Page 1


86 PROOf BLENDED SCOTC H WHISKY DI STILLED ANO B011LED IN SCOTLAND IMPORTED BY TH[ BUCKINGHAM CORPORATION , Nf W YORK.NY

I

Ted Turner does lots of things people advise him not to do. And he succeeds at them. He turned Atlanta's WTBS-TV into a "Superstation" using a communications satellite and recently founded Cable News Network, the world's first 24-hour TV news network. He bought the Atlanta Braves and moved them out of last place; won the 1977 America's Cup after being fired in the '74 races; and as named "Yachtsman of e Year" four times. Ted Turner puts his feelings where his mouth is. He also puts a great scotch there: Cutty Sark. And whiie he's been called Captai Outrageous by some, one thing s sure: Ted Turner's enjoying himself.


No.25

SEA HISTORY OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE WORLD SHIP TRUST

SEA HISTORY is the journal of the National Maritime Historical Society, an educational, tax-exempt membership organization devoted to furthering the understanding of our maritime heritage. Copyright © 1982 by the National Maritime Historical Society.

ISSN 0146-9312

AUTUMN 1982

CONTENTS 3 LETTERS 8 WAWONA IS WAITING: III, Harold D. Huycke

OFFICE: 2 Fulton St., Brooklyn , NY I 1201 . Telephone: 212-858-1348.

11 TAMI CANOE VOYAGE, Terry Linehan

MEMBERSHIP is invited and should be sent to the Brooklyn office: Sponsor, $1 ,000; Patron, $100; Family, $20; Regular , $15; Student or Retired , $7.50.

18 WORLD SHIP TRUST HISTORIC TUGS LIST, Norman Brouwer

OVERSEAS: Outside North America, add $5 or subscribe via World Ship Trust. CONTRIBUTIONS may be made for any recognized project. Make out checks "NMHSShip Trust," indicating on the check the project to which you wish support to be directed. OFFICERS & TRUSTEES are Chairman: F. Briggs Dalzell; Vice Chairmen: Thomas Hale, Barbara Johnso n; President: Peter Stanford; Secretary: Alan G. Choate; Treasurer: A.T. Pouch, Jr.; Trustees: Norman J . Brouwer, John Bunker, Alan G. Choate, F. Briggs Dalzell , Thomas Hale, Harold D . Huycke, Barbara Johnson, James F. Kirk, Karl Kortum , Robert J . Lowen, A. T. Pouch Jr., Richard Rath, John H. Reill y, Jr., Kenneth D. Reynard , Walter F. Schlech, Jr., Howard Slotnick, Peter Stanford, John N. Thurman, Barclay H. Warburton Ill, Alen York . Chairmen Emeritii: Walter F. Schlech, Jr. , John M. Will, Karl Kortum . President Emeritus: Alan D. Hutchison. ADVISORS : Chairman: Frank 0 . Braynard ; Francis E. Bowker, Oswald L. Brett, George Campbell, Robert Carl, Frank G. G. Carr, Harry Dring, John Ewald, Joseph L. Farr, Timothy G. Foote, Richard Goold-Adams, Robert G. Herbert, Melvin H . Jackson, R. C. Jefferson, Irving M. Johnson, Fred Klebingat, John Kemble, Conrad Milster, William G. Muller, John Noble, Capt. David E. Perkins , USCG (ret.), Nancy Richardson , Ralph L. Snow, John Stobart, Albert Swanson, Shannon Wall, Robert A. Weinstein, Thomas Wells, AICH, Charles Wittholz. Curator-at-Large: Peter Throckmorton . WORLD SHIP TRUST: Chairman: Frank G .G. Carr; Hon . Secretary: J .A. Forsythe; Hon. Treasurer: Philip S. Green; Erik C. Abranson; Maldwin Drummond; Peter Stanford. Membership: £ 10 payable WST , c/ o Hon . Sec ., 129a North Street, Burwell, Cambs. CB5 OBB, England. Reg . Charity No. 277751. AMERICAN SHIP TRUST: International Chairman: Frank Carr; Chairman: Peter Stanford; George Bass; Norman Brouwer; Karl Kortum; Ri chard Rath ; Charles Lundgren; Barclay H . Warburton, III ; Senior Advisor: Irving M. Johnson . SEA HISTORY STAFF: Editor: Peter Stanford ; Managing Editor: Norma Stanford; Associate Editors: Norman J. Brouwer, Naomi Person; Advertising: Diane O'Donnell; Membership: Marie Lore.

15 TUGS, LIKE OLD SHOES .. ., Peter Stanford 22 A TUG AT WAR: EMOND J. MORAN 23 MARY D. HUME: A TUG FOR THE LONG HAUL, John Bockstoce

25 CATAWISSA'S MACHINERY REMEMBERS, Conrad Milster 26 NEW YORK CENTRAL 16 MAKES IT ASHORE 26 SEGUIN: SHE . .. OUTLIVED THEM ALL, David H. Hackett, III 28 ABOARD THE TUGS 32 MARINE ART: SOME WELL LOVED SCENES, Ron van den Bos

36

ROYAL SOCIETY EXHIBITION, Peter Sorlien

42 SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS, Naomi Person 48 BOOKS 53 SAIL TRAINING 55 THE GENESIS OF TUGBOAT ANNIE, Norman Reilly Raine COVER: As the short December daylight wanes, the tug Baltimore, built 1906, is brought back from a watery grave in the Sassafrass River by her much younger cousin Smith Point-to become part of Baltimore's remarkable new waterfront Museum of Industry, "a working museum for working people." See "Ship Notes." Photo, Bill Eggert.

The National Maritime Historical Society is saving America's seafaring heritage. Join us. We are making America's seafaring past a our nation 's seafaring legacy? Membership in the National Maritime living heritage. Th e National Maritime Historical Society costs only $15 a Historical Society discovers and year. You 'll receive Sea History, restores the few remaining ships -SEA. HIS'f..ORY and seagoing artifacts-and helps a fascinating magazine filled keep them in trust for future with articles of seafaring and generations. historical lore. You 'II also be And the Society helps get eligible for discounts on books, young people to sea to keep alive prints and other items. Help save our seafaring the spirit of adventure, the disciheritage. Join the National pline and skills it took to sail the Maritime Historical Society magnificent vessels from our past. today! Won 't you join us to keep alive y

TO: National Maritime Historical Society, 2 Fulton Street, Brooklyn, New York 11201

YES

I want to help. 1 understand that my contribution goes to forward the work of the Society ' and that I' ll be kept informed by receiving SEA HISTORY quarterly. Enclosed is: D $15 Regular

NAME

D $100 Patron

D Sl,OOOSponsor

D $7.SOStudent/ Retired

(please pnnt)

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Z I P·~~~~~~~-

Contributions to NM HS are tax deductible.

NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY


LETTERS Dubious? Shortsighted! Come See! Calling the work of the Royal Society of Marine Artists "a dubious foreign product of questionable worth,'' as James Mitchell does in his review of the Fifth National Exhibition of the American Society of Marine Artists (SH 24:24-37), and calling the institution that shows such work "shortsighted" does little for the cause. I agree rather with your addendum that marine art has no national boundaries. There is a way for everyone who reads Sea History to judge if the works of the Royal Society are of "questionable worth" and if we at Mystic are "shortsighted"-and that is, come to the Royal Society show which will open September 12 and run through October 24 here at the Marine Art and Ship Model Gallery at Mystic Seaport Museum Stores. My guess is that once you have had a chance to view the 50 or more works on exhibition, Mr. Mitchell's article may seem dubious and perhaps shortsighted! But the overall objective is, of course, to offer fine marine art which is pleasing to the audience, educational to all, and offer~ a real opportunity to increase the awareness of marine art. The show will go on! And I hope to see you there. THOMAS H. AAGESON

President, Mystic Seaport Museum Stores, Connecticut I read Mr. James E. Mitchell's article in Sea History 24 with unrelieved gloom. Since when, I wonder, have there been international frontiers to art-marine or otherwise? Certainly I am in no small minority when I state that an exhibition of American Marine Artists would be more than welcomed in the United Kingdom, or, for that matter, the work of the artists of any country. One might presuppose some motive for his extension of the Monroe Doctrine to Marine Art and that, perhaps, the standards of American artists would not stand up to competition, but the pages of Sea History give the lie to that theory every issue. No sphere of human activity has broken through national frontiers as much as the sea and ships, whether by professional seamen or by longshore enthusiasts. How sad that anyone should try and wall round his country's art forms! And how great the loss to the culture of every nation had they restricted themselves to the art forms of their own artists, architects and the like!

They Sailed the Lancing-and How! Captain Padilla's "How We Sail the Libertad" (SH22:34-35) recounts the Argentine full-rigger's record 6-day, 21-hour Atlantic crossing, Cape Race to Dursey Island, Ireland. With all respect to the Captain, the crew, and their ship, the four-masted ship Lancing did a crossing about a thousand miles longer in February, 1916, in 6 days, 18 hours-New York to Cape Wrath, Scotland. She was Norwegian owned at the time and her log is in the Oslo Maritime Museum. While running her easting down on a voyage to Melbourne in 1890-91 she was logged at 22 knots in four consecutive watches, and averaged 18 knots throughout her run in the Roaring Forties. She was built in 1865 as a crack transatlantic passenger steamer, but came into her own as a very fast sailing vessel when her engines were removed in 1888. She was scrapped in 1924 in Italy. A good account of her is to be found in Basil Lubbock's Last of the Windjammers, in which she is termed "the eighth wonderofthe shipping world." A. CHRISTOFFERSEN

Victoria, British Columbia Mr. Christoffersen, who started out in the Danish schoolship George Stage just before A lan Villiers bought her up for his world cruise in 1934, renaming her Joseph Conrad, has seamanly as well as scholarly credentials for his comments, which we're alwaysgladtosee. - ED. A New Sense of Pride On June 25, my wife and I set forth on the Marion T. Budd in fulfillment of our winning the yearly raffle sponsored by the Hudson River Maritime Center-with 73 of our family and friends! We arrived at the public dock to be promptly greeted by Captain and Mrs. Henne and their staff. We were welcomed warmly and made to feel as though the boat were ours. Each guest was seated comfortably as we left the dock. We ate many helpings of the supper provided and stayed out four hours, not three as advertised. The view of Rondout Creek, broadening out into the Hudson, was breathtaking. Our guests, many from out of state, were awed by the beauty of our river! Those of us who live near the river and so often take it for granted found a new sense of pride in its majesty.

ALEX A. HURST

BILL YOSH

Brighton, England See also some thoughts of Charles Lundgren, founding chairman of the American Society of Marine Artists, page 35, this issue.

Saugerties, New York Tickets are $1 each and this year's raffle closes Labor Day, so best rush your check to HRMC, 13 Fair Street, Kingston, NY 12401. -ED.

SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982

Great Encouragement for Artists The article by John Carter in Sea History a year ago on contemporary marine art at the Peabody Museum was of great importance to our local artists in Michigan. How does one go about joining the American Society of Marine Artists-and how does one get back issues of Sea History? STANLEY PIEKNY

Royal Oak, Michigan (1) Send in $25 made out to ASMA, c/ o NMHS, 2 Fulton Street, Brooklyn NY 11201. (2) Sea History 1-3 is available for $1.50; 4-5, 7, 9-12, 14-24 for $2 while supply lasts; missing issues may be ordered in Xeroxformfor $5 each. -ED. Hanway Redivivus I was very pleased to learn of your interest in my forthcoming biography of Jonas Hanway. There are several aspects of his career that might be of interest to students of maritime history. There is, of course, his work for the Marine Society (SH 24:26). He was also a victualling commissioner of the British Navy from 1762 to 1783, and in that capacity he was especially involved in efforts to improve the diet. Indeed, he administered what I believe was the first major addition to the Navy's victualling in the eighteenth century that was intended to improve the seamen's health-sauerkraut, which was provided in great quantity to ships off North America in the American Revolutionary War. Hanway was also a mercantilist, whose set views on the rights and obligations of American colonists were presented in several pamphlets and books, the most important being Common Sense (1775), antithetical to Paine's pamphlet of the following hear. JAMES STEPHEN TAYLOR

Aurora, New York Peccavi Sea History is indeed a wonderfully informative piece of work and the only means that we "nuts" have to keep track of what is up in our field. You must, however, become more consistent in specifying length of vessels. Listing Providence as 110 feet in length gives a distorted picture of a vessel measuring just under 65 feet on deck. The distortion arises from using "sparred length"-length from bowsprit tip to main boom end. Do be consistent and give us actual hull lengths, adding whatever you want about how far spars extend beyond that. FREDERICK E. HECKLINGER Marine Surveyor Annapolis, Maryland "Sparred length" is used, of course, for determining space at a pier. Unfortunately 3


LETTERS it's cited by many to describe hull size. We try to catch this but let a whole bunch through in the last SH. Sorry! -ED. Floreat "Old Scripps" The late John Lyman, a founding trustee of your Society (SH 12:13-15), was a Scripps Institution of Oceanography alumnus and did his work in the Scripps Marine Laboratory here in La Jolla. Recently the building was named an historic landmark and it is undergoing restoration with the support of John's widow Mitchell Lyman and others including many Society members. "Nearly seven decad es of historic biology and oceanography have taken place in the old laboratory, including planning of expeditions and new programs," say Prof. Fred N. Spiess of Scripps, chairman of the committee to save the twostory structure. "We hope to give the building functional space with the ambience it once enjoyed.'' Those interested might write for information or send a tax-deductible contribution to UCSD Foundation, Q-011, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 92093, marked "Old Scripps Restoration .''

site now occupied by the World Trade Center. ls it possible that you or some NMHS members recall this sh ip chand lery that flouri shed during the early 1900s? HAROLD C. FRINCKE Knoxville, Tennessee

The very famous restaurant in Brooklyn. Brook lyn's Landmark Seafood & Steak House 37 2 Ful ton Street (nr. Bore Hall). For r eservations--875-5181 (pa rk ing nearby) Open Daily _ 11 >30 A.M. to 9 >00 P.M. Sat. 4>00 to l l >00 P.M .. Sun . 3 >00 to 9 >00 P.M . Major credit card s. Private party fac ilities.

Gage &lOllner...

1019

A tug meets the Wavertree in New York harbor, January 1895. By Mark Richard Myers.

-

SALL y SPIESS

La Jolla, California

"Do Something for the Ship!" Thanks for the lovely signed print of Os Brett's "The Ship Wavertree off Cape Horn ." It certainly improves the artist's work when he is a sailor at heart. And I have never seen a picture which better combined the feeling of heavy weather and the seas which should be expected to go along with it. RODERI CK STEPHENS, JR .

New York, New York This good word on Os's work comes from a sailorman who has seen quite a bit of heavy weather in small boats sailing fast . The print is sent to all who have contributed $100 or more to the Ship Trust Wavertree campaign, and is shown in the -ED. ad on page 24.

A Vanished Chandlery It is with pleasure I enclose a signed copy of the petition to keep Fulton Ferry Landing public and free, and a check for $10 to help your fight. I've been a Tennessean for some 49 years now, but my father and several uncles were old salts and I think there is some of it left in me. After having gone to sea and several years with Todd Shipyards, my father, Henry J. Frincke, became one of three partners owning the William Wells Company at 250 Fulton Street in New York-a manufacturers' agent firm handling marine supplies, on a 4

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SEA HI STORY, AUTUMN 1982


Time of Change ...

An upgrader at the Seafarers Harry Lundberg School of Seamanship learns automated engine controls on a training simulator.

Seafaring is in a period of great change and challenge. Radical new types of very costly ships that bear little resemblance to their predecessors. New methods of cargo handling. Changes in propulsion and ship design for energy efficiency. Widespread use of automation replacing manual jobs on board ship. The use of electronic data processing to expedite cargo movements and monitor ship operations. At the Seafarers Harry Lundeberg School of Seamanship at Piney Point, Md., we are up-grading the skills of our seamen to meet the technical challenges of this new age of seafaring. We are doing our part to maintain a strong, competitive and job-making American merchant marine on the trade routes of the world.

Seafarers International Union of North America 675 Fourth Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11232

Frank Drozak, President


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SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982


T_raditional scrimshaw from leading maritime museums and contemporary scrimshaw now available in replica - teeth, boxes, desk accessories, jewelry. These fine reproductions have been painstakingly recreated in a specially formulated material, polymer ivory, to provide you with the beauty of the original without using whale products. Do your own scrimshaw with our kits and blanks. For a full color brochure of our "Save the Whale Collection" of scrimshaw send $1.00 to

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7


Does It Matter What Men Did Before Our Time,

The Wawona Is

All hands on deck! When a vital part of our heritage is about to receive the deep six we have a choice. We can lay back and say "the hell with it" just as we do with items in our personal junkyards. Or we can yell "Hey! Wait a minute! If we throw our heritage away piece by piece what will we have left?" We can say, "I don't care about anything that happened later than last week and l want my kids to feel the same way. Then they won't be troubled with a sense of having lost something that is undefinable, something precious we just cannot seem to recreate in this present day world. Why should we give hard-earned money to some crumbling antique-some old bucket that only proves how hard life was for America before it became easy?" If that is the way saving the irreplaceable schooner Wawona strikes you then turn your eyes away from these words and from the schooner herself if she happens to collide all standing with your line of sight. Wawona li ves still and she is not going to die tomorrow or even the day after because her heart and physique are both mighty. And because she was created the old way when things were built to last. When almost nothing was thrown away . Wawona will survive for a few more years even without your help . But then she will be gone. Forever. Not for yo u to see. Ever. Not for your kids to walk her decks and at least dream of voyaging under sail. Never. And never is a long time. We are going to lose Wawona to time and in her final weakness to the elements which she defied so bravely for so long. No question. We are going to lose her unless you believe that a few of your dollars spent now toward her resurrection is more important to the welfare of yo ur fami ly and your nation than the purchase of some new expendable gadget that has no heritage and wi ll be forsaken a nd forgotten next week. Wawona can be restored to full health. With you r help . No other way, mates . So let's "pulleyhauley" together a nd see to it that Wawona lives forever.

~~ ERNEST

K.

