Sea History 146 - Spring 2014

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No. 146

NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY

SPRING 2014

SEA HISTORY:

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THE ART, LITERATURE, ADVENTURE, LORE & LEARNING OF THE SEA

Watercolorist Louis Stephen Gadal's Nocturnes Historic Ships off a Lee Shore A Marblehead Seaman SEA HISTORY FOR KIDS



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No. 146

SEA HISTORY

SPRING 2014

CONTENTS 10 Underway and Making Way-Schooner Adventure and Mystic Seaport's Whaler Charles W. Morgan Sailing Again, by John Fuller and Deirdre O'Regan This summer, we will witness the return to sea-under sail power-of two important vessels previously featured in "Historic Ships on a Lee Shore." The 1926 Essex-built schooner Adventure sailed last summer out ofher homeport in Gloucester, after more than two decades of stop-and-go restoration efforts. While the crew in Gloucester was bending on sail and readying their ship for sailing, the historic 1841 whaler Charles W Morgan was relaunched at Mystic Seaport after a jive-year restoration period. Look for both vessels this summer in ports around New England and sailing along the coast in between.

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14 Thessalonica: the Maritime History of a Medieval Metropolis, by Dr. Eugenia Russell The history ofthe ports along the Eastern Mediterranean Sea reaches back, not just centuries, but millennia. Today Thessalonica, in modern-day Greece, is the country's second Largest city and one of the busiest commercial ports in the Aegean Sea. Its significance dates back to the Middle Ages, when the Byzantine rulers were battling the Ottomans for control ofthe region, both ashore and at sea. 18 A Marblehead Seaman from the War of 1812, by Dr. Louis Arthur Norto n When war was declared on Great Britain in 1812, the fledgling American navy had only a handful of warships. To man them, the navy was able to draw from the pool of experienced mariners raised in seafaring communities along the East Coast. In New England seaside towns, boys went to sea at a young age, and when their country needed them, these sailors ably filled the ranks ofthe navy by the hundreds. 22 MARINE ART: Colors of the Night! Nocturne Painting with Louis Stephen Gadal Many factors may influence an artist's choice of medium, style, and subject matter. For Louis Stephen Gadd!, it startedfar a very practical reason-the only time he could squeeze out ofhis day to paint was after hours. He learned to appreciate the unique challenges to the artist who takes on nocturnal painting. Here, he explains his return to the genre in which he started out and why he chooses to paint at night-even though he no longer has to. 28 A History of the "Honorable and Ancient Cutter" Bear, by W illiam H. Thiesen, PhD Captain Edward "Iceberg" Smith, who oversaw the Greenland Patrol in World Wtir II, was given orders to "do a little of everything-the Coast Guard is used to that. " Smith was in command of the 70-year-old Cutter Bear, whose long career included exploration, heroic rescues, wartime service, and bringing the farce of Law to far-flung territories-a history as varied as that ofthe US Coast Guard itself Cover: US Revenue Cutter Bear in the Bering Sea, circa 1930, by C. R. Bryant oil on canvas, 24 x 30 inches. (See article on pages 28-33 on the history of the Bear. For more information on the artist, visit his website at www.crbryant.com.)

DEPARTMENTS 4 DECK LoG AND LETTERS 8 NMHS: A CAUSE IN MOTION 34 SEA HISTORY FOR Kms 38 MARITIME HISTORY ON THE INTERNET

40 SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT 49 CALENDAR 51 REVIEWS 56 PATRONS

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MUSEUM NEWS

Sea History and the National Maritime Historical Society Sea History e-mail: editorial@seahistory.org; NMHS e-mail: nmhs@seahisto ry.o rg; Web site: www.seahistory.org. Ph: 914 737-7878; 800 22 1-NMHS MEMBERSHIP is invited. Afterguard $10,000; Benefactor $5,000; Plankowner $2,500; Sponsor $1 ,000; Donor $500; Patron $250; Friend $100; Contrib uto r $75; Family $50; Regular $35.

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SEA HISTORY (issn 0146-9312) is published quarterly by the National Maritime Historical Society, 5 John Walsh Blvd., POB 68, Peekskill NY 10566. Periodicals postage paid at Peekskill NY 10566 and add'! mailing offices. COPYRIGHT Š 201 4 by the National Maritime Historical Society. Tel: 914 737-7878. POSTMASTER: Send ad dress changes to Sea History, PO Box 68, Peekskill NY 10566.

NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY


DECK LOG A Promising Year for Maritime Heritage

T

he maritime heritage community sails into 2014 with great hope, exultant in the many successes the community is experiencing. In past issues of Sea History, we have highlighted many historic ships "on a lee shore," and we are so pleased to share with you that the 1841 whaling ship Charles W Mo rgan and the 1926 Gloucester fishing schooner Adventure have clawed their way off the lee shore and will be sailing once again this summer. Twenty-five years have passed since Adventu re was Schooner Adventure donated by her last private owner, Captain Jim Sharp, to the citizens of Gloucester, and her restoration work over all these years was carried out through many stalls and stops and changes in organization. We were thrilled to see her sailing again as the queen of the Gloucester Schooner Festival last September. Kudos to her many volunteers and supporters who never lost faith along the way. In the Morgan's case, it wasn't that people worried that the historic ship would never sail again, it was more that no one thought someone would even think it was a goal. Mystic Seaport Museum's board of trustees, staff, and volunteers put forth a bold vision and they have more than risen to the occasion. She gets underway in May for her 38'h voyage, the first time she will have left Mystic since she arrived there in 1941. (See pages 10-13 for updates on both vessels). In the nation's capital, the National Maritime Alliance has been hard at work trying to restore funding for a maritime heritage grants program through the National Maritime Heritage Act (1994). In 1998, hundreds of proposals were submitted seeking more than $10 million in grant funding; $670,000 was granted, showing how great the need was. Then the funds were suddenly no longer available at all. Since then, the National Maritime Alliance has fought to get the funds restored and late in 2013 announced that the Maritime Administration and the National Park Service have signed a memorandum of agreement, which will make available $7 million in funding over the next several years. Be sure to make plans to attend the lO'h Maritime Heritage Conference, which the Alliance organizes and NMHS sponsors, in Norfolk, Virginia, next September. (See page 48 for details on the conference). In Minnesota, the Minnesota Marine Art Museum in Winona recently opened a new state-of-the-art gallery to house and display world-class marine art, thanks to the vision and generous support of Mary Burrichter and Bob Kierlin, and the Stephen and Barbara Slaggie Family. (See www.mmam.orgfor more information). It encourages us all to witness these successes. In each case, behind every project, there is inordinate determination, vision, and a heartfelt understanding of why this is so important today and for future generations. We are not strangers to the ship on the lee shore and we will continue to fight her fight, but, some days, it is refreshing to celebrate the maritime heritage successes along the way. -Burchenal Green, NMHS President 4

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NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY

PU BLISH ER'S C IRCLE: Perer Aron , G uy E. C. Maid and , Ronald L. Oswa ld O FFICERS & T RU ST EES : Chairman, Ronald L. O swald; Vice Chairman, Ri chard o R. Lopes; President, Burchenal G reen; Vice Presidents, D eirdre O'Regan , We ndy Paggiona, Nancy Schnaars; Treasurer, Howard Slotnick; Secretary, Jean Warr; Trustees: Charles B. Anderson; Walrer R. Brown; RADM Joseph F. Callo, USNR (Rer.); Thomas Daly; W illiam S. Dudley; D avid S. Fowler; William Jackson Green; Karen H elmerson; Roberr Kamm; Ri chard M. Larrabee; Guy E. C. Ma idand; Capt. Brian McAllister; CAPT Sally C hin McElwreath, USNR (Ret.); James ]. M cNamara; Mi chael W Morrow; Richard Patrick O 'Leary; Timothy J. Runya n; Richard Scarano; Philip J. Shapiro; Bradford D. Smid1; Cesare Soria; Phi lip J. Webster; Daniel W. Whalen; Trustee Elect: Roberta Weisbrod; Chairmen Emeriti: Walter R. Brown, Alan G. Choate, Guy E. C. Maitland, Howard Slotnick; President Emeritus, Peter Stanford FOUNDER: Karl Kortum (191 7-1996) OVERSEERS: Chairman, RADM David C. Brown, U SMS (Rer.); C live C ussler; Richard du Moulin; Alan D. Hutchison; Jakob Tsbrandtsen; Gary Jobson ; Sir Rob in Knox-Johnston ; John Lehman; H . C. Bowen Smith; John Srobart; W illiam H. White; William Winterer N MHS ADVISORS: Chairman, Melbourne Smith; George Bass, O swald Brert, Fran cis J. Du ffy, John Ewald, T imoth y Foote, W illiam G ilkerson, Steven A. H yman , J. Russell Jinishian , Gunnar Lund eberg, Conrad Mi lster, William G . M uller, Smart Parnes, Lori Dillard Rech, N ancy Hughes Richardson, Bert Rogers, Joyce Huber Smith SEA HISTORY EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD : Chairman, Timothy Runyan; Norman Brouwer, Robert Browning, W illiam Dudley, D aniel Finamore, Kevin Foster, John Jensen, Joseph M eany, Lisa N orling, C arla Rai1n Ph ill ips, Walter Rybka, Quentin Snediker, W illiam H. W hite N MHS STAFF: Executive Director, Burchenal Green; M embership Director, Na ncy Schnaars; Accounting, Peter Yozzo; M arketing Directo1; Steve Lovass-Nagy; Volunteer Coordinator, Jane Maurice; Executive Administrative Assistant, Kell ey Howard; D evelopment A ssociate, Susan Chitwood; Sea History Press Sales Direcror, Karen Lunstead SEA HIS T ORY: Editor, D eirdre O 'Regan ; Advertising, Wendy Paggiona; Copy Editor, Shelley Reid; Editor-at-Large, Peter Stanford

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014


LETTERS Balance of Interpretation Some m ight wonder how m uch job security there is fo r up-and-coming historians. D on't we kn ow all there is to k now already? But judging from the coverage of Wa r of 1812 stories in Sea H istory and elsewhere, it appears that there is always another interpre tation to be h ad . W ith thi s in mind, I appreciated reading Professor Lambert's article in yo ur las t issue. H e used the word "balance" in his tide, a nd coincidentally his article helps resto re the balance of interpretations on the Wa r of 1812 history we have been presented with on this side of the Atlantic. My wife and I have been enjoying som e of the commemorations of the War of 1812 in the las t two years, from the grand spectacles to the sm aller lect ures and reenac tments at local museums a nd historic sites, but it seems like the balance of interpretation of why we we nt to war, how we managed the war, and how we fa red in the end is a little skewed . I was particularly interested to learn about Viscount C astlereagh 's role. Just imagine how today's power brokers wo uld navigate such treacherous waters between warring parties, each jockeying for position in a rapidly changing world. Imagine doing all that in a world w ith extremely slow lines of communication and, as a result, where great power was p ut in the hands of individuals who had to have the autho rity to m ake decisions o n the fly. Now, we just need to hear from the Ca nadians and the Native Americans next to get the full story. WARR EN M oFFLER Towson, Ma ryland " On" or " In" In yo ur las t issue's "Ship No tes, Seaport, and M useum News," yo u noted th at Capta in James A. Kirk, the new captain of the recently launched Zumwalt (DDG 1000) has "... served afloat on dest roye rs, cruisers, fri gates, ..... " My mother, bo rn in Lo ndon, used to tell us she almos t came to America on a boat, the SS Titanic, in 1912. O ne can always tell when a la ndsm an is writing, as they fai l to use the appropriate nautical terms "aboard," "on board " or "in" a ship, and "the" usually precedes a ship's name, as "the USS The Sullivans. "

SEA HI STORY 146, SPRTNG 2014

We Welcome Your Letters! P lease send correspondence to : editorial@seahistory.org or by U SPS to : Editor, Sea History, 7 Timberknoll Road, Pocasset , MA 02559 "RMS " is probably too esoteric fo r landsmen, but I wou ld ge ntly try to correct mother's use of "on" by reminding her that a ship is a sailor's hom e, and while she does not live "on" a house, neither does he live "on" a sh ip. We sometimes hear of people riding "on" an aircraftthe smokers who step outside to light up, perh aps. CW04(Co MM) JoHN H Au USN R (R ET) Monterey, California

From the editor: H ow right y ou are. The use of "on a ship" only would apply ifyou were literally standing on a vessel, p robably more of a raft. People don't say, after all, that they crossed the lake "on a canoe" but rather "in a canoe," so it doesn't have to be decked over for this phrasing to, ahem, hold water. Thank you for y our keen eye and alerting me to this oversight Now, with regards to the use of the article "the" before a ship's name, we get a lot of questions about this form at, so it is worth examining here. ft is not necessary (but is deemed acceptable) to use the article "the" before a ship's name because a name is a proper noun. You would not, for example, use "the" before a person's name and a ship's identity is treated the same way. Readers will notice that in Sea History, they will never see "the" p receding "USS" in a ship's name. ft is an either/or situation. "We visited USS C onstitution ... " or "We visited

Constitution .. ." are both acceptable, and it would be fine to say "We visited the Constitution ..." but not "We visited the USS Consti tution"-an article and a p refix are not used together. H aving an article as part of the name certainly can confuse people, as in the case ofthe US Navy's Arleigh Burkeclass destroyer The Sullivans, named af ter five brothers-Joseph, Francis, Albert, Madison, and George Sullivan- who lost their lives when their vessel, USS Juneau, was hit and sunk by a Japanese torpedo during the naval battle of Guadalcanal. While one would not be incorrect to say 7 was reading about the The Sull iva ns the other day, " it would be better to just use no article or use the prefix "USS " instead. Readers may also notice that the prefixes to vessel types (USS, SS, SY, MY, etc.) are not the same fo nt style as the name because it is not technically part ofthe name. W hen You Can 't Save Them All I was sad to read about the demise of the Wawona (Sea H istory 145). Kn owing that we can't save t hem all , when is someone going to create a council that has the k nowled ge and experience to make the hard decisions abo ut wh at ships we save and what ones we let go? Ri ght now, it seem s like the whole country is flying by the seat of its pants, w ith no plan that looks at the big pictu re. Will the precious resources we have be spread so thin that

Join Us for a Voyage into History Our seafaring heritage comes alive in the pages of Sea Histo1y , from the ancient mariners of Greece to Portuguese navigators openin g up the ocean world to the heroic efforts of sailors in modern-da y conflicts. Each issue brin gs new insights and discoveries. If you love the sea, rivers, lakes, and

bays-if you appreciate the legacy of those who sa il in deep water and their workaday craft, then you belong with us.

Jo in Today ! Mail in the form below, phone 1 800 221-NMHS (6647), or visit us at: www.seahistory.org (e-mail: nmhs@sea history.org)

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it just slows down the death spiral of m any sh ips without effectively saving the m ost important ones? How abo ut we decide wh ich ships are so important to our history that they must be saved, and let the other ones go. It must have been a sad day when the Wawona crew watched their ship leave fo r good, but with a sister sh ip not far away (the 1895 Pacific lumber schooner C. A. Thayer in San Francisco) and having been restored to the tune of m illions of dollars not too long ago, I can understand why Wawona could be let go. PHOTO BY 5 1-11\NNON FI TZGE RA LD COURTESY NO RT HWEST SEAPO RT

The 1837 Pacific lumber schooner W awon a leaving her home port far the last time, 2 003 . Kudos to the Northwes t Seaport crew for reading the writing on the wall and for acting responsibly and for m aking the effort to document their ship before it was gone for good . J OHN ECKERT

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Lost Graves started reading abo ut the sea as a tenyear-old boy in Colorado, and fell in love with ships and sailing despite my inland location . I sailed to Guam as a 15-year-old (underage Army enlistee) aboard the USAT General Edwin M Patrick late in World War II and later m arried a fisherman's daughter from Maine/New H ampshire. Being a writer and family historian, I am always interested in "lost graves," so I was particularly interested in Melbourne Smith's letter regarding the unmarked grave of naval architect John W illis Griffi ths in yo ur last issue (Sea History 145 , "Letters") . My great-grandfa ther, Jasper W illiam Johnson , was a well-known m agistra te in Colorado and som ewhat of a fam ous m an in Colorado history and the Pacific N orthwest. He was involved in the "Pig War" (a.k. a. the Northwestern Boundary War, 1859) where we faced off with G reat

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014


Britain, and the only losses were the lives of many a pig that was cooked and shared by those who awaited the (peaceful) settlement. While my great-grandfather was not of the sea, he too lies in an unmarked grave in a Colorado cemetery. He had been buried in a Pueblo, Colorado, cemetery and at some point was moved to an-

jasper William Johnson (1837-1918)

other-the Pioneer Cemetery, which was pretty much a place for the poor and the indigent. When my fam ily went to visit his grave there, we were stunned to discover that, although they had an index card in their files with his name on it, that they could only direct us to the "area'' where his

remains lie. Our quest to properly identify his burial spot speaks to the human need to honor those who worked hard, suffered long, and accomplished much, only to be forgotten. Happy that John Willis Griffiths will have a proper stone! BRUCE L. SALISBURY, MSGT USAF (RET.) Aztec, New Mexico

The Paper Chart Call me old school, but I just don't see how getting rid of the paper nautical chart is a good idea. W ith the move to electronic charts and digital record-keeping, gone will be the opportunity to retrace the operations, shipboard culture, and personal notes associated with individual voyages. Warren Lammert's study of Captain Allen's nautical charts in "C harts that Tell a Story" is evidence of just that. How fantastic it must be to see and smell (I assume not touch) the old paper charts from our history. The voyage tracks all over those charts show patterns and rourines that the story of just one voyage cannot tell. How meaningful for a career sea captain to write "my last voyage" on the chart. I don't live anywhere near Maine, but I h ave to think that other maritime museums closer to home have some in their collections too. I'll have to call aro und. Lours W. WrNTERS Naples, Florida

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NMHS: A CAUSE IN MOTION Join Us for the NMHS 2014 Annual Meeting in Erie, Pennsylvania

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W e are delighted to announce that the National Maritime Historical Society is holding our A nnual M eeting in partnership w ith the North American Society for Oceanic History (NASOH) and the Canadian Nautical Research Society (CNRS) on 15-17 May in Erie, Pennsylvania. Home of the Erie Maritime Museum and the US Brig Niagara, Erie holds a special place in the annals of history as the building site and homeport for the 1813 USS Niagara and USS Lawrence, flagships of Lt. Oliver Hazard Perry, the hero of the Battle of Lake Erie. I have visited the museum once before and have been scheming for a chance to return because there is so much to see and do. The museum vividly interprets the dram atic story of the War of 1812 o n the G reat Lakes, a pivotal theater in the conflict. During my previous visit, I got to hear C aptain Walter Rybka, the museum's administrator and Niagara's senior captain, recount the story of the Battle of Lake E rie and of Perry's daring victory achieved from the Niagara's quarterdeck . I do not exaggerate when I say that C aptain Rybka is an American treasure. H e has agreed to recount this story fo r you during our m eeting and, if you have that and nothing else, The Brig N iagara and the Erie Maritime Museum in Erie, Pennsylvania, are it is more than worth the trip. hosting this year's NMH SINASOH /CNRS annual meeting and conference. The E rie M aritime Museum tells the story of Erie's role in G reat Lakes history, fo cusing o n the dram atic evem s of 10 September 1813. Exhibits fea ture the histo ry of the US Navy's first iron steamer, USS Michigan/Wolverine, as well as Erie's three historic lighthouses and the US Life-Savi ng Service, the fishing industry, and historic ship models. Conference participants will also have a special opportunity to view the exhibi tion of The Lloyd M cCajfery Collection: Miniature Figureheads of the US Navy (as fea tured in Sea H istory, Summer 201 2), on display at the Erie M aritime M useum through June of this yea r. The No rth American Society for O cean ic History comprises A merica's top m aritime scholars, and the conference planners amicipate more than fift y presentations on the latest research in maritime history and projects in m aritime heritage. We will post the program and presenters on our website as we get closer to the date, so check back w ith www. seahistory.org this spring for updates on the conference.

(above) One of the more compelling exhibits at the museum is the "live-fire" display that dem onstrates the hazards of ship-to-ship battles, where more men were injured and killedfrom the splintering wood than were actually struck by cannonballs. The museum replicated the mid-section of USS Lawrence and then fired at itfrom the N iagara's carronades with 12- and 24-pound cannonballs, along with grape shot.

