Page 1


86 PROOF BL[NDED SCOTCH WH ISKY OISTILLED ANO BOTTLED IN SCOTLANO IMPORTED BY TH[ BUCKINGHAM CORPORATION NE\\ YORK, NY

I

Ted Turner does lots of things people advise him not to do. And he succeeds at them. He turned Atlanta's WTBS-TV into a "Superstation" using a communications satellite and recently founded Cable News Network, the world's first 24-hour TV. news network. He bought the Atlanta Braves and moved them out of last place; won the 1977 America's Cup after being fired in the '74 races; and was named "Yachtsman of the Year" four times. Ted Turner puts his feelings where his mouth is. He also puts a great scotch there: Cutty Sark. And while he's been called Captain Outrageous by some, one thing's sure: Ted Turner's enjoying himself.


No. 23

SEA HISTORY OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE WORLD SHIP TRUST

SEA HISTORY is the journal of the National Maritime Historical Society, an educational, tax-exempt membership organization devoted to furthering the understanding of our maritime heritage. Copyright © 1982 by the National Maritime Historical Society. OFFICE: 2 Fulton St. , Brooklyn, NY 11201. Telephone: 212-858-1348.

ISSN 0146-9312

WINTER 1982

CONTENTS 3 THE FIRST BATTLESHIP, Peter Stanford 4 LETTERS

MEMBERSHIP is invited and should be sent to the Brooklyn office: Sponsor, $1 ,000; Patron, $100; Family, $20; Regular, $15; Student or Retired, $7 .50.

6 TO RAISE THE MARY ROSE, Peter Whitlock 16 SAIL TRAINING: DAY'S RUN, Report of the

OVERSEAS: Outside North America, add $5 or subscribe via World Ship Trust.

American Sail Training Association 21 SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS, Naomi Person

CONTRIBUTIONS may be made for any recognized project. Make out checks "NMHSShip Trust," indicating on the check the project to which you wish support to be directed. OFFICERS & TRUSTEES are Chairman: Karl Kortum; Vice Chairman: F. Briggs Oalzell; President: Peter Stanford; Secretary: Alan G. Choate; Trustees: Norman J . Brouwer, John Bunker, Alan G. Choate, F. Briggs Dalzell, Thomas Hale, Harold D. Huycke, Barbara Johnson, James F. Kirk, Karl Kortum, Robert J. Lowen, Richard Rath, John H. Reilly, Jr., Kenneth D. Reynard, Walter F. Schlech, Jr., Howard Slotnick, Peter Stanford, John N. Thurman, Barclay H. Warburton III, Alen York. President Emeritus: Alan D. Hutchinson. ADVISORS: Chairman: Frank 0. Braynard; Francis E. Bowker, Oswald L. Brett, George Campbell, Robert Carl, Frank G. G. Carr, Harry Dring, John Ewald, Joseph L. Farr, Timothy G. Foote, Richard Goold-Adams, Robert G. Herbert, Melvin H. Jackson, R. C. Jefferson, Irving M. Johnson, John Kemble, Conrad Milster, William G. Muller, John Noble, Capt. David E. Perkins, USCG (ret.), Nancy Richardson, Ralph L. Snow, John Stobart, Albert Swanson, Peter Throckmorton, Curator-at-Large, Alan Villiers, Shannon Wall, Robert A. Weinstein, Thomas Wells, AICH, Charles Wittholz. WORLD SHIP TRUST: Chairman, Frank G.G. Carr; Hon. Secretary, J.A. Forsythe; Hon. Treasurer, Philip S. Green; Erik C. Abranson; Maldwin Drummond; Peter Stanford . Membership: £10 payable WST, c/ o Hon. Sec., 129a North Street, Burwell, Cambs . CB5 OBB, England. Reg. Charity No. 277751.