GANN

THE SH!P TRUST of the Nat ional Maritime Historical Society is proposing an emergency budget of$100,000 to "stop the rot" and underwrite a national campaign for Wawona. Inquiries and contributions, may be sent lo SHIP TRUST-WA WONA, in care of the National Society. 8

In Sea History 21and22, Captain Huycke, marine historian and surveyor of Seattle, told the story of the Bendixsen-built schooner Wawona, fashioned in 1897 of the Oregon pine she was built to carry. Here is a much-abbreviated summary of the vessel's career after she/el/ out of commercial use (the full story has been written by Captain Huycke and is available to serious students through the Society). With the end of the 1947 season, Wawona was laid up in East Sound, in the San Juan Islands, and remained there till 1950. Her codfishing days were done, though her near sister C.A. Thayer was sti ll serving in the old trade during these last years. Late in 1950 Wawona was blown asho re in a gale, but hauled off and towed to Lake Union, Seattle, with little damage done. Eventually Robinson Fisheries was sold to a New York firm and the Wawona was sold to a couple of interim owners, one of whom failed to make required payments on the ship, and ownership reverted to Robinson Fisheries again. By 1953 she was owned by William Studdert, a Montana cattleman who also bought the aging wooden steam schooner Sierra (powered by twin Bolinder diesel engines). He thought of employing these two ships hauling cattle to Russia . Nothing came of this, and the two ships lay side by side in Lake Union for nearly a decade. A little work was done on the Wawona's stern , but the long years of neglect and exposure to the weather began to take its toll. By 1960 she was painted white. Her 1946 vintage masts were developing a grotesque twist. Rot was spreading throughout the entire bow, the worst being centered in the stem and forecastlehead decks and beams. The postwar years brought forth an organization of history preservationists, which became the Puget Sound Maritime Historical Society. Its format ion was timely and productive, but the Society's aims were limited. Old ship preservation was not within its scope. There was some sentiment expressed toward saving an old ship or two, but costs of repair and maintenance were unacceptable and the idea was abandoned. Any ship restoration efforts were to come from outside the corporate structure of Puget Sound Maritime Historical Society. In 1957 the schooner C.A. Thayer was purchased by the State of California's Division of Beaches and Parks, given a reasonably sound refit and sailed down the coast to San Francisco to become a floating museum ship operated by the State. A little backwash from this swirled around Wawona. Early in 1963 Mr. Studdert, who had

given up his schemes of cattle export, was finally persuaded to sell Wawona to a group which was formed under the banner of "Save Our Ships", shortened to "S.O.S" and run by a persuasive Bostonian named John Ross. Mr. Ross provided funds to buy the schooner, but the expected resu lts did not materialize. For the next fifteen years, Wawona was shifted from one Lake Union berth to another, then outside the fresh water moorages to the Seattle waterfront and more extended idleness. S.O.S. got enough strength to buy out John Ross, as he had hoped and intended-but little else was done either to preserve the vessel or present her to the public . Broad support and sufficient funding for maintenance of the ship was hard to come by. An impressive gift of money was received, which went into a good restoration of the saloon and the captain's cabin aft. Then in the early 1970s some additional funds were obtained for new masts and temporary repair work around the bow. The old bowsprit was removed, and in its place some steel plating, with a stubby steel bowsprit was bolted around the extensively rotted stem, in order to hold the head rigging in place, and preserve the general integrity of the masts. A new coat of' 'codfi sh green" paint was sprayed over the exterior hull and Wawona gained a measure of respectability again as far as looks were concerned.* Soon she was towed to new moorings in Kirkland, and became a permanent museum ship at that small community on the northeast corner of Lake Washington, near Seattle. S.O .S. became "Northwest Seaport, Inc.," an organization which came to own the old steam-powered lightship Relief, the ancient wooden tug Arthur Foss, and eventually, about 1979, the steam ferry San Mateo-four old vessels of historic worth, but in deteriorating condition and still with no substantial support from the maritime industry or the public in general. A bright prospect for restoration work on the schoon er emerged with the sucessful application for federal grant money, on a matching basis, dollar for dollar, in late 1979. The fund s received amounted to $ 179,000-sufficient to begin some long overdue repairs on the ship. Northwest Seaport began a fundraising drive which faltered and stalled. The schooner was towed from Kirkland to Seattle and drydocked at Lake Union Drydock Company's yard in Lake Union, for a bottom survey . A thorough hull survey followed and a new appraisal made of the long-range restoration work . The *NMHS does not agree that this was in any sense a " respectable " restoration . We regard efforts of this class as utterly self-defeating. -ED.

SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982


Or Where We Come From?

Waiting: Part III surveyors' findings were not wholly encouraging, although the bottom planking and inside ceiling were sound. After the drydocking was done, Wawona was shifted to a nearby berth at the foot of Lake Union, next to the Naval Reserve Center and tied up to some old piling. The fundraising brought only enough to cover expenses relative to the drydocking. The deadline was reached and the unmatched funds were returned. Short-range plans faded into long-range hopes for a new attack on the problem of funding. Another winter came and went, and by early 1981 a slowly emerging renewal of commitment and determination was emerging from the twenty-member Board of Trustees of Northwest Seaport. Hard lessons had been learned, and disappointments were absorbed as the price to be paid for owning and restoring this old vessel. Winter rains pounded the vessel as she tugged at her moooring lines . Only occasional pumping was done to keep water in the bilges under control. In the midst of a heavy downpour in Late February 1982 the ship began to settle, and the old dried seams above the waterline became submerged as more rain poured through the leaky decks and open hatches. On the night of Thursday, 18 February, the inrush of water accelerated and by daybreak the ship had sunk with her decks awash and her starboard bilge hard against the steep embankment of her moorage. it was a shocking sight as the curious sightseers and television reporters broadcast the Wawona's ignominious status to the public. She had sunk, largely because of a heavier than usual downpour of rain, but also because she had not been pumped out and her owners had fallen short of exercising due diligence in watching her condition . Buoyant aft, the old schooner's forefoot rested lightly in the mud, with a slight list to port. Within a few days, Mr. Tom Crowley, Chairman of the San Francisco tug and barge company , Crowley Maritime Corporation, offered to raise the ship at no expense to Northwest Seaport. Within hours of his offer, the salvage ship Arctic Salvorwas alongside and a crew was hard at work building a long cofferdam along the deep port side and encasing the entire hull with plywood and plastic sheathing. After about nine hours of diligent pumping, with streams of water pouring from six pump hoses, Wawona was afloat again, little the worse off for her week's submersion. No long-lasting damage seems to have been done to the schooner. It may have been the Wawona's first complete sinking in her long history, but it was an occasion SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982

by Captain Harold D. Huycke

which had been reasonably common when her long-go ne sisters loaded with lumber were forced down by heavy weather to a waterlogged condition . Overwhelmed by heavy seas, or afflicted by sprung planks and leaky seams, the coasting lumber schooners, both sail and steam, often sank, rolled onto their beams-end or completely over, keel up . But they mostly floated on their lumber cargoes, were towed into port, righted and pumped out, to return for another cargo at a Northwest sawmill spit. As the old vessel lies tied to the dirt embankment in Lake Union, some lake-bred mallards scull around her forefoot and an occasional curious passerby drives up for a momentary look. The recent sinking brought her a lot of attention , albeit a sort of hands-off, morbid type of curiosity from many, who sat in their cars and clucked away at the sunken vessel. But real concerned people showed up too, and willing hands have been offered to help when some real work is read y to be performed. Now the summer sun warms her old bones again, in her eighty-sixth yea r, awaiting a surge of determination which will give her the new frames and planking she so sorely needs . .t Top photo, Wawona in her second career as codfisherman shows in profile the remarkable, confident grace of the Bendixsen schooner-a grace born unconsciously from the vision of men who cut the Douglas fir and built ships of it. Photo: Harold D. Huycke Collection.

Captain Adrian Raynaud (at left) and the author unship the staysail boom of the whitepainted Wawona in 1959-part of the continuing care seafaring men gave this ship while schemes to save her failed. Photo: Harold D. Huycke Collection.

After all she had braved and done in her 85 years, the Wawona sank in a rainstorm early this year. Crowley Maritime raised her as a contribution, on February 23, posing a question for us all: Do we care enough to save this lovely schooner? Photo: George Bayless.

9


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The Tailli Canoe Voyage To sail 2, 000 miles from Papua New Guinea to the New Hebrides by outrigger canoe by Terry J. Linehan

''To the Papua New Guinean, his cumbersome sprawling canoe is a marvelous, almost miraculous achievement, and a thing of beauty. He has spun a tradition around it, adorns it with his best carvings, and he colors and decorates it. It represents a power/ul contrivance for the mastery of nature, which allows him to cross perilous seas and reach distant places. This craft is associated with journeys by sail, full of threatening dangers, of living hopes and desires to which he gives expression in song and story. In short, in the traditions, customs and behavior of the natives, there can be found the deep love, admiration and specific attachment as to something alive and personal, so characteristic of the sailor's attitude toward his craft. " -BRON ISLA W MALINOWSKI

Argonauts of the Western Pacific On a balmy tropical day in September 1979 I saw my first large seagoing outrigger canoe on an island off the coast of Papua New Guinea. It was a local trading canoe; one built for the special purpose of trading goods with neighboring islands. Immediately I was struck by the beauty of the craft, as well as its obvious seakindly construction. The canoe was intricately carved, painted, and adorned with white cowry shells giving this functional boat a spellbinding effect. Further down the beach there were three more canoes with a ceremonial altar directly behind at the base of a tall, vine covered cliff. A clamshell pedestal caught dripping water from the cliff above and gave the site an almost holy feeling. With these thoughts, the dream of an ocean voyage on a primitive canoe was born. I was on the scene aboard the brigantine Eye of the Wind, as part of the round-theworld voyage of Operation Drake (SH 15 :26). After a short time in Papua New Guinea, I heard of a community of canoe builders whose proud traditions of seafaring by canoe were disappearing. The Tami Islanders had only four or five older men who still retained the skills needed to construct their well known canoe. What a pity it would be to have these age-old practices pass on with the elders! So after gaining Provincial Government support for the project, I visited their village in the Tami Islands . The people were skeptical at first, but after hearing of their government's involvement and how this canoe would be used for a long voyage to distant lands, they agreed to take on its construction. We SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982

then felled a sizable " masi" tree and the building of a large Tami canoe was begun. That was nearl y three years ago. The canoe now stands in the village nearing completion for its launch date later this year. The Tami Canoe Voyage team will sail the two-masted outrigger from the Tami Islands in early 1983 bound for Vanuatu, (formerly New Hebrides), to attend the 5th annual South Pacific Festival of Arts. This festival annually attracts visitors from all the Pacific nations as well as people from around the world. It is there that we will tell our story of the voyage and th e progra m we followed to help retain these precious traditional arts of building and sailing ancient craft. The canoe will be sailed by the Papua New Guineans along with an international team of experienced expedition personnel. The navigator and communications team are from the British Army Air Corps, and the remaining crew from Australia and the

US have logged enough sea miles to circle the globe nearly three times. The Tami Canoe Voyage seeks to contribute to an increased awareness of cultural and maritime preservation in the South Pacific and promote international understanding and cooperation through our voyage with an international crew . The project also aims to increase the knowledge and understanding of canoe building and sailing techniques by our first hand experiences at sea. The expedition has already received much support from many notable explorers, individuals, and institutions. Dr. Thor H eyerdahl called it "a sound and interesting experiment.'' HRH Prince Charles has written: "I am so glad you have encouraged this enterprise. The disappearance and destruction of so man y local crafts and skills from so-called primitive communities is something which is little less than a traged y and I am delighted you are helping to keep some of these valuable traditions going. Keep up the good work!" The Tami Canoe Voyage is a special project of the NMHS Ship Trust. Tax deductible donations are needed now to meet th e $30,900 project budget, of which $4,500 has been raised to date. Write NMHS if you want to help " Keep up the good work!" .V

Route of the Tami Canoe Voyage

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Equator

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CORAL SEA

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Oh, say, can you see any U.S. flag ships? As AMERICAN SEAMEN, we join in solidarity with all working men and women on this Labor Day 1982. It is a day for parades and picnics and proud words. But there are no proud words for this country's decades-long neglect of our ports and harbors and the U.S. merchant marine. An American-flag ship manned by American seamen is scarce to be seen these days. Why? Because successive U.S. Administrations have allowed and even encouraged major American oil companies and mineral extraction industries to flee the American flag and operate their ships under the shabby legalism of "flags of convenience." This "runaway flag'' fleet now numbers 481 cheap labor, tax-dodging ships. Their combined tonnage dwarfs the legitimate U.S. flag merchant marine. Unfortunately, the American citizen on Main Street is not informed that this policy leaves us almost solely at the mercy of fore ign-flag ships to carry the strategic materials without which our factories and armed forces cannot survive in a world hovering at the flashpoint of war. And all the while, our ships and shipyards lie idle and American workers go jobless. NMU invites all Americans to join with us in the fight to reverse these policies and to keep the seafaring tradition, the skills and way of life that are so basic a part of this nation's history flourishing under our own American flag.

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Tugs, Like Old Shoes • • •

by Peter Stanford Tugs, like old shoes, seem to fit very well-as if worn into harbor waters they traverse on their varied occasions. And there is another aspect to their old-shoe quality: no one ever felt put down or overawed by a tug. They are the essence of ordinariness. If you start talking to people about tugs, in the first three minutes someone's going to exclaim: "Children love them!" And children do. Tugs have a pleasant fussy quality about them like a favorite aunt. And of course they have a million tales to tell-they stick their noses into just about everyone's business in the port, and to know all they do is to know the whole story of a port. Tugboating was the first use of mechanical power in seafaring. The Charlotte Dundas towed barges successfully on the Forth and Clyde Canal, which connects the east and west coasts of Scotland, in 1802, five years before Robert Fulton took his North River Steamboat up the Hudson to Albany. The growth in size of the deep-sea square rigger, from a typical I00 tons in the 18th century, to 400 early in 19th and then to 1,000 tons like some of the early McKay packets, to 2,500 like his lastgeneration clippers, or 3,500 like the great Down Easter of Shenandoah's class, depended utterly on steam-powered tugs. Ships of this size must be shepherded in or out of harbor by tugs. In the hundred years from the introduction of steam power on the water, to the time that the tonnage of steamers under the American flag finally exceeded the tonnage of sailing ships, this handmaiden role of tugboating was arguably steam's most important function. The business of skidding goods across harbor waters, up rivers and canals, out onto deep water up and down the coast, and ultimately across oceans, is a fascinating one, as varied as the maritime culture itself. Tugboat companies generally were started by blue-collar types-a McAllister buying a sunken lighter and outfitting her to go into business on his own, a Moran quitting the Erie Canal to crack the business of moving big ships in New York Harbor, a "Hooker-on" Crowley saving dollars earned supplying newspapers and guidance to incoming ships, to graduate from rowboat to naphtha launch in San Francisco-and the atmosphere of tugboat cabins and offices ashore remains blunt, competitive, direct. The business attracts strongly individualistic types. The Dutch authority J . Bos has pointed out (in Lekko, Vol. 4, No. 30) the enormous variations in tugboat types and practices: The Baker-Whitely tug Resolute in Baltimore. Photo: Bill Egger/ ''An Amsterdam tug owner would consider an American type tug totally useless for his operation and an American owner would not consider an Amsterdam type for his work." And he adds: one. I remember the late Arthur Wijsmuller, dressed with great "The beauty of the towing industry is that each port, each owner formality-a black suit with a vest, and a gold watch chain across has his way of operating .... " his substantial middle-explaining to me with care who all the And tugs inspire artists. They have a different feel to them, in Dutch towing people and Royal Navy people actually were, in de their lines, than tankers or container ships or cruise liners, or, Hartog's books. I started taking notes, and he waved my pencil nearer their own size, police boats or Coast Guard cutters. And it aside: "I'll send you a letter about all this." Most unhappily, the seems that you must go through a rite of passage of some kind to letter I got was not from him but from his second in command in paint a tug' 'as looks like a tug.'' Os Brett of Long Island is such a Holland, and it informed me that Arthur Wijsmuller had died. painter, as is Bill Muller of Ossining, New York, who is at home Mr. Wijsmuller, by the way, had come to call on me about an with steam vessels of all kinds, John Noble of Staten Island, who unpaid bill. Two years after his little tug Titan had towed our knows the industrial waterfront so well he seems like a creative great sailing ship Wavertree to New York from Buenos Aires, we resident god of it-that is, one gets the feeling it came into being still owed $5,000 of the bill. When his agent called to say Mr. according to his lithographs, rather then the other way Wijsmuller was in town and would like to come see me about our round-and John's student Ron van den Bos, and the West unpaid bill, I had just then got funds together to cover it. Since Coast's Steve Mayo and 32-year old Steven Cryan who has a the treasurer was out of town (and his signature was required gallery on the Connecticut River at Saybrook.* with mine on all checks over $2500) I made out two checks for And there are writers who enter into the tugboat world and ex$2500 each and handed them to Mr, Wijsmuller when he arpress some of its meanings. Jan de Hartog, for one-and a very rived. I told him that it might seem incredible to him, but in fact true-to-life one for he worked on tugs and is said to live aboard we had just got this money together and would have paid him whether he had come to call or not. I think he said something to *Mr. Brett's work may be seen in Sea History 11 and 21, Mr. Muller 's in the effect that no one would be capable of uttering such an SHIO and 20, and John Noble's in SH8 and 23; some of Steve Cryan's unbelievable lie with a straight face, so I must be telling the work is shown in this issue, and Ron van den Bos's is presented on pages truth. We got on famously! 32-34. SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982

15


The Little Dutch tug Titan, 1200hp, towing the Cape Horner Wavertree up around the earth's curve from Buenos Aires across the vast wind-

furrowed reaches of the Atlantic, to her new home at South Street Seaport Museum, New York.

But what a puzzlement the Wavertree was to these hardheaded Dutchmen who worked in Arthur Wijsmuller's firm! Their little tug Titan (her decks were so low that the harbor slop from passing ships came in the scuppers and rolled across the decks) had towed her massive charge from the South American winter to our blazing New York harbor summer, right around the earth's curve, with no concept at all of what the ship was or why anyone wanted to drag her back from one quarter the way around the world. Only when the pilot and a few friends came aboard, the young skipper said, and stood on her decks with tears in their eyes, did he begin to understand that this vessel was something more than a curiously painted barge-that she was, in fact, in the profession of seafaring which has always been conservative, a monument to ancestral endeavor and in some sense the inheritance of all men who go down to the sea in ships for their livelihood. The Wavertree had had previous dealings with tugs that we knew of, towing home to Liverpool behind the big Jane Jolliffe in 1908. The tow took place following this exchange while the ship lay becalmed off the entrance to the Irish Sea: "Where to, Captain?" ''Runcorn.'' "Want a tow, Captain?" "How much?" "Hundred and twenty pounds to Liverpool," "Oh no, we can manage; there'll be wind by and by." "Not on your life, it's likely to be like this for a week. How many days out?" "Hundred and seventy three." "I see a lot of hungry men running round your decks, you'd better take my line, it's time you took a tow. We are returning to Liverpool and we are doing it cheap."

"No, it's too much." "Well, seeing I'm going home, I'll do it for one hundred pounds and your line." "We haven't got a line." More argument followed and finally the tug master said, "Well, I'll take you for eighty pounds and that's final." "No thanks, I'll give you sixty pounds and your line, no more." ''Nothing doing, Captain; see you in Liverpool next month.'' And off he went with the tug. "We all sat down," reports A. G. Spiers, who told us this story, "and gloomily contemplated the events that had transpired. Fancy having the nerve to offer sixty pounds for what was a two- or three-day tow!" Gradually the hands wandered out on deck, Spiers goes on to tell us, and gazed over the side at the departing tug. She was almost hull down when somebody said, "I believe she's turning around." She was, and when she had come all the way back, the tug skipper sang out to the Wavertree's captain:

16

.. \


The steam tug Samson built in Hull, England, in 1888, arrived in the Falkland Islands in 1900. Samson's hulk survives in Stanley to this day. Here she is pictured in her prime by the Falklands historian John Smith, as shown in his book Condemned at Stanley.

"Come on, I'll take her in tow for sixty pounds and your line." "I have not got a line." "Well, I'll do it, if only for the sake of your hungry crew; but on condition that you set or reduce sail according to my orders, for if any wind springs up I want to make progress." "All right," replied the Old Man. "We'll take you on those conditions.'' "How happily we hauled in the tow line and made it fast!" Spiers concludes.* Hard bargaining evidently came into play for another Wavertree tow , when the big sq uare rigger limped into Port Stanley in the Falklands, with men injured and three feet of water in the hold, on December 7, 1910, having lost her mainmast, foretopgallant and mizzen topmast in a gale off Cape Horn. She lay at anchor outside Stanley from her reported arrival date until she was towed in on December 24-seventeen days later . The tug Samson, which took her in charge, had plenty of such work with ships beat up in battle with Cape Horn, Stanley being the only accessible port downwind from the Horn. It was a tough business sailing these old ships around the world's oceans, and the towing business is a tough one too. But. .. it is pleasant to picture the skippers of the Wavertree and the Sam*Adapted from Spiers's account in The Wavertree (South Street

son coming to terms at last on Christmas Eve, so that the seabattered ship and her people spent the holiday in safe harbor.

* * * * *

Seaport, New York, 1969) pages 91-92.

Not all of us can ride the tugs that churn so purposefully around our harbors, rivers and coastlines. Your editor has been lucky enough to be at the helms of tugs in New York and San Francisco Bay-the latter aboard a paddlewheeler, the Epple/on Hall, a tug from the River Tyne in northern England, that made her epic 11,000-mile voyage to her new home in 1970 (see SH8). The experience of being afloat aboard a tug is not to be missed if you can grab it ... otherwise one must see it through others' eyes. Bill Eggert, who made some of the photos on these pages is a schoolteacher by profession and tug-watcher by conviction. Steven Lang of Owl's Head, Maine, author of the recently published tugboat album On the Hawser, is another. And such people stay in touch through the International Tug Lovers Club, which publishes the wonderful journal Lekko. They are reachable at PO Box 400, 1970 AK ljmuiden, Netherlands, and subscription is 65 Dutch guilders or ÂŁ10 or $25 per year. .V

As the short winter's day draws to its end over New York's East River, the tug Dalzellance shifts a harbor tanker in the shadow of the Brooklyn Bridge-a scene of business in narrow waters reflecting the river's role as

an artery for the New World's greatest city and capturing, unmistakably, the utterly unselj-conscious grace of the tug at work. Painting by Jack Gray, courtesy F. Briggs Dalzell.

SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982

17


World Ship Trust Historic Tugs List by Norman Brouwer, Curator of Ships & Senior Historian South Street Seaport Museum, New York Mr. Brouwer's historic ship lists, partially published for review and augmentation from time to time in these pages, are now thoroughly amended and assembled in an Historic Ship Register to be published in due course by the World Ship Trust (see report, page 41). From this master register we are proud to publish a summary of the "Tugs" segment herewith. Tugs are so ubiquitous that some important vessels are undoubtedly missing from this listingwhich is one good reason to publish it. This presentation of the list is divided: United Kingdom, United States & Canada, South America, Australia & New Zealand, West Germany, Netherlands (more or less following the sun from the Greenwich meridian, zero longitude, as we do in Ship Notes), arranged alphabetically by tug name within these divisions. Vessels are included according to these criteria:(!) A vessel preserved by a legitimate preservation group; (2) A vessel that: (a) includes significant original material; (b) is of significantly unique design; and (c) was built before World War II (some vessels of later date are accepted when they are preserved by responsible authorities , under a kind of "local option" rule). Entries in this listing are merely barebones summaries of the rather rich data sheets that exist for most of these vessels in the actual Historic Register.-ED.

Kerne ex-Viking, Terrier bit 1913 at Montrose, Scotland, steel, 75 ', steam. In service at Wirral, Mersey.

Hercules bit 1907 at Camden, NJ, steel, 135' , steam. Restored, afloat at Nat'l Mar. Mus ., San Francisco.

Portwey bit 1926 at Glasgow, Scotland, steel, 80 ', steam. In service, privately owned in Stoke Gabriel, Devon.

Jean bit 1938 at Portland, Or., steel, 140 ', steam. Afloat at Idaho His. Soc., Lewiston ID.

St. Canute ex-St. Knudd bit 1931 in Denmark steam. Working condition at Exeter Mar. Mus., Devon .

John Taxis ex-Wm Stewart bit 1869 at Chester, Pa., wood 52.5 ' , steam now diesel. Afloat at Chandler's Wharf, Wilmington NC.

St. Denys ex-Northgate Scot bit 1929 at Glasgow, steel, 27 .59m, steam. In working cond. at Falmouth Mar. Mus ., Cornwall. Sea Alarm ex-Empire Ash, Flying Fulmar blt 1941, steam . At Welsh Industrial and Mar. Mus. , Cardiff.

John Wanamaker bit 1924 at Baltimore, Md., steel, 112.5 ' , steam . Afloat in Boston MA

Lone Star bit 1922 at Rock Island, IL, wood, 90 ' . Steam sternwheeler at Buffalo Bill Mus., LeClaire IO . Master bit 1922 at False Creek BC, wood, 70 ', steam. At Vancouver. Worcester bit 1908 at Brimscombe, iron, 45 ' ,diesel. At North West Mus . of Inland Navigation, Ellesmere Port, Cheshire .

Mathilda bit 1899 at Sorel, Quebec, steel, 72 ', steam. Owned by South St. Seaport Mus, New York. In temporary dryberth storage.

UNITED STATES &CANADA

Ned Hanlon bit 1932 at Toronto, Ont., steel, 74.8 ', steam. In dryberth display in Toronto.

Arthur Foss ex-Wallowa bit 1889 at Portland OR, wood, 111 ' , steam now diesel. Afloat at Northwest Seaport, Seattle.

Portland bit 1947 at Portland, OR, steel, 186 '. Steam sternwheeler recently retired, afloat in Portland.

Canning bit 1954 at Selby, Eng., steel, 102 ', steam. At Industrial and Mar. Mus ., W. Glamorgan, Wales.

Baltimore bit 1906 at Baltimore, MD., wood and steel, 84.6 ', steam. Recently refloated for Baltimore Museum of Industry.

Reiss bit 1913 at Cleveland, OH , steel, 71 ', steam. Afloat at Douglas ML

Cervia ex-Empire Raymond bit 1946 at Aberdeen, Scotland, steel, 112 ',steam. In use for Int'I Towing Ltd., Chatham, Kent.

Bascobel bit 1919 at Elizabeth, NJ, steel, 142 ',steam. At Witte's yard, Staten Island NY.

Challenge bit 1931 at Aberdeen, Scotland steel, 100 ', steam. Displayed afloat at St. Katherine's Dock, London.

Dolomite ex-Rogers City bit 1927 at Lorain, Ohio, steel 88 ', steam. Afloat, retired at Rogers City ML

Daniel Adamson ex-Ralph Brocklebank bit 1903 at Birkenhead, Eng., steel, 110 ', steam . In use at the Shaw Museum, Runcorn, Cheshire.

Dorothy ex-Janet S., Jesse Jr., NY Central No. 3 bit 1890 at Newport News VA, iron 90 ', steam. Dryberth display at Newport News Shipbuilding.

Goliath ex-Eminent, Empire Tessa bit 1946 at Renfrew, Scotland, steel, 295 gross tons, steam. Afloat, refitting as museum for Maryport, Cumberland.

Edna G. bit 1896 at Cleveland OH, steel, 92.5 ' , steam . In service in Duluth MN .

UNITED KINGDOM Brent ex-TID 159 bit 1945 at Sunderland, Eng., steel, 65 ' , steam . In service as pleasure boat in Maldon, Essex.

Hercules bit 1945, steel 65 ' , steam. Afloat at Medway Mar. Mus ., Chatham, Kent.

Eppleton Hall bit 1914 at South Shields, England, steel and wood, 100 ' . Steam sidewheeler restored in operating condition at Nat'I Mar. Mus ., San Francisco.

Hero ex-John Amos bit 1931 at Glasgow, Scotland, steel, 110 ' , steam. Paddlewheel tug being restored at Sittingbourne, Kent.

Geo. M. Verity, ex-S. S. Thorpe bit 1927 at Dubuque, OH, steel, 130 ' . Steam sternwheeler in dryberth display at Keokuk IO.

18

Rhododendron ex-Omar bit 1936 at Pittsburgh, Pa., steel, 171 ' . Steam sternwheeler in use as a theater at Clinton JO. Sergeant Floyd bit 1932 at Jeffersonville, Ind ., wood and steel, 138 ', diesel. Afloat, open to public at St. Louis MO. Seguin bit 1884 at Bath Me., wood, 88 ' , steam. Being restored at Maine Mar. Mus ., Bath ME. Tankmaster No. 1 ex-New York, Catawissa bit 1897 at Wilmington, Del., steel 158 ' , steam. In active service for Oil Tank Cleaning Co., Brooklyn NY.

W .P. Snyder, Jr. ex-Clingerman, Perry bit 1918 at Pittsburgh, Pa., steel, 151 ' . Steam SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982


sternwheeler afloat at Ohio River Mus., Marietta 0 H .

SOUTH AMERICA Antonio D. Lussich bit 1931 at Monte-

video, Uruguay, wood, 97 ' ,steam. In service at Montevideo.

AUSTRALIA & NEW ZEALAND Adelaide bit 1866 at Echuca, Victoria,

wood on iron frames, 75 '9", steam sidewheel. Dryberth museum, Murray River, at Echuca. Alexander Arbuthnot bit 1923 at Koondrook, Aus ., wood over steel, 76', steam sidewheel, Being restored at Shepparton , Australia. Fearless ex-Rockwing, Tapline, Abqaiq bit 1945 at Midland, England, steel, 30.2 ' , steam. Afloat at Port Adelaide, owned by

Wattle bit 1933 at Sydney, Aus., steel, 85 ', steam. Steamed by Victorian Steamship Ass'n., Melbourne, Australia. William C. Daldy bit 1935 at Renfrew, Scotland, steel, 126 ' , steam, in active service at Auckland, New Zealand. Yetta bit 1949 at Sydney, Aus., steel, 94 ' , steam. Maintained afloat at Port Adelaide by Nat'I Trust of South Australia.

WEST GERMANY Ruthof btl 1922, paddlewheel. Maint'd afloat by City of Regensburg, at Deggendorf, West Germany. Seefalke bit 1924 at Geestemunde, steel,

58.5m, diesel. Afloat at Deutsches Schiffahrtsmuseum, Bremerhaven. Tiger bit 1910 at Hamburg, steel, 15.98m,

steam. Afloat in wkg. cond. at Museumshafen, Hamburg.

NETHERLANDS

Nat'! Trust of So. Australia. Forceful bit 1925 in Glasgow, Scotland, steel, 115 .8 ' , steam. Afloat at Brisbane,

owned by Queensland Maritime Museum Assn. Koala bit c. 1944 for US Army, wood(?), 66 ' , diesel. Serves as work boat for Queensland Mar't Mus., Brisbane, So. Aust.

Adelaar bit 1925, steel, steam. Operated by

steam enthusiasts . Dockyard V bit c. 1940, steel, steam. Afloat at Maritime Museum , Rotterdam .. Dockyard IX bit 1941, steel, steam. Operated by steam enthusiasts.

Mathilda and Friend. This McAllister tug built in Canada in 1899 came down to New York in 1970 to join the Wavertree at South Street Seaport Museum . She was just the kind of tug the big windjammer had needed in her sailing days to get in and out of dock! James P. McAllister bought her when she was to be scrapped, and when it was learned she would be saved, senior operating staff vied to get aboard for the trip down. There were thoughts of steaming the little vessel from South Street, but early in 1976 she sank from ice damage. Raised, she has since been stored on a Port Authority pier awaiting her destiny which might just take her to Rondout Creek as part of the Hudson River Maritime Center at Kingston, New York.

Kopu bit 1897 at Thames, New Zealand,

wood, 60 ' , steam sidewheel. Raised 1981 by Paeroa Historical Mar. Park Society to be restored at Paeroa, New Zealand. Lyttleton U bit 1939 at Renfrew, Scotland, steel, 114 ', steam. Afloat in operating cond . Pittwater and Broken Bay Historical Society, Sydney, Australia .

Are you interested in tugs? Fortuna bit 1909, steel, steam. Operated

by steam enthusiasts . Lauwerzee bit 1898, steel, steam. Operated

by steam enthusiasts. Noordzee bit 1922, steel, steam. Operated by steam enthusiasts. Nelcebee bit 1883 at Adelaide, from parts

made at Rutherglen UK, iron , 107 ' , steam now diesel with auxiliary sail, carrying cargo out of Port Adelaide as oldest seagoing vessel under Australian flag. Oscar W. bit 1908 at Echuca, Aus., wood

Roek ex-Jacomien bit 1928, steel, steam. Operated by steam enthusiasts at Amsterdam. Scheelenkuhlen bit 1926, steel, steam. Op-

erated by steam enthusiasts.

on steel , 103 .5 ', steam sidewheel. Intact, laid up at Murray Bridge, Australia.

Volharding I ex-Harmonie VI bit 1930, steam. At Maritiem Museum, Rotterdam.

Waratah ex-Burundah bit 1902 at Sydney, Aus., iron, 100 ' , steam. Afloat at Sydney

Woltman bit 1904, steel, steam. Operated

Maritime Museum . SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982

by steam enthusiasts.

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Now is the time to join the

INTERNATIONAL TUG ENTHUSIASTS SOCIETY Apart from a monthly Dutch version we now publish 6 times a year for the tugenthusiasts abroad a special English issue of our magazine Lekko. Write for a free copy and full details, such 'as the reduced subscription-rate on our English publication , to: l.T.E.S.,

clo Graan voor Visch 19915, 2132 WR Hoofddorp, The Netherlands.

19


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SEAFARER Box 294 Townsends Inlet, NJ 08243 Or call: 609-263-1283

COLLEGE STUDENTS SEA QUARTER Plan a college semester aboard the SCHOONER HARVEY GAMAGE. Credits in arts and science you earn from Northeastern University, Marine Studies Department, may be transferred. Curriculum includes visits to many educational and historical places from Maine to the Virgin Islands. For curriculum, schedule and cost, write or phone-

Summer months the ship cruises the Maine coast out of Rockland ... winter months in the Virgin Islands from Charlotte Amalie. Enjoy a week under sail . .. make new friends ... relish hearty meals ... return relaxed, filled with happy memories. Write or phone-

DIRIGO CRUISES Dept. SH, 39 Waterside Lane Clinton, Conn. 06413 Tel: 203-669-7068

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Moran leads the way in New York harbor with

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SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982


NEW YORK WELCOMES UNITED STATES - 30TH ANNIVERSARY COMMEMORATIVE PAINTING BY STEVEN CRYAN

"NEW YORK WELCOMES UNITED STATES" Famous passenger liner United States steaming past Battery Park in 1952 on June 23, 1952, the United States steamed into New York Harbor for the first time. As this magnificent new flagship of U.S. Lines moved out of the Narrows into Upper New York Bay, a flotilla of harbor craft joined an escort of destroyers to give her an unforgettable welcome.

reduction-geared turbines - a combination that would give her a remarkable speed never to be equaled by any other liner.

THIRTY YEARS AGO,

which was based on a photograph taken by his father, talented American artist Steven Cryan captures the poetry of this graceful liner as she and her escort of harbor craft head upriver past Battery Park on June 23rd. IN THE PAINTING,

on July 3rd, she sailed from New York, bound for Le Havre and Southampton. She swept the 2942 miles between Ambrose Light and Bishop Rock in a record 3 days, 10 hours, and 40 minutes. Her average speed was 35.59 knots. In November of that same year, she received the Hales Trophy, symbolic of the Blue Riband of the Atlantic.

TEN DAYS LATER,

under the masterful guidance of William Francis Gibbs , and built by Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company, United States measured 990 feet overall with a gross tonnage of 53,300. Her slender hull held eight boilers and four double-

the original watercolor suitably framed (28" x 48") for $5,500; the reproductions are 25" x 15" (including border) 300 remarqued and signed at $110 each; 700 signed and numbered at $45 each.

MR CRY AN IS OFFERING

DESIGNED BY GIBBS AND COX,

STEVEN CRYAN is noted for his unique ability to capture the character and detail of the ships and smaller craft that frequent New York H arbor, Long Island Sound , and small N ew England fishing vill ages. His paintings are to be seen in many private and corporate collections including those of the late Gove rnor Ella Grasso, actor Art Camey , Red Star Towing Company, Witte Marine Equipment Company, Thames Shipyard and McAllister Brothers. Steven runs his own studio on the Connecticut River in Old Saybrook.

yes'

please send me: _ _ remarqued and signed copy(ies) of the United States at $1 10 each _ _ numbered and signed copy(ies) at $45 each D I enclose payment (check or money order) (Add $2 for postage and handling) D Please bill to my MasterCharge _ _ or Visa _ _ or American Express Account _ _ . Card N umber _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Exp. date _ CT residents please add 7!'.1 % sales tax.

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NAME ADDRESS CITY , STATE , Z IP

Mail to: Beau Art Ltd. , P.O. Box 355 , Guilford, CT 06437 ~ Checks should be made payable to Beau Art Ltd. ~ You may order by Phone Toll Free 800-451-4453. ~ Please have this order form and charge card at hand .

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A Tug at War: The Edmond J. Moran

Framed in the wintry scene of New York 's Upper Bay, with Battery Park and, ai left, the mighty structure of the Whitehall Building (a center of tugboating and other maritime interests), the Edmond 1. seems much at home; but in her career, she sailed from the Arctic to the Antipodes, risking death and on occasion dealing it out to German submarines.

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Texas-built, the 124' tug was a model of modernity and power when Hugo Kroll took her helm for the first time on what happened to be his 50th birthday, September 11, 1940.

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"To me,"' says the late Eugene F. Moran in Tugboat: The Moran Story, "it was an inexplicable stroke of fate that while this tug was embarked on her 100,000-mile odyssey, the man for whom she was named was engaged in directing the vast towing operation of the Normandy landing. " The Edmond J. earned her own fame, as Captain Hugo Kroll, German-born but naturalized, drove his 336-ton charge like a war steed . "With that half-m illion Texasbuilt floating powerhouse,'' a journalist of the day observed, "he has plowed, raced, sneaked, and strutted for 100,000 miles-four times the distance around the world-despite submarines, mines and savage storms. He has made the Moran the tugboat heroine of this war . ... '' Off the Bahamas, she kept the hull of a stricken British liner between herself and a marauding submarine, while picking up survivors; in the Aleutians, she calculated the tides and drifted supply barges ashore to avoid enemy attack. A tug is not thought of as a fighting ship-tethered to her tow, she is more like a sacrificial lamb-but this one made it her business to fight back , carried depth charges like a destroyer , and was in on several submarine kills. She survived! And still steams, renamed Barbara Andrie, in the Canonie fleet in Lake Michigan . She was originally named for Rear Admiral Edmond J . Moran, USNR (ret.), who still puts in a day's work in his eighties, at the company headquarters in New York's World Trade Center. The

writer first met him in the difficult days of the founding of South Street Seaport Museum. Hi s joining the Board of Trustees of the fledgling museum made many people who did not believe in the project, begin to believe. The writer's fat her knew him as the man who trained tugboat crews for the invasion of Normandy in 1944. He speaks of the enormous respect Edmond was held in as he taught Iowa boys to throw a running bowline and other tricks that might save their, or their ships' lives, and how in the chaos of the largest amphibian operation eve r attempted h e cut through bureaucratic snarls with the same decisive style he used to clear a snarled towrope; and he describes this man who excelled in what is arguably the world's roughest, toughest business, as speaking always with PS a soft voice.

The war horse Edmond 1. Moran goes to the rescue of a disabled freighter in the North Atlantic. Photos courtesy Moran Towing & Transportation Company.

22

SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982


Mary D. Hume: A Tug for the Long Haul by John Bockstoce

Each summer John Bockstoce leaves his post at the Whaling Museum of New Bedford and journeys across America to go north to Western Arctic waters. There he canoes for weeks along unfrequented shores, and studies local boats and histories and the ways of whaling and fishing. Here is his summary of the Mary D. Hume's remarkable career, from his classic Steam Whaling in the Western Arctic (New Bedford Whaling Museum,

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1977):

Mary D. Hume, the smallest of the steam whalers, was designed as a coastal freighter and tow boat. She was launched on January 20, 1881, at Ellenburgh, Oregon, as a schooner-rigged auxiliary steamer. Although too small to carry tryworks, she was bought by the Pacific Steam Whaling Company in 1889 for use in their experiment of wintering at Herschel Island . Her first voyage began inauspiciously. During a hasty outfitting, she was rerigged as a brigantine. The careless workmanship was exposed by a gale south of the Aleutians when she lost her main- and fore-topmasts. At Unalaska her main-topmast was replaced by a whaleboat's mast, which was sufficient on ly to hold a lookout and set signals on . Mary D. Hume, nonetheless, proceeded to set records on each of her two whaling voyages. On the first, she returned having taken thirty-seven whales, a catch valued at $400,000. The second lasted nearly sixand-a-half years and is among the longest recorded whaling voyages in American history. During it, the Pacific Steam Whaling Company maintained the vessel at Herschel, sending up fresh crewmen, supplies, and Captain George B. Leavitt, who replaced William Hegarty after three winters. On Mary D. Hume's return from the Arctic in 1899, she again encountered a wild storm south of the Aleutians. Her four boats were lost, hatches were torn off, and leaking caused the engine to go dead. As the little vessel began to yaw, the mainmast snapped, and two of her crewmen were lost overboard. Mary D. Hume is the last of the Arctic steam whalers still afloat and holds the distinction of being the only vessel from the historic American whaling industry still in commercial service. Today (1976), her hull ninety-five years old, she works as a tug in Puget Sound.

Deep-laden, the Mary D. Hume sits with a rather jaunty air for her portrait at Herschel Island in 1890s. Since she carries the rig she lost near the outset of her first Arctic foray, this must be her second which lasted nearly 6!/i years. On the way home, this time, she will lose her whaleboats and mainmast, seas will flood her engines and two of her people will be lost, in a wild gale south of the Aleutians. Photo: The Whaling Museum, New Bedford, Mass.