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Tours: 1 h ere will be a behind-the-scenes tour of the Erie M aritime Museum on Thursday night, followed by a welcome reception at the museum . O n Friday afternoon C aptain Rybka will lead the sta ff aboard the brig Niagara in demonstrating the ship's equipment, rigging, and setting and striking sail. For those able and interes ted , you can even do an "up and over" to the fighting tops, aloft in the rig. W eather permitting, each day N iagara's crew will take som e fifteen people at a time out in the ship's boats, under both oar and sail.

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014


Dine with a Presenter: At dinner on Friday night there will be an opportunity to "dine with a presenter." Gee to know one of the speakers at the conference by joining chem for an evening meal. Reservations will be made at area restaurants, a nd there will be a sign-up sheet to select the restaurant and presenter of your choice. (Each person wi ll pay his/her own fare.) NMHS Business Meeting: On Saturday, each organization will conduct its business meeting. 1he NMH S ann ual meeting is always interesting and provides a good opportunity to learn more about what is going on with yo ur Society and hear from Sea History editor Deirdre O'Regan about what's happening with the magazine, including updates on stories we've covered in past issues. Three Lights on the Lake-Lighthouses Tour: Saturday afternoon we wi ll to ur the only three lighthouses along the Western Peninsula- the Erie Land Lighthouse, the North Pier Light, and the Presque Isle Lighthouse. This is a rare opportunity-these lightho uses are not open to the public. Self-Guided Tour of Erie's Downtown Historic Sites and Museum: Board the free Erie Bayliner Trolley (at the Erie Maritime Museum or near the Sheraton) to explore downtown sites any time during the co nference. The Erie Art Museum (open Saturday/ Sunday) and the Erie County Historical Society (open Saturday only) are offering discounted admission to conference participants. Your conference materials w ill include a trolley map and schedule, wirh a list of ocher sires of interest wit hin a few blocks of the trolley line, as well as restaurants and pubs along rhe roure to suir every taste and budget. Banquet: The conference final reception a nd banquet (cash bar) ar rheAmbassador Conference Center wi ll take place Samrday evening. Conference Hotel: Sheraton Erie Bayfront H otel at 55 Wesr Bay Drive, Erie PA 16507. 1his beautiful new horel, located w ithin walking distance of the museum , is the conference venue for our meeting. We have a great rate of$ 129 per night; I recommend you make yo ur reservation now. Be sure to use rhe code North American Society for Oceanic History (NASOH) to get the group rare. You ca n access chis link on line ar www.SeaHistory.org to make yo ur room reservation; please email nmhs@seahistory.o rg or call NMHS ar 1-800-221-NMHS if yo u have any difficulry accessing the website. On behalf of our chairman Ronald Oswald and our program chairman Captain Cesare Sorio, I exrend a mosr hearty welcome to you co join us chis May as the Society begins rhe second half of its centenary. -Burchenal Green, NMH S President REGISTRATION FEES: A ll registration fees for the conference include continental breakfasts, lunches, receptions, and the

Saturday banquet and lighthouse tour. Member (NMHS, CNRS, Erie Maritime, or NASOH): $229 Non-member: $299 Smdent: $125 One-day regisrrarion: Thursday $80; Friday $80; Saturday $140

You can make your Annual Meeting reservation online at www.SeaHistory.org or by calling NMHS headquarters at 914 737-7878, ext. 0 or by mailing in the registration form on rhe wrapper of chis issue of Sea History.

Special Offer from the Brig Niagara! The US Brig Niagara is offering a special sail training program in conj unction with rhe NASOH conference, from 14 May through 1 June. Conference attendees will be eligible for a 50% discount off the regular micion, or $750 total, which includes lodging onboard rhe ship during the conference, plus full lodging and board after the conference. Participants will have rhe opportunity to help rig and sai l Niagara, a reconstructed sq uare-rigged 19th-century warship, in an experiential learning environment specifically geared cowards graduate smdents and maritime history professionals. For details, call 814 452-2744 ext. 214 or emai l marineops@Bagshipniagara.org. (www.Bagshipni agara.org)

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014

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okk Historic Ships P11 a Lee Shore Underway and Making Way-Schooner Adventure and Mystic Seaport's Whaler Charles W. Morgan Sailing Again Twenty-five years after Captain Jim Sharp donated the 1926 schooner Adventure to the citizens of Gloucester, Massachusetts, the 122-foot Essex-built fishing vessel set sail last summer with new spars, sails, and rigging after many years of restoration work through many stalls and stops and changes in organization. Some thought she'd never make it, but at the annual Gloucester Schooner Festival last Labor Day weekend, Adventure was the queen of the fleet and her return to sea is something in which we can all take pride. Just down the coast at Mystic Seaport in Connecticut, the museum's flagship, the 1841 whaler Charles W. Morgan, was relaunched last summer after nearly five years out of the water for a major restoration of her hull. By spring, the shipyard crew will have stepped masts, replaced her rig, and bent on a new suit of sails to prepare the ship for her 38th voyage. This summer, both historic ships will be sailing along the coast of southern New England, making port stops in Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts. Be sure to visit them in port or check out ways you can participate and support their ongoing efforts to keep these historic ships operational. When so many historic ships are "on a lee shore," it is welcome news to see these two vessels sailing again, and the credit goes to the many, many people who have worked on them, supported them, and kept the faith that their vision to see these ships sailing again would come to pass.

Schooner Adventure by John Fuller as t August, G lo ucester's flagship, the 1926 schooner Adventure, pointed her bow our to sea and set sail for the first rime in 21 yea rs, and the emotions among all who were present were tangible. A few weeks later, Adventure led the parade of sail fo r the annual G louces ter Schooner Fes tival and then raced in the M ayo r's C up race, placing second after the 1930 A merican Eagle (another Essex-built schooner, now operating as a M aine windjammer). Adventure's former ow ner, Captain Jim Sh arp, served as honorary captain fo r the race, w ith O cean C lass room Foundation's Captain G reg Bailey in command, and Pride ofBaltimore's long-time m as ter, Capta in Ja n Miles serving as tacticia n. Peter Bent, of Brown's Marine in G loucester, completed the quarterdeck ream-a "dream team" indeed! After so ma ny yea rs of wa tching visitin g schooners sail in a nd sail our of the harbor, competing in the annual schooner races, it was incredibly satisfying to see the hometown's flagship participate. Adventure is rhe las t of the storied line of dory fishi ng schooners built in neighboring Essex and sailed our of G loucester, M assachusetts. She has a spoon bow and no bowsprit, built on the plans by Thom as

L

IO

The 1926 Adventure underway in 2013. McM anus, who designed the "knockabout" schooner as a way to keep the crew on deck and off the "w idowmaker" bowsprit that rook many a fi sherm a n's life . She cost her original owners $65,000 to build, but between 1926 and 1953, she landed $4 million worth of fis h-more than any other vessel our of Cape A nn. A fter she was deem ed obsolete as a commercial fis h ing vessel, Adventure embarked on a second career as a Maine wi ndjammer, operating out of Penobscot Bay, Maine. She sailed with Captain Jim

Shar p for 25 years in this capacity before he donated her ro the town of G loucester when the Coast G ua rd pulled his certificate to carry passengers, citing a need for significant repairs and modifications. Since that day in 1988 when she sailed back home to G loucester, it has been a long journey. The goal of returning Adventure to sailing condition and requalifying for a certifica te to carry passengers h as been kep t ali ve, som etimes on life support,

(continued on page 13)

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014


Whaler Charles W. Morgan

by D eirdre O 'Regan

n mid-M ay ar high ride, rhe 172-year-old whaling ship Charles W Morgan will leave rhe dock ar Mys ric Seaport and point her bow rewards rhe riny Mysric River drawbridge. Ir will have been more rhan 72 years since she las r passed rhrough ir. Lasr July, rhe Mo rgan was relaunched afrer almosr fi ve years high and dry in the museum's Henry B. duPonc Preservation Shipyard. The museum hauled her out in November of 2008 for a much-needed res torarion of her hull. She had been serving as a static museum ship since she arrived in M ys tic in 194 1. For more than thirty yea rs she was land locked in a sand pir, but in 1973 rhe museum had her hauled and repaired so she could be refloaced. She was aga in hauled in 1982 fo r a th ree-yea r restoration, but only from the waterline upwa rds. The museum sraff kepr an eye on rhe condirion of the hull over the years, of course, and the shipya rd crew began collecring, anywhere they cou ld, suitable wood for a future major overhaul of the hull . Finally, in 2008, it was time to rake care of the hull below the waterline. The yard work chat followed was a remarkable and meticulous achievement. Every detail of rhe ship's original fa bric was documented both by time-honored methods of measuring, drawing, and photography, but also wirh the lares r in rechnology, including 3-D laser scans of rhe interior and x- ray examinarion of rhe keel bolrs. Once rhe grear fesriviries of the relaunch had wa ned, it was back to wo rk fo r rhe shipya rd crew-sh aping new spars and repairing old ones and preparing standin g and running rigging; a fu ll suit of sails is being builr by sailmaker Nathaniel S. W ilson and his crew in East Boothbay, M aine. In the museum's blacksmith shop, the smiths have fabricated hundreds of iron fittin gs, chain places, and anything else rhe ship needs. In addirion to rhe physical work on rhe ship, rhere is a crew to hi re, itineraries to wo rk out, and safety inspecrions and communications with the Coast G uard to be kepr up wirh. In the office, more staff are organizing the many people who will be involved along rhe way, from rhe lucky volunteer participam s who will come aboard fo r a 24-hour stay, to the "s towaway" who will join the sailing crew for the entire summer voyage. The stowaway will blog and share rhrough a variety of media his/her experience. Before she gers underway, the M organ will be temporarily fitted with modern safety and navigation equipment, sanirarion sysrems, a wo rking galley, and ocher necessary irems for safe handling underway wirh a crew living and working aboard, 24/7. W hen rhe 38'h voyage is complered , the 21"-cemury addirions will be removed so rhac the ship returns to her historic look and configuration at the museum. Finally, the vessel wi ll need an addition al 50 to 60 long tons ofballasr, which they' ll add afrer she's navigated out of rhe Mys ric River and made her way over to New London. Ar rhe museum, rhe Morgan has 80 long tons of ballas r, which h as rhe shi p floa ting wirh a 12-1/2 foot drafr, which will allow her ro pass in and our of rhe river. M ys tic Seaport has hired a captain for the 38'h voyage, Captain Richard "Kip" Files of M aine. Some may know him as rhe caprain and owner of rhe rhree-masred

I

(right-top to bottom) C harles W. Morgan's life at Mystic Seaport: her arrival in 1941; as a dockside attraction with daily demomtrations for many years up until her recent haulout; 2 008- 2 013, in shipyard for the restoration ofher hull; launch day, 21July2013. (Left) Captain Kip Fifes.

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014

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schooner Victory Chimes, bur Captain Files is also the primary captain of the 207-fr. 1877 barque Elissa out of Galvesto n, Texas, for her a nnual cruises in the G ul f of Mexico. Files will be the Charles W Morgan's 22nd capta in, and he is charged with hiring a crew a nd prepa ring the ship fo r sea. The Morgan's 38'" voyage will rake her to poims between New London, Connecticut, and Boston , Massachusetts, including a run out to the Srellwagen Bank National M arine Sanctuary north of Cape Cod, where the crew will pay hom age to the whales that were the reason the ship was built in the first place. New Bed fo rd, kn own as the "Whaling City," w ill be an important stop, as it was the place where the M organ was origin ally built in 1841. O n her return trip, the M organ will stop in Bourne, Massachusetts, to ra ke pa rt in the centennial celebrati ons of The 1')47 eastern-rig dragger Roann, restored the Cape Cod Canal. by Mystic Seaport and relaunched in 2 008, Be sure to check back with will accompany the M organ as a support vessel. the museum's website often to check on the lates t goings-on with the ship restoration and for updates to the summer schedule. (Mystic Seaport, 75 Greenmanville Ave., Mys tic, CT 06355; Ph. 860 572-071 1; www. mys ticseaporr. org) ,!, (left) The M organ's masts were stepped with silver coins representing the key dates of 1841, 1')41, and 2 013 beneath them. (below) The map of the38th Voyage.

42° 30' N

Nautical miles 0

20

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41 °30'N

Lona 'lsfontl Sound cf"' Sound

Block Island 71 •3 o•w

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SEA HISTORY 146, S PRING 2014


(continued from page 10)

Captain Jim Sharp (left) keeps an eye aloft while Captain Jan Miles looks on, with the schooner Virginia abeam to port. (right) Adventure found her crew for the day more than able and willing to haul on the mainsail halyards and get underway by a determined group of people, who understood her value to the region and its rich seafaring heritage. Her owner, the non-profit Glouces ter Adventure, Inc., has enjoyed unqualified support and good will over the years, but the money has come in spurts, and the res toration work followed suit. In the las t few yea rs, howeve r, we've stepped up the pace and som e generous donors and grants have allowed us to push ahead to the point where we are sailing again. But we are not done yet. In addition to the ongoing physical restoration work down below to build our the galley, the midships spaces (formerly the fish hold), and foc's'le and captain's cabin, we a re also working with the business plan written for the organization in 2008 and updated in 2012 , thanks to a grant from the Lynch Foundation. With plans to conduct educational programs on board, the hold is being configured with just two fish pens to allow for space down below to serve as a classroom/ laboratory. The ship will be equipped w ith a multi-media AV system to accommodate a variety of uses, including presentations and films. A new Detroit Diesel 210 HP engine, donated by Jim Knott of Gloucester, and

an Onan 21.5KV l 15/220V generator were installed in 2012. All-new electrical and plumbing systems will be installed, as well as a navigation system. Adventure wi ll be hauled this spring to install another thru-hull fitting and to clean and paint the hull. When she is back in the wa ter, a final stability rest will be performe d by John Koopman, nava l architect of Propu lsion Data Services, Inc. The crew is working towards the goal of having the schooner qualify for a US Coast G uard Sub-Chapter T cenification in time for the summer sailing seaso n. Adventure will h ave the look and feel of a new vessel when she sets sail again in 2014 with thanks going to so many-the ever-resilient board of directors, staff, donors, granters, faithful members, gifted shipwrights, and most significantly, the overwhelming support of Adventure's dedicated volunteers and the citizens of Gloucester. During the 2014 sailing season Adventure will sail out of Gloucester on weekends and a couple of midweek days . We are hoping to sa il to Boston, as well as Provincetown on Cape Cod-both were regular ports of call during Adventure's career as a fishin g schooner. It would be particularly m ea ningful if Adventure

could get reacquainted with the Fish Pier in Boston, where betwee n 1926 and 1953 she sold most of her catch . Other New England ports are being considered as well; however, we will likely stay close to home our first year out. When not underway, Adventure will serve as a dockside attraction in downtown G loucester for all to see and to learn about the history of the vessel and the legacy of the town's once large and active fleet of schooners that transformed a region. Come sail with us in 2014 to learn of Adventure's legacy, see whales on Stellwagen Bank, or cruise around Cape Ann looking for historic lighthouses and enjoying the natural beauty of the coast from the sea. 1,

Joh n Fuller is the executive director of Gloucester Adventure, Inc., a 501(C)(3) nonp rofit organization. Call or email john for further information: Ph. 978 281-8079; jfuller@schooner-adventure.org; POB 1306, Gloucester, MA 01931. Adventure is berthed at Gloucester Marine Railways, Rocky Neck, Gloucester. Schooner Adventure was the featured vessel in "H istoric Ships on a Lee Shore" in Sea History 121, Winter 2 007- 08.

(l-r) Schooners Virginia, Adventure, and American Eagle ghosting along, wing-on-wing, during the Mayor's Cup Race, 2013 .


THESSALONICA: THE MARITIME HISTORY 0 F A MED I EVAL METRO POL Is by Dr. Eugenia Russell hessalonica (often referred to as Thessaloniki or Salonika, its Ottoman name) is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of the periphery (administrat ive region) of Central Macedonia. Its metropolitan area encompasses about a million people. During the Middle Ages, it was also the second major city, part of the

a Venetian colony, and a Turkish town." So writes the great philhellene historian W illiam Miller (1864-1945), summing up both the significance and the turbulent history of the great city. The city was founded by the Macedonian King Kassandros (or Cassander, c. 350-297 BC) in 316 BC by unifying several townships, in the manner of the

The modern-day Port of Thessalonica, a designated "Free Zone," is a major commercial center on the Gulf of Thermai on the Aegean Sea, handling more than 16 million tons of cargo per year and 220, 000 passengers through its container port and passenger terminals. Byzantine Empire, which had its capital in Constantinople, modern Istanbul. The "city of Philip" and "city of Constantine" had several parallels, such as their relationship to their patron saints: Thessalonica was the city of Demetrius, and Constantinople the city of the Virgin Mary. Their privileged seaside location was another commonality, the one that we will address in this article. Thessalonica reached its heyday as a flourishing cosmopolitan medieval port in the 15th century, a legacy from which the modern city benefits still. Initially, however, its location on the coast was valued primarily for military reasons and not for its potential for maritime exploitation. This article examines how the city's maritime identity was formed from its foundation to the end of its Byzantine history in 1430.

In Search of the Sea "Salonika, the 'Athens of Medieval Hellenism,' has been by turns a Macedonian provincial city, a free town under Roman domination, a Greek community second only to Constantinople, the capital of a short-lived Latin kingdom, and of a brief Greek empire to which it gave its name,

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mythical creation of Athens by Theseus. T here were twenty-six townships involved, among them Chalastra, Thermi, and Kissos (modern Hortiatis), which are still in existence today. The king named

BlBLI OTHi:.QUE NAT!QNALE D E PRANCE

Medallion bearing the likeness of Philip II ofMacedon, 3rd century AD. the new city after his wife, daughter of Philip II and half-sister ofAlexander III, or A lexander the Great as he is remembered. Philip named the princess to commemorate his victory in Thessaly against the Phoceans in the Barde of the Crocus Field (c. 353 BC), a common practice amongst

Macedonian rulers. The Byzantines, however, referred to Thessalonica as the "city of Philip,'' after her glorious father. The princess is mostly remembered in local folklore, where she is represented as a mermaid sailing across the seas looking for her lost brother, Alexander, and hoping for his return to kingship. The city of Thessalonica was immediately made the capital of the ancient Macedonian kingdom. The capital of ancient Macedonia changed twice. Initially, it was Aigai (Vergina), as archaeologists would conclude from the royal treasures discovered there by Professor Manolis Andronikos (1919-92). Later it was Pella, and then in turn the newly fo unded city ofThessalonica. It is generally overlooked that the transfer of the Macedonian capital from the original location of Aigai to Pella by King Archelaos I (reigned 413 BC to 399 BC ) and then to Thessalonica by Kassandros had one very important reason behind it-the Macedonian kings realized how crucial the sea was for success in war in terms of natural defenses. Geomorphological changes in the area, however, altered Pella's formerly seaside location. The route of the ancient road, the Via Egnatia, through the area indicates to the modern visitor where the seashore would have been in antiquity. Interestingly, in order for the archaeological site to be excavated, the modern town of Pella had to be demolished and rebuilt by the Greek government in a nearby location, an undertaking that indicates the significance of this heritage to the Greeks.

A Privileged Location The Romans, too, identified Thessalonica as an ideal location. They could envision how it could become a junction of administration and commerce, and in 379 AD they made it capital of their praetorian prefecture of Illyricum. This, coinciding with the decline of the great Hellenistic city of Corinth, led to Thessalonica becoming a vibrant Greco-Roman center to which, later, a distinct C hristian identity was added, both in terms of architectural heritage and the flourishing of letters. In the center of the city, the Arch of Galerius and the Roman Rotunda, both by the Via Egnatia and near the Roman forum,

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014


Sea

Ionian Sea

Route of the Via Egnatia assert that Roman heritage. Much of the visual identity of the city was formulated during the Roman yea rs; as with the Macedonians, the Romans were not seafarers . They appreciated the natural defenses and the fertility of the location-four rivers run through the city's hinterland: Haliakmon, Lo udias, Axios (Vardar) and Gallikos (Ekhedoros)-bur it was nor until the Byzantine era that the city would become truly immersed in maritime culture, the legacy of wh ich is with us to the present day.