28 THE PROVIDENCE AT YORKTOWN, by John R. Wadleigh 34 BOOKS 40 MARINE ART: 41

JOHN NOBLE

44

GEORGE F. HEUSTON

46

TOM WELLS

COVER: The Mary Rose, built in 1511 and sunk in 1545 repelling a French incursion against the English coast, is to be raised this year from her resting place off Portsmouth. Think of it! A ship that vanished 437 years ago-before the Spanish Armada set sailis now coming back to light in our time! See pages 6-13.

The National Maritime Historical Society is saving America's seafaring heritage. Join us. We are making America's seafaring past a living heritage. The National Maritime Historical Society discovers and restores the few remaining ships and seagoing artifacts-and helps keep them in trust for future generations. And the Society helps get young people to sea to keep alive the spirit of adventure, the discipline and skills it took to sail the magnificent vessels from our past. Won't you join us to keep alive

AMERICAN SHIP TRUST: International Chairman, Frank Carr; Chairman, Peter Stanford; George Bass; Norman Brouwer; Karl Kortum; Richard Rath; Peter W. Rogers; Barclay H. Warburton, III; Senior Advisor, Irving M. Johnson.

YES

SEA HISTORY STAFF: Editor, Peter Stanford; Managing Editor, Norma Stanford; Associate Editors, Norman J. Brouwer, Naomi Person; Accounting, Jo Meisner; Membership, Marie Lore.

_ _

our nation's seafaring legacy? Membership in the National Maritime Historical Society costs only $15 a year. You'll receive Sea History, a fascinating magazine filled with articles of seafaring and historical lore. You'll also be eligible for discounts on books, prints and other items. Help save our seafaring heritage. Join the National Maritime Historical Society today!

TO: National Maritime Historical Society, 2 Fulton Street, Brooklyn, New York 11201 I want to help. I understand that my contribution goes to forward the work of the Society ' and that I'll be kept informed by receiving SEA HISTORY quarterly. Enclosed is: D $15 Regular

D $100 Patron

D $1,000Sponsor

D $7.SOStudent/ Retired

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ZIP_ _ _ _ _ _ _ Contributions to NMHS are tax deductible.

NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY

~


Beamy, ferociously armed, with big guns low in the hull, the Mary Rose opened the 450-year era of the ballleship. Here she is as shown in the Anthony Roll, a list of the King's ships compiled by an officer of the Board of Ordnance at the Tower ofLondon in 1546. When she comes up from the seabed this year, she will go on exhibition in Portsmouth, where HMS Victory of 1765 and HMS Warrior of 1860 will keep her company, along with ships of today's Royal Navy. Photo Š The Mary Rose Trust

The First Battleship When she was quite new, in 1513, Sir Edward Howard called her ''the flower I trow of all ships that ever sailed." Before the rediscovery of her hulk by the historian Alexander McKee little was known of her. "All that everyone agreed on," he has noted, "was that the Mary Rose had been a 'key' vessel in the startingly rapid evolution of the wooden battleship as a floating gun platform." The tremendous forward surge of the Western world, roughly 1500-1950, corresponded with the dominance at sea of the kind of ship she was. And this was not altogether by coincidence. The broadsidefought big-gun battleship passed through many technological changes until her last great encounter at Surigao Strait in 1944, but her essential capabilities-to keep the sea, and to sink other ships by gunfirewere present in this very first battleship. And the national strategy of England, the ruling sea power through most of these four and a half centuries, was to use such ships to open up world trade and, toward the end of the period, to found two overseas empires that proved equally transient-one American and one African SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982

and Asiatic. The seeds of independence carried abroad with the English language had something to do with the relatively short endurance of the British Empire in what is now the United States, and in the case of the Indian subcontinent the very concept of nationhood was exported along with English railways and English law and government. The world was opened, in this period, by The first-rate 100-gun HMS Victory, most famous of those "far-distant storm-beaten ships;' was Nelson's flagship at Trafalgar in 1805.