Tonnage: 164.78 Dimensions: 98.2 'x23 'x !O Rig: Brigantine Horsepower: 240

Framed in the Port Orford cedar she was built of JOI years ago, the Mary D. Hume dreams away the hours like an old cat in the winter sunlight. She's now in her diesel tugboat configuration, as she sailed for Crowley maritime up until 1978-but she has been coastal steam schooner, Arctic whaler, and, after nearly dying on the beach three quarters of a century ago, steam and finally diesel tug. Now, a gift of Crowley Maritime to the Curry County Historical Society, she has come home to the Rogue River on the southern Oregon Coast, where she first touched water in January 1881 . Photo by Robert Hurita, Oregon State Police.

Inquiries and contributions may be sent to H.J. Newhouse, Curry County Historical Society, PO Box 1856, Wedderburn OR 97491.

SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982

23


Ship Waverrree off Cape Horn painted by Oswald L. Brett

Do Something for the Ship! The full-rigged sailing ship Wavertree is earning her living the hard way in Os Brett's painting-she's batling to windward in a rising gale, to get round Cape Horn. A tough fight! But we knew a couple of the people who sailed in this old Cape Horner, and they were men who sang at their work. Today this ship is a living memorial to such men and the ships they served with such devotion-the tall ships that crossed wide oceans, leaning on the wind, and came to New York to build a city from the sea. We are proud to help i11 the restoration of the ship at New York's South Street Seaport Museum. The

records don't show whether our tugs handled the Wavertree when she left New York under sail in 1895, but we had been in business in the harbor for over a generation at that time. Since then our business has become worldwide. And we know that our industry, the shipping industry, has a role of deep importance to play in keeping alive the proud traditions, the spirit of loyalty, cooperation and enterprise-the things that are needed to conceive great voyages, and to make them. Do something for the ship! For the ship and her people did everything for us.

NOTE: Those who contribute $100 or more to the Ship Trust to support the restoration of the Wavertree wi ll receive a fine print (image size 22"x32 Y2 ')of Os Brett's painting, signed by the artist. Please send your check, name and address to SH IP TRUST, c/ o National Maritime Historical Society, 2 Fulton Street, Brooklyn NY 11201.

McAllister Brothers, Inc. Towing and Transportation, 17 Battery Place, New York, N.Y. 10004. (212) 269·3200. Baltimore (301) 547-8678 • Norfolk (804) 627·3651 Philadelphia (215) 922-6200 •San Juan (809) 724-2360

McAl 1•ISI er


Catawissa's Machinery Remembers ... by Conrad Milster, Chief Engineer, Pratt Institute Shorn of pilothouse, masts, and rigging, the Tankmaster today creeps about New York harbor offering tank-cleaning services. But the lines of her hull, her deckhouse, the single slender stack all hint of better things in days gone by. They bespeak a naval architecture of a bygone period, for Tankmaster was built in 1897 as the Catawissa for the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad. She and her sisters were built to tow barges up and down the coast. Seagoing tugs, they often pulled cut-down sailing ships behind them like vanguished rivals. They represented the "super power" tugs of their day: each was fitted with a lOOOhp triple-expansion engine and two scotch boilers. Statistics are dry things. To say that Catawissa 's engine was 18 "x24 "x45 "x30 ", or that her 12' diameter boilers had three Morrison corru~ated furnaces each, is to miss the drama of the life which went on within her hull. Unseen by the outsider, the engine rooms of steamers display their own brand of seamanship. Seamen fighting sails and rigging in storms feature in many narratives of the sea, but who writes of Catawissa's firemen who stood on rolling, pitching floor plates and heaved 16 tons of

coal a day through the 12 "x18" fire doors of her boilers, placing each shovelful exactly where needed on a 5 ' long grate? No mate on deck ever watched the set of his sails more carefully than a water tender watched the level of water bobbing up and down in a V4 " diameter glass tube on the boiler front. The oiler and engineer too played their parts; o_ne checking bearings for temperature, turning the handles of grease cups on moving parts, checking the feed setting on gravity-feed oil cups or simply observing the color of used oil corning out of the bearings; the other, watching, listening, or

taking his place at the throttle and reverse levers when maneuvering, controlling the power output of tons of moving steel, iron and brass and adjusting it to the finest degree required. Such is the heritage of Catawissa'sinert, disused machinery, and of the boilers which today are used to supply tank cleaning steam. Though no longer responding to the touch and ministrations of her crew she is one of the few remaining examples of her era, that is still mechanically complete-a super-tug indeed from the days when vessels driven by steam pistons scoured the oceans. w


NY Central No. 16 Makes It Ashore!

Seguin:

She Towed the

by David H. Hackett III Supervisor, Percy & Small Shipyard Maine Maritime Museum

Howard Shaw, owner of Grandma's Restaurant, in Buzzard' s Bay, Massachusetts, with a little help from his friends Arthur Fournier of Penobscot Bay Towing Co. in Belfast, Maine and tugboat historian Steven Lang of Owls Head, Maine, is preserving New York Central No. 16 as a monument to tugmen and their vessels, alongside the Cape Cod Canal where Shaw's restaurant is located . Built in 1924 at the New Jersey Dock & Transportation Co, in Elizabethport, the 84.4' No. 16 spent her whole working life in the New York harbor area. She was sold to Witte's Scrapyard in 1969 when the Pennsylvania RR merged with NY Central. Lang located the vessel, which for the past four years had been partially sunk, her hull tissue thin. With the backing of Mr. Shaw and the expertise of Fournier, the tug was pumped out, raised, patches welded and, dry-docked and surveyed, patched some more and towed to Fournier's yard in East Boston. Since she was in such poor

shape, it was decided that she should be set up on land , to look as if she were afloat-otherwise her vast underbody, as Shaw points out, would make her look like a "beached whale ." So Fournier and his crew cut completely around the waterline. The upper part of her hull, cabin, pilothouse and stack were removed, lifted by crane and set on a barge to be sandblasted, painted and restored to her original condition . Lifted ashore by cranes, she was then moved overland to her last resting place alongside the restaurant. Mr. Shaw, a ship saver of some determination, says: "Scholars may cringe at this kind of restoration," but to the degree that we speak for the scholarly community, let us observe that we do not cringe, we rejoice; and we hope Mr. Shaw proceeds with his plan to set up a tugboat museum to go with this very handsome bit of flotsam salvaged from New York Harbor's changNP ing tides of history .

"I guess the Seguin will be kicking around on the job when some of these fancy modern tugs have gone to the scrap pile," said Capt. Goodwin F. Mitchell in 1946 of his sturdy charge. "Why, they'll have to plan on her lOOth launching anniversary one of these days.'' That anniversary is less than two years away, and Seguin is indeed still kicking around, the oldest survivor of the 5,000odd vessels built along Maine's Kennebec River. Seguin 's active commercial career spanned 85 years. Through the generosity of Clyde B. Holmes, Jr. of Belfast, she was then donated to her present owners-the Maine Maritime Museum at Bath, Maine . Designed by William Pattee, who was perhaps better known for the design of great wind ships such as the magnificent Down Easter Henry B. Hyde or Sewall's "big four," the Rappahannock, Shenandoah , Susquehanna, and Roanoke, Seguin is the longest-lasting example of the handsome and efficient vessels from his hand . Named for an island at the mouth of the Kennebec, Seguin slid into that river in businesslike fashion without benefit of a sponsor at noon on March 27th of 1884. She was built by the B. W. and H.F. Morse Shipyard, one of eleven active shipyards in Bath at that time, to these registered dimensions: length 88 ',beam 19.8 ', depth 9. 5 ', gross tons 96. Her master builder was Mr. Israel Jewell. After her launch she was towed to the George G. Molton Machine Shop for the completion of her 26 x 26 surface condensing engine and related machinery. Her second and present engine was built and installed 25 years later by the venerable Portland Co.-a compound of 350 hp . Constructed for the Knickerbocker TowageCo. of Bath, Seguin was theeighth tug owned by that company. She went on to four other owners: the Kennebec Towage Co ., Eastern Maine Towage, Bath Iron Works, and now the Maine Maritime Museum. In the year she went into service there were 7 barks, 3 brigs, 755 schooners, 39 sloops and 88 steamers passing in or out of the Kennebec . Considering that most of these vessels needed a tow, it must have been a very good year for Bath's towboat fleet. During her early years Seguin and her six man crew usually made one round trip a day in early spring and late fall-this was doubled during the busy season. During Seguin 's off season she made considerble offshore tows to Boston, New York, and as far south as Norfork Va ., but most

SANFORD STUDIO

26

SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982


Henry B. Hyde, the Shenandoah and Our Own Kaiulani to Sea -and Outlived Them All of her service was in Maine and on the Kennebec In 1977 Maine Maritime Museum began the deliberate and arduous task of keeping Seguin steaming into her second century. This is of course a task not to be taken lightly, especially in the present economy. But work has and still goes on, although at a reduced rate due to current fund ing cuts. Through the use of volunteers, apprentices, and part time professionals, work is progressing. The vessel has been hau led out at the Musuem 's Percy and Small Shipya rd , where a temporary structure has been built to facilitate repair wo rk . Work stopped th is summer so that other Museum and Shipyard work can be done. But as the summer winds down to a slower pace, a group of dedicated peo ple will again be working toward the preservation of the maritime past in the steam tug Seguin. .t

Jn her first year, 1884, white-painted like a yacht, with varnished house and gilded nameboard-as she may be again one day when rebuilding is complete.

Here she is with a white plume of steam, pushing aboul the giant schooner Wyoming on December 15, 1909. And, al lower right, here in sober gray, towing a clutch of schooners, date unkno wn.

Charles Robert Pallerson pain led her here with !he mighly Henry B. Hyde, at the mouth of the Kennebec-a ve1y "going away" painting, wilh the great Down Easter lenglhening her stride as she breaks ou/ canvas, about to leave !he solicitous tug behind. So she towed the graceful bark Kaiulani to sea in 1899-the las1 American square rigger to round Cape Horn, the last of the square-rigged Down Easters . . . and the ship our National Sociely was founded to save, but did no/ succeed in saving.

SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982

27


The pilothouse is the communication and command center of the tug. Above left, the wheel of the Baltimore tug Thomas Point; above, the A.J. McAllister doing what she was born to do .

BILL EGGERT

Aboard REID H. GEA RH ART

REID H. GEARHART

Above, crew's quarters on the Joan Turecamo. Below, making fast the hawser.


Nowadays the engines of an average size tug can provide 2,500 horsepower, a big one 6,000, making them the workhorses of the sea. Engineer Fred Fable (above) in his element on the Turecamo. At right the Cape Romain boils along in a no-nonsense fashion in early morning mist. BILL EGGERT

the Tugs

They are workaday, muscular machines yet there is a purposive beauty about tugs that makes us pause and watch, perhaps wistfully, as they churn by.

Below, tugs are famously good feeders and there's always coffee on the stove.

REID H. GEAR HART

JEFF BLINN


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SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982

31


MARINE ART

Some Well Loved Scenes by Ronald H. van den Bos

I was born in Amsterdam in 1942 and grew up in the Amsterdam dockland. We lived just at the edge of the Old Lumber Dock (Oude Houthaven), so this was the playgr.ound for me and my friends. Here we built and sailed rafts and borrowed (without permission) rowboats from the moored motorbarges. Although it was not his profession, my father was a very good draftsman and painter-very keen on ships, especially tugboats. He taught me how to draw the ships and craft we saw in Amsterdam harbor, and he encouraged my love for ships. Later I became a cartographer, occasionally doing magazine and book illustrations of ships. It was my American friend, the painter and lithographer, John Noble, who advised me to take engraving and etching lessons. Well, I did more. I studied for five

"Foul Weather," watercolor, 7!4 " x 10 !4"

years at the Gerrit Rietveld Academie in Amsterdam and received my diploma in art. My holidays are mostly spent in the UK, Canada and the USA, countries I love. In 1973 a friend and I hitchhiked all over the US and Canada for 3 Yi months stopping in New York, San Diego, Vancouver and Halifax-a beautiful trip. I also collect maritime graphic arts: etchings by Reinier Nooms (Zeeman) c. 1623-1667, Pierre Ozanne (1737-1813), Edward William Cooke, R.A. (1811-1880), Hendrik Willem Mesdag (1831-1915), William Lionel Wyllie, R.A. R.I. (1851-1931), Herbert Fink (American) and above all, a large collection of lithographs of John A. Noble, NA. I love sailing and enjoy painting ships, harbors, coastal scenes and just water, fresh or salt-it doesn't matter. Here (below) is the Roek on the Ijsselmeer (former Zuyder Sea). We had come from Makkum in Friesland and were heading towards Amsterdam. The wind was force 7 and it rained for most of the day, so everyone was below or in the pilothouse. The deck layout is typical of a Dutch harbor and river steam tug, and so are the colors. Unlike an American tug, there is no large deckhouse; the bunks for the crew are below in the after cabin, while the cooking is done in the large snug foc'sle. This type oftug is normally handled by a three man crew: a captain, fireman-engineer and deckhand. In the port gangway, three bunker loading ports are seen. The round block weight in the center, connected to the smoke stack, is one of the stack's counterweights which makes it easy to lower and raise the stack when shooting a bridge.


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The first time I saw the Passat (above) was with Norman Brouwer in 1977. We were in a hurry at the time, so I had no chance to take a sketchbook with me. Last year I was again in Travemunde and had time to study the Passat at her surroundings. This watercolor was made early this year, and I am now working on a deckview of the Passat, the only sistership of South Street Seaport Museum's Peking. This view (below) of the western part of the old Kromhout

Shipyard in Amsterdam is seen on a cold November morning about 10 am. The 1943 wooden kotter Wilhelmina is alongside the steel klipperbarge Aja, and near her bow is our 1930 steam tug Roek. The morning before we had started firing up the tug's Scotch boiler and slowly built up the fire all day. By evening we had the desired steam pressure and banked the fire for the night. That morning we were to make our last trip before the annual winter layup.


-

"Mighty Chief," pencil, chalk and watercolor, 16" x 23 "

The first time I saw the Chief Wawatam was in early June 1973, when a friend and I hitchhiked through the United States. We crossed the Mackinac bridge, which connects the two Michigan peninsulas and drove into St. lgnance, when I saw at my right a large black hull, white pilot house and superstructure and two black smokestacks, the Mighty Chief Although I am a sailing freak, I also adore inland and coastal steamboats. So I was thrilled when I saw this totally unexpected, large steamer of which I'd never heard. The car was stopped and while my friends went into town, I went to explore her. I talked with one of the crew, Mr. Gordon Trainor, and when he found out that I was interested in steamboats, he showed me over the ship . The Chief was designed by Frank E. Kirby and built by the Toledo Shipbuilding Company, where she wa launched on 26 August 1911. In October of that same year she was placed in service by the Mackinac Transportation Company as a carferry and as an icebreaker. She is still going strong in transporting railroad cars across the Straits of Mackinac. I made this drawing in 1977 as part of my final examination at the Gerrit Rietveld Academy. To anyone who wants to know more about the Chief, I can recommend the following books: Chief Wawatam, the Story of a Hand-Bomber, by Francis D . Burgtorf (published by author, 1976); The Great Lakes Car Ferries, by George W. Hilton (Howell and North Books, 1962); Farewell to Steam, by David Plowden (Stephen Greene Press 1966). w

34

SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982


MARINE ART

Art Has No Boundaries by Charles Lundgren

When we started the American Society of Marine Artists first as a committee of the National Maritime Historical Society and then as young creature daring to walk on its own, I felt very good. Now five years later I feel even better, for it 's clear that by hard and devoted labor, we have a Society capable of serving the universal appeal of good marine art. I did not in any way want this to be a competitive organization. I felt it our purpose to further an awareness of good marine art and to make people of all nations aware of the contributions made by the American marine painter. I also feel very strongly that I should concentrate on bettering my own art and not worrying about the other guy! We've got to uphold the Society by what we do for it, not the other way around. The Society has upheld true standards through its jurying system, a stringent review of an artist's work by his fellow artists which every one of us submits to gladly-for look at the results! Inferior work is being cleared away so we can get at the real th ing, which none of us will do well enough, but each the very best he can . I don't know if I have said much here, but these things I do have to say: As Americans let us celebrate our strong native roots and good new growth . Let's concentrate on our individual standards and look forward to viewing, with interest, the marine art of other countries.

"Queen of the Western Ocean" From 1922 through 1939 Signed and Numbered Limited Editi on (I 000 Prints) $40.00 plus $3.00 Postage & Handling Artist: Fil Sessions Published by: National Academy Publishing Co.

For Color Brochure or Print Send requests to or make check pa ya bl e to Na tional Academy Publishing Co. Rt. 2 Stoney Point Greenwood , S.C. 29646 Phone (803) 223-8311

Mr. Lundgren was founding president of the American Society of Marine Artists, and has long exhibited his work at such centers as Myst ic and South Street seaports.

ASMA NEWS The Sixth National Exhibition of the American Society of Marine Artists will be held November 17-December 8 at Grand Central Galleries, 24 West 57th Street, New York NY 10019.

Joe's Rope Shop 159 John Street New York, NY 10038 Tel: 212-344-0130

SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982

35


The new while canvas sail on !his Thames sailing barge mus/ be usedforaperiod in order lofullyslrelch lhemalerial prior lo lrealmenl with a mixture of red and yellow ochre, linseed oil, cod oil and sea waler, which will give !he sail its /radilional dark red colour. "The New Sail," oil, 12x20 by Kenneth Denton.

RSMA Exhibition at Mystic Seaport by Peter Sorlien, Director, Marine Art & Model Gallery, Mystic Seaport Museum Stores. Captio ns by the artists.

The first official exhibit of the Royal Society of Marine Artists to come to American shores will run September 12-0ctober 24 at Mystic Seaport Stores Marine Art & Model Gallery. The firms of Thomas J. Lipton, Inc. and International Custom Service, Inc., clearly committed to the partnership of cultural and economic growth, have generously given grants to

Mystic Seaport Museum Stores for customs brokerage and an illustrated catalog . The exhibit will include more than 50 paintings by 19 artists, including David Cobb, the President of RSMA who spearheaded the exhibit, Mark Myers, its Secretary, Past President Keith Shackleton, D.G.M. Gardner and Deryck Foster. Although the traditions of harbor pan-

orama, coastal vignettes, roaring cannons, and racing clippers remain prominent in Britain, views of contemporary shipping and more modern artistic styles¡ are popular, and this exhibit will represent that breadth of British marine art. The annual exhibit of the American Society of Marine Artists, to follow in November at Grand Central Art Galleries in New York, will afford American collectors a remarkable opportunity to compare style, emphasis, documentary approach and range of interest. Wi ll the distinction commonly made between the British and American art of the past-respectively, traditionminded vs. iconoclastic; stylized vs. realistic; allusive vs. frankly descriptive-be apparent in contemporary marine art? As old as the traditions of British marine art are, the Royal Society of Marine Artists is the comparatively recent creation of some dedicated practitioners: Arthur Briscoe, Charles Pears, Cecil King, and Norman Wilkinson. Its inaugural exhibition took place in 1946, and it was granted the use of the word "Royal" twenty years later, in 1966. The Guildhall Art Gallery in The Easl Coos!, which overlooks !he Norlh Sea, can be very windswept and inhospitable. This painting sets out to recall this aspect seen in a cool morning light. " Bleak North Sea," oil, 10xl4 by Tre v1or Chamberlain.

36

SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982


MARINE ART London was always the site of the annual show until 1980, when renovations forced relocation to the Mall Gallery. Throughout its history, the RSMA has benefitted from association with the Art Exhibitions Bureau, now the Federation of British Artists, a centralized national agency which actively promotes and exhibits all forms of art. Artists membership in the RSMA is granted by invitation of other artists members only, and has never exceeded fifty. The organization has found a broad pool of support in its lay membership of over 500 enthusiasts throughout Great Britain. Since artists membership is so exclusive, lay artists are often given the op¡portunity to participate in annual exhibitions in London. The exhibition organized for Mystic Seaport Museum Stores is exceptional for all the artists participating are members entitled to use the initials RSMA. This pioneering venture across the Atlantic will afford American collectors, artists and maritime historians the best perspective on contemporary British marine art ever available here. .t

European fishermen have worked on the Newfoundland banks for many centuries, moslly longlining for cod, and for much of this time from small dories launched at sea from a mother ship. It was a life of extreme hardship and continua/ danger from fog combined with surface currents and the uncertain weather. "Grand Banks Dorymen," oil, 23x31 by David Cobb.