A peculiar characteristic of rhe Byzantine Empire was that although the people themselves were keen seamen, the rulers, due to their Illyrian roots, were not. That meant that the administration did not place great emphasis on the navy, leaving the seas open to the Venetians and the Genoese, who were more than happy to rake advantage of the situation. Although the Italian ships were often manned by Greeks, the Byzantine Emperors had to make treaties with the Italian lords to keep them quiet. Privileges included the award

Greek fire was an effective weapon used by the Byzantine navies; it proved paricularly usefal in the Siege of Constantinople (717-18).

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014

of certain islands, tax relief, money, gifts in kind, and the ceremonial adoption of lordships in question by the Byzantine emperor. Constantinople itself had dedicated quarters for fo ur Italian merchant powers: the Venetians, the Genoese, the Pisans and the Amalfirans . As the Byzantine Empire weakened, the Italian powers increased in confidence and wealth. Thessalonica itself was eventually surrendered to the Venetians for protection. Sister Cities The two cosmopolitan maritime centers of Thessalonica and Constantinople developed in parallel under the Byzantine Empire. Their relationship became more interdependent with the loss of the hinterland to the Ottoman Turks and with increasing rivalry towards the 15th century. A key moment in this relationship was the fall of Adrianople. The date of this event is a matter of contention amongst scholars, with the main dares proposed as 1361, 1369, and 1380. The significance of this conquest for the two cities was that they could now only communicate with each other by sea. The rivalry of the two cities was intensified by a Byzantine civil war, which saw members of the imperial family basing themselves in Thessalonica and treating the city as a second capital. Such imperial presence benefited Thessalonica in terms of patronage and the flourishing of letters, known to cultural historians by the term Palaiologan Renaissance. On the other hand, the geographical separation, rivalry, and increasing social unrest culminating in a popular uprising-the Zealots' Revolt-made Thessalonica in the late medieval era by necessity semiautonomous, almost in the sense that the island of Lesbos was under the rule of the Garrilusi family, who owed nominal allegiance to Constantinople. As an example, while Manuel II Palaiologos (reigned 1391-1425) was in Thessalonica (1382-87), he used the distance from his father, John V Palaiologos (1332-91), in the capital to pursue h is own foreign policy, which was much more anti-Ottoman and anti-Catholic than the official line. Appreciating the potential of Thessalonica's location, the Venetians sought in 1423 to make it part of their maritime 15


The famous White Tower was built by the Ottomans in the 15th century to help defend the harbor. It later served as a prison and execution center. When the Greeks regained control of the city in 1912, they remodeled and whitewashed (hence the name) the structure. Today it houses a museum that interprets the city's long history and has become a symbol of the city. empire by connecting it to existing territories such as Di.irres, Corfu, Negroponte (Euboea), and Candia in Crete. In fact, they claimed that they wanted to make the city into a "second Venice"! 1he Byzantine despot Andronikos Palaiologos (1403-1429), son of Manuel II, after great inner turmoil and discussions with the city's elderly Archbishop Symeon, gave up the city to the Venetian governors Sancto Venier and Niccolo Georgi and became a monk, assuming the name Akakios. It was traditional for Byzantine rulers to retire into monasticism after political failure or loss of power, often choosing a monastic name with rhe same initial. The young prince was suffering from many ailments and died in the Pantokrator Monastery in Constaminople in 1429. The Ottoman threat would continue, however. Archives of rhe Venetian Senate indicate that the defense and upkeep of the city proved more expensive than rhe Venetians were prepared for. The Ottoman sultan Murad II continued the naval blockade that he had started in 1422; the shortage in foodstuffs and depopulation aggravated the already stressed conditions.

It seemed that the end was only a matter of rime, and the people congregated in the city's churches for refuge. 1he Venetian experiment was doomed, and eventually the Ottomans took Thessalonica in 1430, the date which is accepted as a convention al end to the city's medieval history. Thessalonica was an important maritime Mediterranean port, every bit as important as Smyrna, Alexandria, and Beirut. Historians have not explained as yet why it did nor quire share their fame although it did share their fate of faded glory. While nor claiming to have answered this difficult historical question,

this article hopes to have provided some insights as to how the city came into being and whar drove its successes and destiny. Eventually the entire Mediterranean Sea with all its historic ports would become marginalized during the Renaissance as the world would look outwards to the new opportunities that ocean voyaging explorers had opened up with the discoveries of new sea routes and continents. European interest would no more revolve around the Mediterranean. The Age of Exploration had opened up new theaters, causing the maritime empires of the great Italian cities to be eclipsed and Italian explorers such as John Cabot (1450-1499) and Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) to work for foreign powers. Ironically, the Byzantine Empire was key in this development, considering that the land routes to the East that had been utilized by Marco Polo closed off to Westerners with the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The Fall ofThessalonica in 1430 was seen as a foreshadowing of that event by contemporary Byzantine chroniclers. J, Dr. Eugenia Russell is lecturer in history at St. Mary's University College, Twickenham. She is the author o/Literature and Culture in Late Byzantine Thessalonica (2013) and Sr. Demetrius of Thessalonica: Cult and Devotion in the Middle Ages (2010). She is also the editor a/Spirituality in Late Byzantium (2009).

(right) Views ofthe sea from the Acropolis of Thessalonica . In view on the left is part of the city walls that were built in the Middle Ages. The walls, and 14 other sites in the city, are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

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SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014


A SPECTACULAR LIMITED EDITION PRINT by marine artist William G. Muller

The square-rigged ship Allerton, just arrived from sea, is nudged alongside a South Street pier near the Brooklyn Bridge, on a moonlit night over Manhattan's East River waterfront.

Nightdocking, East River, NY, 1895 An exclusive limited edition of 700 signed and numbered prints on 100 lb. Mohawk superfine cover paper using lightfast inks. Certificate authenticity. Image size: 28" x 20 1/4". Sheet size: 33" x 25 3/4". $175 each (Add $15 s&h in the US.) To order by phone call with your credit card:

1-800-221-NMHS (6647), ext. 0 Or visit our web site to order this or other William G. Muller prints:

www.seahistory.org NYS residents add applicable sales tax. For orders sent outside the US, call or email nmhs@seahistory.org/or shipping.


AMarblehead Seaman from the War of 1812 by Louis Arthur Norton

0

rdinary sailors fought in the American navy during the War of 1812, but most published tales are about the conflict's warships and its heroic officers. Little has been written about the seamen who fought onboard these vessels and their sometimes-hardscrabble lives. The following is the story of but one. First serried in 1629 as a Salem plantation, Marblehead, Massachusetts, was

a fishing community built on a neck of land, a granite peninsula. The town was separately incorporated in 1649. Originally called "Massebequash," the Naumkkeag name for a nearby river, it was quasiAnglicized to "Marvell Head" and "Marble Harbor" because early settlers mistook its ledges for marble. The name evolved into Marblehead, a village with a good natural northeast-facing harbor. In 1669 a Marbleheader noted, "Our ancestors came not

here for religion. Their main end was to catch fish .... Fish is the only great stapple which the Country produceth for forraine parts and is so benefitiall for making returns for what we need." 1 By 1744 the town was the homeport of ninety vessels largely engaged in fishing and marketing split-salted cod-a product with a long shelf life, inexpensive, easy to store, and in great demand. 2 Its first settlers came mostly from southwestern England, such as Cornwall and the channel islands of Guernsey and Jersey, to which they can trace their distinct dialect of clipped short words and dropped "h's," and developed their own unique local vernacular. Thus "Thrasher" became "Trash," "Orne" became "Horne," and "Crowninshield" became "Grounsel." "Jor of ile" meant to jaw awhile or engage in conversation, but in Marblehead it usually meant to argue. A leftover or piece of something was a "grummet" and a grumpy person was said to be "grouty." 3 Marblehead fishermen followed m their fathers ' footsteps and acquired the necessary seamanship at an early age. In the early years of the settlement, they used small sailing and rowing shallops and foreand-aft rigged apple-bowed "heeltapper" schooners. In 1765 Marblehead's population was the sixth-largest in the thirteen colonies, largely because of its fishing fleet and its maritime support industries. In town, long ropewalks and sail lofts supplied cordage and sails, while skilled carpenters made ships' blocks. Blacksmiths hammered out hardware for the rigging and hulls, and others supplied countless necessities for the fishing and shipping fleets sailing from Massachusetts's North Shore. The town's economy peaked just before the Revolutionary War, during which it provided or financed many of the privateer vessels that seized bounty from British merchant ships in the Atlantic. (left) Massachusetts, 1811. Marblehead boys were raised in a seafaring community and many went to sea as youths in fishing vessels and in merchant trading ships. In wartime, these seamen, already trained in the ways of the ship, made up the backbone of the fledging American navy and privateering fleet.

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SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014


The sa ilors of Marblehead formed the backbone of the Conrinenral Navy, forerunner of the United States Navy. The first Continental Navy vessel h ailed from nearby Beverly. The schooner Hannah, commissioned on 24 Aug ust 1775, was manned mostly by Marblehead sai lors under captains Nicholas Broughton and John Manley (a.k.a. Russell). The Revolutionary War took a substantial toll on the town's male population and its ships, property, and economy. Still, according to the nation's first census of 1790, Marblehead ranked as the tenth-largest town in the United States. Into this maritime community of Retired Royal Navy ships no longer deemed seaworthy were sometimes converted to prison Marbleheaders, Philip and Hannah ships in the age offighting sail. In addition to relieving overcrowded prisons ashore, prison Brimblecom married and raised a fam ily ships could also be towed to locations more convenient to the theaters of war. This sketch comprising a daughter, Alice (two in fants is of the p rison ship York, which was built as a 74-gun third-rate ship-of the-line and named Alice died before the surviving served in the Napoleonic Wars. HMS York was converted to a prison ship in 1819 and Alice), and two sons, Philip Junior and was anchored in Portsmouth Harbor. Phillip Brimblecom Jr. was imprisoned in the San Seward. 4 Philip Brimblecom, Jr., was born Nicolas, which had been an 80-gun third rate in the Spanish Navy when Commodore on 17 December 1786; a typical Marble- Horatio Nelson took her as a prize in the Battle of Cape St. Vincent. She served as a prison head youth, he learned the ways of the ship from 1800 until 1814. seafarer and the fisherman from relatives, neighbors, and friends in town. Yearning was sent to England and imprisoned near schooner Betsey, learned at Plymouth that for more adventure, yo ung Brimblecom Plymouth onboard the San Nicolas, a hulk the British had taken Brimblecom from embarked on a voyage aboard the 84- taken out of naval service deemed not prison and impressed him to service onton schooner Springbird to St. Sebastian, worth repair but sufficient for use as an board the 18-gun sloop of war HMS MarSpain, under the command of his uncle, anchored prison sh ip. tin commanded by John Evens. 8 Brimble5 Brimblecom was able to contact his com escaped the British warship by jumping Captain Nicholas Tucker. Off the Spanish coast, two French mother, Hannah, in Marblehead by letter overboard and swimming to safety. He vessels seized the Springbird on 26 Novem- and describe his predicament. It was then eventually managed to find an American ber 1809 and took her to St. Sebastian, 1810 and America was not yet at war with vessel and signed on as a crewman under France, where she was impounded as a Great Britain; therefore, there should have Captain Ba[i]ley C hase of Connecticut en prize by the French government. Napo- been no justification to hold an American route to Newburyport, Massachusetts . leon was then at war with Spain, and the as a prisoner of war. In response, Hannah But Brimblecom's bad luck would conUnited States was not officially a neutral sent Philip's protection certificate and a tinue. On 27 May 1812, the vessel was nation. Thus, Captain Tucker was trading copy of his baptismal record to the US wrecked on the low-lying Orkney Islands. with their adversary, and the French were Minister Plenipotentiary in London, Wil- This archipelago is punctuated by swift legally justified taking any American ship liam Pinkney. This would provide requi- cold currents and frequent whirlpools site documentation that Brimblecom was and mostly bare of vegetation because bound for a Spanish port. Springbird and her cargo were now indeed an American citizen. On 23 De- of the constant high-velocity winds that lost, but not her crew. Brimblecom fo und cember 1811, Pinkney's office scnr a re- blow across the islands. Brimblecom and other survivors himself in a foreign land with no know- sponse explaining they had tried to obtain ledge of its lang uage, plus his Marblehead the young man's release, but the British remained on the Orkneys for a short dialect was difficult for foreigners to had classified Brimblecom as a prisoner of while before making it to the mainland understand, even if they spoke English. war because he had been captured while of Scotland. On 12 June he signed on as a Nevertheless, he signed on as a crewman serving on what they considered a French crewmember in an American brig bound on what he likely assumed was a French privateer. 6 Distressed, on 2 March 1812 for New York; just six days later, America merchant ship bound for the Isle of France Hannah sent a detailed letter requesting declared war on Great Britain. On his (now Mauritius). Four days out of France, help to Secretary of State James Madison way across the Atlantic, Brimblecom was captured again by a British ship, the 18a British man-of-war captured the vessel describing her son's plight. 7 gun sloop of war HMS Avenger. This time, as a privateer, and the young seaman found About this time, Captain Joseph himself a prisoner of the Royal Navy. He Lindsey, master of the Marb lehead with the two countries at war, the British

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014

19


were completely justified in seizing the vessel and imprisoning the crew. He was imprisoned at St. John's, Newfoundland. He was not there too long; Captain David Porter, commander of the US frigate Essex, arranged for his release as part of a

to leave the world with the esteem of one's fellows .... Even if a man's life was considered a failure . . . such a life could be wholly redeemed through death for his country. 10

that the shot would more tightly fit the bore of the barrel. 12 While at the gun during the battle against Java, Brimblecom was badly wounded. An enemy ball shot away his arm above the left elbow. Constitution's surgeon, Amos Alexander Evans, As an able seaman, Brimblecom was amputated the distal portion of his left expected to be able to "hand, reef, and humerus bone, then cauterized and sutured steer." ABs were considered experienced the wound. 13 Constitution defeated Java seamen who understood the vocabulary and the British ship was ultimately blown used onboard ship; could name and prop- up. Seaman Phillip Brimblecom recovered erly use all the lines; knew how to splice, but was permanently crippled from his make seizings, and tie a vast variety of injury. He was discharged from the navy knots; and was competent working aloft in Boston on 13 March 1813. With only one arm, Brimblecom was not able to find work as a seaman. The government granted him a disability pension of six dollars per month, but this was inadequate to support both the navy veteran and his now-dependent mother. He twice wrote the US Navy complaining that he "was not able to do any thing for working" and noted, "some of the rest that was wounded with me has had an addition to their pension money." 14 Lamenting further, he said he was unable "to do anything for a living" and that he had "no friends Captain David Porter on earth." He respectfully requested the prisoner exchange on 1 September 1812. 9 government take his request "into conThe twenty-five-year-old Brimblecom imsideration and look after a poor distressed mediately embarked for the short passage , crippled sailor" who "for 22 long months ... ~ to New York and finally arrived back in the ~ [had] never seen a well day." The response United States on 15 September and on to to his request, if any, is unknown. In Captain William Bainbridge Marblehead on 22 September. His stay at 1816 Brimblecom was given a job at the home was very short lived. Days after his setting, striking, and stowing sails. He might Charlestown Navy Yard, USS Constituarrival back at home, a Lieutenant Mor- be ordered to holystone the deck, push a tion's homeport, and the following year he gan recruited him with the rank of able capstan bar, work a pump, or heave a lead worked in the Portsmouth Navy Yard just bodied seaman (AB) in the United States or grapple, and he needed to be handy with up the coast. What the jobs entailed was Navy. He was assigned to the 44-gun a needle and palm and serve a gun, as well not recorded. frigate Constitution under Captain Wil- as man the helm. A sailing warship dePhilip Brimblecom Jr. died in Marbleliam Bainbridge. Constitution and AB pended heavily on its ABs. head on 1 February 1824 at the young age Brimblecom sailed from Boston on 27 Brimblecom was assigned as first of 37 years, apparently unmarried. The October 1812. loader at the No. 1 long gun for battle sta- citizens of Marblehead had supported the As historian Christopher McKee de- tions. The muzzle-loaded eight-foot-long War of 1812, while many of the neighborscribed it in "War and Society: The Pathol- cannon usually fired a 24-pound iron shot ing Massachusetts towns had adamantly ogy of a Profession: Death in the United with a maximum efrective range of about opposed it, since war greatly hampered States Navy Officer Corps, 1797-1815," 1,200 yards. A trained gun-crew, typically New England 's ocean-borne trade. Of the typical sailor and naval officer of twelve men and a boy, could fire the wea- the 903 Marblehead men who served in the time pon about three times every five minutes. 11 the war, 726 were privateersmen and 120 On 29 December 1812, Constitution en- served as naval seamen-only fifty-seven was not in love with death or the gaged and ultimately defeated the 40-gun became soldiers. 15 Was Brimblecom a idea of death .... He saw dying for frigate HMS Java. As a loader, Brimble- typical sailor of the War of 1812? One one's country as a worthy end to life. com was stationed near the muzzle's left person is too small a sample to establish a It gave meaning and a higher purside by the open gun port. His job was to "typical" anything, but arguably he was a pose to the incomprehensible, but shove a gunpowder cartridge-bag into the good representation of a Marblehead universal, phenomenon of death .. .. barrel of the gun, followed by ramming mariner of the era-rebellious, responAll men must die; better, therefore, a cannon ball wrapped in a cloth wad so sible, resolute, and above all resilient. j:, 20

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f

USS Co nscitucion and HMS Java in battle. Painting by Patrick O'Brien.

NOTES 1

Samuel Eliot Morrison, The Maritime History of Massachusetts (Boston: Houghton M ifflin Company, 1921) 13. 2 Olaf U. Janzen, "The Logic of English Salt Cod: An Historical Revision." The Northern Mariner 23, no. 2, 2013, 123-134. 3 George Brown Goode, The Fishery and Fishing Industries of the United States, Section III (Wash in gton, DC: Government Printing Office, 1887) 67-68. 4 Sid ney Perley, ed., The Essex Antiquarian: An Illustrated ... Magazine Devoted to the Biography, Genealogy, History and Antiquities ofEssex County, Massachusetts, (Salem, MA: the Essex Antiq uaria n, 1908) vol. 12, 37. 5 National Archi ves: Joseph W ilson, Collector of the District of Marblehead and Lynn, official document no. 77 attest ing to the US citi zensh ip of Philip Brimblecom, dated 12 September 1803. 6 Natio nal Archives, RG 59, Letters Received by the Department of State Regarding Impressed Seamen, 1794-1815. 7 National Archives, Letters Received Regarding Impressed Seamen.

8

HMS Martin, assigned to blockade Delaware Bay during the War of 1812, was attacked, driven onto shoa ls, and burned in 1813 . Hurricane H azel exposed the vessel's rema ins on Cape May Point in 1954. She has subsequently been salvaged and placed on public di splay at the site. 9 Louis Arth ur Norton, "War of 1812 in the Pacific: Pelts, Ploys Plunder," Coriolis, vol. 3, No. 1, 1-20, 20 12. 1 °Christopher McKee, In "War and Society: The Pathology of a Profession: Death in the United States avyOfficerCorps, 1797-1815" (Campbell, Australia: Dept. of History, University of South Wa les, Australian Defence Force Academy) Vol. 3, o. 1, 1985, 1-2. 11 Spencer C. Tucker, Handbook of 19'" Century Naval Warfare (An napo lis, MD: Nava l Institute Press, 2000) 12. 12 Matthew Brenckle, Lauren McCormack and Sarah Watkins, Men of Iron: USS Constitution 's War of 1812 Crew (Charlestown, MA: USS Constitution Museum, 2013) 40. 13 Amos Alexander Evans, an apprentice to Dr. Benjamin Rush in Philadelphia, joined the

navy as a surgeon's mate in 1808. After serving onboard Constitution through the beginning of 1813, he was reassigned to the C harlestown Navy Yard and received an MD from nea rby Harvard University in 1814. In 1815 Evans was appo inted First Surgeon of the Fleet by Captain W ill iam Bainbridge and ass igned on the 74-gun Independence, aboard Amer ica's first ship of the line. (Fo r his service durin g Constitution's battles with Guerriere and Java, Congress awarded him two silver medals, one with a bust-portrait of Hull and anothe r of Bainbridge.) References: Amos E. Evans, "Journal Kept on Board the Frigate Constitution, 1812," reprinted by W illiam D. Sawtell, Independence Seaport Museum, Philadelphia, 1967; and the Amos A. Evans Collection at the W illiam L. Clements Library, Univers it y of Michigan; M. Howa rd As h, "Extracts from the D iary of Dr. Amos Alexander Evans 18121813," The Patriotic Marylander, vo l. III, No. 3, March 1917, 185 . 14 The National Archi ves, RG 15, War of 1812 Navy Invalid No. 201. 15 Goode, The Fishery & Fishing Industry, 199.

