assumptions centred around four pillars of transport, work, life and health. We imagine in this future world there will be:

Transport

A centralised mobility system which oversees access to different forms of transport, with incentives provided for active transport. An expanded public transport system, with routes extending access to currently poorly connected places in the city. A new fleet of efficiently sized electric automobiles, which are used to replace existing privately owned vehicles. 80

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Work

A shift to more flexible forms of working, with increases in home working. A focus on providing jobs within the 15-minute city for most residents. The creation of new industries which serve the way of life in a 15-minute city and aid in the transition towards a green economy.


Life

A shift towards localised living, with greater access to shared amenities and services, facilitating closer relationships with neighbours. Co-housing and communal living growing in popularity as resources across the 15-minute city become shared. A slower pace of life within residential areas, with vibrant and diverse metropolitan life in urban centres.

Health

Greater access to public green space, and a closer relationship with nature. More localised healthcare models with services accessible from home if necessary. Those with reduced mobility and relevant health conditions being prioritised for the use of private transportation.

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Ambition The path to the walking and cycling city We believe that if our proposal to pedestrianise Kingsland Road were to go ahead, Hackney could reach a 95% share in active transport over the next 30 years. We have set out a path to progress to imagine a future where our vision is realised through reaching a particular active transport threshold. This is defined by how much people walk or cycle over driving or taking public transport.

This creates a quantifiable goal for our think tank to achieve, using data to inform the feasibility of our proposal. Starting with Greater London, which had an active transport share of 26% in 2015 (half as many active trips as Hackney), we can make a rough projection of around 35% in 2050, assuming the rate of increase is consistent. This is also in accordance with the Mayor’s target to reach 30% active transport by 2041. 90 Assuming trends continue, we can expect Hackney to reach around 70% active transport by 2050, which is an excellent modal share; but our think tank hopes to create the conditions for this to rise to 95%. In order to reach this ambitious target, we have made proposals across three key elements, dealing with the naturally varying scales arising from the project objectives.

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Policy

This deals with the overall strategy and wider implications. Infrastructure

Focused primarily on how the streets and public realm will change as a result of the walking and cycling city. Architecture

Centred around how the built environment will adapt and develop over time to meet new and growing needs, in a future where people live, work, and play in the 15-minute city.

Hackney could reach a 95% share in active transport over the next 30 years.

91. Greater London Authority, 'Mayor's Transport Strategy' (Greater London Authority 2018).


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Figure 105 Active transport projections based on informations fromthe Mayor’s Transport Strategy

City Orientation

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Policy Infrastructure Architecture

Car oriented Figure 106. Relevant interventions needed to reach our goals

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Timeline How to reach our target

For example, the redevelopment of both Trafalgar Square and Exhibition Road show that change is possible and these have laid some of the groundwork for our vision. Our target is to reach a people-oriented city, and the 5 milestones marked in blue map our key proposals out over the next 30 years.

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This vision builds on past, present, and future milestones that have either already been achieved or are already part of legislation.

Exhibition R pedestrianis Trafalgar Square redeveloped, 2003

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Kingsland High Street closed to private vehicles and new street typologies implemented in Dalston, 2025

Vision set for 15-minute Dalston, 2021

Mobility on Demand App launched, 2023

ULEZ expanded to North and South Circular roads, 2021

Sale of internal combustion engines banned in the UK, 2030

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Hackney Brook is rediscovered and becomes a destination in East London, 2042

All London transport reach net zero carbon target, 2030

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Crossrail 2 completed, 2033

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Level 5 autonomous vehicles approved in the UK, 2037

Figure 107 timeline of significant events needed to achieve our goal

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07 Realising The Walking and Cyling City This section sets out our design principles for the walking and cycling city and sets out the wider strategic plan at the scale of London, Hackney and Dalston.


Principle 1 Re-localisation of existing services to provide an increased variety of uses within people’s local neighbourhoods.

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Principle 2 Intensification of existing city districts which will see increases in density and building height to accommodate demand for housing and services.

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Principle 3 Reappropriate space formerly occupied by cars for public use, to create an expansion of the public realm and new street conditions.

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Principle 4 New movement infrastructure and architecture to maximise opportunities for greening and biodiversity to help reduce carbon emissions and improve wellbeing.

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London Strategy Setting the Boundary We would begin our strategy for London by setting the extents of the proposal. We see the current Ultra Low Emission Zone boundary of the north and south Circular as the extent of the walking and cycling city, with good public transport links and a metropolitan density which could work without the car.

Figure 108

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This area would then be treated as the current Congestion Charging Zone is, with control over the use of certain vehicles. This change would lead to lower car use over time and create the conditions for which major routes can begin to be reclaimed.


Old North Road The first reclaimed road extends from Tottenham to Clapham and picks up several key main routes in London, from Kingsland High Street in the north to Clapham High Street in the south. At the boundary with the north-south circular would be transfer stations, which would allow users from outside the city to

switch between modes of transport and out to destinations beyond the city limit. The route also connects to all forms of public transport in London, including Crossrail 1 and 2, and all major London Underground lines. These existing connections make it a strategic choice as the first reclaimed road.

Figure 109

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The London Strategy Green Space and Waterways The existing waterways in the city provide us with pre-existing pedestrian routes which we can take advantage of, to realise a wider city connection from just one reclaimed route. These also connect major green spaces in the city, providing active transport routes to parks across London.

Figure 110

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The new street conditions could also lend themselves to providing new and rediscovered waterways in the city, which can be reinstalled in some areas to increase local biodiversity.


15-Minute Cities The reclaimed route will provide the primary active transport route for a series of 15-minute cities along its length. The Old North Road will provide the density of uses necessary to serve a 15-minute city, with subsequent

intensification along its length providing the metropolitan centres for each respective 15-minute city.