Storming along in a quartering gale, the medium clipper Seminole closes with the land and begins to shorten sail. She was a product of Maxton & Fish's yard at Mystic and was noted for her happy combination of speed and power-qualities which inspire this view of the ship. She was launched in 1865, put info the Cape Horn lrade, !hen sold 10 Wes/ Coasl owners and finally hulked al Adelaide around 1901. "The Seminole in Soundings," acrylic, 20x30 by Mark R. Myers.


A Message to the Discriminating Collector

Artist PAUL McGEHEE, shown here with his oil painting of Baltimore Harbor pictured in 1935. Limited ed ition prints issued in January 1981 . Two hundred signed and remarqued prints are SOLD OUT. Signed and numbered prints are stil l available but approaching LOW INVENTORY. Order yours now - Don 't get left out. For a FREE COLOR CATALOG and price li st of this and other scenes by PAUL McGEHEE call or write .

FREE COLOR CATALOG ART RECOLLECTIONS , INC. 704 N. Glebe Rd ., Suite 212 Arli ngton, Virginia 22203 Te I.: (703) 528-5040

LOOK FOR OUR FALL 1982 RELEASE : A BEAUTIFUL NEW YORK HARBOR SCENE © 1982 by Paul McGehee

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Fully illustrated catalogue available on request-U.S. $10, inclusive of postage. Sold in aid of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution.

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N. R. OMELL 18th and 19th Century Paintings 6 Duke Street, St. James's, London S.W.1 01-839 6223/ 4

38

SE2A HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982


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"THE WIDOW MAKER" Furling a jib is dangerous work on the bowsprit of the schooner Oriole, 1911.

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Retail price - signed and numbered $200.00. Remarqued $500.00. Editions limited to 780. Eight color plate lithograph process, finest rag paper. DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED

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WORLD SHIP TRUST

SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT NMHSAMERICAN SHIP TRUST NEWS

The Second World Ship Trust Award was presented to the salvaged 17th century warship Vasa by King Carl Gustaf of Sweden on April 21, in impressive ceremonies held aboard the ship. Chairman Frank Carr, Mrs. Carr, and Hon. Secretary James Forsythe represented the Ship Trust, and presented messages from Prince Philip as President of the Maritime Trust of Great Britain, and Prince Charles as Patron of the Mary Rose project which seeks to recover a warship of even earlier vintage than the Vasa (see SH23). While the Ship Trust party was in Sweden, discussions were held toward the founding of a Swedish Ship Trust, and some valuable consultation was held with Milan Kovac, who leads a team of Swedish experts working on the Cheops Ship under World Ship Trust auspices. Danish, Indian, and Australian initiatives toward Ship Trust estabishments are also being discussed: the great desire is to get genuinely ecumenical, effective, fully in-touch committees. The very difficulties of communication among disparate "pet projects" argues the need for the Ship Trust institution. Norman Brouwer's Register of Historic Ships is now complete and undergoing review prior to publication by the World Ship Trust. (The tugboat segment of the register is summarized on pages 18-19, this issue.) This monumental work will not only help define our field, but may well bring new interest to it-and build increased support for worthwhile efforts. The Ship Trust has been scouting out such vessels as the Marigold, a 30-ton English cutter yacht of 1892; the Baltic trader Dania; Ayacanora, the last British steam trawler, built in 1884 in Milford Haven, now in Spain as Castipuritas; an Arab dhow of c. 1778 surviving at Sur in Oman; and the British India MV Dwarka, last of her kind, now scheduled for the breakers. This list merely indicates the range of concerns that come before the World Ship Trust each quarter; to it might be added such matters as intervention in support of a member's effort to avoid having the Purfleet at King's Lynn-an historic drying-out dock beside the Custom House Building-filled in to make a parking lot. In the case of the fascinating Omani ship, a definite interest has been aroused to save her, and funds may well be secured adequate to the task. "Who else," asks our Chairman, "could have done this?" PS 42

The fully restored 94 ' schooner Ernestina, built in 1894 as the Gloucesterman Effie M. Morrissey (SH 7:20), left Cape Verde, the island republic off the West Coast of Africa, on July 15 to complete the long voyage home she began in 1976. A project of NMHS Friends of Ernestina/ Morrissey, Massachusetts Schooner Commission, and the Cape Verde Republic, she carries a crew of 6 Americans and 11 Cape Verdeans. She is expected in Newport, Rhode Island, in mid-August. A new engine donated by the Cummins Engine Co. will be installed and she'll go on public view at New Bedford, where she is well remembered from her days as Brava Packet between the US and Cape Verde. She will then visit Southern New England ports, and finish up in New York for the Mayor's Cup Schooner Race of South Street Seaport Museum in October. Liberty Ship John W. Brown, which has served since 1946 as a maritime vocational high school in New York, is being returned to the Federal Maritime Administration, wh ich says they will give the ship back to an appropriate preservation group. In June, a coalition of industrial, labor and government interests formed The John W. Brown Preservation Project, cochaired by Mike Gillen of the NMHS Liberty Ship Project and editor of its Liberty Log, and Capt. Conrad Nilsen, National President of the Council of Master Mariners. The 441 ' Brown, built in 1942, still has gun tubs and armor intact. Along with the Jeremiah O'Brien at the National Maritime Museum in San Francisco, the Brown is one of the last remaining Liberty Ships out of a fleet of 2,700 that served this country during WW II. The 279 ' full rigger Wavertree of 1885 (SHl9, 20, 21), undergoing restoration at South Street Seaport Museum in New York, is transformed these days with new decks and extensive overhaul accomplished by the Ship Trust Friends of Wavertree Committee working with the Museum. Over $600,000 was raised and invested in the ship in 1981, with 1,000 hours of volunteer effort which continue in growing diversity and sophistication today, under the leadership of Friends Chairman Jakob lsbrandtsen. The pilot house of the Spanish-American War cruiser Brooklyn, recovered at our urging from an abandoned Brookl yn armory, will become part of the newly enlarged Navy Memorial Museum in Washington, D. C. A month prior to the recent war in the Falkland Islands, an NMHS expedition went there to survey the 1851 South Portland-bui lt clipper ship Snow Squall (see SH4: 36, 38, 39). Dr. E . Fred Yalouris and Nicholas Dean took further measurements on the hull plan that Peter Throckmorton and Norman Brouwer had drawn up on an earlier visit to the ship . According to Dean, he and Yalouris, who dove on the wreck, found keel intact, and "her hull below the waterline, in immaculate shape." A committee formed in Maine is investigating a plan to bring back a 30 ' section of the starboard bow to S. Portland for preservation. The port side will

then be reconstructed. Southern Main Voca¡tional Technical Institute has offered space for this. The Society's fight to defend Fulton Ferry Landing pier and fireboat house as free, public space devoted to the maritime heritage of New York's East River-part of a larger plan called East River Renaissance-is now supported by a Fulton Ferry Landing Task Force. Great encouragement has derived from over 5,000 signatures on the Society's petition to secure lease and building renovations initially proposed by the City but now indefinitely postponedhowever this has not yet secured the position. Letters to Mayor Koch are sought, and those desiring background are invited to write NMHS. Meantime life at the pier goes on, and the St. Brendan Curragh Racing Association (SH 23:23) launched their new Naomh (St .) Brendan on June 27, in time for Larry Otway and hi s crew to register a loss in the first curragh regatta, held July 3 in New London, Connecticut. The bow of the l 700-ton steel bark Kaiulani of 1899 (SH9: 20-26; 11 :26; 14:35), a vessel which this Society was founded to save in 1963, is to go on exhibition at the National Maritime Museum San Francisco-this being all that could be saved of the ¡vessel after heroic efforts by Harry Dring, who sailed in her Cape Horn voyage of 1941-42, and others. She lives on as the emblem of the Society. MEMBERS OUTSIDE US: Please use us dollars in renewing membership, since conversion here eats up half the dues amount. People living outside US may wish to subscribe in English pounds via World Ship Trust, as shown on title page of this magazine. BULLETIN: John Smith, keeper of the Falkland Islands Museum in Port Stanley, and Hon. Curator of historic ship hulks in the islands, reports that all ships, including the Vicar of Bray at Goose Green, came through the recent shooting undamaged, except for the Welsh brig Fleetwing of 1874 which Argentine soldiers began to pull apart for firewood. They desisted, however, when Mr. Smith, author of the National Society publication Condemned at Stanley, pointed out the vessel's historic value, and only a little timber was lost.

INTERNATIONAL On the island of Huahine, 110 miles northwest of Tahiti, an archaeological team led by Dr. Yosihiko Sinoto of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, is unearthing evidence of a Po lynesian village that was destroyed and covered by a tidal wave I ,IOOyears ago. The artifacts, carbon dated back to 850 AD, indicate that the inhabitants of the area were a culturall y advanced seafa ring people. Discovered accidentally in 1972 by workers building a hotel, findings such as wooden planks from ancient canoes support modern theories that the PoAynesian peoples regularly navigated, explo1red and settled throughout the Pacific. S. L01w, The Navigators, 96 Mt. Auburn St., Carmbridge MA 02138, USA.

SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982


& MUSEUM NEWS On February 15, the Falkland Islands issued firs t day covers of a series of stamps commenorati ng 5 of the more than 200 shipwrecks in the Islands. Designed by Islander John Smith (who wrote about the wreck s in the NMHS pu blicati on "Condemned at Stanley"), the vessels depicted are the British bark Lady E lizabeth (built 1879, wrecked 19 13); the 390-ton British bark Capricorn (buil t 1859, wrecked 1882, capstan preserved in the Stanley Museu m); the 428-ton British bark Jhelum (b uilt 1849, wrecked 1870); the American clipper Snow Squall (bu ilt 185 1, wrecked 1864) see NMHS Sh ip Note above; the American Down Easter St. Mary (bui lt 1890, wrecked 1890, some of her remains on view at Maine State Museum in Augusta). N. Brouwer, SSSM, 207 Front St., New York NY 10038, USA. The 96 ', 100-ton gaff-rigged schooner Deliverance went through the Panama Canal in February, on her way to cross the Paci fie as part of a three-year round-the-world voyage. Built in

parts o f the world . Contact: Dr. G. Jenkins, Curato r , Welsh Indu str ial and Maritime Museum, Bute St ., Cardiff CF ! 6AN, UK.

UNITED KINGDOM

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Friends of the Maritime Trust publi shes a quarterly Newsletter chock fu ll of news about the restoration, preservation and exhi bition of historic British ships. Not on ly does the newsletter report on the heritage, but on ways to get involved. £10/yr. Trust, 16 Ebury St. , London SW IWOLH .

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Town Docks Museum recent ly acq ui red a photograph of Cap ts. Willi am and T homas Cou ldrey, father and son whali ng masters. T he photo preda tes 1869, the yea r that Hu ll whali ng ended , when her last whaler Diana wa s wrecked. T hese photos are also signi fica nt as they pre-da te modern photographi c tec hni q ues. The Mu seum is interested in acq ui ring such hi stor ic material fo r their archives. A .G . Credland, Keeper, Museum , Queen Victoria Sq ., Hull HU I 3DX. The £ 1. 5 milli on project, launched May I, to build a replica of Capt. J ames Cook's Endeavour, has received a li nk to the past. Oak trees planted by Adm . Lord Nelson have been offered to the project by Mr. Henry Edmonds, owner of the for mer Nelson estate in Wiltshire (See SH22: 36). Mr. John Tindale, Sec'y., Whitby Chamber, Whitby.

Schooner TIMBERWIND

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R.H. JOHN CHART AGENCY Salutes the

Galveston Historical Foundation and the barque

Elissa 5_18 23 rd S t., Ga lves ton , Texas

1956 as the royal yacht for the Prince and Princess of Monaco, her present owner, Dave Higgins, is a for mer Olympic oarsma n , who extensively refit her in 1979. Expected to arrive in New Zealand in Nov. '82. Charters available. Dave Higgi ns, 138 H ampshi re Rd ., Wellesley Hills MA02 181. Philadelphi a Ship Model Society, o ne of the oldest and most active organi zations of its type in the u .s., will host the annual con ference of the international Nautical Research Guild in Phi ladelphi a, Oct. 1-3. Conference acti vities will include technical sessions, semi nars and talks by foremost authori ties in the fields of nautical history, research and model building, o pen to all in terested people. Rick Menapace, P res., Phila. Ship Model Society, c/ o Benjamin Fox Pavili on , Jen ki ngton P A 19046, USA. Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum is sponsoring a maritime lore and heritage to ur of Northern Italy, Oct. 1-17 . Itinerary includes Lake Como, Milan, Florence, Venice and Verona. Museum , PO Box 636, St. Michaels MD 21663, USA. A symposium on the Anthropology of Maritime Communities at the I I th International Congress of Anth ropological and E thnological Sciences will be held in Quebec a nd Vancouver, Canada du ri ng the last two weeks of August , 1983. Papers and discussio n will add ress various aspects of the ethnology a nd social history of maritime communities in various

SEA HISTO RY, AUT UMN 1982

Maid of the Loch, a Loch Lomond paddle steamer, has been sold to a partnershi p for med by Ind Coope AJloa Brewery and Marine Co . Verigen . Plans are to turn the 29 year-old vessel into a leisure center with a restaurant; excursion sail s will be offered at least one day a week starting the spring of 1883. B. Beadle, 39 Newland Ave., Hull HU5 3BE . From Notice to Mariners, News letter of Ma riners Internati o nal : British bri ga ntine Soren Larsen (SH21:29) is sailing to Greenland th is summer to take part in the film ing of a documentary abo ut Ern est Shackleton's polar explorations, playing the part of Shackleton's Endu rance. She' ll return to Southampton in August to sail in the Tall Ships races .... The Thames sailing barge Oak, which has been full y restored, celebrated her centenniel last year, sailing fo r the first time since 1934. Owned and fu lly restored over the past 10 years by Benny and Joy Bensted, she' ll enter 3 barge matches th is summer and will be available fo r passenger charters . . .. The Jubilee Sailing Trust bark , designed to accommodate both disabled and non-di sabled trainees, will be named L ord Nelso n a fter the Admi ral, who himself was disabled . Designed by Colin Mudie , wh o designed the training brig Royalist, L ord Nelson will be 135' LOA, with a beam of 28 ', draft 12 ' , and sail area 10,000 sq . ft. The project is estimated at £2 million; building will begin when £ ! million is raised, and about half of that has been raised . .. . Traditional vessels for sale worldwide are also listed . MI, 58 Woodville Rd ., New Barnet, H erts, EN5 5EG .

SHIP MODELS From our own workshop : finest quality wood ship kits-clippers. schooners, frigates, tankers. freighters- 30 in all. Beautiful fitting s; no lead or plastic. Also plans. books, tools, materials, fit· tings and mari ne prints. At better dealers or send $1.00 for big illustrated catalog .

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43


SHIP NOTES, ~alf-~ull

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Naval Architects' Half Models Inspired by Maritime Heritage

Welsh Industrial and Maritime Museum was established in 1978 as a separate institution within the framework of the National Museum of Wales to collect material relating to the sea and seafaring . The Museum owns a variety of sailing and rowing boats: the 1908 trading ketch Garlands tone, which is on loan to the Gwynedd Maritime Museum; the 1937 steam dredger Seiont II, on display and being restored at the Victoria Dock of the Caernarform Maritime Museum; the 1941 steam tug Sea Alarm, and the 1911 Channel pilot cutter Kindly Light. Museum, Bute St., Cardiff DFl 6AN.

UNITED STATES The WW II carrier USS Intrepid was opened to the public on August 2 in New York City as an air, sea and space museum , complete with aircraft of many vintages. When she was to be scrapped, a group of New Yorkers applied to

Gloucester fishing schooner Gertrude L. Thebaud

For generations it was customary for shipwrights to fashion a half-model of a ship prior to construction. Handcrafted forms similar to these enabled the builder to study and perfect hull design before a complete set of plans was drawn. These models were not only functional but were often used to adorn the walls of ship yard offices. Each hull is hand carved using only select grades of mahogany and cedar. Close attention is given to the vessel 's plans to assure accuracy. CUSTOM WORK ALSO AVAILABLE SCOTT CHAMBERS, 921415th N.W., Seattle, Wash. 98117 (206) 789-3713

Harborside Wor~pace in Stamford, Connecticut 84,000 sq. ft. I 21 ,000 sq. ft. per floor. Now ready fo.~>tenant installation. Dock your boat here and join internationally recognized firms in this spectacular waterfront location.

the Navy to save the vessel, and formed the Intrepid Museum Foundation, wh ich through a bond issue and government support raised $22 million to do the job. She may be visited at Pier 86, 46th St. and Hudson Ri ver, 10-6 every day; adults $5, children $2.50. Intrepid, GPO Box 1186, NY NY 10116. The 185 ' 3-masted schooner Atlantic, designed by Wm. Gardner, was broken up on January 14 in Norfolk, Virginia. Built by Townsend and Downey of Shooters Island, New York, she sailed trans-Atlantic in 1905 in 12 days, 4 hours . This record stood for 75 years broken only by a a French multi-hull, never by a mono-hull. During WW II she served this country as a U-boat hunter, but later fell into disrepair. Groups had tried to restore her, but it was always found economically unfeasable. The original drawings of the vessel are part of the collection of the Mariners Museum. Museum, Newport News VA 23606. The Coast Guard Cutter training bark Eagle was refurbished over the winter and upgraded to a "two-compartment damage-control standard," with 10 watertight sections. The 226 ' vessel will be carrying cadets on training cruises this summer out of her home port in New London, Connecticut. Eagle, USCG Base, New London CT 06320.

Call Bill Fox. Collins Development Corporation

43 Lindstrom Road I 44

Stamford, Connecticut 06902 I 203/357-0123

The National Maritime Hall of Fame at the US Merchant Marine Academy was dedicated on May22 (National Maritime Day) . As part of the American Merchant Marine Museum, on the Academy campus, famous people and ships from deep sea , Great Lakes, coastal and inland waterway shipping will be inducted each year. Academy, Kirags Pt. NY 11204.

SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982


SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS Kendall Whaling Museum holds its 7th Annual Whaling Symposium October 16-17- a classic fixture covering cetacean breathing systems, a 417-year old whaleship and other matters, with P.F.C. Smith as after-dinner speaker (worth the price of admi ssion alone). To register, send $22.50 to Museum, 27 Everett St., PO 297, Sharon MA 02067 . The Ist American Conference on Sail-Assisted Power Technology brought over 150 participants from across the US, Canada, Norway, Britain and France. Three sail-assisted vessels on hand for inspection were the tug/fishing vessel Norfolk Rebel, the cargo schooner Sharon Virginia, the cruise/cargo vessel Norfolk Rover. Two resolutions passed by the conference participants were: I) To urge the Coast Guard to review its regulations on stability criteria for sail-assisted vessels, giving more consideration to the watertight integrity of smaller vessels and the larger angle of heel at which they normally operate; 2) To support Senate Bill 1356 (sponsored by Sen. J. Warner,VA and Sen. S. Matsunaga, HI, which would allow an energy investment credit for sails, masts and rigging used on a new or reconstructed American built sail-assisted vessel. A clearinghouse organization, SAlLA (Sail Assisted Int'l Liason Assoc.) has been formed. Proceedings of the Conference are available. Contact: John Lucy, VIMS, Gloucester Pt. VA 23602.

Quedah Merchant, a new " nautical collector's letter" especially for ship modellers, includes items on ship modelling, reprints from nautical arts and letters texts. The publication is named after Capt. Kidd' s greatest prize, though the meaning of "Quedah" is still unidentified. $10/yr to : 4040 N. Rockwell St., Chicago IL 60618. By proclamation of the Mayors of Boston, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, Seattle and Sault Ste. Marie, the 1982 American Merchant Marine Library Association book drive has begun with a goal of 100,000 books and magazines. The Association, affiliated with the United Seamen's Service, sends libraries aboard American flag vessels. AMMLA, One World Trade Center, Suite 2601, NY NY 10048.

Rusty Rudder, the newsletter of the Antique & Classic Boat Society, keeps readers up to date with antique boat events, chapter news, services, maintenance techniques; includes a "trading dock" classified section. Society, PO Box 831, Lake George NY 12845 .