Dr. Louis Arthur Norton is a maritime historian andfrequent contributor to Sea Hiscory. He is the author of Joshu a Barney: H ero of che Revolucion and 1812 (Naval Institute Press, 2000) and Capcains Comemious: The Dysfunccional Sons of the Brine (Univ. ofSouth Carolina Press, 2009). A native ofGloucester, MA, he is a professor emeritus ofthe University ofConnecticut Health Center in Farmington.

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014

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Colors of the Ni9ht! Nocturne Paintin9 with Louis Stephen Gadal Louis Stephen Gadal is an award-winnin9 marine artist from California, who be9an paintin9 at ni9ht because it was the only time he could carve out ef his day to make art. Over the course ef his lon9 career, he has achieved success as a sketch artist and watercolorist efmaritime subjects, but his return to nocturne paintin9 has resulted in his mastery ef a 9enre that presents unique challen9es to the artist and results in dramatic and movin9 pieces in reduced or indirect li9ht. y love for painting nocturne images started early in my career at the Chouinard Art Institute in Los Angeles, Cali fornia. There, my introduction to watercolor came with my first painting class, taught by the noted watercolorist Rex Brandt, NA. My return to watercolors and the sea after many years as an architectural illustrator can be directly attributed to Brandt's enthusiastic approach for both the medium and the sea as a subject. My choice of nocturnal painting was borne more out of logistics than anything else. It was 1956, and when I was not in school I worked for my father in the landscaping business. The only time I could find for painting was when it rained and we couldn't work outdoors, or at night when work was finished for the day. I had a high school friend who also was into painting, and we would go out together after work to practice our craft. We lived not far from the Santa Monica Pier, and there was always good light to work by in the off hours; the pier itself contained some very exciting material for my subjects. I returned there many times and completed a good number of paintings in that environment. In these early stages, I experimented with many different approaches and styles. The pier itself and the people that

frequented it had a sort of magic. And from below, the sounds and the smell of the sea were intoxicating! One could not ask for a better atmosphere for a budding artist to work in. After graduating from Chouinard, I entered the field of architectural illustration and stopped painting for a number of years. The artistic culture had changed a lot, and traditional approaches were not considered in fashion anymore. I was not interested in the direction the art world had shifted cowards and spent the next fifteen years developing my drawing skills after hours, away from my job. I enjoyed some success with them and exhibited some very powerful drawings during that period, including one at the Skirball Museum in Los Angeles. Then, on a trip through San Francisco, I attended an Andrew Wyeth exhibition. I was so inspired by his work that I decided to return to watercolors. At the same time, I became aware of rhe work of a local artist, Merv Corning, who worked primarily in watercolor. His skill with the medium was impressive, and his technique elevated his work beyond the timid watercolors I had seen in works by other local artists. Another trip, this time to San Diego to view the watercolors of Donald Teague, furthered my interest in getti ng back to the watercolor medium.

Santa Monica Pier 1956

watercolor 13"x 19 11/ ' (Private collection)

22

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014


Nightlights, the Pilgrim 1997, watercolor 20" x 28" (Artist collection).

Living near the coast, I could nor help but paint maritime One of the most difficult ventures for my skills as a watersubjects, and in 1992 I returned to the genre of my early days as colorist came with my decision to create a nocturne painting an artist and painted my first nocturnal piece. Painting at night of a tall ship berthed in Dana Point, the brig Pilgrim (above), introduces a wonderful atmosphere with multiple light sources the vessel used to represent the ship Richard Henry Dana Jr. and color. Unlike painting outdoors in daylight with the sun constantly moving across the sky, the light does nor change a great deal. Depending on your location, there can be any number of light sources and reflections, and the sky can provide an intense dark setting for the images bathed in whatever light there is. Mariners, of course, already know that there is often plenty of ambient light in the night sky, except for, perhaps, on a cloud-filled or overcast night w ith no moon. In this first attempt, the richness of the dark value led me to apply many layers of color to achieve the depth I needed to convey the scene as it looked to me with the naked eye. With the positive reviews this painting received, I was motivated to paint a second one, this time in nearby Marina Del Rey where pleasure boats are moored by the hundreds. Nightlights II, Marina Del Rey 1994, watercolor 20" x 28" (Private collection). Ir, too, received a fine reception. SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014

23


sailed in ro Sourhern California in 1834. Wirh warercolors, one musr rerain rhe whire of rhe paper for rhe lighrer colors. This meanr masking off all rhe rigging before I could painr rhe backgro und. Ir rook a considerable amounr of rime ro complere rhe masking process before I could apply any color. Ir was a challenge rhar became a labor oflove, and I am pleased wirh rhe final result-ir is one of my besr efforrs.

Over rhe years I have experimenred wirh a variery of approaches wirh differenr subjects. I painred rhe Cabrillo Lighrhouse using rhree differem lighr sources-rhe moon, the light irself, and rhe lighr in rhe children's room upstairs in the lighrhouse. In an earlier painring I had made of the brig Lady Washington-an image I construcred our of my head-I used rwo light sources, rhe moon and rhe ligh rs from inside rhe caprain's

Cabrillo Light 1989, egg tempera 24"x 18" (Artist collection).

24

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014


cabin at the stern of the ship. The Cabrillo Light nocturne is a n egg tempera, very different from watercolors and quite labor-intensive. I painted the Lady Washington many times over the years and have sa iled aboard in one of her mock battles. She and the topsai l ketch Hawaiian Chieftain sail down the coast each year from Washington State, and it was aboard the Chief tain that I sai led, finally, on a tall ship, with my good friend-the wonderful maritime artis t August Holland.

Moon Light & the Lady 2008, watercolor 28" x 20" (Artist collection).

Sunset-Channel Islands 2006, watercolor 20" x 28" (Artist collection).

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014

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Ships Aglow, Nightlight Series 1999, watercolor 14" x 20"

One of my favorite works is the two-painting set titled Ships Aglow. This one here is the smaller of the two and has returned from a two-year exhibition tour with the American Society of Marine Arts (ASMA) and was featured in an article in Southwest Art that talked about the ASMA exhibition's showing in Texas. Ir has a inner glow, the kind of thing Rembrandt achieved in his paintings. Again, this subject was taken in Dana Point where the fishing boats are berthed along the southern docks of the marina. Many artists have been intrigued by the color of night and night lights. Homer, Whistler, and Van Gogh each created moving and spectacular paintings at night-Whistler is credited with having created the genre. Andrew Wyeth made some very interesting pieces that reflect the colors of night. They reveal a glow that can only be found afrer twilight. I know that I will be returning to the color of night again in my future work and welcome the challenge of trying to achieve the deep darks of the night, and the reflections and glow of lights on the water. ,!,

Louis Stephen Gadal is a native of California. When he was still in high school, he won a scholarship to the Chouinard Art Institute, where he would study drawing under Donald Graham, Herb ]opsen, and Bernard Garbutt, and watercolors from Rex Brandt and Edward Reep. After graduation, he established a successful career in architectural illustration before returning to his passion for watercolors in the early 1990s. Much ofhis work has focused on maritime subjects, and he consistently wins awards at exhibitions across the country; most recently, he was the Port of Coos Bay Award winner at the Coos Art Museums 20'h Annual Maritime Art Exhibit in Coos Bay, Oregon. Christmas Lights-Marina Del Rey 2005, watercolor 13 "x 9"

26

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014


'

Your Purchase of this john Stobart Print Will Directly Support the NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY! Generously donated by renowned artist John Stobart and the J. Russell Jinishian Gallery to benefit the Society, "New York, Lower South Street, c. 1885," signed prints.

Through this special offer from the National Maritime Historical Society, you can acquire this stunning print that portrays a bygone time in New York City's most historic waterfront area-a tranquil era of cobblestone streets, lantern light, and horse-drawn wagons. Each lithograph is personally approved and hand signed by the artist John Stobart. Image size 18" x 26" on 25" x 33" paper, unframed. Special price for NMHS members: $350 each+ $30 s/h.

To order, call 1-800-221-NMHS (6647), ext. 0, e-mail nmhs@seahistory.org, or visit our website at www.seahistory.org. NYS add applicable sales tax.


A History of the"Honorable and Ancient" Cutter Bear by William H . Thiesen, PhD, Atlamic Area Historian, United States Coast Guard ear is arguably the best-known cutter in Coast Guard history and one of the most famous vessels in American maritime history. As a historian of the Revenue Cutter Service wrote sixty years ago: "The Bear is more than just a famous ship; she is a symbol for all the service represents-for steadfastness, for courage, and for constant readiness to help men and vessels in distress." 1 In essence, the story of the Bear reflects the service's core values and represents the Coast Guard in a similar manner to the navy's USS Constitution. A predecessor of modern icebreakers, Bear was designed specifically to work in ice-bound conditions. Built in 1874, Bear was a 198-foot, 700-ton barquentine-rigged steamer constructed in Scotland for sealing in northern waters. Iron had been proven too brittle for use in the frigid Arctic, so Bear's hull was built of wood, reinforced with six-inch-thick oak planks and sheathed with Australian "ironwood" for a total of ten inches of hull thickness. Bear also boasted a steel-plated bow and a retractable screw. She was designed for long periods at sea and thus had extra space down below for fuel, supplies, and passengers. In 1881, Lt. Adolphus Greely, a member of the US Army Signal Corps, led an expedition to study the weather and winter conditions on Ellesmere Island northwest of Greenland. Attempts to relieve Greely's team in 1882 and 1883 proved unsuccessful and members of the expedition began to die of disease and starvation. In 1884, the US Navy purchased Bear and the Arctic

B

USS Bear anchored in Greenland in 1884 as part of the famous Greely ReliefExpedition.

whaler Thetis to search for Greely and prepared Bear for the rescue mission. Under the command of Winfield Scott Schley, later a hero of the Spanish-American War, Bear sailed from Greenland and on 22 June 1884 successfully rescued Greely and the surviving members of his expedition. On 3 March 1885, the navy transferred Bear to the US Revenue Cutter Service and, in early November, she embarked on a voyage around Cape Horn bound for California. After Bear arrived at her new homeport of San Francisco in April 1886, Captain Michael Healy took command. As former commanding officer of Cutter Corwin, Healy was a veteran of Alaskan waters and a skilled ice pilot. Born in 1839, the son of a slave and a plantation owner located near Macon, Georgia, Healy was the first African American to receive a commission from the US Government and the first to command a federal ship. Coincidentally, before his assassination in 1865, Abraham Lincoln signed Healy's commission. When asked about his command philosophy, Healy stated, "When I am in charge of a vessel, I always command; nobody commands but me. I take all the responsibility, all the risks, all the hardships that my office would call upon me to take. I do not steer by any man's compass but my own." 2 Under Healy, Bear served on the Bering Sea Patrol, which revenue cutters had initiated in 1874. Each of the Bering Sea Patrols covered between 15,000 and 20,000 miles of cruising. Conditions on these patrols were harsh, dangerous, stressful and, at times, deadly (a fact demonstrated by the presence of graves of Bearcrewmembers in the Aleutian Islands); and Bering Sea sailors experienced intense boredom as well as terror. These men recited a ditty to describe these conditions: Hear the rattle of the windlass as our anchor comes aweigh, We are bound to old Point Barrow and we make our start today, Keep a tight hold on your dinner, for outside the South Wind blows, And unless you're a sailor, you'll be throwing up your toes.3 Painting of USRCS Bear under sail and steam on the Bering Sea Patrol.

28

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014


When the U nited States purchased A laska from Russia in 1867, the primary revenue cutter missions included not only supporting the US Coas t Survey and setting up a territorial government, but also protecting endangered seal herds from poachers. C utters patrolled the waters of the Pribilof Islands, seizing poaching vessels of all n ationalities . Bear enforced seal hunting regulations into the early 1900s and, in 1892, she was on hand when military action nearly erupted between the United States and Great Britain over seizure of British sealing vessels. O versight of seal hunting laws proved the cutters' law enforcem ent value and, in 1908 , the Revenue C utter Service took responsibility for enforcing all A laskan game laws. Later in her Alaskan career, Bear also supported the regular "Court C ruise," in which she transported judges, public defenders, court clerks, and m arshals for crimina l cases located around Alaska. As an Alaskan cutter, Bear saved lives at sea and preserved the lives of those surviving in A laska's fro zen coastal frontier. The native people of A laska relied heavily on whaling and fishing when the territory came under American control. After foreign whaling, fishing, and sealing vessels began working in Alaskan waters, fi sh and game began to d iminish, causing largescale m alnutrition and starvation in native town s and settlements. To solve the problem, Healy tried to convince authorities that Siberian reindeer should b e introduced to Alaska, stating "the introduction of deer seems to be the solution of three vital questions of existence in this country-food , clothing, and transportation."4 In 1890, Dr. Sheldon Jackson, then Agent of Education in Alaska, sailed aboa rd Bear and, with H ealy, devised a plan to transport reindeer to the territory.

Hoisting deer aboard the Bear, Siberia, 28 August 1891 . The next year, H ealy shipped sixteen live deer and hundreds of bags of native moss fo r feed from Siberia to the Aleutian Islands to test the animals' ability to travel by sea. H ealy's views wo n over gove rnment officials, and, in 1892, he brought over the first large shipment of reindeer to the Seward Peninsula and set up a reindeer station at Port C larence. D uring the 1890s, cutters tra nsported thousands of reindeer to A las ka, and by 193 0 the domesticated deer herds totaled 600,000 head, with 13,000 native A las ka ns relying on the h erds fo r li fe's essentials. Under H ealy, the Revenue C utter Service's humanitarian support of Alas ka not only included better nu trition fo r native communities, Bear even controlled illegal liquor distribution

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014

The colorful Captain "Hell Roarin"' Mike Hea/,y, first commissioned African-A merican ship captain and famed skipper of the Bear. used to exploit native people in the territory. N ative people called the Bear "Omiak puck pechuck tonika" or "the fire canoe with no whiskey." This humanitarian support of Alaska was assistance on a sweeping scale, but Bear also aided individuals on the maritime frontier. As Revenue C utter Service historian Stephen Evans wrote: "In assisting private persons, neither class, race, nor creed made any difference to the Bear; degree of stress was the sole controlling faccor." 5 Nei ther roads nor railroads had been built in Alaska ye t, so the revenue cutters were the primary federal presence in the territory. The vessels and crews in the Revenue C urter Service had to adopt an exhaustive list of missions, becoming true interagency support vessels for Alaska. For example, on H ealy's 1891 cruise, the Bear secured witnesses for a murder case, ferried reindeer from Siberia to Alaska, transported Alas ka's govern or on a tour of Alaska's islands, shipped a US Geological Survey team to M ount Saint Elias, ca rried lumber and supplies fo r school construction in remo te locations and rhe Arc tic, delivered teachers to their remote assignments, carried m ail for the US Postal Service, enforced seal hu nting laws in the Pribilofl slands, supported a C oas t & Geodetic Survey ream , provided med ical relief to native populations, served life-saving and rescue missions, and enforced federal law in Bear's area of responsibility. By 1896, H ealy had served ten grueling years on the Bering Sea Patrol. Lare in his career, he described the pressures of serving on the Bering Sea assignment: "co stand fo r fort y hours on the bridge of the Bear, wet, cold and hungry, hemmed in by impenetrable masses of fog, to rtured by uncerta inty, and the good ship plunging and contending w ith ice seas in an unknown ocean ."6 Ironically, while one of Bear's m issions was to interdict

29


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__.....,...,,_._ .,..____ ...._ "North Western America Showing the Territory Ceded by Russia to the United States," US Coast Survey Map, 1867-Bear' s cruising waters. the smuggling of illegal liquor to native Alaskans, the stress caused by ten years on the job encouraged Healy's own drinking problem. In 1896, the service relieved Healy of command because of this, dropped him to the bottom of the captain's list, and placed him out of service for four years. The service later reinstated him and he served on board various curters before retiring in 1903 as the third-most senior officer in the Revenue Cutter Service. Physically spent, he died a year later at the age of sixty-five. In 1897, a year after Healy's transfer off the Bear, eight whaling ships became trapped in pack ice near Point Barrow, Alaska. Concerned that the ships' 265 crewmembers would starve to death, the whaling companies appealed to President William McKinley to send a relief expedition. For a second time in her history, Bear would lead a major rescue mission into the Arctic. In late November 1897, soon after completing her annual Alaskan cruise, the Bear took on supplies and sailed north from Port Townsend, Washington, towards the stricken whaler fleet. This would be the largest of several mass rescues of American whalers undertaken by Bear during the heyday of Arctic whaling, and it was the first time that a ship deliberately sailed into Arctic waters during the harsh Alaskan winter.

To lead the so-called Overland Relief Expedition, Bear's Captain Francis Tuttle placed Lt. David Jarvis-who was fluent in several native languages-in charge of a team including Lt. Ellsworth Bertholf, surgeon Samuel Call, and three enlisted men. With no chance of the cutter pushing thro ugh the thick ice to Point Barrow, Captain Tuttle decided to put the party ashore at Cape Vancouver, Alaska, and tasked them with driving a herd of the newly introduced reindeer to the whaling ships. Using sleds pulled by dogs and reindeer, the rescue party set out

The Overland ReliefExpedition approaches whalers trapped in the ice. 30

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014


on snowshoes on 16 December 1897. Jarvis later recounted the rigors of the expedition: "Though the mercury was -30 degrees, I was wet through with perspiration from the violence of the work. Our sleds were racked and broken, our dogs played out, and we ourselves scarcely able to move, when we finally reached the cape [at Pt. Barrow]." 7 On 29 March 1898 , after more than three months a nd 1,5 00 miles in ice and snow, the rescue party arrived at Point Barrow to save the stranded whalers. The expedition delivered 382 reindeer to the starving whalers with no loss of human life. For their work, President McKinley recommended Bertholf, Call, and Jarvis for a specially struck Congressional Gold Medal. In his recommendation to Congress, McKinley noted: "The year just closed has been fruitful of noble achievements in the field of war, and while I have commended to yo ur consideration the names of heroes who have shed luster upon the American name

Painting showing the Cutter Bear rescuing shipwrecked whalers.

f

in valorous contests and battles by land and sea, it is no less my pleasure to invite your attention to a victory of peace." 8 Jarvis later assumed comm and of Bear, as did Bertholf, who rose through the ranks to become the first commandant of the modern Coast Guard in 1915. Gold was discovered in Canada's Klondike in 1896, bringing with it hundreds of thousands of prospectors, miners, and their followers to the coastal towns of Alaska. Gold discoveries in Nome, then in Fairbanks, Alaska, soon followed. This rapid migration to the Alaskan gold fields continued for more than ten years and brought with it the need for law enforcement, medical services, and humanitarian relief. In the Alaskan boomtowns of Nome and St. Michel, revenue cuttermen from the Bear and other cutters patrolled the streets, cared for the sick, and enforced the law where there had been none before. In addition, the Bear evacuated hundreds of invalids, criminals, and sick and desperate miners from the gold fields back to Seattle, where they received proper care. Bear also provided humanitarian relief to regions outside of A laska. For example, the cutter was laid up in San Francisco when the 1906 earthquake struck. In the quake's aftermath, Bear's men immediately set to work w ith relief efforts , using the cutter's steam launch to transport goods to the waterfront and working with local authorities in rescue efforts and law enforce-