Figure 111

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Hackney Strategy Reweaving the city’s routes and making the most of its assets At the scale of the borough, Hackney will be transformed by the pedestrianisation of Kingsland Road. It will strengthen Hackney’s link to the city and support the new web of 15-minute cities along its length. To facilitate a greater pedestrian connection in the borough, we propose that pedestrian pathways could be added along the Overground in Hackney to create routes similar to the Highline in New York. These would be constructed over the existing railway and retain current provision for trains but provide important east-west active transport connections in the borough to link existing green spaces. At the Hackney scale, we can plot and rediscover the tracks of lost and culverted waterways. The Hackney Brook would provide a key east-west connection and provide an important wildlife corridor through the borough. The following interventions would transform the existing borough into an interconnected web of 15-minute cities. Pedestrianised Kingsland Road Overground lines covered with greenery creating walking routes 15-minute city perimeter Stations Large green spaces Waterways

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Figure 112. Proposed vision for Hackney

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Dalston Strategy Rethinking the hierarchy of road usage Our approach to the 15-minute city of Dalston begins by setting the ratio of pedestrian use to vehicle use for the walking and cycling city. The existing Kingsland Road has an average pedestrian to vehicle ratio of 1:2; we would seek to transform this into a 1000:1 pedestrian to vehicle ratio. This would account for the very occasional need for emergency services and maintenance vehicles to access the street and would create an overwhelming pedestrian priority. Deliveries for the new services would be out-of-hours to ensure the daytime condition of the road is a safer environment for walking and cycling. The existing residential roads in the city would form 200:1 and 100:1 routes, depending on their suitability for alternative uses. These would make create safe local neighbourhoods and allow for the repurposing of existing road space to serve the community and provide new local amenity space. The existing connecting roads in the neighbourhood will form 50:1 routes. These will be the only roads to retain two-way traffic and will be used by local buses and essential vehicles to serve the 15-minute city. These routes are strategically chosen to ensure that all residents within the 15-minute city have access to a bus stop within a 5-minute walk from their house. All roads will retain access to emergency vehicles and essential city maintenance and will be designed in accordance with relevant UK legislation. 102

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1000:1 Primary Pedestrian Route 200:1 Secondary Pedestrian Route 100:1 Tertiary Pedestrian Route 50:1 Primary Vehicle Route Figure 113. Proposed strategy for Dalston

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Access on Demand App Incentivise Active Transport A new digital system incentivising active transport and distributing efficient passenger capacity load

We propose that Hackney would control access to all forms of transport in the walking and cycling city. This would create a centralised system which could continuously respond to frequency of use and provide a means of assessing areas in need of improvement. We believe that the walking and cycling city can make use of technology to facilitate efficient use of the transport system in accordance with its principles. This would work through use of an incentivising app, employing a creditbased system to encourage the use of active transport modes. Credits could be then earnt and spent for longer journeys within the city or travel outside of the city. This new incentivised system would provide an economic model which uses healthcare savings made due to the improved physical health of residents, to sustain

high percentages of active transport into the future. It would also ensure efficient use of the public transport system with different modes prioritised based on demand. If Hackney were to control access to all means of transport, new means of sustainable transport can be created and added to the app if necessary. In order to make essential journeys which may require the transport of bulky items, we would see a need for a new Hackney Carriage for the 21st Century. These journeys can be bought on the app and would provide private transportation where it is needed. These vehicles can be made free for people when necessary in their daily lives, such as for a pregnant woman requiring regular scans at a hospital, or for people with reduced mobility.

When I do want to get away somewhere it’s so easy to jump on a train. I walk and cycle around a lot so I earn so much credit through the mobility app that I can usually afford a family ticket for free!

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Figure 114

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08 Designing The Walking and Cycling City This chapter explores how the principles of the walking and cycling city will manifest themselves in a new architectural and urban condition.


Contents of Drawings This section will present a series of drawings which show what the walking and cycling city will look and feel like.

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The following is a contents of the drawings and their location on the axonometric Intensification of the City

1. Dalston Kingsland 2050 2. Gillet Square Section 3. The Cultural Centre Section Street Life 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Kingsland Road Moment 1 Kingsland Road Moment 2 Kingsland Road Moment 3 Living Elevation Permeable Ground Floor

Reworking Infrastructure

These drawings are diagrammatic solutions that can be applied to any street. Repurposing Infrastructure

Please refer to page 128 for contents and location of drawings

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Intensification of the City 1. Dalston Kingsland 2050

After performing locally for a long time I was invited to play at one of the 'Celebrating Dalston' gigs at the theatre. It's totally transformed the place to somewhere that people and performers want to be.

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I’m walking to t health centre often these d see the physio I go I usually po one of the co-w spaces below one of the tech folks can help m out my email forms.


the new e quite ays to o. When op into working w it so I h-savvy me sort s and

Now my daughter goes to school at the Dalston Education Centre. Sometimes I walk with her in the morning so I can go to one of adult classes they put on there.

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Intensification of the City 1. Dalston Kingsland 2050 The architecture and infrastructure of Dalston will intensify to serve a greater number of citizens and provide access to new services within the area. This includes the extension of some existing buildings, as well as newly proposed structures. 1. Workspace

Increasing the amount of shared working spaces in the area will offer people an alternative to working from home, whilst avoiding long commutes. Space for practical work such as making and repairs, important elements of a sustainable city, will also be expanded. Healthcare will be fully localised, so that every individual has easy access to an essential service. 2. Kingsland Theatre

Existing entertainment will be expanded to celebrate the diverse and vibrant character of the area and support increased tourism into the 15-minute city, as Crossrail 2 connects Dalston with the rest of the UK and continental Europe. 3. Residential

New residential typologies will support an increase in population, and the safe and healthy environment on the new Kingsland Road will make it a desirable place to live.

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4. Dalston Cultural Centre

Dalston will become an important cultural hub in London, providing new theatres, galleries, performance space, and even growing facilities which celebrate the localisation of food production. These buildings and uses will revitalise existing public spaces to host exciting activities and enhance local pride. 5. Education Centre

Education is integrated within a new pedestrian campus throughout the proposal, providing the opportunity for people of all ages to learn new skills and gain exposure to new 'green jobs' which provide integral roles within the new sustainable lifestyle. 6. Public Realm

With the new available public space found in streets, the public realm will be vastly expanded and become part of the ground floor plan to buildings. A new performance square is located by the exit to the station.


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Intensification of the City 2. Gillett Square section The area around Gillett Square will see the introduction of a new eight storey building on the east side of the road, providing educational space for all ages, as well as office and workshop spaces to support local working.

This will form a new vertical learning model, with adult education on lower floors and education for young people on the upper floors. This will be connected to rear amenity space via new vertical circulation cores to the rear of buildings. On the west side of the road, the existing three storey building will be repurposed to provide an enhanced space for bars, restaurants and cafes, and retail at the street level. This will become part of a rich entertainment hub at Gillett square, with the introduction of a night club at basement level to ensure activation of the street and a safer public realm at all hours. A four-storey extension on top of this existing building will provide further space for education and healthcare, connecting to the educational building across the street via a bridge link to encourage collaboration between uses. We are encouraging dispersed learning amongst age groups, treating Kingsland Road as a campus and allowing education to diversify among different sectors people may not traditionally be exposed to.