EAST COAST Penobscot Marine Museum's new exhibit, "Working Boats of the World," is divided into two sections; one featuring models of craft from the Far East; the other, vessels from Western countries including the US. Background material is furnished through extensive photographs and silk-screened panels. Models include a Marquesas Islands outrigger, Greek caique and a Friendship sloop. Museum, Searsport ME04974.

SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982

The 64 ', 111 year-old topsail schooner Lewis R. French has been nominated to the National Regi ster of Hi storic Places. Owned and Operated by Capt. John Foss of Rockland, she was built by the French brothers of Christmas Cove, Maine and named for their father. The French worked along the Maine coast carrying freight, wood, fi sh and tin plate until 1974, when Foss bought her from the Seaport Navigation Co. in Eastport. After 2 Yi years of restoration , he launched her in 1977 and charters her as part of the Maine Windjammer Fleet. Capt. Foss, Box 482, Rockland ME 04841 . Maine Maritime Museum announces these new exhibits in various locations among its historic sea-captains' houses and shipyard buildings: "A Century of Maine Steamers," "History of Percy & Small Shipyard," "Building of a

Wooden Ship," "Captain Sumner P. and Alice G. Drinkwater," "The Black Collection. " Maine Maritime Museum, 963 Washington St., Bath ME 04530.

will be US Life-Saving stations of southern New England and Long Island; New Haven-built schooners; the fisheries of Great South Bay, Long Island; and the career of Nathaniel Herreshoff. Symposium, Museum, Mystic CT 06355. Museum of Yachting has received a generous grant from Mr. Paul Mellon for renovation of a building to serve as its permanent home in Ft. Adams State Park on Narragansett Bay. They hope to install a small exhibit by the end of the summer, including some of the remains of the schooner Atlantic they have acquired. Members and contributions welcome: Museum, Ft. Adams State Park, Newport RI 02840. Suffolk Marine Museum is opening an exhibition of 40 paintings of Louis S. Glanzman commissioned by the National Geographic Society, including works on the Vikings and early American maritime history, on display through the end of this year. Museum, Montauk Highway, W. Sayville NY 11796. No rthwind Undersea Institute, a museum devoted to the sea "as a source of energy, food, medicine, careers" -and also addressed to topics as diverse as the preservation of whale species and human safety at sea-has opened in a renovated sea captain 's home on City Island,

The 3rd Reunion of the Society for the Preservation of the Historic WW II Contribution of the Workers of the Todd-Bath Iron & South Portland Shipbuilding Corporation will be held on Saturday, September 18, in Portland. Society, PO Box 161, DTS-Portland ME 04112 (207-773-6608). An 1840 Maine state statute, giving preferential tax status to barges and sail powered vessels without engines, was declared unconstitutional by the Maine State attorney general; actual repeal of the law by the State legislature is still pending. Till now, these vessels have been taxed very minimally according to tonnage, which provided a tax umbrella for them. Repeal of the law would allow municipalities to tax them as real property at a much higher rate. Peabody Museum of Salem has launched a raffle drive for a 11 ' 6" Chaisson sailing doryskiff, complete with sail and oars, from the plans of boatbuilder, George L. Chaisson. The boat will be constructed by members of the Apprenticeshop of the Maine Maritime Museum in the lobby of the Peabody, Aug. 9-14, for the public to view. Tickets forthe raffle are $1. Proceeds will be used to establish a Conservation Fund to restore and preserve the collections of the Museum. "Dogwatch and Liberty Days," an exhibition on 19th century seafaring life, will open Sept. 30 with a symposium on October 2: registration $15. Museum, 161 Essex St., Salem MA 01970. Mystic Seaport Museum will sponsor its 2nd annual symposium on Southern New England Maritime History on Saturday, November 6, at the Seamen's lnne, Mystic. Among the topics

under the direction of Michael Sand lo fer, a professional diver. At the entrance is the bow of a tug named for a youth who died in a boating accident last summer. Northwind Undersea Institute, 610 City Island Ave., City Island NY 10464. Members of the Heritage Ship Guild of the Port of Philadelphia are in the final stages of a 2-year restoration of the catboat Salty Dog. Built in 1909 at the S. Bartley Pearce Yard in Brielle, New Jersey, this 20 ' 6" cedar-on-oak gaff-rigged vessel was built so that she could be rigged as either a catboat (with mast stepped far forward) or as a sloop. Used as a workboat in the winters, mainly oystering, and as a charter day sailer in summers, she was found on the Delaware by Leonard Kiems, who restored her and donated her to the Guild in 1979. Work on the 1891 schooner Nellie and Mary continues. Replanking is nearly complete. Volunteers welcome. Guild, 2342 Pine St., Phila. PA 19103. Wilmington Steamboat Foundation, is interested in promoting the Maritime Museum of Delaware. The foundation grew out of the Committee to Save the State of Pennsylvania (a 236 ' 1923 steamer, which they were successfu l in placing on the National Register). They hope to raise funds to purchase and renovate a building on Wilmington's waterfront. The fir st edi-

45


SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT tion of the Foundation's newsletter, The Delaware Steamboater, was published in March . Membership: $10/yr., Fndtn, PO Box 903, Wilmington DE 19899.

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Chesapeake correspondent Bill Eggert reports that the 75-year old wood and steel tug Baltimore, built at Baltimore's Skinner Shipyard was raised from Maryland's Sassafrass Ri ver where she sank 2 years ago, and towed to Baltimore's Museum of Industry. She has been donated to the new Museum by Samuel duPont who bought her in 1963 . In addition to her regular harbor duties, Baltimore was originally used to transport official visitors to Ft. McHenry. The McLean Contracting Co. donated two floatin g cranes to raise SS Baltimore. She was lashed to the tug Smith Pt . and towed to the Museum where plans are to restore her one day to stea m propulsion, and use her for harbor tours-in keeping with the Museum's motto: "A working museum for working people." Museum, 1415 Key Hwy., Baltimore MD 21230. Capt. Stanley Larrimore recently donated the figurehead from his 1956-bu ilt skipjack Lady Katie to the Calvert Marine Museum. The Museum' s master woodcarver, Pepper Langley, presented the Captain with a new eagle figurehead last year. Lady Katie is one of the vessels in the Chesapeake's all-sail workboat fleet. She is available for charter this summer along with the Museum' s 61 ' oyster buy-boat Wm B. Tennison, built in 1899 as a 9-log bugeye. MuseuJ11, PO Box 97, Solomons MD 20688. Capt. Larrimore, PO Box 232, Tilghman Island MD 21671. Naval Historical Foundation's newsletter, Pull Together, reports that the 20-year old Navy Memorial Museum, housed in Building 76 of the Washington Navy Yard, has been undergoing major renovation since November. The Foundation' s Truxtun Decatur Naval Museum open since 1950 will become part of the Navy Museum. A new gift shop using the original pi lothouse of the Brooklyn, which served in the Spanish-American War, will be opened. New exhibits include the creation of a typical gun deck from an 1812 frigate, a collection of French ivory ship models, the fiferail of the Civ il-W ar flag ship USS Hartford. The Museum will reopen in November. Fdtn ., Navy Yard, Washington DC 20374.

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Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum 's boat shop crew is presently restoring Sadie, their 1914 gaff-rigged Herreshoff sloop. The crew reports that although 3,000 bronze screws and 300 board feet of white cedar are being used to refasten and replank Sadie, her "sweet lines" have weathered time and remain unaffected. Museum, Navy Pt., St. Michael's MD 21663.

The Mariners Museum has received a donation of 1,300 photographs by J. Harry Reeder and John T. Reeder of Great Lakes vessels. The collection, donated by John P . Reeder strengthens the Museum 's already extensive photo collection . The Museum has also received ·the 1981 Golden Eagle Award in the maritime category

from the Council on Non-Theatrical Events for - the film: "Billy - Moore: Chesapeake Boatbui lder." Produced by the Museum and funded in part by a grant from the National Trust, the film' s documents Moore's building of a deadrise oyster boat, which is now part of the permanent exhibit of the Museum . The film is available for a $5 / handling fee. Museum, Newport News VA 23606. Chandler's Wharf, a commercial maritime museum and waterfront shopping area, would like to give away its 147 ' schooner Henry W. Adams, built 1937, to a suitable nonprofit organization. William Fetner, general manager, said that the marine railway that was used to haul the vessel has gone out of business. " She needs to be hauled at least once every 5 yearsit's too expensive to haul her at Charleston or Norfolk." The museum' s other vessels including the 48 ' oyster boat Edward M of 1923 and the steel tug John Taxis are being set up on land to reduce maintenance costs. They are look ing for a steel vessel for in-water display. Wharf, 2 Ann St. , Wilmington NC 2840 1.

GULF COAST The 150 ' iron bark Elissa (SH 15), built in 1877, was opened to the public July 5 by the Galveston Historical Foundation. She will be open yearround with an interpretive exhibit aboard on the history of the vessel and her restoration. A visitors' center, where a documentary film about the project may be viewed, is on the pier alongside. Labor Day, Elissa will set sail out of Galveston Harbor into the Gulf of Mexico, sailing for the first time in 50 years. Fdtn., Drawer 539, Galveston TX 77553.

WEST COAST In 1970, Costa Mesa boatbuilder Dave Holland quit his job, bought a large lot with an old house on it, and started construction on Pilgrim of

Newport, a 1IO-ton, 11 8' Baltimore clipper, built from the plans of the 1778 brig Swift. Twelve years later-after selling the house, the car, but holding fast to the dream, Dave Holland and his fa mily are about to celebrate. The final "whiskey" plank will be put on in mid-August. Her lau nch date is set for midOctober. Sea trials and final outfitting will take place in the spring of '83, following which she'll be put to work carrying passengers to and from Catalina Island. Contributions still needed! Marty Capune, 2.30 62nd St., Newport Beach CA 92663.

SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982


& MUSEUM NEWS Columbia River Maritime Museum moves into its 21 st year of operation in a new 37 ,000 sq. foot building alongside the river and the dock where the lightship Columbia is tied up . Conceived and founded by the late Rolf Klep, the Museum was incorporated on May 11, 1962. Over the years the Museum acquired the lightship Columbia, and USCG Yocona. Mu seum, Ft. of 17th St., Astoria OR 97103. Northwest School of Wooden Boatbuilding in Pt. Townsend is expanding its program to the Marysville/ Everett area this summer. This will enable them to reach groups who have limited time for instruction . Classes in all areas of wooden boat construction, with the emphasis on small class sailing and rowing boats, will be offered on weekends, nights, one- and twoweek seminars. Fees for the courses are approx. 13/ hr. School , 330 10th St., Pt. Townsend WA 98368 The 6th Annual Wooden Boat Festival will be held in Port Townsend, Sept. 10-12. Boats of the Pacific Northwest is the theme of this year' s festival. Sept . 13-17, the Wooden Boatbuilding Symposium, covering all aspects of the trade, will be taking place. Festival : $4/ day, $10/ 3 days; Symposiums: $200. Wooden Boat Fdtn., 63 Washington St., Pt. Townsend WA 98368. Bishop Museum has announced plans to sell Falls of Clyde, an 1878 full-rigged ship, built in Scotland, that fir st traded traded to Hawaiian waters in 1898, when she was bought by Capt. Wm . Matson and operated by Matson Lines. The Museum's goals are to find an organization that will maintain her as well, or better than she is presently (maintenance is es timated at $100,000/ yr, not including restoration work), and to keep her in Hawaii. Public comments were accepted through July and the Museum is expected to announce a decision on whether to sell her qui ckly at a lower price or to wait for bids that reach her $500,000 value . Museum , Falls of Clyde, Pier 5, Honolulu HI 96819. Aloha Tower Maritime Museum on the 9th floor of that office building in Honolu lu was officiall y opened on June 7. On display are artifacts from recent voyage of Hokule'a, the replica of a Polynesian voyaging canoe; historic photographs, and a pictorial story of the development of Honolulu Harbor. Museum, 9th Floor, Aloha Tower, Honolulu HI 96813.

LAKES AND RIVERS On a beautiful rainy day, Sunday, July 13th, over 4,000 people watched as the 70 ' Piscataqua River gundalow Captain Edward H. Adams was launched at Prescott Park, in Portsmouth. Built over the past 5 years at Strawbery Banke, the 45-ton vessel was pulled by five yolk of oxen to her launch site. On her maiden voyage, she called into the port of Durham for that port 's week-long 250th birthday celebration. The first working gundalow built in the Piscataqua Basin in almost 100 years, Capt. Adams carries more than 1,000 sq. ft. of sail laced to a 70 ' long spar, which is hinged to a 20 ' stump mast. This allows the spar to be dropped in order to shoot fi xed

SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982

bridges. She'll carry a cargo of up to 40 cords of firewood on her deck, and will be the focal point of a regional environmental education program, sailing to various local ports. Project, PO Box 1303, Portsmouth NH 03801. The River Museum, operated by the Connecticut River Foundation at Steamboat Dock, is housed in an 1878 steamboat warehouse near the site where British Marines burned local shipping during the War of 1812. Exhibits include a new show "Riverports," a full size reproduction of the first American submarine American Turtle, the West Indian trade, ri ver cargos and warehousing , steamboating. Wed-Sun. 1-5. Museum, PO Box 261, Essex CT 06426. Hudson River Maritime Center, started by NMHS in 1979, has acquired its own facility on Rondout Creek. The new site includes a 350 ' bulkhead, unobstructed deepwater access to the Hudson, space for offices, workshops, a library and gift shop. Space will be leased to boatbuilders and riggers; boats will be able to tie up at the bulkhead for repairs. The tour boat

Marion T. Budd provides opportunities for workshops and educational programs. The 36' classic day cruise boat, William 0. Benson, built 1915 , which is presently under option to the Museum, will be available for cruises as well. Center, 13 Fair Street, Kingston NY 12401. Canal Society of New Jersey's Canal Museum, part of Waterloo Village on the Morris Canal , recently acquired a 300 year-old snubbing post from a lock on the ancient Canal du Midi in southern France. Canal Day, including lectures and tours, was held on Aug. 20 at Canal Park in Wharton, New Jersey, near a restored and rewatered mile-long section of the Canal. Society, PO Box 737, Morristoen NJ 07960.

G.A. Boeckling, the American-bui lt sidewheel steamboat on the Great Lakes returned to her homeport of Sandusky, Ohio on June4after an absence of 30 years. Friends of the Boeckling (SH23:26), formed in 1980, has thus far raised $50,000 of the $300,000 needed for restoration of the vessel. Boeckling will serve as a floating museum of Sandusky and Great Lakes industrial hi story. Friends, 111 E. Shoreline Dr., Sandusk y OH 44870.

CANADA Now in its 10th year, the Atlantic Canada Institute offers four I-week seminars on coastal, maritime, cultural, indu strial topics, coastal issues, and maritime community genealogy. Courses are offered in Newfoundland, New

Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island . Institute, St. Mary' s University, Halifax NS B3H 3C3. Th is past winter, the new Maritime Museum of the Atlantic was opened in faci lities added on to their old ones in the old Robertson Hardware Building . Exhibits include the old hydrographic survey ship Acadia, Queen Victoria' s barge and a Sable Island Lifeboat. Museum, Lower Water St., Halifax, Nova Scotia. In preparation for Tall Ships Gatheri ng in Quebec in June 1984, to celebrate the 450th anniversary of the discovery of La Nouvelle-France, there wi ll be a gat hering of all Tall Ship captains and people interested in sail training in Quebec, Oct. 17-22. Captains from all the world 's tall ships wi ll be invited as guests of the Canadian government. Quebec 1534-1984, 12 rue SteAnne, Quebec GIR 3X2.

AUSTRALIA From the newsletter of the Australian Association for Maritime History: A Sydney paper reported that Lyttleton II arrived in Sydney Cove on May 3, from Christchurch, New Zealand under her own steam. The 1939 coal-powered tug, built in Glasgow, Scotland has been bought by the Pittwater and Broken Bay Preservation Group. They hope to display her at a proposed maritime museum at Walsh Bay in Sydney ... The 65 ' ketch Hecla, built for Captain C.C. Dale in 1903, the last wooden ketch to work in South Australi an waters, is now ashore at the Kiplingcotes Fauna and Pioneer Park, Port Lincoln. Her operators seek volunteers to aid in her preservation and restoration.

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BOOKS ON THE HAWSER This fascinating album features over 500 historic photographs of all types of tugboats . The detailed text is loaded with information for both the maritime history enthusiast and the general reader. "An inspired collaboration. This is a fi rst-rate book /that} belongs i11 any ship lover's library. "

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Live Oaking-Southern Timber for Tall Ships, by Virginia Steel Wood (Northwestern University Press, PO 116, Boston MA 02117, 1981 , 206 pp., illus., $21.95). The live oak dealt with here is the Quercus virginiana. Weighing 75 pounds per cubic foot in its green state, and possessing incredible durability, it is useful for futtocks, knees and backbone timbers. The famous C. Drew caulking mallets and beetles were got out of live oak. Even though the earliest southern settlers recognized its use fulness, many years passed before northern ship builders began to use it. But demand for live oak grew, both in North America and Europe. The major reason it was not used more extensively was the difficulty inherent in getting it out of the southern swamps and woods to waiting vessels. Crews of laborers, many of them shipwrights, went south in the winter to go " live oaking". Once a tree was felled, hewers would use adze and broadaxe to bring its parts down to size and shape. Patterns for the timbers of the intended vessel were brought along for this purpose. An early contract stipulated that the timber ''shall not exceecfthe Mould by more than one Inch in Breadth, Thickness, or Length ". Shortly after the Revolutionary War, when the new government decided it needed a navy, live oak's reputation for strength and durability caused the Navy to contract for quantities sufficient to build six frigates in 1794. Away south went the live oakers! Although the Secretary of the Navy wondered if the trickle of wood which made its way back to northern shipyards really justified the effort and expense, the wood must have been pretty impressive to naval constructors, for in 1821 Naval reserves of live oak lands were established. To provide for a future Navy, President Adams approved a live oak nursery in Florida, insisting that acorns be planted. He said: "My passion is for a hard, heavy, long-lived wood, to be raised from the nut or seed-requiring a century to come to maturity". In the 1927-31 restoration of USS Constitution hundreds of tons of live oak timber were used . The material came to Boston from the Pensacola Naval Air Station . Someone had stored it there, underwater, prior to the Civil War. Virginia Wood covers every aspect of the live oak trade with diligent research, sensitive reconstructions of historical events, and the historian's passion for accuracy. (It is noteworthy that the late William A. Baker vetted the manuscript for her.) And physically, the book is a delight-finel y printed on acid-free paper,

bound in white canvas, stamped with gold lettering, the book creates a quandry for its owner: to remove the dust jacket or leave it on! The many illustrations are well chosen, and thorough notes reveal the extent of the author's research. A extensive bibliography and index add to its usefulness for ROBERT CHAPEL reference. Mr. Chapel is the Secretary of the Traditional Wooden Boat Society and Editor of its journal, Lines & Offsets. Philip L. Rhodes And His Yacht Designs, by Richard Henderson (International Marine Publishing, Camden ME, 1981, 415 pp ., illus., $35.00). "Any Size, Any Type, Any Service" was for many years the slogan of Philip L. Rhodes' firm of naval architects. The "type" covered in this book is yachts, "size" ranges from a 7' dingh y to a 140 ' gold plater, and "service" is anything from a sailing dinghy for children to some of the best known ocean racers of the last four decades. The book begins with a short, respectful biography of Phil Rhodes. His father was an Ohio wagon and carriage builder who taught him to work with wood. His interest in boats began early, as he was ''tank testing" models of his own design in an abandoned canal at age 10. By the time he graduated from high school he had already won several hydroplane design contests in Motor Boating. A graduate of MIT, he worked for various shipbuilding firms, opened his own office in 1925, was invited to join Cox & Stevens in 1934 and remained with them through 1949 when the company was re-organized under his own name . He continued as an acti ve designer until his death at 79 in 1974. The second and largest section of the book presents 44 significant Rh odes yacht designs in approximate chronological order. In the chapter given each boat, sail plans or outboard profiles, arrangement plans and lines plans (where applicable) are provided as well as several photos. The text not only contains data on each boat and its supplement sisters but many anecdotes about their designer. While sailboats predominate, a good selection of power boats is included. Yacht design was only one facet of Phil Rhodes's talents . His commercial work ranged from early experimental hydrofoils to the hospital ships Hope, Mercy and Comfort. The last section is a chronological listing of yacht designs spanning some 53 years. This is illustrated with sail plans or outboard profiles of significant boats and is keyed to boats shown in the previous section. SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982


"'GHOSTS

ef CAPE HORN' is an open

This is a slightly outsize (8.75"xl 1.25"), well designed and well printed book consistent with International Marine's high standards, organized so that the casual boat watcher will derive as much pleasure as the yac ht historian and student of design.

doorway to a vital heritage." - W A LTER C RON KI TE

This st irri ng one- hou r doc ume n ta ry o n ma n's batl lc to get aro und Ca pe H orn in ta ll wind- dri ven sh ips was rev iewed by Wa lter C ron kit e in Sea History 16, a nd too k th e fi lm ma ke rs fro m New Yo rk lO Ba th , Lo nd o n , Sa n Fra nc isco, th e Fa lkl a nd Isla nd s and Ca pe H o rn itself, see ki ng o ut one o r th e grea t ad ve nture sto ries o f a ll t ime. The film in cl ucl cs bo th hi sto ri c a nd co nte m po ra ry foo tage. It is na rra ted by J aso n R obards, with a titl e so ng by Go rd on Lightfoot. "Gh os ts o r Ca pe H o rn" is ava il a ble fo r sale o r ren ta l fro m :

DON MEISNER

ABC Wide World of Learning, In c.