ships, and in the conflict of national aspirations, commercial rivalries and religious and latterly ideological interests, the battleship was the arbiter of armed conflict. "Those far-distant, storm-beaten ships, upon which the Grand Army never looked, stood between it and the dominion of the world." That was how Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan, USN, reviewed the essential lesson of the wars of Napoleon Bonaparte. Essentially battleships-two score of them in World War I, a scanty 15 in the Royal Navy at the outbreak of World War II in 1939, and a like number in the US Navy-carried the opportunities of Western society safe through these and other wars. We have quite a message delivered us from the Mary Rose, that archaic looking thing, that very Ark, which stands like a trumpeter at the doorway to modern history. As she comes up from the seabed, back into the sunlight she last saw when Henry VIII still stamped about this earth, let us listen with respect to all she has to tell ITT.

~

3


LETTERS Hauling the Braces Enclosed please find a check for $100 to help "haul the braces" of the Society as your drawing indicates. Having hauled the

I

I\ ~> ~

CAPT. SOREN BRINCH Lindenhurst, New York Over 500 contributions were received in the last week of1981 alone, bringing Society membership and patrons' income up to a healthy $258,441-45% ahead of 1981. Thanks to Captain Brinch and others for hauling on the braces to get our ship on an offshore tack, with blue water ahead. -ED.

"Give Her Whatever She Needs" I had always wanted the Wawona (Pacific lumber schooner; see SH 21 & 22) to sail with passengers but couldn't seem to spin a thread with the chap who owned her in '49 or '50. He apparently did little to prevent her running down. So sad and so unnecessary. What a wonderful time I would have had with her! However, the Victory Chimes is probably more practical as she is a little less than half the tonnage of the Wawona and also a beautifully built schooner. We enjoy keeping right after her all the time and give her whatever she needs. CAPT. FREDERICK B. GUILD Castine, Maine The Victory Chimes is a three-masted schooner 132 ' on deck, she was launched in 1900 in Delaware and is superbly maintained today foil owing the excellent doctrine set forth in Captain Gould's letternote his emphasis on enjoying the work! A life-giving principle. For a brochure on the ship and map of her cruises: Maine Coast Cruises, Castine ME 0442 I-ED. 4

A vanti Sail Training! strongly favor special exceptions for volunteer trainees in recognized organizations such as Mariners International, pertaining both to barring passage between US ports in a foreign or foreign-built vessel, and to the strict requirements of the passenger-for-hire regulations. The latter will not be easy, as seaworthiness and safety of personnel are difficult to measure; but in my opinion it can and should be JOHN G. ROGERS done! San Francisco, California Mr. Rogers, a trustee of the National Maritime Museum Association, is one of many to write calling for revised rules and regulations governing sail training vessels, in response io an appeal by Erik Abranson, Chairman of Mariners International, published in SH 21:2-ED. The Chance of a Lifetime The most marvelous thing happened to me three days ago: Heralds of Their Age arrived! It is a priceless expression of the deep affection felt by the people who love sailing ships and the oceans they sail on, but who often cannot express that themselves . Among others, I would like to have a copy to give to the widow of a man who sailed mate on the Thermopylae before he had his own commands, who ended up as a writer of sea stories for the Old Saturday Evening Post, and who got me started on my wanderings . .. including a trip in square rig. I sailed, Vancouver to New Caledonia, in 1926, on the old bark Bougainville, exStar of Peru, ex-Himalaya, built in Sunderland, England in 1863. Slow she was, but sure, and when she was pushed out of the grain trade she did her stint on the Alaska salmon run. I happened to be in San Francisco just at the right time-plenty of yards still crisscrossed the San Francisco Bay sky when the Star of Peru was bought by Ballande et Cie, to be renamed Bougainville and sailed across the Pacific with a load of lumber and salmon, ending up as a warehouse barge in Port Villa, New Hebrides . That transpacific trip was the chance of a lifetime. It was marred for me by typhoid all the way to Fiji, but sick as I was, I never regretted going. Another woman, in her twenties, too, went with me, and we had to sign on as midshipmen, since the Bougainville was not licensed to carry passengers. We each paid $125 (imagine!) for the 62 days: 44 to Suva, 2 weeks at Queen's Wharf in Suva, and 4 days to Noumea, where old Captain Chateauvieux warped her into the wharf under sail-no pilot-a beautiful sight to the Noumeans lining the shore!