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The increased height means that vertical circulation becomes a crucial part of the architecture. The circulation cores are articulated externally and provide access to the buildings from the new permeable ground plane, whilst facilitating interwoven sets of building uses.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

School Cafe Restaurant Entertainment Hub Education Nightclub Green Job Centre Experiential Retail Wellbeing Centre

Figure 117


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Intensification of the City 3. The Cultual Centre section The centre of Dalston, which is directly adjacent to the Dalston Kingsland Overground station, is where most people will arrive into the 15-minute city. This central location will see the introduction of the new Kingsland theatre and art gallery, and a new growing centre. The theatre will be raised above the street level, creating a generous public realm for social interaction and market use which extends from Ridley Road and activates the newly formed Kingsland Square. The existing residential block on the west side of the road will be extended upwards by four storeys, providing more housing with extensive balcony space to take advantage of reduced noise and air pollution, and allow the storage of bicycles within people’s dwellings. The ground floor of the existing building will now house the reuse economy centre for Dalston. To allow the 15-minute citizen to live a sustainable lifestyle, there will be a repair centre that encourages citizens to reject throw-away culture, and to fix their belongings themselves or with the help of professionals. In addition to this, a ‘library of things’ will provide an array of household items to hire, reducing the travel distance needed to collect or buy them from elsewhere in the city.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Repair Centre Residential Library of Things Plant Kingsland Theatre Public square

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Intensification of the City Existing and proposed land use

Figure 119 Existing and proposed land use sections Gillett Square

The proposal drastically increases the diversity of services in the area. Moving away from the existing model which usually sees retail/ hospitality on the ground floor with residential above, towards a more integrated,

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varied approach. This increases local accessibility to a wider breadth of services for the citizen. Also, this allows each to service to benefit from its adjacency to others.


Figure 120. Existing and proposed land use sections Dalston Cross

Healthcare

Retail and services

Offices and workshops

Entertainement

Residential

Community centre

Plant

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Train stations

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Street Life We propose living, habitable facades which open onto the refreshed and expanded public realm. In the city of mobility, the facade protects inhabitants from the noise and pollution of the street. Removing traffic from the roads allows the buildings to be porous and responsive to street life. This allows us to imagine facades which are inhabitable and act as extensions of the lively street character vertically through the building. The facade design of this building acts as a prototype to explain the principles of the living elevation. The principles will be applied along the street, through a variety of expressions. Moment 1: Looking North Towards the Rio Cinema 1. Wide Pedestrian Routes

Wide pavements run adjacent to the porous ground floor of the buildings, supporting congregation outside buildings. 2. Green Spaces and Pop-Ups

Areas of green space will provide shade and increase biodiversity, whilst helping to provide permeable ground surfaces to aid sustainable drainage. Integrated seating will allow people to dwell within and between these spaces. Pop up kiosks of flowers, coffee, and temporary seasonal amenities will be positioned between these. 120

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3. Service Corridor

A service corridor will support the function of the street, and provide cycle parking, repair and delivery bays. In certain segments of the high street, this corridor serves the adjacent buildings by allowing functions to interconnect via extended 'rooms in the street'. These spaces could be occupied with many different functions throughout the day, morning yoga, afternoon art classes and evening socialising. 4. Central access lane

A segregated central lane will provide safe and enjoyable cycling down Kingsland Road, whilst allowing access for night time deliveries and emergency vehicles.


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Figure 122. Moment 2

Figure 123. Moment 3

Moment 2 – Looking North Towards the New Architecture

Moment 3 – Looking South Towards the City

5. Living elevation

Foot bridges will cross the street at various intervals to connect the buildings opposite one another.

This moment captures the vertical circulation and living elevation of the new proposed buildings. The activated elevation creates an interaction between building and street and allows communication across this threshold. The 'eyes' on the street created by the habitable facade, combined with the eliminated risk of motor traffic, creates safe spaces for children to play within their local neighbourhoods.

6. Density

On the right-hand side, the existing buildings are retained and built upon to add density to the street. Structure for the additional buildings will be suspended from new building cores, which are located to the rear of the street. The ground floor facades are opened to create a more permeable ground plane.

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Street Life 6. Kingsland Road Moment 1

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Street Life 7. Kingsland Road Moment 2

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These days the Kinglsand Road is safe and filled with all sorts of activities and people. Everything you need is here for you and there is always something exciting popping up, like the Dalston Circus!

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Street Life 8. Kingsland Road Moment 3

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Street Life 4. Living Elevation Principles of the living elevation:

New & sustainable building materials

Bricks and mortar were the building materials for the 19th century Kingsland Road; however, new building materials are required if we are to imagine a more sustainable architecture. Therefore, materials such as cross laminated timber provide an alternative which can build upon the tectonic foundations of the existing high street, with potential to create a more porous ground floor. These systems can also use modular construction to reduce the number of vehicles needed during construction.

Habitable outdoor spaces will bring life to the front of the building and encourage passive surveillance of the intensified street condition. This will increase the safety of the public realm and encourage continual use throughout the day.

Articulating the vertical circulation

In order to capture the vibrancy of the life within buildings, they should be seen as an extension of the streetscape. Bringing the vertical circulation to the front of the building allows people on the street to understand the inner workings and provides additional communal space to the fronts of buildings to encourage activity behind the façade.

Figure 124

Limiting the building height to nine storeys

The increase in height from the existing street datum allows us to achieve a higher density of people and uses but does not dominate the streetscape. Setting back the facade from the 4th story respects the grain of the existing facades, with the new buildings responding sympathetically to the old. Eyes on the street

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Figure 125


Figure 126. Kingsalnd Elevation

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Street Life 5. Permeable Ground Floor

Figure 127. Permeable ground floor Cultural Centre

The proposal creates a permeable ground floor which encourages fluid movement between inside and outside. The public realm is an extension of the building's open ground floor, inviting functions to spill onto and inhabit the street. We imagine 'rooms in the street'

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rather than simply corridors of mobility. A lane is maintained predominantly for cyclists, but also acts as an access lane for essential vehicle movement.


Figure 128. Permeable ground floor Gillett Square

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Reworking Infrastructure Rooms in the street In addition to providing vertical densification, the newly acquired road space will also house a wide variety of services and uses to the 15-minute citizen. These will be in the form of ‘rooms in the street’ which will extend out of buildings to create an intense street life. This drawing shows how this condition will provide an adaptable public realm which can host a variety of events.

Restaurant

I was worried about losing business from our customers who use their cars but the street has become so popular that they've just found other ways. The space we've got on the street out the front has made us busier than ever.