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014

ment. In an ironic twist, Bear personnel worked closely with US Army units then under the overall command of General Adolphus Greely. After rhe relief effort, President Theodore Roosevelt personally thanked the Revenue Cutter Service for its "prompt, gallant and efficient work." 9 During the Spanish-American War of 1898, US military leaders harbored a fear that Spanish privateers would terrorize the West Coast. Consequently, they h atched a plan to defend the coast using revenue cutters stationed out of California and Washington. This plan included armoring the Bear at the nearest navy yard, but the war ended before Bear had a chance to complete the Overland Relief Expedition, so there was no need to armor the cutter. During World War I, the US remained neutral through much of the war and faced few threats in the Pacific theater after it entered the conflict. Consequently, the Bear continued her usual Bering Sea Patrols as she h ad before the wa r. Bear served Alaska for forty-two years and thirty-four Bering Sea Patrols. During her career, the wh aling fleet had sailed out of the Arctic fogs into the mists of m emory and waves of miners had come and gone. As Alaskan settlements developed, civilizing influences once provided from the sea by Bear becam e locally available on land. Life in Alaska had grown similar to the rest of the country as new technology shortened travel times and communication between A laska and the lower forty-eight states. These improvements included modern aids to navigation and lighthouses, the telegraph, military bases, steel steamships, the submarine cable, reliable aircraft, and the radio. The vetera n revenue cutter had witnessed many changes in the north, and in 1927 President Calvin Coolidge officially signed Bear over to the City of Oakland to become a historic museum ship. The venerable Bear, however, was destined for greater glory. After her retirement by the Coast G uard and her brief career as a floating museum, Arctic explorer Richard Byrd re-activated the famous cutter. In 1928, he used Bear as one of two ships for his first Antarctic expedition in which he established the wellknown research base at Little America. He returned home in 1930 and used Bearon a second expedition in 1933. Byrd's voyages were the first American scientific missions to the Antarctic and resulted in advanced discoveries in weather, climate, and geography. In the m eantime, Bear still relied on her nineteenthcentury sail rig and coal-fired steam engine. Describing his trusted ice-ship, Byrd claimed: "There was a joy and spirit to the Bear's arrack ... She was built for the ice ... She could lower [her] head and bore in. Therein lay the merit of the honorable and ancient Bear." 10 In the late 1930s, President Franklin Roosevelt placed Rear Admiral Byrd in charge of the US Antarctic Service, and in 1939 Byrd employed Bear once again to reach his Antarctic base at Little America. Before this last cruise to the Antarctic, the Bear was given an overhaul to her original design: the engine was converted to diesel, rendering unnecessary the tall coalfired smoke stack. The stack was removed and the barquentine rig was altered to support a scout plane. By 1941, with war clouds forming on the horizon, Bear evacuated the scientific personnel stationed at the Antarctic bases and returned to the U nited States . 31


Bear not only served a variety of populations, she carried an ethnically and racially diverse crew. Like other Pacific-based cutters, Bear proved to be a cultural and ethnic "melting pot" -much more so than the nation she served. Bear's crew over her career included not only included US indigenous peoples, but also men hailing from Asian and Pacific Island nations, Europeans, and Scandinavians. Bear held the distinction of carrying not only Michael Healy, the first African American to take a ship into the Arctic, she also carried George Gibbs Jr., the first person of African descent to set foot on the Antarctic continent. During World War II, the Germans established weather stations in Greenland at the northern edge of the Atlantic battleground to provide forecasts for their European operations. The Americans took military control of Greenland on behalf of occupied D enmark to prevent these German incursions, retain control of strategic cryolite mines, and build air bases for military aircraft flying from the US to Europe. The Coast Guard oversaw this area of responsibility with a division termed the Greenland Patrol, whose fleet included a collection of cutters, naval vessels, and former research ships. The Coast Guard's Arctic and oceanographic expert, Captain Edward "Iceberg" Smith, oversaw the Greenland Patrol after US entry into the war. The Chief of Naval Operations ordered Smith to" do a little ofeverything-the Coast Guard is used to that." 11 At the age of seventy, Bear was reactivated by the navy for service in Greenland, in the same waters where she served in her first mission as a U nited States vessel back in 1884. Bear served in the Greenland Patrol as USS Bear (AG-29), only this time she looked very different from her first yea r in the navy. In 1941, the navy cut down her masts to support radio gear, added modern

Looking very different from her last Greenland visit in 1884, USS Bear (AG-29) returned in 1944 as part of the Coast Guard's Greenland Patrol. armament, and equipped her to support a reconnaissance aircraft. And unlike in 1884, Bear relied on a Coast Guard crew during World War II. As a part of the Greenland Patrol, Bear patrolled Greenland's waters and, in October 1941, she brought home the German trawler Buskoe, the first enemy vessel captured by the United Stares. 32

On 17 May 1944, rhe navy decommissioned Bear for the las t rime and transferred her to rhe US Maritime Commission. Bear remained in surplus until 1948, even though her timbers were still sound. Buyers from Halifax, Nova Scotia, purchased Bear hoping to use her in the sealing trade. She remained moored in Halifax for years until her Canadian owners finally sold her to a restaurant entrepreneur in Philadelphia. In March 1963, the seagoing rug Irving Birch took the old cutter in tow, headed for the mouth of the Delaware. During the transit, heavy seas developed and, at a point south of Halifax and 200 miles off the Massachusetts coast, Bear parted the rug's towline. The old cutter began taking on water through her seams, and the Birch evacuated the crew trapped on board the powerless vessel. The historic ship was soon awash and finally sank below the surface at 9:10AM on 19 March 1963. Over her long life, Bear performed the missions of search and rescue, ice operations, law enforcement, environmental protection, humanitarian relief, polar research and exploration, and maritime defense. During that rime, Bear explored, policed, protected, nurtured, defended, and helped preserve the polar regions of the world and the populations of humans and animals that survived in those frozen regions. Today, various assets and personnel of the Coast Guard and other federal agencies perform those missions. Bear had many historic firsts in her career, including rhe first ship to deliver reindeer to Alaska; first to journey into the Arctic in winter; first to chart parts of the Bering Sea; first and only ship to serve under the US Navy, Revenue C utter Service, Coast Guard, and Antarctic Service; and the first vessel to see nearly sixty years in federal service. Coast Guard luminaries such as Healy, Jarvis, Bertholf, and "Iceberg" Smith, also made Bear famous; and she was associated with US presidents, naval heroes, and polar explorers. The legacy of the Bear lives on in the legends and lore of places where she made history, such as the Arctic, Greenland, the Bering Sea, Antarctica, the Alaskan and Siberian coasts and the Pacific Ocean. Remnants of the Bear and her personnel may be found in locations around the country, such as a mast and crew grave sites at Dutch Harbor, Alaska; Healy's grave in San Francisco; research collections at Fairbanks, Alaska; digitized logbooks on the internet; muster rolls at the National Archives; her bell at New York's Explorers Club; and her figurehead at the Mariners' Museum. But the historic ship, in which legends were made, remains preserved in the depths of the element in which she sailed and steamed for nearly ninety years. While gazing at the Bear tied up at the dock in San Francisco, an old Arctic sailor once remarked, "Too bad she can't talk. She'd tell some yarns. There's one in every timber she's got. If you put 'em all together landlubbers' d call it a fairy rale." 12 ,!,

NOTES 1

Stephen H . Evans, 1he United States Coast Guard, 1790-1815: A Definitive History (Annapolis: US Naval Institute, 1949), 130. 2 Coast Guard History Web Site: http: //www. uscg.mil/history/ faqs/Quotations.asp. SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014


3

Dennis L. Noble, Captain "HeLL Roaring" Mike Healy: From American Slave to Arctic Hero (Gai nesville, Fla.: University Press of Florida, 20 09), 141. 4 Evans, The United States Coast Guard, 132. 5 Evans, The United States Coast Guard, 133. 6 Noble, Captain "Helf Roaring"Mike Healy, 148. 7 Evans, The United States Coast Guard, 136. 8 Evans, The United States Coast Guard, 138-9. 9 Irving H. King, The Coast Guard Expands, 1865-1815: New Roles, New Frontiers (Annapolis: US Naval Institute, 1996), 135. 10 Polly Burroughs, The Great Ice Ship BEAR: Eighty-Nine Years in Polar Seas (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1970), 96. 11 Malcolm F. Willoughby, The US Coast Guard in World War //(Annapolis: US Naval Institute, 1957), 98. 12 Noble, Captain "Hell Roaring"Mike Healy, 137. The Last known photograph ofthe Bear, taken from a Coast Guard aircraft before she sank 200 miles offthe Massachusetts coast in 1963. William H. Thiesen, PhD, is the Atlantic Area Historian for the US Coast Guard. He is the author of Industrializing American Shipbuilding: The Transformation of Ship D esign and Construction, 1820- 1920 (2006) and is a regular contributor to Sea History. For more information on USCG history, visit www.uscg.mil/history or contact: Historian's Office, Coast Guard Atlantic Area, 431 Crawford Street, Po rtsmou th, VA 23704.

National Historic Landmark IJ National Memorial to Coast

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33




Animals in Sea History

by Richard King or five wet, cold, lonely years in the early 1800s, a young Irishman named Ross Cox traded for furs among the First Peoples of the Pacific Northwest. In his account of the experience, titled Adventures on the Columbia River (1832), he wrote often of eating "excellent sturgeon." It was a favorite catch of the native people of the region. Cox described this "royal" fish at the mouth of the Columbia: "The months of August and September furnish a plentiful supply of prime sturgeon. This fish attains a great size. Some of those we took were eleven feet in length; and, with the entrails out, weighed from three ro four hundred pounds." CO U RT ES Y VANCOUV ER ISLAND U N IVERS IT Y

Seriously?

Yep. And those weren't even close to the biggest ones ever recorded. Cox was describing a species known today as the white sturgeon, the largest of about eight species of sturgeon that live throughout the rivers, lakes, and coastal waters of North America. Biologists once measured a white sturgeon caught in the Fraser River, British Columbia, to be nearly 14 feet long, weighing over 1,500 pounds! Other sources claim white sturgeon as long as twenty feet, weighing nearly a ton. Scientists believe that giant white sturgeon can live for more than 80 years. ~~ ~ { As a family, sturgeon are among the most ancient animals in 1 )Ji I 1 today's oceans and rivers. Ross Cox's white sturgeon looked . ¡ iJ nearly identical to the fish that prowled river botroms over 100 million years ago. That's the Early Cretaceous period. With their shark-like cartilaginous skeletons, scale-less skin, and \ WEA~ "11-\'2 ~&G e;; (;.f.'t. ~~Elf Y &aopboney diamond-shaped plates, sturgeon swam around for ~ \Nin\/\ U iT LE SA.LT millions of years-even before the evolution of T-Rex. At the time of European Contact, sturgeon heavily populated waters throughout North America but, like lobster, were largely ignored by early settlers. This was perhaps because of the fish's appearance and because Western Europeans had little familiarity with the animal, having fished out their own sturgeon generations before. Although it would not be until the mid-1800s that an American caviar industry grew, the early colonists did know about the appeal of the sturgeon's eggs when saltcured. Ross Cox found the First Peoples of this region drying and smoking what sturgeon

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meat they couldn't eat fresh, and the natives particularly prized the roe, too-but they pounded and roasted the eggs. The First Peoples caught smaller sturgeon with intricate fixed nets , gill nets, nooses, and even by diving and catching them by hand. They captured the giants with spears and harpoons. In 1864 one British explorer explained the method: It is great fun to watch them spearing Sturgeon which here run to the enormous size of 500 & 600 lbs. The Indians drift down with the stream perhaps 30 canoes abreast with their long poles with spear attached kept within about a foot of the bottom of the River. When they feel a fish lying they raise the spear and thrust it at the fish seldom missing ... you see sometimes 2 or 3 canoes being carried off at the same time down river at any pace by these huge fish. When European and American traders like Ross Cox first came to the Pacific Northwest, sturgeon were not a significant product of this region either, despite their abundance. The first commercial fisheries were for salmon. A cannery operator at the time explained that sturgeon were monstrous trash fish that instead got in the way: "In 1879 the sturgeon were so thick in Baker Bay [at the northern mouth of the Columbia] that we did not consider it safe, early in the season, to put our gill nets out. The fish were so numerous and large that they were able to destroy a great amount of netting. NOAA c•N'""'· u•RA•v For years every sturgeon taken was mutilated or killed with an ax and thrown back into the water." When in the 1880s businessmen brought icing technology to the Columbia, along with a demand for sturgeon, the fishermen of the region began to capture the species so aggressively that within two decades they nearly rendered white sturgeon extinct along the river. Sturgeon grow slowly and take a long time to reproduce and mature. It was easy to disturb their life cycle by disturbing their habitat and fishing out big breeding females for caviar. Today at the mouth of the Columbia River, recreational and commercial fishermen eager to catch a huge, prehistoric fi sh still cast for white sturgeon, although as of 2014 they are not allowed to bring them home, regardless of size, from the mouth and lower miles of the river. The eleven-foot white sturgeon of Ross Cox's time are pretty hard to come by, but compared to other critically endangered sturgeon species around the world, the white sturgeon is actually of less concern. .t In the next issue: Hemingway's sharks. For past ''Animals in Sea History" go to www.seahistory.org. SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014


by Peter McCracken

MARITIME HISTORY ON THE INTERNET

Finding Useful-and Licensable-Maritime Images earching for images that one can license to use in books, magazines, websites, and more can often be quite tricky. For commercial works, regardless of the format, one must be careful to ensure that appropriate reproduction rights have been obtained from the correct rights holder. One excellent way of doing that-and one that supports maritime organizations-is to li cense them from the maritime museums and collections that own the images and the associated rights. Below is a selection of great, but disparate, collections of maritime images that are worth investigating. Licensing costs vary dramatically from institution to institution, and on the intended use. The Penobscot Marine Museum, in Searsport, Maine, has a collection of over 140,000 images, and recently they have made them available online for purchase or licensing (http://penobscotmarinemuseum.org/museum-collections-database/). Click on "Search The Database," then enter a vessel name, a vessel type, or any other sort of keyword. You can limit your results to "Only records with images" on the right-hand side. "Object records" describe items in the museum's collections bur don't necessarily have images digitized ...yet. "Photo records" show images, though each one has a museum watermark on it. Watermark-free images can be licensed for personal or commercial use by contacting rhc institution. The UK's National Maritime Museum offers more than 30,000 watermark-free images available for licensing at http:// images.rmc.co.uk, and includes a useful lighrbox tool where one can organize, sort, and manage selected images. In South Africa, the John H. March Maritime Research Centre at lziko Maritime Centre has over 18,000 images of about 9,200 ships in South Africa, from 1921 to 1953. Theimages themselves aren't shown online, but the Centre does list the names of included ships, at http://rapidttp.co.za/museum/ jmmrc.html. The Australian National Maritime Museum has uploaded 2,800 images from their image collection to Flickr, at http:// www.Aickr.com/photos/anmm_thecommons/. Though the

S

images can be easily downloaded from Flickr, and Flickr indicates "no known copyright restrictions," the museum does clearly state in the image description that they require that permission be granted before images are used commercially. The Great Lakes Maritime Database, hosted by the University of Michigan at http://quod.lib.umich.edu/t/tb nmslic and built by the Alpena County (MI) Library and the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary, has about 22,000 images in it. Not all are pictures of ships; a number are images of enrollment certificates and others are pictures of newspaper mentions, but the watermarked images do allow one to zoom in very closely. The Maritime History Archive, at Memorial University, Newfo undland, has around half of their images available online, at http://www.mun.ca/mha/publicphotos.php. A search in the "Title" field for words like "ship" or "schooner" will return many different examples; one can of course also search in the title or keyword field for a ship's name. Of course, there are free options out there, as well. The Wikimedia Commons at http://commons.wikimedia.org (previously mentioned, along with several other general websites, in Sea History 137) now contains 20 million files. Each file is marked w ith its Creative Commons license (http://cre ativecommons.org), which is assigned by the file's uploader. These vary, according to the intent of the image's owner. Of the six main licenses, "CC BY" licenses allow unlimited reuse of the image, as long as credit is given for the original creation. "CC BY-SA" allows reuse, including in a commercial setting, as long as the new work carries the same license. Remember, individuals have the ability to upload images they do not own and might claim no copyright restrictions exist, though the actual owner has expressed limitations. It makes for a challenging arena, and one where individuals must tread carefully. Suggestions for other sites worth mentioning are welcome at peter@shipindex.org. See http://shipindex.org for a free compilation of over 140,000 ship names from indexes to dozens of books and journals. 1.

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39


.SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS In January, the Mariners' Museum in Newport News, VA, announced it is temporarily closing the 5,000-squarefoot wet lab that houses the turret and other artifacts from the Civil War ironclad USS Monitor following the 31 December 2013 expiration of an agreement between the museum and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The artifacts recovered from the wreck site are federally-owned and administered by NOAA's Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Program but are conserved by staff from the privately owned museum.

USS Monitor Center Wet Lab The National Marine Sanctuary Program had provided funding to operate the facilit y and keep it open to the public, but at present NOAA is waiting on Congressional approval of a budget to determine what funding will be available for 2014. In 2013 , the conservation cost approximately $500,000. NOAA provided approx imately 10% of the funding, and no funds had been designated in 2012. The museum has stated that it remains committed to its lon g-term conservation goals and its partnership with NOAA, but without addit iona l funds from NOAA, conservation work wi ll not be able to proceed. "These artifacts are owned by the federal government, protected under the Nationa l Marine Sanctuaries Act, and managed by the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary. The museum is proud to partner with NOAA to conserve these artifacts, but their preservation is ultimately the responsibility of the federal government," said Elliot Gruber, CEO and president of the museum. He explained that the museum has had to use its own resources to cover the shortfall and that has placed a tremendous strain on their overall budget. 40

"We are unable to properly conserve our own 35,000 artifacts, develop new exhibitions, and maintain our faci lity as well as pay for the conservation of federally owned and managed resources." The Mariners' Museum includes 90,000-plus square feet of exhibition space and a 550-acre park. In 1987, Congress designated the Mariners' Museum as the official repository for artifacts excavated from the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary. The federa l government owns the approximately 1,500 artifacts housed in the museum's USS Monitor Center, a $31 million, 64,000-square-foot museum expans ion that opened in 2007. The artifacts were recovered from the USS Monitor wreck site beginning shortly after its discovery in 1973, and culminating in the 2002 recovery of Monitor's iconic, 120-ton revolving gun turret. In all, more than 200 tons of materials have been recovered from the site and brought to the museum for conse rvation and display. To date, nearly 60% of all Monitor artifacts have been conserved in the 15,000-square-foot Batten Conservation Laboratory Complex. The Wet Lab houses Monitor's turret in a 90,000-gallon custom-made tank, as well as its steam engine, Dahlgren guns and carriages, and condenser. Artifacts that have been removed from underwater

sites are submerged in tanks contain ing treated water to draw out the salts that would, left untrea ted , corrode the metal artifacts until they fell apart. It is a very slow process and can take years, depend ing on the size of the artifact and the materials from which it is made. The museum's conservators are keeping the artifacts stable but the conservat ion will not progress for the time being, nor will the lab be open to visitatio n from the public. The museum has posted a petition on its website that links to www. change.org, where people can sign and send it to their members of Congress. (100 Museum Drive, Newport News, VA 23606; Ph . 757 596-2222; http: // www.marinersmuseum.org/) ... In November, the Royal Museums Greenwich (RMG) acquired one of the most celebrated collections of shipwreck images in the world at auction at Sotheby's in London. The Gibson Archive was assem bled between 1872 and 1997 by four generations of the Gibson family and records more than 200 shipwrecks ships, heroic rescues, survivors , burials, and sa lvage scenes-off the treacherous coastline of Cornwa ll a nd the Isles of Scilly. The collection, comprising more than 1,360 glass and film negatives , complements the museum's existing extensive historic photography collection.