I'm 84 now, and I can still feel all the old thrill when I look at my photo of Bougainville leaving Vancouver Harbor, all sails set. In my old age I still have two loves-sailing ships and wolves. I can't cart square-riggers around, but I do cart wolves to schools, science centers, etc. What I can do-and do do-about sailing ships is to spread the world about the National Maritime Historical Society. JEANS. SMITH Clearwater, Florida Melvin Conant's book on the naming of clipper ships, Heralds of Their Age, was given as a Christmas present inscribed by the author, to all patrons of the Society-of whom Mrs. Smith is one. Her shipmate in Bougainville's last voyage, Viola Irene Cooper, wrote a book on the passage, Windjamming to Fiji (New York, A.L. Burt, 1929). In it Captain Leon Vieuxchateau gives a picture ofMrs. Smith (then Miss Schoen) as "a well-built brunette with almond shaped, hazel eyes, curly hair and dancing dimples. "-ED.

Kublai Khan's fleet of 1281 Since my underwater excavations have been reported in newspapers worldwide, I have been bombed by over one hundred important letters which I am trying to deal with. It must be recognized that the level of Japanese underwater archaeology is low compared with other countries. So at the moment, even though we are being watched with great interest and excitement, we are not in a hurry for the excavations of cultural properties underwater. First, we are trying to find the best methods of searching out ship remains, not only underwater but under the seabed. We hope also to find out the quality of remains before we dig them out-and we don't want to dig them out hastily. Second, we want to investigate methods of underwater archaeology itself. Very few Japanese scholars have experience in this area. Third, we must investigate chemical methods of preservation of the archaeological properties. In line with our policy, we have to date dug out only a few stone and metal works from the ships, for sampling purposes only. Most of what we found, we left underwater as we considered these things works of the future. I am just now on my way to China for further investigations. The project is under way. We'll be in touch. TORAOMOZAI Ichikawa, Japan We salute this epochal effort. See "Ship Notes. "-ED. SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982


A unioue experience.

Hudson River Sloop Clearwater in New York's East River, coming into National Society headquarters at f oat of Fulton Street-where we have photos of her sisters of a hundred years ago sailing this same historic reach. Much of the new life evident in the East River Renaissance is traceable to these revived continuities in river life. Not every one thinks these things quite so important as we and the ordinary people of the city do. Recently a political move was made to have the pier and headquarters building turned over to commercial use. We quote below from one of many letters written on this subject. The Brooklyn Sloop Club is a chartered affiliate of Clearwater Inc., an environmental marine-oriented organization with some 4,000 members. We are opposed to the commercialization of Fulton Ferry Landing, which from time immemorial has been open to the public free. One of the important public treasures in this area today is the National Maritime Historical Society and their museum in the Fireboat House. I don't have to list all the wonderful functions they provide for the general public both free and for a small admission charge. They also have made their

building a center for other worthwhile activities: the East River Renaissance, Fulton Ferry Renaissance Association, Clearwater, Shipcraft Guild, Environmental Education Advisory Council, American Society of Marine Artists, Friends of Ernestina/ Morrissey, Wharf Rats, Project Liberty, to visiting ships of all sorts, and to other activities that open the river and its heritage to people. Clearwater uses their facilities to run our school programs for the children of Brooklyn. Many schools in the area would be denied these programs if it were not for NMHS. Our yearly pumpkin sail/sale brings up to two thousand school children to Fulton Ferry. If it were not for NMHS and their Fireboat House these children would never get to the waterfront to learn about their environment and the river heritage. In fact, this is the largest program of its kind in the state, and in some years children's participation in Brooklyn has exceeded the participation in other river ports from Albany to Yonkers combined. Please do not take this haven for visiting boats, tourists and residents away from the public that it rightfully belongs to. MI C HAEL G. MANN, President Brooklyn Sloop Club

www

$360 weekly. includes everything. For Brochure Call 207-437-2851 (winter) 207-763-3137 (summer)