Market Retail Leisure and education Sports Figure 129. Rooms in the streets axonometric diagram

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Reworking Infrastructure Sponge City Sponge City is an urban area which has been designed to cope with excess rainfall using a variety of techniques. 91 A Sponge City is a city that does not act as an impermeable system, not allowing any water to filter through the ground, but, more like a sponge, absorbing the rainwater, which is then naturally filtered by the soil and allowed to reach into urban aquifers. This allows for the extraction of water from the ground through urban or peri-urban wells. This water can then be easily treated and used for the city water supply. 92 Benefits of a Sponge City 93 More clean water for the city

Cities can become more self-sufficient with their water management. This is possible through the provision of efficient methods of storing water in the ground and further extraction and purification for the benefit of citizens. Cleaner groundwater

This is possible due to the naturally filtered rainwater. It also means lower environmental and health costs as an effect of decreased water pollution. Reduction in flood risk

More permeable spaces offer natural retention and percolation of water through the soil. This leads to greater ability to deal with higher flood risks as result of climate change. Lower strain on drainage systems As water is filtered through natural

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and cost-free means, the drainage system can save on environmental and economic costs. Greener and healthier urban spaces

Greener urban areas improve quality of life and become recreational areas that are enjoyable and attract people. Enriched biodiversity

New habitats within the cities lead to positive increases in biomass

Problems a sponge city solves 94: Reduced Water Availability in Urban Areas

The traditional design of cities has led to surface areas which are increasingly impermeable and have a greater impact on the natural water cycle. In practice this means that since less rainwater is allowed to filter through the urban soil, less water is available to be extracted from aquifers in urban and peri-urban areas.

Polluted water discharged into rivers or the sea Present day wastewater systems are connected to the collection of rainwater. After travelling through the pipe system, wastewater ends up in a wastewater treatment plant, where it is discharged into rivers. When the rainfall is heavy, the wastewater treatment plant is overfilled and to clear the system the polluted water is discharged into the rivers. Sponge Cities prevent this from happening by separating wastewater systems from rainwater collection. 92. World Council, ‘Sponge Cities: What Is It All About?’ (World Future Council, 2016) https://www. worldfuturecouncil.org/sponge-cities-what-is-it-all-about/ accessed 15 March 2021. 93. Ibid 94. Ibid 95. Ibid


Figure 130. Realised Sponge City, China. Ningbo New East town in Ningbo, Zhejiang province.

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Reworking Infrastructure Sponge City Bioswale 95

Bioswales are a method of protecting the quality of surface waters by decreasing stormwater runoff. They form gently sloped vegetative areas along the edges of streets designed to slow and reduce stormwater runoff whilst filtering out pollutants. The centrally located bioswales are then able to collect the runoff for greywater storage for use in buildings.

Kingsland Road will use the following new infrastructure: 1. Bioswales

By providing water gathering swales we will mitigate against the overflowing accumulation of rainwater. 2. Water management

Holistic management of rainwater for subsequent use in buildings.

3. Connection to The Tideway Tunnel

Separation of rainwater collection from sewer systems to ensure that pollution does not end up in the Thames, as currently happens. 4. Rewiring the city

Easily accessible service pipes to allow for fast and undisruptive installation and upgrading. Figure 131

5. Light bridging

Providing modular bridging over swales to allow people to witness the increased biodiversity it will create.

Figure 132

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96. Terry Gibb, ‘Bioswales Can Improve Water Quality Resources’ (MSU Extension, 2015)


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Reworking Infrastructure Emergency Access The street layout has been designed in correspondence with Approved Document B to ensure emergency access to all parts of Kingsland Road.

Kingsland Road will meet this emergency access requirement using the following strategies: 1. Allocated parking bays

Emergency vehicles can park in the bays on the side lane that are a maximum of 4.9m from the buildings. 2. Passing places for cyclists

Upon hearing the emergency sound signal the cyclist would let the emergency vehicle pass 3. Shared surface

Emergency vehicles could pass on the shared surface when required. An area of 3.9m will be passable at all times.

Figure 134

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Reworking Infrastructure Deliveries Deliveries will be made between the hours of 11pm and 7am.

Different marked spaces can be designated to different commercial services when required. Local shop and restaurant owners may require outdoor seating areas to enhance their business offer, or the local communities may require space for community events. The allocation process allows for greater community cooperation and creates a more democratic public space. On the opposite page we can observe the retail deliveries happening overnight - between the hours of 11pm and 7am to preserve a safe daytime environment on Kingsland Road.

I'm usually happy to go and pick up my parcels from one of the centres but I'll book one of the late night electric vans when it's for a new sofa.

Our deliveries arrive really early when we start preparing the kitchen for the day which is perfect. For anything extra I love to jump on my cargo bike and grab a few fresh things from the market down the road.

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Figure 136

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Repurposing Space Local Infrastructure As a result of a walking and cycling city, local roads can also be repurposed for community use and to encourage healthy, safe and enjoyable living. The existing condition, shown below, is hard surfaced and car dominated. We propose to invite nature, play and growing into the local streets of Dalston.

Figure 137

1. Forest Street (Dalston Square)

We have reimagined Dalston Square, a hard landscaped square besides Dalston Junction Station, into a forest street which invites an abundance of nature and wildlife into the city.

Figure 140

3. School Street (Colvestone Street)

School streets providing safe playful streets and welcome independent, joyful travel to and from school.

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Figure 138

2. Allotment Street Barretts Grove)

We suggest allotment streets where citizens can grow their own food. Allotments are sought after in London, and this proposal suggests including them within people’s local neighbourhoods.

Figure 139

4. Hackney Brook (Amhurst Road)

Hackney Brook rediscovers a lost river and provides a destination through Hackney, transforming all the streets along its path.


Figure 141

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1. Forest Street (Dalston Square) Figure 142

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2. Allotment Street (Barretts Grove) Figure 143

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3. School Street (Colvestone Street) Figure 144

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4. Hackney Brook (Amhurst Road) Figure 145

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09 Expanding The Walking and Cycling City


Scaling Up The Vision for London This is how we believe our model can be scaled up over the next century to comprehensively design the walking and cycling London.

1. The second reclaimed road extends from Chiswick to Ilford with an intersection with Kingsland Road at Bishopsgate. 2. The third reclaimed road extends from Brent Cross to Woolwich with intersections at Marble Arch and Oval. 3. The fourth reclaimed road extends from New Southgate to New Cross Gate with intersections at Euston and Elephant and Castle.

Figure 146

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4. The fifth reclaimed road extends from Woodford to Lee with intersections at Stratford and Blackheath. 5. Providing green connections along the overground intersects with the web of reclaimed roads. 6. London is now a radically transformed city, providing a series of major routes for walking and cycling with every Londoner having a 15-minute connection to this web.