The Mildred , 1912The Gibson Archive

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014


AZ Mt!!tiz,9~ John Gibson (1827-1920) founded the family photography business in the 1860s and took his first photograph of a ship wrecking in 1869. His two sons, Alexander (1857-1944) and Herbert (1861-1937), perfected the art of photographing w recks, creating perhaps some of the most remarkable and evocative images of misadventure at sea. Among the items included in the collection is the ledger the Gibson brothers kept when shooting, which contains records of the telegraph messages sent from Scilly at the time of the wrecking. The ledger by itself is filled with stories of disaster, courage, and survival. The RMG wi ll conserve, research, and digitize the collection and will create a number of exhibitions to tour regional museums and galleries throughout the country. The Gibson photographic collection was purchased by the museum for £122,500. Royal Museums Greenwich incorporates the National Maritime Museum, the Royal Observatory Greenwich, the 17thcentury Queen's House and Cutty Sark. (NMM, Romney Road, Greenwich, SE10 9NF, UK; www.rmg.co.uk) The replica of the 16th-century Spanish galleon San Salvador is on track for a fall 2014 launch in San Diego. The vessel is being built by the Maritime Museum of San Diego, and when she sets sa il in 2015, the San Salvador wi ll serve as a link between Californi a's past and the present. In 1542, Ju an Rodriguez Cabrillo steered his ship up the coast from Mexico, or rather New Spain, arriving in the port we now call San Diego on 28 September before cont inuing up the coast to look for new trade routes that wou ld lin k Mexico to Asia and E urope. It was the first European vessel to sai I in these waters; thus far, its signifi cance in America n history has been somewhat overlooked. The Maritime Museum of San Diego is hoping to rectify thi s with the addition of the San Salvador to its fleet of replica and historic ships. The museum laid the keel in spri n g 2011 and the ship is being constructed in fu ll view of the public at Spanish Landing Park. In additio n to observing the shipbu ilders at work, visitors to the park and the museum can also watch demon-

SEA HlSTORY 146, SPRING 2014

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museum has developed an interactive website that includes free downloads for making paper models of the ship (both medium difficulty and advanced), plus three downloadable posters depicting the design , the building, and the 1542 voyage to Cali fornia. The National Park Service h as installed a webcam, so you can see the progress of the ship rea l-time from your computer. At this stage, the ship is fully framed and the stem and beakhead have been fitted and the work continu es. 1he project will cost the museum approx imately $5 million, of which approximately 65% has already been raised. Donations large and small are welcome. (MMSD 1492 North Harbor Dr. , San Diego, CA 92 101 ; Ph . 619 2349153; www.sdmaritime.org/san-salvador-buildl) ... The US Department of Transportation's Maritime Administration (MARAD) recently announced that the nation's seven public maritime academies will each receive $1 million from funds made available by the National Maritime Heritage Act. The six academies are: California Maritime Academy, Great Lakes Maritime

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Academy, Maine Maritime Academy, Massachusetts Maritime Academy, New York's SUNY Maritime College, Texas Maritime Academy, and the US Merchant Marine Academy at Kings Point, New York. The money comes from the sale of obsolete vessels from MARAD's National Defense Reserve Fleet, which were purchased for recycling. The National Maritime Heritage Act requires that 25% of the profit from sales is distributed to maritime academies for facility and training ship m aintenance, repair, and modernization , and for the purchase of simulators and fuel; 25% goes to the National Park Service for the National Maritime Heritage Grants Program; and 50% funds the acquisition, maintenance, and repair of vessels in the National D efense Reserve Fleet. MARAD supports the public maritime academies through direct funding and through scholarships. Tall Ships America will host its annual Tall Ships Challenge on the West Coast next summer in California. Official host ports are: Los Angeles (20-24 August), San Diego (29 August-2 September), and Dana Point (5-8 September). (www. sailtraining.org) .. . The Santa Barbara Maritime Museum has posted videos of its popular lecture series online. The lecture series archive is made available on the internet through funding provided by the City of Santa Barbara in partnership with the Santa Barbara County Arts Commission. Pas t lectures include presentations on the marine environment and natural history, ship wrecks, marine art and photography, new research in maritime history, and talks by new and established authors. (SBMM, 113 Harbor Way, Suite 190, Santa Barbara, CA 93109; www.s bmm. org/lecture-series-archive) ... A 13 January town hall meeting held by the Manhattan Community Board has succeeded in putting a hold on development plans by the Howard Hughes Corporation (HHC) at South Street Seaport in New York. Community members and local small business owners joined advocacy gro ups interested in preserving the historic district at South Street and city officials to discuss the HHC proposal, specifically to address the pan of the plan to built a 650-foot-

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014


tall tower in place of the 1939 New Market Building and to move the 1909 Tin Bui lding closer to the proposed Pier 17 shopping mall. At the meeting, the non-profit group Save Our Seaport (SOS) instead advocated for a more "community friendly" use for the site, which would include expanding South Street Seaport Museum and transferring control of water-based activities to them. SOS is also pushing for a public market, plus allowing space for more school and community faci lities. HHC has presented plans th at would rransform the area, including the historic district, into a shopping, dining, and entertainment area. Of particular concern to many is the large tower, which would change the characteristic of the neighborhood and, specifically, would block the current unobstructed views of the Brooklyn Bridge. S. FOSKETTA, VIA WI KI PEDIA COMMONS, CC BY

South Street Seaport, New York State Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver's representative explained that the City of New York has "agreed to put those plans on hold and to allow for a new planning process that will come up with an alternate, community-minded plan for the Seaport." A task force is being created to examine alternative development plans that will rely heavily on community input. (For updates, check the Save Our Seaport website at www.saveourseaport. wordpress.com, and also the website for Just Press Pause, another advocacy group working to halt HHC plans, www.just presspause.org.) .. . The Merchant Marine Act of 1920, a.k.a. the Jones Act, is creating another problem for the beleaguered offshore wind farm company, Cape Wind, which has been trying to build a 130-turbine wind farm in Nantucket Sound for more than a decade ... and the City of New Bedford, Massachusetts, might have a solution. It seems that the Jones Act would prevent the company from using foreign-built vessels in the process of building the

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014

foundations for the turbines offshore and installing them. Because Cape Wind would be the first of its kind in the United States, the specialized vessels the industry typically uses in established offshore wind farms around the world are not yet manufactured in this country. The Jones Act dictates that the transshipment of materials by water between "points in the United States" be restricted to American-built and -manned vessels. Because the Act uses the word "point" and not "port," a fixed structure offshore (but not past the Continental Shelf) falls in this category. Building the foundation and installing each turbine includes driving massive piles into the seaBoor, transporting extremely large and h eavy turbines to the site, and then using cranes as large as 300 feet tall to install the them . In Europe, offshore wind turbines are installed with the use of purpose-built barges that jack up out of the water when they are driving piles into the bedrock. One solution, according to Cape Wind, would be to use the still-to-be-completed 28-acre New Bedford Marine Commerce Terminal, which was designed to support the construction, assembly, and deployment of offshore wind projects. At present, Cape Wind's federal permit lists Quonset Point in Rhode Island as the staging area for operations, and the company would have to have a revised plan filed and approved by the federal Bureau of Offshore Energy Management first. The New Bedford marine terminal will be equipped with a mobile or "walking" crane, which will allow the turbines to be assembled on land and placed on a regular barge, hence avoiding the problem of the specialty barges that are not avai lable here. In the meantime, the New Jerseybased Weeks Marine, Inc., is developing new vessels that can handle the unique needs of offshore wind turbine site construction. C learly, all parties involved view clean energy as the industry of the future . In fact, CNN technology reporter Arion McNicoll listed the offshore wind farm as one of "coolest technologies" for 2014. ''Alongside power from volcanoes, waves, biomass and the sun, wind power is set to become a significant alternative energy source in 2014." Finally, in related news, late in 2013 Cape Wind signed a contract with Siemens

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Energy, Inc. to supply it w ith 3.6-megawa tt offshore wind turbines, an offshore electric service platfor m (ESP), and a service agreem ent for the firs t 15 years of commercial o perations. Siem ens is the wo rld's leading offsho re wind turbine m anufac turer, and the 3.6 m egawatt turbine has been the wo rkho rse of the global offsho re wind industry. Siemens is also under contract to provide the same turbines for at least eight other offshore wind farms currently under construction or approaching construction. Siemens h as said it will hi re locally to fill the m ajority of its operations and m aintenance positions at Cape W ind's future service headquarters o n Falmouth H arbor o n Cape Cod . Siemens Energy employs approximately 60,000 employees in th e US. (Cape W ind, www.capewind.org; Massachusetts C lean Energy Center, www. m asscec.com; Siemens Energy, Inc., www.siem ens.com/energy) ... The firstever National Coast Guard Museum will break ground this May in New London, Connecticut. New London is, of co urse, the hom e of the United States Coas t G uard Academy and the homepo rt of th e Academy's training ship, the wo rldfam ous barque Eagle. In April 201 3, Co mmandant of the US C oas t G uard Admiral Robert ]. Papp anno unced the proposed location and plans. Th e museum will be built on city-owned pro perty in downtown New London, adj ace nt to th e ci ty's train station and ferry terminals. Plans include a 54, 300-square-foo t building with fo ur floors of interactive exhibits, event space, and lecture roo ms, as well as a reception area with gift shop and cafe. Outdoors, plans include a pier fo r Eagle, plus dock space for visiting ships. A pedestrian ove rpass across the railroad tracks will connect the museum with the ferry terminal and train statio n, m aking it easy for visitors to get there by public transportation from points near and far. The C oast Guard is the nation's oldest m aritime age ncy and traces it roots back ro the US Revenue C utter Service, which was found ed in 1790. The history of the modern-day Coast G uard can be confusing because it is the am algam ation of five federal agencies : the Revenue C utter Service, the Lightho use Service, the

Steamboat Inspection Service, the Bureau of N avigation, and the Lifesaving Service. These agencies had different but som etimes overlapping roles and were m erged , one by one, to become the modern-day C oas t G uard; the first tO-im erge were the Revenue Cutter Service and the US Life-Saving Service in 1915 . The

Artist's rendering, National Coast Guard Museum, N ew London, CT Coast G uard is the only branch of the armed services that does not have a national museum. The new facility will immortalize and honor the commitment, acco mplishments , and sacrifices of C oas t G uard men and women- those cur rently serving and all those who h ave served over the past 224 years. The facility was designed by Gallagher & Associates, based in Washington, D C. (For m o re info rmation about the Na tional Coast G uard Museum or to co ntribute, visit www.coastguardmuseum.org or follow them on Facebook and Twitter @U SCGMuseum .) .. . Rhode Island is soon to have its own tall ship-the 196-foot full-rigged ship Oliver Hazard Perry, which is on track to start operating for the first time this summer after 5 1 / 2 years of fundraising, planning, and construction. The Oliver Hazard Perry

(continued on page 46)

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014


rHOTO COURTF.SY T I M /'.·ICLAUG MLIN

US Brig Niagara Seeking Summer 2014 Trainees US Brig Niagara, based in Erie, Pennsylvania, is currently accepting applications for trainees for the 2014 sai ling seaso n . Trainees sign on for three weeks and will sail the waters of Lakes Erie, Huron, and Michigan. As trainees, they will serve as apprentice crew members, living and working aboard ship, learning square-rig seamanshi p both underway and at the dock. Trainees participate fu lly in all aspects of the life and work of the regular crew. This work includes both the romantic and the commonplacesetting and st riking sai l (which includes working aloft), washing dish es, painting and varnishi n g, giving deck tours, steering by compass in twilight, and charging along under a quartering breeze. Niagara do es n ot take passengers-she m akes mariners. A trainee berth includes room and board , whether th e ship is underway or in port. Life on board is somewhat spartan, but no more so than a camping trip. Trainees sleep in hammocks and stow all their gear in a sea b ag. The galley provides three meals a d ay, a ll cooked on a woodburning stove . Niagara is the reconstructed relief fl agship of Commodore O liver Haza rd Perry from t he Battle of Lake E rie, a pivotal battle during the War of 1812. Today she operates as a USCG-certified Sai ling School Vessel, sailing the Great Lakes as an ambassador of the Commonwealth of Pennsylva nia. Niagara's trainee program is intended for h ealthy adults ages 16 and up. For details, visit their we bsite www.flagshipniaga ra.org or contac t the director of marine operations, Joseph Lengieza, at 814 452-2744 ext. 214, or by em ai l: m ari neops@ flagshipn iagara.org. (Flagship Niagara League & Erie Maritime Muse um, 150 Eas t Front Street, Er ie, Pa 16507; www.flags hipniagara.org)

MAINE MARITIME MUSEUM

Like no other! • Marvel at the life-size sculpture of Wyoming • Tour Bath Iron Works Buying, selli ng and restoring nautical antiques helps to preserve our marine heritage. The models and nautical items that I find are part of that heritage. They should be preserved and passed down through generations. We scou r the countryside looking for quality items so that you can enjoy th em and help preserve our sea history. Pond Models

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White's Nautical Antiques 108 Walnut Hill Road N. Yarmouth, ME 04097 207-232-6282 www.whitesnauticalantiques.com dave@whitesnauticalantiques .com SEA HISTORY 146, SPRTNG 20 14

(reservations required!

• Explore the Percy & Small historic shipyard • Take a lighthou se cruise on the Ke nne bec • Go aboard and below de cks on a fishing schooner • Visit the Victori an home of a Bath family in 1892

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(continued from page 44)

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BOOKS KEEPING THE TRADITION ALIVE by Capt. Ray W illiamson. The remarkable story of Maine W indjammer Cruises,™ fo under of the windjammer industry. 172 page, 11 x 14 hardcover book with over 100 full- page images from the days of cargo to the present. Price-$48. Call 800-736-798 1; Email sail@mainewindjammer cruises.com. THE AUTHORITY TO SAIL by C ommodore Robert Stanley Bates. The full y illustrated authoritative history of U nited States Merchant Marine licenses and documents issued since 1852. Coffee-table size, 12" x 14." Order direct: The Parcel Centre 860 7392492; www.theauthori ryrosail. com.

A CARELESS WORD-A NEEDLESS SINKING by Capt. Arthur R. Moore. Documented account of catas trophic losses suffered by American Merchant Mari ne and Armed Guard during WWII. 720 pp, lists crew members and ships, profusely illustra ted . Eighth printing sponsored by American Merchant Marine Veterans. E-mail: gemurphy@verizon.net.

NEXT VOYAGE WILL BE DIFFERENT by Cap t. Thomas E. H enry. Acco unts from my 37 years at sea. Available thro ugh Amazon.com and BarnesandNo ble.com .

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46

will become the fi rst ocean-going, fullrigged ship built in the United States in 110 years. Beginning in summer 201 4, Oliver Hazard Perry will offer a wide range of seafaring programs to adventurers of all ages, fro m camps for teens to adult and general admission voyages in the fall. In addition, the ship will be partnering with Ocean Navigator magazine to

run educational p rograms in celes tial navigation in September and O cto ber. The Oliver Hazard Perry is not a re plica ship; it has a steel hull and, w hen fully rigged , will resem ble the ships fro m the Age of Fighting Sail. As a 21 st-century vessel, the Oliver H azard Perry has an excellent stability rating and will be equipped with electronic n avigation and comm unication gear and modern safety equip me nt. Her US Coast G uard certificate of inspection permits h er to m ake voyages on "all oceans"-sh e can sail anywh ere in the wo rld. Under the command of Captain Richard Bailey, form er m as ter of "HMS" Rose, the ship will operate yea r-round with a profession al crew of about 15, including a licensed mas ter (Bailey) , two licensed mates, a licensed engin eer, fo ur able seamen, a cook, and deckhands. The ship has berths fo r 49 p eople fo r overnights and can take 100 people on board for daysails. Two 38 5 Caterpillar engines were lowered into the engine spaces in November and installation is taking place now. Rigging work is done by a team led by Jim Barry, Alex Wadson, and Leon Poindexter. Sea trials are an ticipated in May. (OHPRI, 29 Touro Street, Newport, RI 02840; Ph. 401 84 1-008 0; www.ohpri.o rg; on Facebook at www.facebook.com /ohpri.) The American Co uncil of Trustees and Alumni (ACTA) released a report on 27 January that "finds the co untry's most pres ti-

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014


gio us liberal arts colleges fail to live up to their reputations in several crucial areas of academic quality and campus management." The report, Education or Reputation?: A Look at America's Top-Ranked Liberal Arts Colleges, looked at 29 nationally ranked liberal arts institutions in areas including educational quality, tuition trends, spending patterns, and endowment. Among its findings, the report concluded that "not a single institution except for the military academies requires a foundational, college-level course in American history or government. Only two require an economics co urse; only five require a literature course." (Yo u can download the report from the ACTA website at www.goacta.org by selecting "publications" from the menu.) ... The Hudson River Sloop Clearwater has been awarded $497,303 by the State of New York to support a three-year plan to restore and repair the vessel. The funding wi ll support US Coast G uardmandated repairs and will take place between now and 2016. The plans call for replacing the centerboard trunk and the

bed logs, and making repairs to the main hold. Major work is planned in the aft section of the vessel, including the replacement of the transom. Clearwater is currently undergoing the third and final phase of the restoration, with phase two having been completed during the 201 213 winter maintenance season. The restoration work is being done at the Kingston Home Port and Education Center, which opened in fall of 2102 as a permanent winter homeport for the sloop, something she had never had in her 40 years on the Hudson. After the restoration work wraps up in 20 16, most of the original construction in the sloop will have

been replaced. Since 1969, more than half a million people have sailed aboard the vessel. The 106-foot gaff-rigged sloop was launched on 17 May 1969 at the Harvey Gamage Shipyard in South Bristol, Maine, and was designed as a replica of the sloops that sailed the Hudson River in the 18th and 19th centuries. For 45 years, Clearwater has been at the forefront of the environ mental movement as champion of the Hudson River, working to pass landmark legislation like the Clean Water Act, providing innovative educational programs, environmental advocacy, and musical celebrations, includ-

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I

10th Maritime Heritage Conference Save the Date! The 10th Maritime Heritage Co nference is scheduled for 17-2 1 September 20 14 in Norfo lk, VA. Nauticus, the science and technology center and home to the Battleship Wisconsin and the H ampton Roads Naval Museum, is th e principal host; sessions wi ll be held in the Norfolk Waterside Marriott. Naval Historical Foundation program director Dr. David Winkler will serve as program chairm an . The Maritime Heritage Conference is hosted by multi pie organizations and institutions associated with maritim e heritage and covers a wide range of topics. Museum s, universities, government \l age ncies, and non-profit histo ri cal and heritage societies large and small send their leaders and staff to share with-and learn from-one another. Nerworking opporrunities abou nd . The

last time the conference was held in Norfo lk, more than 500 peo ple atte nded. Sessions will cover the following: international trade, immigration, maritime law, shipbui lding, small craft preservation, lighthouses and lifesaving stations, whaling, underwater archaeology, hisroric ships, sai lors' lives, African-American maritime history, maritime museums and organizations, seaports, naval history, literature, native maritim e cultures, marine art and sea music, educarion, sai l training and tall ships, and other topics related to global maritime r heritage. , The conference theme, key~ note speake rs, and other details will be forthcoming. Please save the date and keep yo ur eye out for ways yo u can participate. Check the NMHS website at www.seahistory.org for derails in the comi ng months . .1

The Navy League of the United States-New York Co uncil has announced that the inaugural Commodore John Barry Book Award will go to Tim McGrath for John Barry: An America n Hero in the Age of Sa il (Westholme Publishing, Ya rdley, PA 2010) . This book is the first major scholarly work on Commodore Barry since William Bell Clark 's 1938 book, Gallant John Barry (The Macmillan Company, NY). . ,.-, ·'t 1he National Maritime Historical Society a nd the Naval Historical Foundation will sponsor the awards reception on 10 June at the histo ric Fraunces Tavern on Pea rl Street in Manhattan , where Gen. George Washington bade farewe ll ,\ . , .\. .' \ti ; Ult ·'-' flt : JHI 'l ... //.. ~> to h is officers in 1783 . NMHS members are in...../ '-~vited; call the Society for deta ils or check the NMHS website later this spring. The new award is being established to recognize significant contributions to American maritime literature and encourage excellence in research and authorship. Topics for consideration for the award should pertain to the US Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, and Merchant Marine. (New York Council, Navy League, www.nynavyleague.org; NMHS, Ph. 914 737-7878, ext. O; www.seahistory.org)

I

J1111 N11 Allll Y

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48

ing the renowned ann ual C learwater Festival. The organization was found ed by the late music legend and environmental activist Pete Seeger in 1966. (For more information about the Sloop Clearwater Restoration Project, contact Heidi Kitlas, C learwater Development Director, at Heidi@Clearwater.org; Ph. 845 265-8080, x71l8; www.clearwater.org.) The Penobscot Marine Museum (PMM) in Searsport, Maine, has made the Captain James E. Perkins photography collection available online. In the 1890s, Kennebec River steamboat captain James Perkins often set up his tripod and large wooden camera with its squeeze-bulb-activated shutter on the deck of hi s steamboat. The museum's photography curator, Kevin Johnson, explained, "He sailed up and down the Kennebec River and photographed crowds waiting at rhe dock for a steamboat, harbors full of boats, houses filled with Victorian furniture, the sho reline, musicians, people swimming, cats sleeping, dogs barking, men plowing with

SS Kennebec

horses and his friends and fami ly. He wanted to create a record of the way life was ." Among the many steam-powered vessels that Perkins skippered was the Sabina, now restored and operating out of Mystic Seapon Museum in Connecticut. The PMM acquired the collection of over 500 images, mostly glass plate negatives, in 2012 and recently made this important historic record of the people and places of Popham Beach and the Kennebec River avai lable on line. (PMM, 5 Church Street, Searspon, ME 049 74; Ph. 207 548-2529; www.penobscotmarinemuseum.org)

!, !, !, SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014


EXHIBITS

•A River's Roar: the History of Hydroplane Racing in Detroit, now through April 201 4 at the Dossin Great Lakes Museum in D etroit. (100 Strand Drive, Belle Isle, Detroit, MI 48207; Ph. 3 13 83355 38; www.aglmh.net) •foe Duncan Gleason, California's Marine Art Master, at the Maritime Museum of San Diego. (1 492 N. Harbor Dr. , San Diego, CA 92101; www.sdmaritime.org) • WOrking Below Decks, an exhibition at the Intrepid Sea, Air, & Space Museum in New York City. (Pier 86, West 46th St. and 12th Avenue, New York, NY 10036; www.intrepidmuseum .org) •Between The States: Photographs of the American Civil war from the George Eastman House, now through 27 April at The Mariners' Museum. Also, The Enemy's in Sight: Clash ofNavies in the war o/1812. (MM, 100 Museum Drive, Newport N ews, VA 23606; Ph. 757 596-2222; • !