Five Historic Ships From Plan to Model, by George S. Parker (Cornell Maritime Press, Centerville, Maryland, 1980, 358 pp., ill. photographs, detail sketches and plan inserts, $17.50). A very detailed book giving practically step-by-step - instructions for building models of a late 18th century merchant brig turned warship, an early 19th century ship-rigged sloop-of-war, a mid-19th century North Atlantic passenger packet, two early 20th century schooners, a 5-masted coasting vessel and the first knockabout Banks fisherman, all of them American craft. The book starts with a discussion of building and shaping a hull , followed by separate chapters on square and fore-andaft rig designs. Then the reader is taken by individual chapters through finishing a hull, maki ng and installing rails, houses, hatches and other deck structures and furniture, making guns, boats, " ironwork," spars and rigging, ending up with mountings and display cases. The last half of the book has separate chapters in great detail on building each particular model, starting with a short history of the original vessel. And the book ends with short chapters on tools and materials, a set of detail plates and, an unusual feature in most modelling books, a complete belaying pin plan of each vessel for those who wish to bend sails to their craft. While the instructions are complete and clear, this reviewer feels that some of the author's building methods are "doing it the hard way," but as with the No. I seafaring axiom "different ships, different long splices," the result is the same . The only flaw noted is the author's misuse of words and terms; for example, "astern" indicates something beyond the back end of a vessel, but he uses it instead of "abaft" or "aft of" for items on board. ROBERT G. HERBERT.JR. Zachary Goes Ground Fishing On the Trawler Lucille 8., by Alice True Larkin, illus. by Abbey Williams (Down East Books, Camden ME, 1982, 60 pp., illus., paperback, $5.95). Groundfishing in the Gulf of Maine, Zachary learns about navigation, nets and fish-a fine book for young people, with wonderful illustrations . SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982

The St. Mary off Cape Horn,

by J ohn Sioba n

BATTLESHIP SAILOR

I I I I I I I I I 1 I I

1330 Aven ue o f the A me ri cas New Yo rk N Y 100 19 (2 12) 887-5706 N O TE : A spec ia l Commemorative Posler of' th e W orl d Prem ie r of "G hos ts of Cape H orn ," in cl udi ng a 22"x22" print of J o hn Stoba rt's pai nti ng , signed by the ar tis1, is availa ble for S J OO. fro m National Maritime Hislorical Society , 2 Fulton Street , Brooklyn NY 11201 .

By Theodore C. Mason Foreword by Edward L Beach This vigorous, highly readable portrait of the enlisted man's life in the U.S. Navy of the 1940s is a rarity among the cou ntless books written on the period. The author, who as a young man served aboard the battleship California, experi enced firsthand the devastation at Pearl Harbor, where thousands of his fellow sailors perished. From his hazardous battle station in the open "birdbath" atop the mainmast, Ted Mason had a panoramic view of the Japanese attack and its aftermath, which included the sinking of his own ship. The result of thi s experience is much more than a personal memoir; it is a unique and invaluable record of a way of life that vanished along with the great gray battleship. From a third-deck perspective, Mason examines the often rigid hierarchical system that segregated the com missioned ranks from the sailors. Officers are described as remote figures, some of whom seemed to be more concerned with protocol and discipline than with the combat readiness of their ships, but mostly the author concentrates on enlisted men - the hard and the compassionate, the brawlers and the poets, the fledgling seamen and the old salts - whose comradeship he treasured. These men are portrayed with such insight and skill that they will linger in the readers memory long after this book has been put down 1982. 352 pages. 45 illustrations. List Price: $15.95.

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Fighting Ships in Perspective, by James G. Butler (Ian Allen, Shepperton, Surrey TWl7 8AS, UK, 1981 , 104 pp., illus., £8 .95). This large format book conveys the history of six well known capital ships of World War II. These great heavy-gun battleships dominated the fleets of the wo rld during the first half of the 20th century. After Pearl Harbor in December 1941 their role was largely supplanted by the aircraft carrier as the main striking power of the fleet. The author takes up, from Britain, HMS Rodney (1927-48) and Warspite (1915-46), the American USS Washington (1941-61) and South Dakota (1942-62) and Germany' s Scharnhorst (1939-43) and Tirpitz (1941-44), the former sunk by fleet action and the latter by bombing . A full chronological history is given, with photos and drawings not only of the ship herself but of other ships involved in her story.

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EMPIRES INTHE JIALANCE

JAMES FORSYTHE

Major Forsythe is Hon. Sec'yofthe World Ship Trust, and President of the Nor/olk Wherry Trust (see SH17:20-21).

Japanese and Allied Pacific Strategies to April 1942 by H. P Willmott

Acritical appraisal of the strategic policies of all the countries involved in the Pacific war is offered here by the respected British military historian H.P. Willmott His thoughtful analysis covers the whole range of political, economic, military, and naval activity in the Pacific. Instead of dealing with various battles individually, the author describes the unfolding of Japan's campaign on the ground, in the air, and at sea, and then explains the Allied responses to those initiatives. The book begins by exploring the effects of European and American colonial expansion in the Pacific and Far Eas~ pointing out the reasons for Japan's ascent to power, and concludes with the Doolittle Raid on 18 April 1942. It was this raid, Willmott says, that finally forced Japan's leaders to re-examine basic assumptions. Because the author exposes the myths and realities that motivated each of the combatant nations during this crucial period, Em pi res in the Ba lance is certain to stimulate debate among all those with a keen interest in World War 11. 1982. 520 pages. Illustrated. List price: $24.95 .

A History Book Club Alternate Selection.

I I I I

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••••••••••••••••••••• I Book Order Department U.S. Naval Institute, Annapol is, MD 2 140 2 SJ Yes! Please send me copy(ies) of Empires in the Balance (535-3) at $24.95 each. D I have enclosed my check or money order for$ , including$ for postage and handling. (Postage & handling is $2.50 for orders up to $30.00 and $3.25 for orders of $30.01 or more. Please add 5% sales tax for delivery within the State of Maryland.) D Bill me

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U.S. Carriers at War, by Peter Kilduff (Ian Allen Shepperton, Surrey TW 17 SAS, UK, 198 1, 128 pp ., illus., £10.95). This large format book, published in England, is by a well known American researcher and writer on the history of aerial warfare. Without attempting a full history of the Pacific War, the author has selected as his theme a series of major battles in which carriers were engaged, based on eyewitness accounts and Air Combat Activity Reports, written at the time, supplemented by later memoirs of some of the leading carrier pilots, many of whom survived and rose to high Naval rank. The narrative points up the initially heavy casualty rate suffered by the US Navy, and subsequently by their opponents as the war in the Pacific progressed. After the initial setback at Pearl Harbor, the US produced a vast carrier force including three different classes of ships, fleet, light and escort carriers (of which some fifty were built-either converted from or based on merchant-ship hulls, to speed prod uction). This fleet, the world's largest naval aviation force, scored victory after victory, pushing the Japanese back to their home islands . The detailed Air Combat Reports and eyewitness accounts make fascinating reading, nearly 40 years after the events portrayed, and the live action plates, which profusely illustrated the pages, provide a first-rate record of events as they happened. Possibly, in future editions, a short tiimetable of the operations involved might 1usefully be incorporated, together SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982


with an index.

JAMES FORSYTHE

American Traders in European Ports: The Alexander 0. Vietor Collection of Ship Portraits, Charts and Related Material, by John Swain Carter, foreword by Dallas Pratt (Peabody Museum of Salem, Salem MA, 1982, 35 pp., illus., $12.50). A beautiful catalog of the collection which Vietor, w.ho was curator of maps at Yale University (1946-78), donated to the Peabody Museum. John Carter's text gives a full historical perspective and insight into this fine and fascinating collection. Included, is a guide to European ship portrait artists for the period of 1750-1850. Chesapeake Bay Sloops, by William Gillmer (Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, St. Michaels MD 21663, 1982, $5 + 90<1: postage). This study by Annapolis naval architect Wm. Gillmer includes photos and drawings of representative vessels, including J. T. Leonard, once owned by the Museum and cited by Gillmer as the last sailing working sloop in America. Against Wind and Weather: The History of Towboating in British Columbia, by Ken Drushka (Douglas and Mclntryre, Ltd., Vancouver BC; dist by U. of Washington Press, Seattle WA, 1982, 264 pp., illus., index, $24.95). From the first real tug, Isabel, built in 1866 by a sawmill owner, through the turn of the century, when tugs became more specialized and independent companies aggregated, to the bitter strikes of the 1970s and present-day operations, Mr. Drushka gives the full story, including economic and social factors. A wonderful collection of historic photographs and stories told in the words of the men involved make this book a real find-especially, of course for tug aficionados. Rescue by Sail and Oar: Lifeboats Before the Days of Engine Power, by Ray Kipling (Tops'! Books, Sulhamstead, Berkshire RG7 4EH Uk, 1982, 64 pp., illus., £2.50). A tribute to lifeboatmen who worked in sailing and pulling lifeboats from the late 18th century up until the 1950s, when the last engineless oared lifeboat went out of service; stories of wreck and rescue, bravery and disaster. Includes 54 historic photos. Passenger Ships of Australia and New Zealand, by Peter Plowman (Conway Maritime Press, Ltd., 2 Nelson Rd. London UK, 1981, Vol I, 1876-1912, 224 pp., Vol II, 1913-1980, 220 pp., illus., photo, £12.50/ vol). These two volumes cover the full histories of 205 passenger ships, from small cargo ships, with the barest accommodations, to great luxurious liners. SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982

Schoonerman: Captain Richard England, foreward by Winston Graham (Hollis & Carter, Bodley Head Ltd., 9 Bow St., London WCZE 7AL, England, 1981 , 294 pp., illus., £8.95). Captain England traces his career from the 1920s to being the master of the tops'! schooner Nellie Bywater, lost in a storm in 1951. A tribute to a glorious era, the people, the lore and the trades. Named Best Book of Sea in 1981 by King George's Fund for Sailors. The Ship in the Medieval Economy, 600-1600, by Richard Unger (McGillQueen's University Press, Montreal, 1980, 304 pp., illus., $32.95). Gathering up many disparate threads of recent research on the development of shipping from the end of the Roman world up to the threshold of our times, this valuable work helps answer how we got from there to here . Good notes and bibliography.

Enjoy Christmas with the likes of

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W

ANTON OTTO FISCHER ...

Enjoy! We endeavor each year to offer you books of real merit and meaning to those who follow the sea. You may imagine how pleased we are, this year, to offer:

The Royal Tour: 1901: or the Cruise of H.M.S. Ophir, by Chief P.O. Harry Prince (William Morrow & Co., New York, 1980, 200 pp., facsimile ill., $20.95). This beautifully reproduced facsimile of a carefully kept and illustrated journal gives a lower deck view of a world tour by the future King George V and Queen Marybringing to life, memorably, a world of vanished pride and splendor.

Anton Otto Fischer, Marine Artist, by Katrina Sigsbee Fischer, with Alex Hurst. This fine volume by the artist's daughter offers a personal look at Fischer's life with many family photos and fine reproductions of his paintings, most of them in full color. .Size, 9 x 11112'', 260 pages, 235 illus., hardcover, $65.

Seafaring Under Sail: The Life of the Merchant Seaman, by Basil Greenhill and Denis Stoneham (Annapolis MD, Naval Institute, 1982, 184 pp., illus., $18.95). Apart from some inaccuracies in naming preserved historic ships, this is a faithful, informed commentary on some very good photographs of the life in sailing ships, and of the ships themselves, and a worthy testament to "the demanding, dangerous yet sometimes rewarding trade of seamen under sail."

Shipwrecks and Archaeology, by Peter Throckmorton. The adventure of the early days of marine archaeology told by one of its pioneers. 260 pages, hardcover, 45 photos, $17.75.

The Seaman's World: Merchant Seamen's Reminiscences, intro. Ronald Hope (Marine Society, 202 Lambeth Road London SE! 7JW, 1982, 142 pp., £4.95 in UK or $15 from NMHS). Make way for a sailor! Here is a tapestry of his world, incredibly changed and in some ways oddly impoverished from Victoria's reign to our times. The Water Link: A History of Puget Sound, by Daniel Jack Chassan (University of Washington Press, Seattle WA, 1981, 192 pp., illus., $8.95). Explores the legacy and living history of the Puget Sound and how it figured in the economic and social development of that area. Chassan, a journalist, has done extensive historical research and his book includes .t fine photographs.

The Seaman's World: Merchant Seamen's Reminiscences, with an introduction by Ronald Hope. Recollections from the boiler room to the bridge, in peace and war. Hardcover, 142 pages, $15. The Peking Battles Cape Horn, by Irving Johnson. A classic narrative of a passage round Cape Horn in 1929 in the steel bark Peking, with a new forword and afterword. Hardcover, 225 pages, illus. with 40 photos, $11.95. Please send your check or money order to:

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Seaport Magazine

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is just one of the benefits of membership in the South Street Seaport Museum .. . Advance notice of events, free a dmis s ion to our historic s hips. a nd discounts in the Museum s h ops. to eve nts. a nd to harbor sails are jus t a few of the others .

Capt. Irving Johnson's

The Peking Battles Cape Horn This is Irvin g J o hn son' s class ic narrati ve o f a passage round Cape Horn in 1929 in th e stee l ba rk Peking. A new foreword a nd a ppend ix provid e bac kground o n th e a uth o r a nd the ship. In the new a ft erword th e a utho r look s bac k, a ft er 48 years o f seafaring, to hi s experi ences a boa rd th e Peking.

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DAY'S RUN Report of the American Sail Training Association Eisenhower House, Fort Adams State Park, Newport, Rf 02840

The New Hong Kong Sail Training Brig Ji Fung The wooden brigantine Ji Fung, recently launched at Hong Kong, is creating quite a stir. Built on Junk Bay, she is Hong Kong registered and flies the Hong Kong flag. The idea for the ship arose some three years ago because of the over-demand for places at the Outward Bound School itself-situated at nearby Sai Kung. The concept became reality and the keel of the Ji Fung was laid on Octboer 24, 1979. Designed by New Zealander John Brooke in the style of the New Zealand sail training ship Spirit of Adventure, paid for by the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, and built by Kong and Halvorsen, the 100-foot Ji Fung has a 26-foot beam, two masts, and some 14 sails-weighing approximately 1.5 tons. She has a single Gardner engine and is fitted with all modern navigational aids including radar, safe navigation, facsimile machine, SSB, and VHF. Conditions aboard will be adequate but not luxurious. Some 40 trainees will sleep generally 10 to 12 per cabin with storage only for their bright orange oilskins, white T-shirts and jeans. The seven crew members (master, mate, 2nd mate, cook, engineer, assistant/ purser, instructors) will have other accommodations. Courses, an average of 18 per annum and of approximately 14 days' duration, will be mainly for 18 to 26 year olds from all walks of Ii fe. Hong Kong companies are enthusiastic supporters of the schemedesigned as it is to "enable young people to achieve their maximum potential in life." As the ship's master, Captain Peter Gasson, said: "The fact that our existing sponsors have remained with us for the ten years we have been here must be some measure of our achievement." Voyages will be mainly in the South China Sea, and will include Taiwan, the Philippines and possibly even China itself-though during the summer typhoon season sailing will be limited to more local waters. Captain Gasson says: "Trainees.assemble at the school at 0900 Monday morning and will be expected to set sail at 1500 hours, and that's just the first challenge. Working in four-hour shifts, they can expect to be busy all the time and we insist on a high degree of dedication. In addition to sessions with the instructors and backing up the regular crew, they are expected to become watch leaders themselves. Destination achieved, further challenges lie in wait-running the rapids in the Philippines, rock climbing, maybe even combating some of the piracy!" SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982

Tel: 401-846-1775

The Culmination and Extension of the Seagoing Art The Tenth Annual Sail Training Conference will be held at the Massachusetts Maritime Academy in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts on Thursday and Friday, October 21 and 22. The American Sail Training Association will be guests of the Academy. We must concentrate on more opportunities for American youth to get to sea, by increasing the levels and kinds of support available to sail training ships and

programs, by increasing the varieties of ships and areas in which sail training programs take place, by improving the nature and continuity of these programs, by developing more linkage between sail training and the historic ships and museums, and so that sail training in deepwater ships takes its place as the culmination and extension of the seagoing art. BARCLAY H. WARBURTON, Ill President

Venezuela's new sail training bark Simon Bolivar comes in from the sea manning her y ards after the 1700-mile race from Venezuela to the Delaware Capes. Photo, Louis Festenstein.