Figure 147

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Figure 148

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Figure 150

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Figure 149

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‘Boris Bikes’: The Facts Behind 10 Years Of London’s Cycle Hire Scheme’ (BBC News, 2021) <https://www.bbc.co.uk/ news/uk-england-london-53577750#:~:text=The%20 scheme’s%20origins&text=While%20the%20cycles%20 are%20still,inspired%20by%20one%20in%20Paris.> accessed 8 March 2021 Carrington D, ‘Heatwaves In 2019 Led To Almost 900 Extra Deaths In England’ (the Guardian, 2021) <https://www. theguardian.com/world/2020/jan/07/heatwaves-in-2019led-to-almost-900-extra-deaths-in-england> accessed 14 March 2021 ‘Covid-19 Lockdowns Have Improved Global Air Quality, Data Shows’ (the Guardian, 2021) <https://www. theguardian.com/environment/2020/oct/08/covid-19lockdowns-global-air-quality-india-london-uk> accessed 13 March 2021

Department for Transport, ‘Gear Change: A Bold Vision For Cycling And Walking’ (Department for Transport 2020)

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‘‘Dramatic’ Plunge In London Air Pollution Since 2016, Report Finds’ (the Guardian, 2021) <https://www. theguardian.com/environment/2020/oct/03/dramaticplunge-in-london-air-pollution-since-2016-report-finds> accessed 14 March 2021

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‘Europe’s Most Deprived Areas ‘Hit Hardest By Air Pollution’ (the Guardian, 2021) <https://www.theguardian. com/environment/2019/feb/04/europes-most-deprivedareas-hit-hardest-by-air-pollution> accessed 13 March 2021

‘Evolution Of Cycle Superhighways In London’ (ECF, 2021) <https://ecf.com/news-and-events/news/evolution-cyclesuperhighways-london> accessed 8 March 2021 Flanders J, ‘Prostitution’ (The British Library, 2021) <https://www.bl.uk/romantics-and-victorians/articles/ prostitution#> accessed 8 March 2021

Flora, R, & P Hudson, “The evolution of London: the city’s near-2,000 year history mapped.”. in the Guardian, , 2021, <https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2014/may/15/theevolution-of-london-the-citys-near-2000-year-historymapped> accessed 8 March 2021

Friedman, M, Capitalism and Freedom. in , 1st ed., Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1962, p. XIV. Fuller, R. Buckminster (St Martin’s Griifin 1982)

‘Georgian Street Lights – Jane Austen’s World’ (Jane Austen’s World, 2021) <https:// janeaustensworld.wordpress.com/tag/georgian-streetlights/#:~:text=On%20December%2031%2C%20 1813%2C%20the,the%20exterior%20of%20 Buckingham%20Palace.> accessed 8 March 2021 Gibb, Terry, ‘Bioswales Can Improve Water Quality Resources’ (MSU Extension, 2015)

Greater London Authority, Good Growth by Design, ‘Making London Child Friendly’ (Greater London Authority 2019)


Bibliography Greater London Authority, ‘Mayor’s Transport Strategy’ (Greater London Authority 2018)

Greater London Authority, ‘The Draft London Plan 2017 Topic Paper Housing Density’ (Greater London Authority 2017) Hackney Council, ‘Hackney Transport Strategy 20142024’ (Hackney Council 2014)

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‘London’s Lost Rivers - The Hackney Brook’ (London’s Lost Rivers - Book and Walking Tours by Paul Talling, 2021) <https://www.londonslostrivers.com/hackney-brook.html> accessed 13 March 2021 ‘London Mini Hollands’ (GOV.UK, 2021) <https://www.

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Lydall R, ‘Cycle Superhighways Rebranded To Banish The Image Of Lycra Louts’ (Standard.co.uk, 2018) <https:// www.standard.co.uk/news/transport/cycle-superhighwaysrebranded-to-banish-the-image-of-lycra-louts-a4019251. html> accessed 8 March 2021 ‘Mayor Launches First Online Cycle Training Course For Londoners’ (London City Hall, 2021) <https://www.london. gov.uk/press-releases/mayoral/mayor-launches-firstonline-cycle-training-course#:~:text=TfL%20has%20 also%20secured%20%C2%A3,Skills%20training%20 from%20August%20onwards.> accessed 14 March 2021 Michael Amrine, Interview with Albert Einstein, ‘The Real Problem Is In The Hearts Of Men’ (1946)

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Moreno C, ‘Transcript Of “The 15-Minute City”’ (Ted.com, 2021) <https://www.ted.com/talks/carlos_moreno_the_15_ minute_city/transcript#t-460702> accessed 13 March 2021 Moss, S, “End of the car age: how cities are outgrowing the automobile.”. in The Guardian, , 2015, <https://www. theguardian.com/cities/2015/apr/28/end-of-the-car-agehow-cities-outgrew-the-automobile> accessed 8 March 2021

Nations, U, “The Climate Crisis – A Race We Can Win | United Nations.”. in United Nations, , 2021, <https://www. un.org/en/un75/climate-crisis-race-we-can-win> accessed 8 March 2021 ‘New Report Shows Large Unmet Demand For Cycling From Ethnic Minority And Disadvantaged Groups’ (Sustrans, 2021) <https://www.sustrans.org.uk/our-blog/ news/2020/july/new-report-shows-large-unmet-demandfor-cycling-from-ethnic-minority-and-disadvantagedgroups> accessed 14 March 2021 ‘On Your Bike. Cycle Sales Boom During Olympics.’ (ITV News, 2021) <https://www.itv.com/news/london/ update/2012-08-02/on-your-bike-cycle-sales-boomduring-olympics/> accessed 8 March 2021

‘Penny-Farthing History And Facts’ (Bicycle History, 2021) <http://www.bicyclehistory.net/bicycle-history/pennyfarthing/Penny-farthing%20History%20and%20Facts> accessed 8 March 2021 ‘Provisional UK Greenhouse Gas Emissions National Statistics - Data.Gov.Uk’ (Data.gov.uk, 2021) <https:// data.gov.uk/dataset/9a1e58e5-d1b6-457d-a414335ca546d52c/provisional-uk-greenhouse-gasemissions-national-statistics> accessed 14 March 2021

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‘Road Length Statistics (RDL)’ (GOV.UK, 2021) <https:// www.gov.uk/government/statistical-data-sets/roadlength-statistics-rdl> accessed 13 March 2021

‘Roads ‘Too Dangerous’ For Cyclists BBC Poll Suggests’ (BBC News, 2021) <https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/ukengland-28093374> accessed 14 March 2021