443-1 3 16, ext 328; lipfert@maritimeme. org; www.mainemaritimemuseum .org) •The New England Historical Association Spring 2014 Conference, 26 Ap ril at Springfield College in Sprin gfield, MA. (Registration forms and info rmation will be posted on the organization's website in March, www.newenglandhi sto rians.org) •Council of American Maritime Museums Annual Meeting, 27-30 April at the National Museum of the G reat Lakes in Toledo, Ohio. (www. councilofamericanmaritimemuseums.org) •Classic Yacht Symposium, 2-4 May at the H erreshoffMarine M useum in RI. O rganized by the H M M , the America's C up Hall of Fame, and the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. (H MM, O ne Burnside Street, POB 45 0, Bristol, RI 028 09; Ph. 401 253-5 000 ; www. her reshoff.org) •10th Maritime Heritage Conference, 17-2 1 September in No rfo lk, VA. (See notice on p. 48 for details.)

•"Surprise! US and Western Intelligence & Warning Failures during the Cold War-Especially in the Submarine World," 20 March. A free lecture by No rman Polmar at The Mariners' Museum. Members can reserve seats in advance by calling the museum. (100 Museum Drive, New port News, VA 23606; Ph . 757 5962222; www.marinersmuseum .org) •Innovations in 21st Century America's Cup Design with ORACLE Team USA's Dirk Kramers and Scott Ferguson, 27 March at the New Bedford W haling M useum. Advance tickets recommended. (18 Johnny Cake H ill, New Bedfo rd, MA 02740; Ph. 508 997-0046; www.whalingmuseum .org) •Model Guild 2-day Half-hull Carving Class, 29-3 0 March at the Chesapeake Bay M ari time Museum . (Pre-registration required, call 4 10 745-494 1. Contact Model G uild direcror Bob Mason for more information at 4 10 7 45-3266 or bobmason@atlanricbb.net. C BMM, 2 13

Join us for the 2014 NMHS annual meeting and conference, held jointly this year with the North American Society for Oceanic History (NASOH), 15-18 May, in Erie, PA. The conference will be hosted by the Erie Maritime Museum and the US Brig Niagara. (For details, see pages 8-9 in this issue of Sea History.) •Tides of Freedom: African Presence on the Delaware River, now through 2015 at the Independence Seaport Museum. (211 South Columbus Blvd. & Walnut Stree t, Philadelphia, PA 19 106; Ph. 215 4 13-8655; www. phillyseaport.org) CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIUMS •"Maritime Civilizations in World History," the New England Regional W orld History Association symposium, 5 April at Southern M aine Communi ty College in South Portland , M E. (nerwha.o rg) •2014 Oxford Naval History Conference: "Strategy and the Sea," honoring Professo r John B. H attendorf, 10- 12 April 201 4 at All Souls College, O xford University, U K. (www.oxfordnavalconferen ce. co. uk/) •"These Contrary Winds: Weather and its Effects on Ships, Mariners, and Maritime History," 42nd annual Walker Maritime History Symposium, 12 April at the Maine Maritime M useum. (243 Washington Street, Bath, ME 04530; Ph. 207

•Association for Great Lakes Maritime History 2014 Annual Conference, 12- 13 September, hosted by the Dossin G reat Lakes Museum in D etroi t. Call/or Papers deadline is 15 May. (Fo r derails, email Robert G raham, Historical Collections of the Great Lakes at Bowling G reen State University at rgraham@bgsu.edu.) •Ulster-American Heritage Symposium 2014, in rwo parts. Part I: 18- 21 June at Q uinnipiac University, Hamden, CT; Part II: 25- 28 June in Athens, GA. (Derails are online at www.qub.ac. uk/cms/XXUlster AmericanHeritageSymposium2014.pdf) FESTIVALS, EVENTS, LECTURES, ETC. •Maritime Author Series talk with Stuart M. Frank, author of Scrimshaw and Provenance, 12 March at Mys tic Seaport. Also, Bruce J. Bourque, author of The Swordfish Hunters: The History and Ecology of an Ancient Ameican People on 23 April. (For rickets call 860 572533 1. 75 Greenmanville Ave., Mystic, CT 06355; www.mys ticseaport.org)

N . Talbot St. , St. Michaels, M D 2 1663; www.cbmm.o rg) •"History of the Hatteras Weather Station," by National Park Service historian D oug Stover, 1 April at the G raveyard of the Atlantic Museum in H atteras, NC. Free admission-advance registration preferred. (5 9200 Museum Dr., H atteras, N C 27943; Ph. 252 986-2995; www. nc mari timemuseums.com) •40th Annual North Carolina Maritime Museum Wooden Boat Show, 3 M ay in downtown Beaufo rt, No rth Carolina. (NC MM, 3 15 Fro nt St., Beaufo rt, NC 28516; Ph. 252 728-73 17; www. ncmari timemuseums.com) •Commercial Marine Expo, 11- 12 June in N ew Bedford, MA. CME is a trade show serving th e co mmercial marine- and fishing industry on the Atl anti c seaboard. (www.comarexpo.com) •34th Annual Sea Music Festival, 6-9 June at Mys ti c Seaport. (75 G reenm anville Ave., Mystic, CT 06355; Ph. 860 572-5388; www.mysticseaport.org)


A Dream of Tall Ships: How New Yorkers Came Together to Save the City's Sailing-Ship Waterfront It's Here!

The long-awaited memoir by National Maritime Historical Society and South Street Seaport Museum legends Peter and Norma Stanford has just been released.

A Dream of

Tall Ships

Join Peter and Norma as they retrace their adventure along the cobblestone streets of Lower Manhattan, where they toiled to make their dream a reality-a dream to restore the maritime vitality to the once famous "Street of Ships."

It was the 1960s, and the two New Yorkers had become entranced by the old brick buildings of the Fulton Fish Market neighborhood, but they were also keenly aware of the rush of new office building construction in Lower Manhattan taking place at the time. The Stanfords started a movement to save the old buildings as a historic district and breathe new life into the waterfront neighborhood in which, a century before, had been a bustling seaport, with the bows of great sailing ships overhanging streets crowded with merchants, sailors, fishermen, chandlers, dockworkers, barkeeps, sailmakers, and counting house clerks. In 1966 the Stanfords and allies formed the Friends of South Street, which in 1967 incorporated the South Street Seaport Museum. You can read what happened next in this close-up, vivid tale of how the Seaport gained the largest museum membership in America, won the first Landmarks battle in New York, and brought the great sailing ships back to South Street.

Along the way, you'll meet Cape Hom sailorman Alan Villiers, urban leader Joan K. Davidson, philanthropist Brooke Astor, fish market garbage man Joe Cantalupo, and, of course, the ordinary New Yorkers who came together to breathe new life and purpose into the Seaport from which the modem city grew. A Dream of Tall Ships: How New Yorkers Came Together to Save the City's SailingShip Waterfront by Peter and Norma Stanford (Sea History Press, National Maritime Historical Society, Peekskill, NY, 2013, 596 pages with 52 illustrations, ISBN 978-0930248-17-8). You can order A Dream of Tall Ships through the NMHS Ship's Store online at www.seahistory.org or by calling NMHS headquarters at 1-800-221-NMHS (6647); email merchandise@seahistory.org. ($34.95, plus $6.95 s/h in the US) 50

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014


Reviews Legends in Sail by OlafT. Engvig (Themo Publishing, Los Angeles, CA, 2013, 256pp, illus, biblio, index, ISBN 978-0578-11756-0; $49 .95hc) Ship historian Olaf Engvig is well known in maritime circles, and, like his research, his books are solid, classic, and prized. His latest, Legends in Sail, adds to his growing bibliography with yet another book done extraordinarily well. Based on his earlier Norwegian-published Legendariske Skuter, Legends in Sail is a rewritten and redesigned version of the earlier work. Even if you have the earlier version, this is an essential purchase to add to your maritime library. Engvig tells the story of nine Norwegian vessels, a careful selection of the thousands of ships from that seafaring nation. In these examples, Engvig seeks to familiarize a non-Norwegian audience with how ships like these made Norway a leading shipping nation and how many Norwegian-built and -operated vessels captured international headlines in their day. Another aspect of this book that makes it an essential read is how Engvig has ably captured the international nature of ships and shipping in these vessel biographies, filling in the details before and after the change of flags. A brief introduction to Norway's maritime history sets the stage, spanning thousands of years and illustrated by vessels such as the Gokstad Viking ship and the 2002 The World, the first condominium ship ever built. The chapters that follow are dedicated to nine individual ships, some likely already known to historians and aficionados of sail, exploration, and maritime history-Gjoa, Statsraad Erichsen, Christiana, Transatlantic, Christian Radich, Lancing, Lingard, Fram, and Maud. Whether the reader is already familiar with some of these individual ships or not, this book offers a focused, flowing narrative supported by rich graphics. Impressive graphics does not make this a coffee-table book, however, but rather a beautifully designed and ably illustrated work in which the carefully selected images enhance the narrative. In the case of Gjoa, the inclusion of the Nils Hagerup mural of Gj@a in the Northwest Passage, painted on a

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014

wall in the former San Francisco Stock Exchange building, drives home the point that this small former fishing sloop had become world famous, especially in San Francisco where she resided for sixty-nine years following Roald Amundsen's conquest of the Northwest Passage (1903-06). On the succeeding pages, photos and a reproduced postcard depict Gjoa's deliberate beaching and preservation at the. foot

As a one-time polar venturer, I was particularly pleased not only with the inclusion of the legendary ice ships Fram and Maud, but also with Engvig's exceptional handling of each vessel's history, accomplishments, and character. As the archaeologist who led the team that documented the wreck of Maud in the Arctic in 1997, I was struck by how brilliantly Engvig encapsulated that work. I recommend Legends in Sail to all who love ships and the sea, and especially to those who set out to write the biographies of ships. ]AMES

P.

DELGADO

Silver Spring, Maryland

The Coast and the Sea: Marine and Maritime Art in America by Linda S. of San Francisco's Golden Gate Park. The chapter also includes images of Gjoa's restoration, how the ship looks today, and the monument to it in San Francisco. The 1858 naval brig Statsraad Erichsen occupies the next chapter, and its 104-year career is well told. During her career, Statsraad Erichsen was the world's oldest sail training ship and served eighty years of unbroken service in that capacity. Engvig then takes a look at the training ship Christiana, which for years was mistakenly thought to be the Donald McKaybuilt clipper ship Star of Empire of 1853. The barque, then named Lady Gray, had been sold to Norwegian owners in 1877 and converted to a sail training ship. At that time, investigations into the ship's history revealed that she had been previously named Star of Empire, and most assumed she was the famous clipper ship of the same name. What Engvig reveals is that it actually was another 1853-built Star ofEmpire, launched from the Donald Babcock shipyard in Robbinston, Maine. The history of the ship is masterfully intertwined with Engvig's detective work to discern its true origins. These examples are not solitary, nor rare. Engvig's book is indeed a treasure. Each chapter merges scholarship, a solid understanding of ships and shipping, wellwritten text, and an excellent selection of images to bring each of the vessels to life.

Ferber (New York Historical Society in association with D. Giles Ltd., London, 2014, 104pp, illus, notes, biblio, index, ISBN 978-1-907804-31-1; $29.95hc) The Coast and the Sea chronicles the development of New York City, as can be

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seen through a to ur of the impressive art emphas is on documenting seafa ring encollections of the New-York Historical terprises on the shore or at sea as sires fo r Society. The book, replete with beauti- human ac tivity. The marine tradition, or full y reproduced images of works created seascape, by contras t, may be said to focus between 1750 and 1904, accompanies the on interpretations in which the coas tal and Society's new traveling exhibition, Sharing oceani c environ mem rakes center stage." The book is organized around seva National Treasure: The Traveling Exhibition Program of the New-York Historical eral artistic them es, from the Anglo-Dutch Society. (See below for the exhibition dates traditio n in colonial America to rhe naval and venues.) engagements of the War of 181 2, fro m The New-York Historical Society was the ro mantic seascape-where the dram a founded in 1804, and over the course of and tragedy of shipwreck feature heavtwo-plus centuries has built an impressive ily in the paintings selected, to the wo rks collection of maritime art. Paintings in the of the Gilded Age. New York as a co mcollection include chose by Thomas Birch, m ercial hub is an important them e of the Thom as Butterswo rth, Winslow Homer, exhibition , and the Society's collection of John Frederick Kensett, James Bard, Wil- m erchant portraits identifies some of the liam Bradfo rd and many others. Through individuals whose commercial enterprises their paintings, it is clear that N ew York created the wealth char allowed th e city to was fo unded as a seapo rt and char its de- emerge as one of the most important co mvelopment from the colonial era to the m ercial centers in the world. The hugely twe ntieth century was entirely borne from successful m erchant Preserved Fish (1 766its maritime enterprises . 1846)-yes, that's his name-is depi cted in What makes this book more than the style typical of the nineteenth-century just an exhibition program or catalog is occupational portrait. H e is seen with the the engaging text by Dr. Linda A. Ferber, too ls of his trade-spyglass in hand, na utirhe N ew-Yo rk Historical Society's vice cal chart and d ividers subtly placed on the president and senio r arr historian. Dr. Fer- tabl e bes ide him, and thro ugh the window ber walks us th ro ugh rhe history of New a clear view of the sea with two ships under Yo rk, bo th rhe city and its rivers and har- sail. O ther portraits of note in this tradibo r, as can be told through an examina- tio n show the yachtsman Jam es Go rdon ti o n of these important works of art. The Bennett J r., commodo re of the N ew Yo rk development of the city, as presented, is Yacht Club and noted yacht race r, by artno t just the physical development of the ist Alexis-Joseph Peri gnon (1806-1882) , land but also the cultural evo lution that and the fa mous ship's surgeon Elisha Kent the city and environs underwent, from a Kane, MD (1820- 185 7), by artist Thomas Durch trading colony to an English, then Hicks (1816-1890). N o maritime arr of N ew York collecAmerican , port engaged in commercial, military, and later recreational maritime tion would be complete without includactivity. The evolution of the ship is also ing the great painters of the H udson River clearly represented, from the seventeenth- School. The "gateway to the continent," the century small sailing ships to th e great Hudson River features prominently in the wa rships in the Age of Sail. The transition development and success of New York as to steam is easy to trace in the later depic- an international po rt. O f note are the views tions of paddlewheelers and steam rugs to fro m H yde Park and Wes t Point by Victor larger screw steamships that traveled both de Grailly (1804-1889). the inland waters and the ocean sea. In adThe book is titled The Coast and the dition, the paintings show the chronology Sea: M arine and M aritime Art in Americaof rhe Port of N ew Yo rk's harbor struc- noc exclusively maritime N ew York, and it tures-forts and bridges specifically-that includes a discussion of wo rks in the Socidefin ed the landscape of rhe city. ety's collection that depict scenes from elseThis is a book about art, and Dr. where, including great sea battles from the Ferber explains rhe artistic tradi tions that War of 18 12-USS Constitution vs. HMS influenced these wo rks and defines the Guerriere, and USS Constitution vs . HMS differences between maritime and marine Java. The grea t painter of C ivil War naval traditions. "The maritime tradition placed engagem ents, Julian O liver Davidson, lived

SEA H ISTORY 146, SPRING 20 14


along the Hudson River in Nyack and his pai ntings of the Battle of Port Hudson on the Mississippi River and the Battle of Mobile Bay are valuable works in the Society's collection. These last examples, however, seem to be included as "asides" that might have been left out and the book retitled to better reflect the majority of its New Yorkthemed content. This is a minor point in an otherwise beaurifully produced and intelligently presented book. While an excursion to see the associated exhibition wo uld be highly recommended, the book is worth reading and viewing as a standalone publication. Dr. Ferber is to be commended for her compelling writing as she weaves the history of the region and its artistic traditions through these selected works. (Exhibition schedule: Society of the Four Arts, Palm Beach, FL, now through 9 March; The Baker Museum of Art, Naples, FL, 29 March-8 June; Portland Museum of Art, Portland, ME, January-May 20 15; The Mattatuck Museum, Waterbury, CT, 6 June 2015-13 September 20 15; the New York State Museum, Albany, NY, 24 October 20 15-22 February 201 6.)

cast including Morgan Freeman, Antho ny Hopkins, and Matthew McConaughey. A few years later, Mystic Seaport built and launched a replica of the vessel to serve as a sailing educational platform that would share the story of the ship and its pl ace in history, and spread the message of freedom to the people who participate in its voyages and visit the ship in port.