Godspeed, Tall Ships . .. In June there were great crowds and festivities when the Tall Ships arrived in Philadelphia. For a few days the city was a changed place as people swarmed to their waterfront to cheer and admire Gloria and Esmeralda and Simon Bolivar, and other vessels which had raced up from Venezuela, joined by our own US Coast Guard's Eagle and others for a parade and visitation honoring Philadelphia's 300th anniversary. A similar scene was enacted again at Newport, Rhode Island, when the ships sailed in from the Delaware. At the close of the Newport visit literally thousands of pleasure boats followed the Tall Ships through the bay and out to sea south of Brenton Light to start the 2850-mile race to Lisbon-where they were to meet with European ships organized in the Sail Training Association Tall Ships Race from England. In Lisbon, the ships were to meet up with European vessels in celebrations honoring the 25th anniversary of deep-sea

sailing organized by the Sail Training Association of Great Britain . Then they would race further, in the Cutty Sark Tall Ships Races organized by ST A, from Vigo to Portsmouth, England. ... and Welcome Home, Ernestina! While all this was going forward, another vessel was finding her way home from the Cape Verde Islands off the West Coast of Africa: this was the schooner Ernestina, built as the Gloucesterman Effie M. Morrissey in 1894. Because people remembered and honored her story, she was rebuilt in Cape Verde and finally, sound and well found, headed for her new home in New Bedford. She is at sea on this passage as Sea History goes to press. All who gave of their labors and their dollars to help the Ernestina make this passage may stand tall and proud! Our children and their children will now have Ernestina to love and to admire and from her to learn of the seas and the stalwart men who sailed them before our time. JCW 53


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The Genesis of Tugboat Annie by Norman Reilly Raine

The first Tugboat Annie story appeared in The Saturday Evening Post on July 11, 1931, which is to say, some 51 years ago. She seems strangely more up-to-date than that, though her progenitor Mr. Raine keeps presenting her as a character born too late/or her time. Well, let him explain himself, as he does in Pacific Motor Boat, November 1934: "It seems to me," said Wintermute [a University of Washington hand who was helping Raine, newly returned from a long stay with his family in Italy, to find something local to write about] ''that a woman tugboat skipper should make a fine fictional character for you. There was a woman in Providence, who inherited a tugboat business from her husband-" And so Tugboat Annie was conceived. Once born, clearly this lady could not be kept down. Raine became enamored of the idea of a battle-scarred female warhorse taking charge in so traditionally masculine a field. He immersed himself in Seattle towboating, watching tugs "doing all the multitudinous and useful duties inseparable from the life ofa busy port." And he talked with people like "Wedell Foss, that canny Norse member of the firm of Foss Company, Inc.," who were as it happened later to furnish their Arthur Foss (q . v., page 18), to play the part ofAnnie's tug Narcissus in the film adaptation of his stories. From the first, Anton Otto Fischer illustrated the stories in the Post. By an uncanny coincidence (he had never talked with Raine) he picked the movie queen Marie Dressler as his mode/for Annie-exactly the woman Raine had pictured in writing his stories! Here is a salty, pugent passage (passage at arms, one might say) from the very first Annie story. Fischer's accompanying painting, reproduced here by kind permission of his daughter Katrina, does not illustrate this particular incident but does show Annie in combative mode'-on a Seattle pier doing battle for her beloved Narcissus. Tugboat Annie stood at the wheel with a huge bean sandwich in one fist and a blue-granite mug of ~ teaming coffee near by, dividing her time between eating, steering and watching speculatively the head of Conroy, who stood on the forward deck, his hostile face turned toward the stormy waters of the strait ahead. She hailed him: "Foul-weather Jack's abroad, so if ye like fresh air ye'll get plenty before the night's out." He rounded on her, his eyes hard as flint through his glasses, his clothes wrinkled and spattered with salt spray. But before he could deliver the spiteful comment that rose to is lips, one of the deck hands appeared in the pilot house . He said, "Annie, Sam sent me to tell you that Shiftless is drunk as a fiddler's dog. He can't go on watch." "What's that?" Tugboat Annie roared, "Here! Take the wheel. ... Look out, ye clumsy ox! ... There now. Keep her as she is.'' She lumbered hastily aft and disapppeared down the engineroom housing . For a few minutes there was the sound of a minor hurricane below , dominated by her vigourous bellow. She reappeared, breathless and disheveled, followed by the oil-grimed figure of Sam, the engineer. "That'll l'arn him, eh?" she threw over her shoulder. The big man grinned. Conroy turned on her. "Another sample of feminine muddle-headedness, eh, Mrs . Brennan?" he snapped sarcastically. "No extra fireman. Do you know what you're going to do now?" "Yes," she wheezed, "I know. It' s one problem you're going to answer for me." "Don't be humorous," he told her shortly, but the expression SEA HISTORY, AUTUMN 1982

Courtesy Katrina Sigsbee Fischer

on her face, heavy and lowering, like an angry mastiff, was anything but that. She balanced easily on the heaving deck and spoke, her voice strident over the rising wind: "Mebbe you'll think it's funny! But I've something to say to you. The other day ye had me fired, ye cold-blooded squid! Why? Because I was a woman ! Then ye came aboard here to snoop; get something on me to feed your mean little ideas about women who do a man's job for a livin', huh? Wanted to see how a fool woman did things. Well, you'regoin' to find out. I was kind o' hopin ' that mebbe ye'd fo rget yourself and get a little human, but I see it ain't in ye. But ye've the outward carcass ofa man, and I'm goin' to put it to work." "What do you mean?" Alarmed, Conroy stepped back before her meanacing advance. "Mean?" she erupted. "I'm goin' to let ye practice some of that efficiency you're always gassin' about. A bent tool is better than none-so get ye below to the stokehold. You ' re go in' to spell the other fireman and help keep the steam pressure up till we git in. It'll mebbe sweat some of the conceit out of ye; and even if it don't, ye' ll have something to remember Tugboat Annie by!" w 55


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AVRO \\IJLLIAM E. BACON H . K . BAILEY. MD JOE BAKER JOHN 6. BALCH B. A. BALDWIN. JR . BANKERS TRUST Co. RUSSELL BANKS BARBA NEGRA B. DEVEREUX BARKER J EFFREY BARLOW HARRY BARON GERALD BARTLETT J.H. BASCOM DAVID BASS R. S. BAUER HOBEY BAUHAN BENJAM I N BAXTER BAY REFRACTORY BAY RIDGE WATER & LIGHTERAGE BEAN/KAHN JOHN BEAN STUDIO BEA VER ENGINEERING CHARLES A. BENORE ADM. RUSSELL S. BERKEY ALLEN BERNSTEIN STUDIO H . E. BILKEY-NORTON LILLY BRONSON BINGER R. M. BIRM INGHAM CARROLL N. BJORNSON REBECCA BLAKE STUDIOS JEFF BLINN

E. JARED BLISS OLGA BLOOM BLOOMING DA LES W ILL ARD BOND R . A. BoWLING W I LLIAM A. BoYD J. W . BOYLE CAPTA IN ROBERT G. BRAUN FREDERICK BREWSTER PAUL H. BRIGER BROOKLYN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE BROOKLYN EASTERN DISTRICT TERMINAL BROOKLYN SAVINGS BANK BROOKLYN UNION GAS NORMAN J . BROUWER STEVEN W . BRUMMEL WM . F . BUCKLEY. JR. JOHN B UN KER

AGA BUROOX ADM. ARLEIGH BURKE USN (RET.) ROBERT J. BURKE ALAN BURROUGH. CBE STEVEN BUTTERWORTH BYE BYE BIRDIE JAMES R . CADY BoYD W . CAFFEY H ARRIET CAMPBELL. INC. CAPE VERDEAN FOLKLORE GROUP CAPE VERDEAN I SLANDS RELIEF ASSN. 0. CAREY MEL CARLIN A. C l lAPIN J AMES E. CHAPMAN R. CllARMAN CHASE MANHATTAN BANK CAPT. GLEN R. CHEEK. US (RET.) C!IEMICAL BANK ALAN G. CHOATE MARTIN E. CITRIN ALBERT C. CIZAUSKAS. JR. DAVE CLARKE GEORGE F. CLEMENTS ART HUR CLEVELAND F . S. COLLINS R. F . COHEN AUSTEN COLGATE J. FERRELL COL TON CONSOLIDATED EDISON CO., I NC. TREVOR CONSTAB L E HENRY A. CORREA JAMES COSTELLO JAMES W. COULTER COUNCIL OF MASTER MARINERS CAPT. ALAN B . CRABTREE BEN & SALLY CRANE CREATIVE GROUP PRODUCTIONS CRUCIBLE STEEL CASTING COMPANY DAN & JOYCE CURLL D GM STUDIOS AL ICE DADOURI AN REBEKA ll T. DALLAS F . BRIGGS DALZELL PETER T . DAMON CHARLES DANA CDR. W. H . DARTNELL F. KELSO DAVIS P . S. DE BEAUMONT ANTHONY & JOANNA DEAN J.A. DE LUCE DEBORAH D. DEMPSEY RICHARD A . DENN\' JOSEPll DE PAUL & 5oNS ROHIT M. DESAI HIRAM DEXTER J AMES DICKMAN DIME SAVINGS BANK P. DINE JOSEPH DIRSA THEODORE DoNALDSON R.L. DoXSEE THOMAS P. DoWD JERE~11AH T. DRISCOLL DRYBULK CHARTERING R. J. DUNPHY SAMUEL DUPONT DAVID DURRELL EDSON CORPORATION J AMES ELMER, JR . DAMON L. ENGLE FRED C. ENNO EPIROTIK I L INES ULF ERIKSEN JOHN & CAROL EWALD EYEV IEW FILMS HENRY EYL JAMES P. FARLEY CAPT. JOSEPH FARR ROBERT S. FELNER MRS. JEAN flNDLA Y CiiARLES FLEISHMANN MELANIE FLEISHMANN PETER FLEMING JAMES FOLEY CHARLES FORTES MEMORIAL FUND Miss HAZEL ANN Fox MARBURY B. Fox RON FREELANDER FRED FREEMAN CHARLES M. FREY

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J. E. FRICKER BENNO FRIEDMAN DR. HARRY FRIEDMAN FRITZSCllE . DoDGE & OLCOTT. INC. JOHN S. FULLERTON R.A. FULTON FULTON F ERRY LOCAL DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GAGE & TOLLNER MR. & MRS. CHARLES GALLAGHER RICHARD GALLANT FRANK GARRETT WALTER GATES JOSEPH A. GEMMA GEORGE ENGINE COMPANY H. E. GERHARD NORMAN G. GERMANY J. T. GILBRIDE ROGER GILMAN THOMAS J . GOCHBERG STEVE GOLD PRODUCTIONS C. A. GOULD F. CECIL GRACE JOHN GRAHAM, AIA GRAND CENTRAL ART GALLERY JIM GRAY R. GREENBERG, ASSOC. MARK GREENE DR. ROBERT W. GREENLEAF HENRY F . GREINER ROLAND D . GR IMM HOWARD GUGGENHEIM CAL F. H ADDEN, JR. MRS. E.A . HAGSTROM WALTER L. H AGSTROM HAIG HT. GARDNER. POOR & HAVENS THOMAS HALE M. W. HALL CDR. W _ H . HAMILTON HARMONY PICTURES LEO & CYNTlllA 0. HARRIS CAPT. ROBERT HART USN (RET.)

CAPT. J.E. HEG HELLENIC LINES LIMITED HENRY ·s END RESTAURANT H. HERBER W.R. HERVEY A.E. HEYDENRE ICH J UDSON H IGG INS JOHNSON PEDERSON H INRICHS STEPHEN HOPKINS CAPT. M. F. HORVAT H LAURA P IRES HOUSTON GODFREY G. HOWARD THOMAS HOYNE. Ill PER HUFFELDT ALAN 0. H UTCHISON HAROLD D. HUYCKE IMPERIAL CUP CORP. INDUSTRIAL FABRICATING KAZ fNOUYE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF MASTERS, MATES & PILOTS JOT CORPORATION JAKOB ISBRANDTSEN GEORGE ( VEY JACKSON & co. CAPT. GEORGE w. JAHN LEONARD C. JAQUES R. H . JOHN CHART AGENCY BARBARA JOHNSON NEILS W. JOHNSEN W. J . J OVAN \V. HADOON J UDSON KAZEROID & ABERMAN REAL TY M. \V . KEELING JOHN J . KENNY KIDDER. PEABODY \V . A. KIGGINS NAT B. KING F. H . KINGSBURY JIM & PEGGY KINGSBURY NORMAN KJELDSEN MR . & MRS. BERNIE KLAY W. KLEINDIENST. MD R. J. KNEELAND KOBI ENTERPRISES KOBRAND CORPORATION BETTY KOHAREK DAVID H. KOLLOCK EDITH KOONTZ SANDRA KRAMER WILLIAM H . KRAMER ANDREW KRA V IC C. SCOTT KULICK E DANIEL LADD ANTHONY LANDI KEVIN LEARY PHILIP LEONARD MR. & MRS. T . E. LEONARD RICK LEVlNE PRODUCTIONS DAVID M. LEVITT RUTHERFORD P . LILLEY LINCOLN SAVINGS BANK

A. S. LISS H. R. LOGAN JEFF loVJNGER KLAUS LUCKA C HARLES L UNDGREN JOHN E. L UNDIN LYKES BROS. STEAMSHI P CO., I NC. Ross MACDUFFIE

CAPTAIN WILLIAM H . MACF ADEN Bos MACKEN ALEN MACWEENE\'. INC. GASTON MAGRINOT JOHN MAGUIRE MICHAEL & MARCIA MANN MANUFACTURERS HANOVER TRUST MARINER'S VILLAGE ELISABETH M. MARTELL MARTIN MATHEWS GEO. MATTESON Ill PETER MAX CECIL R. MA YES JOHN G. MCCARTHY CAPTAIN J. MCGOVERN R.M. MCINTOSH MARSH MCLENNAN ROBERT MCVITTIE MEBA DISTRICT 2 MAURICE MEDCALFE CHRISTINE MEE R.J, MEICZINGER THE MENDES FAMILY MIDLAND I NSURANCE Co. A.C. MILOT JERRY 0. MINTON LEEDS MITCHELL. JR. R. KENT MITCHELL WILLIAM B. MOLLARD MONOMOY FUND MONTAN TRANSPORT (USA) I NC. MOORE-MCCORMACK LINES, I NC.

MR. & MRS. J. A. MORAN R.E. MORRIS RICHARD I. MORRIS J.R. MORRISSEY MR. & MRS. EMIL MOSBACHER.

JR. FRANK MOSCATI. INC. RICHARD MOSES WILLIAM G. MULLER MYERS & GRINER/CUESTA MYSTIC WHALER NANTUCKET SHIPYARD NATIONAL HISTORICAL Soc unY NATIONAL ~·I ARITIME UNION JOSEPH F. Ell ERIC NELSON NEW YORK AIR NEW YORK TELEPHONE CO. ROBERT A. N ICHOLS JOHN NOBLE DAVID J. NOLAN J.A. NORTON M IL TONG. NOTTI NG HAM NY STATE COUNC IL ON T llE ARTS 0GIL VY & MATHER T . MORGAN O'HORA JAMES O'KEEFE PAUL OLANDER

ORES B. J. O'NEILL HOWARD OTWAY PACIFIC-GULF MARINE. I NC. RICHARD K. PAGE WALTER PAGE PAISLEY & FRIENDS WILLIAM PAPARELLA S. T. PARKS PIERO PATRI JOHN T. PATTERSON OTIS PEARSALL PENNSYLVANIA ScHOOLSlll P ASSN. ARMANDO PERRY DEBORAH l. PERRY BERTHA & PHILIP PERSON MILES A.N. PETERLE CAPTAIN W.R. PETERSON R . L. PETRIE WALTER N. PHARR PHILADELPHIA MARITl~1 E MUSEUM PINKERTON·s ROBERT POTTERS PORT AUTHORITY OF NY & N J TIMOTHY POUCH THEODORE PRATT PRJ?o:CE HENRY COLLEGE PRUDENTIAL LINES R. S. PULEO RICHARD RATH DoNALD REARDON VERONICA REILLY REMEMBER BASIL , I NC. HON. FRED RICHMOND Russ RIEMANN EDWARD RITENHOUSE THE RIVER CAFE R.0. ROBBINS. MO CAPTAIN LL. ROBERTS CHARLES R. ROBINSON PETER \V. ROGERS HAVEN C. ROOSEVELT DANIEL ROSE M. ROSENBLATT W . A. ROTHERMEL ALLEN S. RUPLEY DAVID F. RYAN

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A. HERBERT SANDWEN JOSEPH G. SAWTELLE W. B. H . SAWYER FRANK ScAVO D.S. SCHEEL RAD~t. WALTER F. SCHLECH. JR. JOYCE E. ScHNOBRICH ScHOONER ERNESTINA Ass·N. WAREHAM AUSTIN ScoTT JAMES SEACREST SEA-LAND SERVICE . I NC. SEAMEN'S C HURCH I NSTITUTE SELIGMAN SECUR ITIES MICHAEL SERENSON f\•I RS. AVICE M. SEWALL WILLIAM A. SHEEHAN ROBERT V. SHEEN. JR. JAMES R. SllEPLEY ROBERT F . SHERMAN Smrs OF THE SEA M USEUM MERVIN J. SHUMAN l. S. SIMONS 0. W. S IM PSON FRANCIS D . SKELLEY D. L. SLADE E. KEITH SLINGSBY A. MACY SMITH LYMAN H . SM ITH CONWAY 8. SONNE THOMAS SoULES T . SPIGELMIRE GEN. & MRS. A. A. SPROUL CHRISTIAN SPURLING RALPH M. STALL ALFRED STANFORD CHARLES E. STANFORD BRIAN STARER ROGER STARK F . W ILLIAM STECHMANN EDNA & I SAAC STERN FDTN. W. T . STEVENS J . T . STILLMAN JAMES J. STORROW JOHN STOBART STUART REAGAN STONE OSCAR STRAUSS. II HUMPHREY SULLIVAN SUMNER B. TILTON. JR. SUN SlllP. INC . SUNSET·GOWER STUDIOS Sw i ss AMERICAN SECURITIES INC. SYLVOR COMPANY R.S. SYMON G. H . TABER DAVID L. T HOMPSON JOHN TH URMAN ROBERT TISHMAN TOAD PRODUCTIONS JOHN H . TOBEY. JR. GEORGE F . TOLLEFSEN ALLEN W . L. TOPPING ANTHONY TRALLA W . ALLEN TRAVER. JR. BRUCE TREMBLY. MD JAMES 0. TURNER TWENTY·TEN ADVERTISING UNION DRY Doc:K U.S. AVIGATION Co. U.S. LINES CAPT. ROBERT 0 . VALENTINE VANGUARD FOUNDATION JOHN 0 . VAN ITALLIE VAN METER RANCH CHARLES VICKERY VINMONT FOUNDATION JOHN VREELAND SHANNON WALL E. R. W ALLENBERG R. C. \V ALLING BARCLAY H. WARBURTON. Ill PATER M. WARD WARSAW PHOTOGRAPHIC Assoc. A. L . WATSON G. P . H. WATSON N. W. WATSON MRS. ELIZABETH WEEDON THOMAS WELLS \V. S. WELLS l. HERNOON WERT H WESTLAND FOUNDATION CARROLL WETZEL SIR GORDON WHITE RAYMOND 0. WHITE G. G. WHITNEY. JR. ANTHONY WIDMAN CAPT. & MRS. JOH N M. WILL. JR. H. SEWALL WILLIAMS KAMA U W I LLIAMS P.J . WILLIAMSON SUZANNE C. W I LSON CAPT. J .M. WINDAS LA URENCE F. WITTEMORE CHARLES WITTHOLZ WOMEN'S PROPELLER CLUB. PORT OF BoSTON WOMEN'S PROPELLER CLUB. PORT OF JACKSONVILLE YACHTING )A.MESS. Y APLEE JAMES H. YOCUM ALEN SANDS YORK HENRY A. YOUMANS PAUL ZIMMERMAN R. W. Z INGLER H. T. Z IOBRO


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US¡ Flag Flexibility...

... that's what American Maritime Officers Service is all about. The widest variety of American-flag merchant ships operating independently in the most diverse trades. From the largest supertankers to the new America class 2,000-deadweight-ton, multi-purpose container/reefer/break-bulk dry cargo vessels, US-flag ship operators working through AMOS for a strong merchant marine will meet any maritime call, any time.

American Maritime Officers Service Town House 14, Harbour Square 456 N Street S. W. Washington, D.C. 20024 Captain Joseph C. Fox, Executive Director


Campus of the Maritime Institute of Techn ology and Graduate Studies (MITAGS) at Linthicum H eig hts, MD is just eight miles from downtown Baltimore.

This Is MM&P Country A few short miles from the waters of Chesapeake Bay, just outside the Port of Baltimore , lies the handsome 55-acre campus of the Maritime Institute of Technology and Graduate Studies (MITAGS), where today's ship officers can sharpen their skills on dry land while they safely navigate their way through projected perils of the sea. Classroom instruction, supplemented by an astonishing array of highly sophisticated simulators, is aimed at fine tuning the competence and productivity of the professional students in attendance. In these buildings students absorb large daily doses of instruction in the use of collision avoidance radar systems , steam and Diesel propulsion plants, the handling and transport of liquefied natural gas , advanced shipboard medical care , Admiralty law , license upgrading and the principles of shiphandling in a variety of environmental settings, the latter course made to closely approximate conditions in the real world through the use of two brand new ship simulators. MITA GS is the result of a collaboration between MM&P and the American flag shipping companies in their joint Maritime Advancement, Training , Education and Safety (MATES) Program_ ROBERT J. LOWEN International Presidef!t

LLOYD M. MARTIN International Secretary-Treasurer

ALLEN C. SCOTT International Executive Vice President

Sea History 025 - Autumn 1982  

8 WAWONA IS WAITING: III, Harold D. Huycke • 11 TAMI CANOE VOYAGE, Terry Linehan • 15 TUGS, LIKE OLD SHOES..., Peter Stanford • 18 WORLD SHI...

Sea History 025 - Autumn 1982  

8 WAWONA IS WAITING: III, Harold D. Huycke • 11 TAMI CANOE VOYAGE, Terry Linehan • 15 TUGS, LIKE OLD SHOES..., Peter Stanford • 18 WORLD SHI...