Sisson P, ‘What Is A 15-Minute City? - City Monitor’ (City Monitor, 2021) <https://citymonitor.ai/environment/whatis-a-15-minute-city> accessed 13 March 2021 ‘Statistics At Dft’ (GOV.UK, 2021) <https://www.gov.uk/ government/organisations/department-for-transport/ about/statistics> accessed 8 March 2021 ‘Stop De Kindermoord – BICYCLE DUTCH’ (BICYCLE DUTCH, 2021) <https://bicycledutch.wordpress. com/2013/12/12/amsterdam-children-fighting-carsin-1972/> accessed 8 March 2021

Sutton M, ‘Might An Economic Downturn Produce A New Wave Of Cycling Demand?’ (Cycling Industry News, 2021) <https://cyclingindustry.news/economic-downturn/> accessed 8 March 2021

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van der Zee R, ‘How Amsterdam Became The Bicycle Capital Of The World’ (the Guardian, 2021) <https://www. theguardian.com/cities/2015/may/05/amsterdam-bicyclecapital-world-transport-cycling-kindermoord> accessed 8 March 2021 Vernet N, and Coste A, ‘Garden Cities Of The 21St Century: A Sustainable Path To Suburban Reform’ (2017) 2 Urban Planning

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List of Figures Cover Dominika Pilch, Cycle dawn, 2020, photograph Figure 1 Petra Marko, Team photo, 2021, photograph

Figure 2 Logos collated, accessed 15 March 2021, https:// www.london.gov.uk/ Figure 3 Logos collated, accessed 15 March 2021, https:// www.london.gov.uk/ Figure 4 Logos collated, accessed 15 March 2021, https:// www.london.gov.uk/ Figure 5 Logos collated, accessed 15 March 2021, https:// www.london.gov.uk/ Figure 6 Axonometric view of Kingsland Road Figure 7 15 minute cities plan Hackney Scale

Figure 8 London designed to be a web of 15 minute cities, 15 minute cities plan London Scale Figure 9: Columbia Road Flower Market, photograph, accessed 15 March 2021, https://www.londonrevealed. co.uk/post/14-places-to-see-london-in-bloom. Figure 10: Contribution of Civil Engineers, photograph, accessed 15 March 2021, https://civiltoday.com/civilengineering-blog/1-civil-engineering. Figure 11: Kingsland Road Moment 2

Figure 12: Paul from the City Lane, Brick Lane, 2018, photograph, accessed 15 March 2021,https://thecitylane. com/category/united-kingdom/london/. Figure 13: London Traffic Jams, 1920, photograph, accessed 15 March 2021, https://br.pinterest.com/ pin/642677809318911507/. Figure 14: Moment 1

Figure 15: Mikel Parera, London view from Deptford, 2020, photograph, accessed 15 March 2021,

https://images.unsplash.com/photo-15910397764284467ff31dd15?ixid=MXwxMjA3fDB8MHxwaG90by1wYWd lfHx8fGVufDB8fHw%3D&ixlib=rb-1.2.1&auto=format&fit=c rop&w=1350&q=80. Figure 16: Kingsland Road, Hackney and London Map Figure 17: Oxford Circus, photograph, accessed 15 March 2021, https://www.pinterest.es/ pin/307230005816704475/ Figure 18 Dalston Lane, 2020, photograph

Figure 19 Kingsland Road, 2020, photograph

Figure 20 Kingsland Road in the 15-minute city of Dalston compared to the context of Hackney map, 2021

Figure 21 Kingsland Road in the 15-minute city of Dalston, 2021

Figure 22 Joseph Hicks, Dalston Kingsland Station, 2020, photograph Figure 23 Dominika Pilch, Newington Green, 2020, photograph

Figure 24 Dominika Pilch, Gillett Square, 2020, photograph Figure 25 Joseph Hicks, Hackney Downs, 2020, photograph

Figure 26, Chris Whippet, Three Compasses, Dalston, 2005, photograph, accessed 15 March 2021, https://www.geograph.org.uk/ photo/4341749.

Figure 27 Dominika Pilch, Shacklewell Green, 2020, photograph

Figure 28 Sebastian Maher, Ridley Road Market, 2020, photograph Figure 29 Dominika Pilch, Rhodes Estate, 2020, photograph

Figure 30 Roman Londinium, drawing, accessed 15 March 2021, https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-8b58453bfd 019d71141273fcd6aa0686.webp. Figure 31 Kingsland Road satellite photos, 2021, https:// earth.google.com/web/ accessed 15 March 2021 Figure 32 Sebastian Maher, Gillett Square, photograph, 2020 Figure 33 Dominika Pilch, Green Growers Community Garden, photograph, 2020

Figure 34 Dominika Pilch, Ridley Road Market, photograph, 2020 Figure 35 Sebastian Maher, Kingsland Road, photograph, 2020 Figure 36 Sebastian Maher, Kingsland Road, photograph, 2020 Figure 37 Sebastian Maher, Kingsland Road, photograph, 2020 Figure 38 Sebastian Maher, Kingsland Road, photograph, 2020

Figure 39 Sebastian Maher, East Elevation Kingsland Road photocollage, 2020

Figure 40 Sebastian Maher, West Elevation Kingsland Road photocollage, 2020 Figure 41 Kingsland Road, existing urban fabric map, 2021 Figure 42, Anne Hildago, 15-minute city diagram, 2020, image, accessed 15 March 2021, https://twitter.com/ ParisEnCommun/status/1219580413540290560?s=20.

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List of Figures Figure 43 Ella Kissi-Debrah photo, https://www. theguardian.com/environment/2020/dec/16/girlsdeath-contributed-to-by-air-pollution-coronerrules-in-landmark-case#:~:text=Air%20pollution%20 a%20cause%20in%20girl’s%20death%2C%20 coroner%20rules%20in%20landmark%20case,This%20article%20is&text=A%20coroner%20 has%20made%20legal,nine%2Dyear%2Dold%20 girl.&text=%E2%80%9CElla%20died%20of%20asthma%20contributed,said%20the%20coroner%20 on%20Wednesday. accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 44 China News Service/China News Service via Getty, Air pollution in China, 2020, https://i.guim.co.uk/img/ media/ Figure 45 Grzegorz Polak/Getty Images, Air pollution, 2020 https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2021/ jan/26/air-pollution-linked-to-higher-risk-of-irreversiblesight-loss, accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 46 GLA and TFL Air Quality, London pollution map, https://data.london.gov.uk/dataset/london-atmosphericemissions-inventory--laei--2016 accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 47 Air pollution data overlayed on Kingsland Road in the VU.CITY software, accessed 15 March 2021 Figure 48 Public Health England, Stay home, protect the NHS, save lives campaign, 2020, https://downloads. coronavirusresources.phe.gov.uk/images/stay_home. width-400.png, accessed 15 March 2021