DEIRDRE O'REGAN

Cape Cod, Massachusetts

The Amistad Rebellion: An Atlantic Odyssey of Slavery and Rebellion by Marcus Rediker (Viking/Penguin, New York, 20 12, 304pp, illus, notes, index, ISBN 978-0-67002-504-6; $27 .94hc) In June of 1839, a Spanish schoo ner carrying a cargo of captured Africans fro m one C uban port to another was overtaken by its victims. Despite having no seafaring experience, they managed to sai l the vessel north until it was off Long Island, New York, where it was seized by a US Navy ship and brought into port. This is the story of the Amistad, made instantly famo us at the time and revived 15 8 years later by Hollywood and then Mystic Seapo rt. 1h e history of slavery in the United Srares is well known to most Americans, at least the broad histo ry of the institution and the horrors of the Middle Passage. When fi lmmaker Stephen Spielberg made his 1997 movie about the Sup reme Court trial of the Amistad case, he shared the story of this specific incident with a modernday audience, with the help of an all-star

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 20 14

If yo u think yo u already knew all there was to know about the Amistad, yo u wo uld be wrong. Historian Marcus Rediker, who has written an impressive collection of scholarly books on topics in maritime history, added to the historiography of the Atlantic slave trade with his 2007 publication of The Slave Ship. While conducting the research fo r that book, he learned more about the Amistad incident and, importantly, more abo ut what we did not know about the Amistad incident. We have heard about the individuals who headed up the legal case, John Quincy Adams and others, but we knew next to nothing about the Africans at the center of the story. C inque, Grabeau, Kimbo, Konnoma, Burn a, and others-these men, as he found o ut, were the real heroes of the Amistad story. Professor Rediker wanted to know what was different abo ut these people aboard that ship that allowed them to successfully revolt against their captors. Surely others had tried, but why had so many failed, or, rather, why did these people succeed? The Amistad Rebellion is the result of

his seeking out the truth to this question. As he states, it is the sto ry of the Amistad "from the bottom up." He investigated new sources to learn more about the individuals involvedco ntemporary newspaper accounts, court testimo ny, interviews with and descriptions of the people involved. Importantly, he sought out cultural, geographical, and tribal evidence in the regions from which the Amistad Africans originally cam e. There were fifty-three of them aboard the Amistad, fo ur of whom were children. 1 h ey came from several different tribes, but many could speak multiple languages and could at least understand each other. They were manacled, as most Africans were aboard slave ships, but the children could roam the decks and, because the Amistad was relatively small for the amount of people on board, the Span ish crew put them wherever they could fir. With only one deck, the captives shared the down below space with the rest of the supplies, including, as they discovered, a crate of cane knives. Because they could not all fir down below, about half of the Africans had to be kept topsides, sleeping on the open deck at night. They were chained, including at the neck, at night, but the crew would release them from some of their shackles by day, allowing slightly more freedom of movement. What Rediker discovered was that most of the men on board were warriors trained in the use of the cutlass as thei r main weapon of choice. They were also members of a secret society in Africa, which would prove critical to their successful revolt. It was called the Poro Society, an all-male institution that held sacred a set of ideals, among which was self-governance. "Crossing boundaries of territory, class, clan, and fam ily, the Poro Society could create uni ty among disparate individuals and gro ups who did not know each other." Although its members took an oath of secrecy, it was well-known in that part of Africa that the Poro were the ones to make decisions about wa r. With this commo n bo nd between them, the Amistad captives could comm unicate, organize, choose who wo uld lead, and wage war when the time was right. The Amistad Rebellion exam in es these questions and fills in a large gap in what

53


we know about this story. Rediker reminds us that the story of the transAtlantic slave trade and of the institution of slavery is extremely complicated. Likewise, the Amistad story is much more complex than how it has been presented in the past. What was left out in previous accounts were the stories of the Africans who made it happen in the first place, and this book sh ifts the foc us away from the white man as the hero of the Amistad incident to the Africans who worked collectively to save themselves. It is a fascinating piece of this important story, one told from the ship's hold up to the deck rather than from the Supreme Court down to the jail cell. MARTIN PERRY

Falmouth, Massachusetts

The Kissing Sailor: The Mystery Behind the Photo that Ended WOrd Wtir II by Lawrence Verria and George Galdorisi (Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, MD, 2012, 267pp, illus, notes, biblio, index, ISBN 978-1-6125-1127-6; $23.95hc) They still walk among us, contend au-

thors Verria and Galdorisi, the sailor and "nurse" who were captured by the "Father of Photojournalism," Alfred Eisenstadt, on V-J Day, 1945. The aurhors come on strong from the start, confidently stating that they can prove the identities of the subjects, whose names were not recorded at the moment the photograph was taken. The assertion is almost overconfident, tending to cause skepticism in the reader; but then, in regards to the famous photo (entitled V-j Day, Times Square, 1945), the past seventy years have been rife with incredulity. And if it wasn't for the authors' own skepticism, this book would never have been written. The authors bring the main players together in the moment: the sailor, the dental assistant (who looked like a nurse), the photographer, the end of the war, and Times Square. Each had a story to tell, but when captured in a singular moment of time, they became symbolic of revelry, of passion, of relief. It was only in 1980 that the heartache began, when Life magazine, the owner of the Eisenstadt photograph,

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put out a request asking the sailor to come forward. According to the photographer, about eigh ty World War II veterans staked their claim to be the man in the picture. Over the years, forensic experts have studied the photographic evidence, focusing on nose sizes, scars, tattoos, birthmarks, discolorations in skin and hair, subcutaneous lumps and more. Stories told by the different sailors have been scrutinized to the smallest details. One by one, as the years went by, claimants and other players in the debate continue to pass on-Eisenstadt, Edith Shain, who claimed to be the female co-star, for instance-making positive identification ever more elusive. Still, Verria and Galdorisi compiled all the evidence and presented it with sureness. They believe they have the names of the V-j Day, Times Square, 1945 subj ects. In the end, they implore Life magazine, still around in digital format in 2014, to correct past inj ustices and definitively name them. ]O HN GALLUZZO

Weymouth, Massachusetts

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New&Noted 'it'' Force: The Origins ofBritish Deception During the Second World War by Whitney T. Bendeck (Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, MD, 2013, 272pp, ISBN 978-161251-233-4; $45.95hc) British Battlecruiser vs. German Battlecruiser, 1914-16 by Mark Stille (Osprey Publishing, New York, 2013, 80pp, illus, biblio, index, ISBN 978-1-78096-096-8; $18.95pb)

Poseidon and the Sea: Myth, Cult, and Daily Life edited by Seth D. Pevnick (Tampa Museum of Art in association with D. Giles Ltd. , London, 2014, 199pp, illus, notes, gloss, biblio, index, ISB N 9781-907804-30-4; $38.84hc)

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014

GALVESTON'S THE ELISSA Tm TALL S111r OF TEXAS by Kurt D. Voss All proceeds from this pictorial history benefit the ELISSA preservation fund

Privateering, Piracy, and British Policy in Spanish America, 1810-1830 by Matthew McCarthy (The Boydell Press, Suffolk, UK, 2013, 184pp, notes, biblio, index, ISBN 978-1-84383-861-6; $115hc)

Broke of the Shannon and the ~r of 1812, edited by Tim Voelcker (Seaforth Rescue of the Bounty: Disaster and Publishing, an imprint of Pen & Sword Survival in Superstorm Sandy by MiBooks, Ltd., South Yorkshire, UK, 2013, chael]. Tougias and Douglas A. Campbell 226pp, illus, maps, notes, biblio, index, (Scribner, Division of Simon & Schuster, New York, April 2014, 256pp, illus, ISBN ISBN 978-1-84832-179-3; $39.95hc) 978-1-4767-4663-0; $24hc) The Devil's Cormorant: A Natural History by Richard ]. King (University of A Sea of Misadventures: Ship and New Hampshire Press, Lebanon, 2013, Shipwreck in Early America by Amy 360pp, illus, maps, notes, biblio, index, Mitchell- Cook (University of South ISBN 978-1-58465-225-0; $29.95hc) Carolina Press, Columbia, 2013, 240pp, illus, maps, notes , biblio, index, ISBN Hunting the Essex: A Journal of the 978-1-611 17-3601-7; $34.95hc) Voyage of HMS Phoebe, 1813-1814 by Midshipman Allen Gardiner, edited USS Constellation on the Dismal by John S. Rieske (Seaforth Publishing, Coast-Willie Leonard's journal, Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK, 2013, 1859-1861, edited by C. Herbert Gilli152pp, illus, biblio, notes, ISBN 978-1-84832- land (University of South Carolina Press, 174-8; $25.69hc) Columbia, 2013, 416pp, illus, maps, notes, biblio, index, ISBN 978-1-61117-290-4; In the Trough: Three Years on Ocean $39.95hc) Station by Thomas F. Jaras (iUniverse, Bloomington, IN, 2013, 322pp, illus, ISBN William B. Cushing in the Far East: A Civil War Naval Hero Abroad, 1865978-1-4917-0653-4; $23.95pb) 1869byJulian R. McQuinsron (McFarland A Mind at Sea: Henry Fry and the Glo- & Company, Inc., Publishers, Jefferson, rious Era of Quebec's Sailing Ships by NC, 2013, 222pp, illus, notes, biblio, index, JohnFry(Dundurn, Toronto,2013, 256pp, ISBN 978-0-7864-7055-6; $35pb) illus, biblio, notes, ISBN 978-1-45971-929With Commodore Perry to Japan: The 3; $24.99pb) journal of William Speiden fr., 1852Octopus by Richard Schweid (University 1855, edited by John A. Wolter, David A. of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, Reaktion Ranzan, and John J. McDonough (Naval Books, Ltd., London, 2014, 198pp, illus, Institute Press, Annapolis, MD, 2013, notes, biblio, index, ISBN 978-1-78023- 320pp, illus, maps, notes, biblio, ISBN 978177-8; $19.95pb) 1-61251-238-9; $39.95pb) Passage to the World: the Emigrant Experience 1807-1940 by Kevin Brown (Seaforth Publishing, Barnsley, UK, 2013, 243pp, illus, notes, index, ISBN 978-184832-136-6; $37hc)

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MARITIME

BOOKS 1806 Laurel Crest Madison, Wisconsin 53 705-1065 (608) 238-SAIL FAX (608) 238-7249 Email: tuttlemaritime@charter.net http://tuttlemaritime.com Books about the Sea, Ship & Sailor Catalogue Upon Request 55


NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY AFTERGUARD

AMERJCAN CRUISE LINES

J. ARON CHARITABLE FOUNDATION

B ouc1-1 ARD T RANS PORTATION Co.

EDWARD A. D ELMAN

H ENRY

L. & GRACE D OHERTY C HARITABLE FOUNDATION

RI CHARDO R.

G UY E.

C. M AI TLAND

RONALD

LO PES

L. OSWALD

ESTATE OF WALTER

BENEFACTORS THOMAS F. D ALY

H OWARD SLOTN ICK

AMERJCAN BUREAU OF SHIPP ING

MORAN T OW ING CORPORATIO

PLANKOWNERS

T D BA K,

. A.

CUNARD LI ES

RALPH M . P ACKER

STAR C LI PPER CRU ISES

SPONSORS

CAROL Y I A LL

M R. A. ACEBEDO

PATRIC IA A. JEAN B ARILE H ARRJS CLARK

T I-I E I TERLAKE STEAMSH IP COMPANY

SMOLIN, L UPIN & Co .

W.

P.

A.

W OO DSON K . WOODS

GA RSC I-I AGEN

W ILLI AM J. G REEN

CAPT. SEAN K ENN ED Y

SKULD NORTH A MER ICA INC.

D AN IEL & COLETTE B ENN ETT

L EHMA1

WILLIAM G. MULLER

GINGER M A RTUS

IN M EMORY OF SH EI LA S LOTN ICK

&

SONS

REYNOLDS DUPONT, J R.

D AVID AL AN H OFFEN BERG

R OYA L H OLLY

M ARINE SOC IET Y OF TH E CI TY OF NEW Y ORK

CAPT.SALLY CHIN M CELWREATH, USN R ( R ET.)

NEW YORK CRUISE L INES, INC.

H.

CA DD EL L DRY DOCK & R EPA IR CO ., I NC.

CO RREA

TH E M AC PHERSON F UND, I NC.

T I-IE B ETTY SUE & A RT P EABODY FUND

C. H AM ILTO SLOAN FOUNDATION

A .G .A.

H OWARD E. & V IRG IN IA M . HIGHT

H O . JOH

W ENDY PAYNE & NIC K STRANGE ANN C . &

D . H ARRY

ALI CE D A DOUR IAN

M CCA RTER & EN GLI SH, L LC

W ILLI AM G . W INTERER

ROBERT F. KAMM

JAMES J. COLEMAN

DAV ID J. & CAROLYN D . MCB RIDE

ROBERT E. M ORRI S,. JR.

COAST G UAR D FOUNDATION

D R. WI LLIAM S. & D ONNA D UDLEY JAKOB I SBRANDTSEN

BUR.CHE AL GREE

ANNE PETERS MARVIN

WILLI AM H . WHIT E

JEAN W ORT

RADM JOSEPH F. CALLO, USN R ( R ET.) FA IRBANKS MORSE ENG i E

WH ALEN

SCARANO B OAT B UILDING, INC.

PHILIP & I RMY W EBSTER

D R. T IMOTH Y J. R UNYAN

R . K . M ELLON F OUN DATION

LI BE RTY M ARITI ME CORPORATION

SANDY H OOK PI LOTS

JOI-IN F. DI LLON

W.

D AN IEL

JAMES CAMERON

J.M. K APLAN FU D

HARRY V ICKERS TOLL

T I-IE R UTH R . H OYT/ ANNE H . JOLLEY FOUNDATIO , INC. M SC CRUISES USA

CA PT. CESA RE SORI O

B ANK OF AME RICA

D AVIDS. FOWLER

NEW YORK WATERWAYS

NORMA & PETER STANFORD

L OCKHEED M A RTI

MCA L LISTER T OW ING & T RANS PORTAT ION COM PANY, I NC.

J. PETTIT, SR.

RICHARD T. DU MOUL!

CARN I VAL CO RPORATION & PLC

ARTH UR M . KI MBERLY T RUST

C. B OWE SM ITH

DR. JOSE PH

NEW YO RK Y AC HT C LUB

C HA RLES RASKOB R OB INSON

B RADFORD D . &

ROLEX

STEPHAN IE SM ITH

F.

M EANY

0 CEANWORK S I TERNATIO A L G EORGE SCI-ILUDE RB ERG

PH ILIP E. STOLP

STO EHOUSE I NC.

M R. & M RS . WIL LI AM SWEAR ING IN

DONORS

CARTERS. B ACON

W.

CHARLES R . BEAUDROT, JR. D OUGLAS CAMPBELL

PAU L F. B A LSER FR.A K BO HLEN

MR. & MRS. N ICHOLAS CARLOZZI

MR. & MRS. JAMES M. CLARK

JOHN C. COUCH

MR.

TH E EDGARD & G ERALD INE FEDER FOUNDATIO , I C. ROBERT C. FO R 1EY

NORMAN Li ss

RI CHARD JULIA 1

EW YO RK CONTA INE R TERM I AL

&

GERALD WEINSTEIN

PATRONS

MARY H ABSTRITT

H EN RY T. C HAND LER

JAMES

A DM B RUCE D EMARS, US R ICHAR D ELLI SON

W.

CHEEVERS

( R ET.)

MARY L EE GI BLON- SI-I EA HA

LAUREL£. H EYMAN

STEVEN A. H YMAN

D EE

CAPT. & M RS. JAMES MCNAMARA

MCGOURTHY,

MR . SR.

C HARLES H . MILLER

CAPT. G. M. MUS ICK Ill, USN ( R ET.)

R ICHAR DT. O ' SHEA

PALM BEACH M AR ITIME M USEUM

M RS . MARY D EMERE R AAE

ROBE RT S. R EGAN ROBERT

W.

SCOTT

C HARLES T OBIN

ROBERTA E. WE ISBROD, PI-I D

ROBERT

RI CHARD

D AV ID T OMAS I

JAMES

L.

D R. JACOB D EEGAN

CA RL

&

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CA PT. D WIGHT G ERTZ

M A RC GRIS HAM

J. C. HEM INWAY

RAY G UINTA FR EDA HE RM ANN

M A RY BURR ICI-ITE R & B OB K IERLI N

K ERR

JOHN L . L AN GILL

& M RS . A LFRED L. L OOM IS AND TI-I E L OOM IS FOUN DATION

G A RY 0. M AEHL

MR .

K URTZ

MI CHAEL CEN TANN I

PETER B. G ERQU EST

DR. D AV ID H AYES

T ERR Y W A LTON

W A RREN L A MM ERT

& M RS. ALAN MC KI E

C DR R ONALD A . M CKI NNEY, USN (RET.)

IN M EMO RY OF WI L LI AM E. MITCHELL ER IC A . O ESTERLE

M R.

&

CA PT. R . G . M OO RE, U SC G (R ET.)

MRS. FR ED ERJ CK O SBORN Ill

ADM R OBERT J. PAPP, JR., USCG

WI LLI AM E. R ICHARDSON H OWA RD P. SEARS

W.

GEROU LD R . STANGE

JAMES BILLI NGSLEY, SR .

R ICHARD D UMAS

& MRS. EDW IN H. GRANT, JR.

TH E K ELTON FOUN DATION

PET ER L IND

NATH AN IEL PH ILBR ICK

JOAN M . D AVENPORT

C. & KATH Y R . GENTRY

MR.

W.

L EN FEST

L AU REANO CARUS

M ORGAN D A LY

N ICHOLAS H ATZOGLU

K ITC HINGS, JR.

PAUL JAY L EWIS JOHN

T HOMAS A MORAN

W.

PETER

F.

ANNE E. BEAUMONT

C HARLES N . D RAGONETTE

ARTH UR GRA HAM

EL LIOTT JA RDIN

MR. & MRS. CHESTER

& MRS. T. E. LEONARD

H ERBERT C . SCl-INE IDER

JAMES J. FOLEY, JR.

H.

NATIONA L HI STORICA L FOUN DATION

G ILBERT V ERNEY FOUN DATION

C. B ROWN, U SM S ( R ET.)

JOI-IN & C HERYL CLAY

D IB ER MA RI T IME ASSOC IATES LLC

JOHN F. GRA DEL

H AROLD G . MCA VE IA

56

R USSEL L P. CHUBB

C LIFTON S. G USTAFSON

& MRS. JOI-I N R . SH ERWOOD Ill

PETER B A RTOK

RADM D AV ID

CAPT. ROGE R P. H A RTGEN , USCG ( R ET)

D A !EL P. KIRBY

RALPH N. T HOM PSON

JOI-IN B A ASZA K

PATRICK BROGAN

MR. & M RS. ROBERT FLYNN

CHARLES H AMR ICK

MR.

T OM B ALLEW

JOHN W . E LDER FR EDER ICK S. FORD

I N M EMORY OF WILLI AM R . PETE RS MR.

RIK Y AN H AMMEN

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Il l

CAL LAN

A NDREW M ACA OI DH JERGENS

PH ILIP G . L EB OUTILLI ER

D AN IEL R YAN

WILLI AM B . WI

R ICHARD M. BRESSLER

FRANK G UMPER

c. M EIBAUM

Y.

C ITIZENS B AN K

CA PT. JOHN D OS WELL

C. G OAD

W ALTER

C HA RL ES

M RS. D. L . F LE ISCHMANN

CAPT. H OWARD R . HI LL, JR.

PHI LI P B . PERS INGER

PI ETER E ENKEMA Y AN DIJ K

CARTERS. BACO

ARTHUR A. BI RNEY

THOMAS

CYRUS C. L AURIAT

D AVID & SUSAN ROCKEFEL LER

ALFRED TYI.,ER I I

I AN D ANIC

M A RYLAND LI NE H ANDLI NG Co.

M RS . JOANNE O 'NEIL

MR . & MRS . W IL LIAM P. R ICE

.J AMES 0. BURRI JAMES CARTER Ill

D AVID T. F ITZG ERALD

F URNEY H EMINGWAY

JAMES P. L ATH AM

MAN HATTAN SA ILI NG C LUB

D A IEL R . SUK IS

C. W. CRAYCROFT

I GNATIUS GALGA

GEORGE T. H ATHAWAY

CA PT. D ONA LD B ATES, USN R

JOI-IN D . B A RNAR D

JAMES H . B RAND I

RADM NEV IN CA RR

R OBERT F ISHER

ROBERT FRANZBLAU

ROBERT S. H AGGE, JR. NE IL E. JONES

R OBERT M . B A LY

JOHN BRAITMAYER

R EED ROBERTSON

D ANI EL J. SENT ILLES

ROBERT J. T YD

D AV ID B . V IETOR

M R.

WI LLI AM

C. R UPERT

EDMUND SOMM ER DR.

&

JOHN SCA LI A

& MRS. A NDR EW A. R A DEL GEORGE

F.

R USSE LL, JR.

SW IMMER FAM ILY FOUN DATION

MRS. JOHN DI X W AYMAN

THOMAS W AYN E

L. W ELDON, JR.

SEA HISTORY 146, SPRING 2014


, . . _ • • • • 111111 • • • , _ . , - •' ' ' '

1 11111

',,,_.

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In all of travel, only one voyage reigns above all The Transaltantic Crossing aboard Queen Mary 2®

Eastbound and Westbound 7-Day Crossings From MAY to DECEMBER 2014

ALTO UR

fares from

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pauline.power@altour.com

Call 212-897-5145 to plan your adventure today. *Fares are per person, based on double occupancy, voyage only, subject to availability, capacity controlled. Call the above agency for more details. Government fees and taxes are additional. Air add·ons are available. See applicable Cunard brochure for terms, conditions, and definitions that apply to all reservations. Other restrictions may apply. ©2011 Cunard. Ships registry: Bermuda.


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MARY

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2014 Transatlantic Crossings QUEEN MARY 2 ® I New York to I from Southampton

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Cal I 800-729-7472 ext 222 ' Fare applies to a minimum lead-in category on a space-available basis at time of booking for December 15th, 2014 crossing only. Fares are per person , non-air, cruise-only, based on double occupancy and apply to the first two passengers in a stateroom. These fares do not apply to singles or third/fourth-berth passengers. Call Pisa Brothers Travel for more details. Taxes, fees and port expenses are additional and subject to change . This offer is capacity controlled and may not be combinable with any other public, group or past passenger discount, including On Board credits. Offer is not transferable and is available to residents of the 50 United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, Mexico and the District of Columbia who are 21 years of age or older and receive this offer. This Advertisement was distributed by an independent travel agency, not by Cunard Line. Fares quoted in U.S. dollars . See the applicable Cunard brochure or Cunard.com for terms, conditions and definitions that apply to all bookings. Ship's Registry: Bermuda.©Cu nard 2014.