Also, Sam Pywell, Cycle more, protect the NHS, save lives, 2021, banner

Figure 49 London underground campaigns, photograph, 2020, https://www.lbbonline.com/news/londoners-stretchtheir-legs-in-tfls-nows-the-time-campaign accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 50 Free cycling online course during coronavirus crisis, photograph, 2020, https://s3-euwest-1.amazonaws.com/gdif-assets/wp-content/ uploads/2020/08/27112913/cycle-skills-tfl-816x400.jpg, accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 51 SWNS, Darlington Imoh was rescued from his car outside Wallington Tube station, 2016, https://cdn.images. express.co.uk/img/dynamic/153/590x/secondary/Londonfloods-560472.jpg, accessed 15 March 2021. Figure 52 Graphs of transport emissions Figure 53 Car parking area in London

Figure 54: An engraving depicting the dirty medieval streets of London in the 1500s, https://www.nauka.ua/ article/koli-parazit-ne-vorog, accessed 15 March 2021. Figure 55: A historical drawing depicting the Great Fire

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of London, https://www.historyextra.com/period/stuart/ video-dan-jones-discusses-great-fire-london/, accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 56: Thomas Rowlandson - The Inn Door (A Man escorted by two link boys to a door to the left), https:// commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Thomas_Rowlandson_-_ The_Inn_Door_(A_Man_escorted_by_two_link_boys_to_a_ door_to_the_left)_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg, accessed 15 March 2021 Figure 57: An engraving showing the original Westminster Bridge, https://www.thehistoryoflondon.co.uk/the-originalwestminster-bridge/, accessed 15 March 2021 Figure 58: 1918 map of Euston Road and Marylebone Road, King’s Cross to Paddington, https://commons. wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1918_map_of_Euston_Road_and_ Marylebone_Road,_King%27s_Cross_to_Paddington.jpg, accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 59: A drawing showing Cavendish Square in London https://janeausteninvermont.blog/tag/fictional-characters/, accessed 15 March 2021 Figure 60: A drawing at the time showing Londoner’s reactions to gas street lighting in the city, https://hoarelea. com/2019/01/08/fire-and-filaments-the-history-oflighting/, accessed 15 March 2021 Figure 61: A drawing showing the ‘dandy horse’ - the origin of the bicycle, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/ articles/2019-04-24/the-resilience-lessons-of-thedandy-horse-bike, accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 62: An artist’s rendition of the Thames Tunnel, https://www.milrose.com/insights/subway-art-architecture, accessed 15 March 2021 Figure 63: A map showing the London sewer system, https://designsystemexamples.blogspot.com/2018/11/ who-designed-london-sewer-system.html, accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 64: A poster showing the development of the bicycle, https://museumjocas.nl/het%20wiel,de%20 fiets,as,luchtband,lager,tandwiel.htm, accessed 15 March 2021 Figure 65: A photograph showing the construction of Tower Bridge, https://www.mirror.co.uk/incoming/gallery/ tower-bridge-120th-anniversary-3780057, accessed 15 March 2021 Figure 66: A photograph showing the origins of the motorised taxi, http://www.southamptontaxis.org/ blog/?page=6, accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 67: A photograph showing damage to the street after heavy bombing during the Blitz, https://www.historicuk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofBritain/The-Blitz/, accessed 15 March 2021


List of Figures Figure 68: A photograph showing the first segregated cycle lane in London, https://www.standard.co.uk/news/ london/campaign-under-way-to-resurrect-london-sabandoned-1930s-dutchstyle-cycle-lanes-a3536766. html, accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 69: A photograph showing the thick smog in London during the Great Smog of 1952, https://mashable. com/2015/07/25/london-smog/?europe=true, accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 70: A map showing the route of the Ringways routes in London, https://test.roads.org.uk/ringways/the-end, accessed 15 March 2021 Figure 71: A photograph showing London mayor Ken Livingstone announcing the Tour de France route in 2007, https://www.cyclingweekly.com/news/latest-news/ mayor-announces-massive-investment-in-londoncycling-98357, accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 72: A photograph showing the aftermath of the 7/7 terrorist attacks on London, https://www.huffingtonpost. co.uk/entry/trust-in-crisis-woolf-institute-report_ uk_595e5b3ce4b0d5b458e8c620, accessed 15 March 2021 Figure 73: A photograph showing pedestrian commuters on Blackfriars Bridge, https://www.standard.co.uk/news/ transport/all-major-improvements-to-london-s-roadsput-on-hold-for-two-years-a3772076.html, accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 74: Boris Johnson and Arnold Schwarzenegger on a cycling tour of London to promote the Barclays Cycle scheme, https://www.newsshopper.co.uk/news/8954661. greenwich-projects-benefited-from-the-sportsparticipation-fund-last-year/, accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 75: A picture taken during Bradley Wiggins’ gold medal winning time trial race during the London 2012 Olympics, https://www.bicycling.com/racing/ a20015301/2012-london-olympics-cycling-5/, accessed 15 March 2021 Figure 76: A photo showing people cycling through Bank during the COVID-19 pandemic, https://www.vox. com/covid-19-coronavirus-economy-recession-stockmarket/2020/4/13/21219141/bank-safe-fdic-insurancecoronavirus-money-deposits, accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 77: Space taken up 60 people using various modes of transport, https://www.transportshaker-wavestone.com/ urban-transports-spatial-footprint-much-space-usedtransports-city/, accessed 15 March 2021 Figure 78: A map showing the amount of public space in Dalston, produced as part of an Urban Study of Dalston during the LSA Design Cities module

Figure 79: Pie charts showing how people in different age

groups view cycling. 55% of 18-24 year olds perceive cycling as safe, compared with only 39% of over 65s, https://www.cyclinguk.org/statistics, accessed 15 March 2021 Figure 80: Cyclists on a London bridge, https:// safeurbandriving.org/tackle-the-problem-of-incidentswith-vehicles-and-vulnerable-road-users/, accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 81: Front cover of Gear Change report by Department for Transport - see bibliography for full source Figure 82: Front cover of Making London Child Friendly see bibliography for full source

Figure 83: Front cover of Mayor’s Transport Strategy - see bibliography for full source Figure 84: Pie charts showing the vision for active transport in London in 2041, from Mayor’s Transport Strategy

Figure 85: Photograph taken by Elliott Rawlinson showing the installation of Low Traffic Neighbourhoods in Hackney Figure 86: Photograph taken by Elliott Rawlinson showing the installation of Low Traffic Neighbourhoods in Hackney Figure 87: Hackney Council road strategy informed by the Hackney Cycling Campaign, https://hackneycycling.org. uk/campaigns/priority-interventions/, accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 88: A photo taken showing yoga on Tower Bridge during London’s Car Free Day, https://www.tceg.com/work/ world-car-free-day-public-event, accessed 15 March 2021 Figure 89: A photo taken on Regent’s Street during the Summer Street event, https://heartoflondonbid.london/ events/summer-streets-on-regent-street/, accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 90: Extinction Rebellion Pink Boat on Oxford Circus, https://heartoflondonbid.london/events/summer-streetson-regent-street/, accessed 15 March 2021 Figure 91: An aerial photo of the London Marathon, https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2020/mar/13/londonmarathon-postponed-to-4-october-in-response-tocoronavirus, accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 92: A photo showing the ‘Mini Holland’ scheme in Waltham Forest, https://www.alamy.com/orford-roadwalthamstow-london-uk-newly-pedestrianised-shoppingstreet-part-of-waltham-forests-mini-holland-scheme-forsafer-streets-image386531880.html, accessed 15 March 2021 Figure 93: A photograph taken along Regent’s Canal, https://keralapool.com/photos/regent-s-canal-london. html, accessed 15 March 2021

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List of Figures Figure 94: A photograph taken along the River Lea towpath, https://www.sustrans.org.uk/find-a-route-on-thenational-cycle-network/london-docklands-and-lea-valley/, accessed 15 March 2021 Figure 95: A map showing the newly rebranded Cycleways programme, https://www.forbes.com/sites/ carltonreid/2020/11/18/britains-first-black-cyclingchampion-maurice-burton-shortlisted-for-londoncycleway-renaming/, accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 96: Existing propensity to cycle in Hackney, https:// www.pct.bike/m/?r=london, accessed 15 March 2021 Figure 97: Proposed propensity to cycle in Hackney, assuming Dutch levels of cycling, https://www.pct. bike/m/?r=london, accessed March 2021

Figure 98: Mikael Colville-Andersen /Flickr.com, Winter Cycling, https://www.wemu.org/post/issues-environmentwinter-bicycle-safety-and-increased-sustainability-annarbor#stream/0, accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 99: A screenshot from A Message From the Future With Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=d9uTH0iprVQ, accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 100: An Italian magazine’s 1962 vision of the future of transport in 2022, https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/ singoletta-future-car/, accessed 15 March 2021 Figure 101: An Italian magazine’s 1962 vision of the future of transport in 2022, https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/ singoletta-future-car/, accessed 15 March 2021 Figure 102: A proposed view from the vision of Velo-City where a team of industry experts re-imagined the 21st century village around cycling and walking Figure 103: A view of the scrapped proposal by Heatherwick Studio for a Garden Bridge across the Thames, https://www.ft.com/content/d6b1aad0-2f9b11e9-ba00-0251022932c8, accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 104: A vision of how Fleet Street would look as part of a design to make London the first national park city, https://www.watg.com/watg-unveils-innovative-greenblock-to-help-make-london-the-worlds-first-nationalpark-city/, accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 105: Foster and Partners view for SkyCycle, https:// www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/skycycle/, accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 106: An active transportation graph informed by the Mayor’s Transport Strategy Figure 107: A graph showing the relevant interventions needed to reach our goals Figure 108: A timeline of significant events needed to achieve our goal

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Figure 109: A map of London showing the expansion of the congestion charging zone Figure 110: A map showing the public transport connections along the route of the Old North Road

Figure 111: A map showing connections to existing green spaces and waterways Figure 112: A map showing the 15 minute cities created along the length of the Old North Road Figure 113: A map showing the proposed vision for Hackney

Figure 114: A map showing the proposed strategy for Dalston Figure 115 Access on Demand App

Figure 116 Kingsland Road Axonometric Black and White Figure 117 Kingsland Road Axonometric Figure 118 Gillett Square Section

Figure 119 The cultural centre section Dalston Cross

Figure 120 Existing and proposed land use sections Gillett Square Figure 121 Existing and proposed land use sections Dalston Cross

Figure 122 Moment 1 - Looking North Towards the Rio Cinem

Figure 123 Moment 2 - looking North Towards the New Architecture

Figure 124 Moment 3 - Looking South Towards the City Figure 125 Kingsland Elevation Figure 126 Ibid. Figure 127 Ibid.

Figure 128 Permeable Ground Fool Plan - Dalston Cross Figure 129 Permeable Ground Fool Plan - Gillett Square area Figure 130 Rooms in the streets axonometric diagram

Figure 131 Damian Holmes, Ningbo Eastern New Town Ecological Corridor | Turenscape (World Landscape Architecture, 2020) https://worldlandscapearchitect. com/ningbo-eastern-new-town-ecological-corridorturenscape/#.YE3yzJ37SUk accessed 14 March 2021

Figure 132 Terry Gibb, ‘Bioswales Can Improve Water Quality Resources’ (MSU Extension, 2015) https://www. canr.msu.edu/news/bioswales_can_improve_water_ quality_resources accessed 12 March 2021 Figure 133 Terry Gibb, ‘Bioswales Can Improve Water


Quality Resources’ (MSU Extension, 2015) https://www. canr.msu.edu/news/bioswales_can_improve_water_ quality_resources accessed 12 March 2021

Figure 134 Proposed Sponge City concept on Kingsland Road Figure 135 HM Government, The building regulations 2010, https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2010/2214/ contents/made, Accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 136 Emergency usage scenario on Kingsland Road Figure 137 Deliveries to shops and homes diagram on Kingsland Road

Figure 138 Sam Pywell, Dalston Square, photograph, 2020

Figure 139 Barretts Grove, google street view, https://www. google.com/maps/, Accessed 15 March 2021 Figure 140 Amhurst Road, google street view, https://www. google.com/maps/, Accessed 15 March 2021 Figure 141 Colvestone Street, google street view, https:// www.google.com/maps/, Accessed 15 March 2021

Figure 142 Allocation of new street purposes in Dalston 15 minute city - map Figure 143 Forest Street in Dalston Square

Figure 144 Allotment Street in Barretts Grove

Figure 145 School Street in Colvestone Crescent Figure 146 Hackney Brooke in Amhurst Road

Figure 147 Reclaimed road from Chiswick to Illford map

Figure 148 Reclaimed road from Brent Cross to Woolwich map Figure 149 Reclaimed road from New Southgate to New Cross Gate map Figure 150 Reclaimed road from Woodford to Lee map

Figure 151 Green connections along the overground map Figure 152 Interconnected network of 15 minute cities map

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