Schooner TIMBERWIND

Capt. Bill Alexander v

Box 247 SH . Rockport . Me . 04656

The very famGus restaurant in Brooklyn. Brooklyn's Landmark Seafood & Steak House

372 Ful ton Street (nr. Boro Hall ). For re servations- - 875-5 181 (parki ng nea rby) Open Daily. 11 ,30 A.M . to 9,00 P.M. Sat. 4,00 to 11,00 P.M., Sun . 3,00 to 9,00 P.M. Major credit card s. Private party f acilities.

Gage &lOllner...

1879

EXPLORE THE MAINE COAST WEEKLY

SAILING

VACATION

WINDJAMMER "MARY DAY" For Folder Write :

Capt. H. S. Hawkins Camden, Maine 04843 Tel. 1-207-236-2750

lanterns

ship wheels

sextants

compasses

whaling items shark teet h

MARINE ANTIQUES & SEA SHELLS 10 Fulton Street, New Yo rk, N.Y. 10038 South Street Seaport & Fu lton Fish Market (2 12) 344路2262

NAUTICAL ANTIQUES Octants-Telescopes-Clocks Compasses-Sextants-Etc.

SHIP MODELS From our own workshop : fin est quali ty wood ship ki ts-clippers, schooners, friga tes, tankers, fr eighters-30 in all. Beauti ful fittings; no lead or pl astic . Also plans, books, tools, materials, fittings and marine prin ts. At bett er deal ers or send $1.00 for big illustrated catalo g.

'!1B!:t:f!JPJ:4f?J.ff?,.T 145路J Water St.. So Norwalk. Ct. 0685 4

SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982

Send for free lists

Dunlap Enterprises Inc. 130 Severn Avenue Annapolis, MD 21403

Serving Merchant Officer's License Exam Prep-course needs for over half a century! (Correspondent & Resident-Deck & Engine) WRITE FOR BROCHURE

CAPTAIN VAN'S SCHOOLS Box 53, Port Arthur, TX 77640

SAIL AWAY TO YESTERDAY Sail lhe Maine Coast . aboard the historic windjammer schooner Stephen Taber. Weekly cruises. $360 includes everything. For brochure call 207 路236路3520 or write.

Schooner Stephen Taber 70 Elm St. Drawer D. Camden. Maine 04843

5


6

SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982


To Raise the Mary Rose! By Lt. Cdr. Peter Whitlock, RN (Ret.)

FOREWORD By His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales, KG, KT, PC, GCB For several years now I have had a considerable interest in the work being carried out on the wreck of the Mary Rose. Ever since I was first invited to dive on the site of the wreck I have been fascinated by this unique example of the Tudor navy and could not help but hope that one day it would be possible to raise the ship and put her on public display. For the last four or five years I have tried very hard to visit the diving team once during the summer season and inspect the progress of the excavation. Each time I have dived I have become increasingly enthused by what I have seen. Each time the artifacts recovered have been more interesting or unique than the last and it is impossible not to become excited about the prospect of reconstructing what remains of the old ship on the surface, with the well-preserved evidence of Tudor maritime life in situ. Living, tangible history of this sort is irresistible and makes the process of learning so much more fun-especially in a country whose heritage is so closely involved with the sea. That is why I am absolutely determined we should raise the Mary Rose, however hard the task and however difficult it is to raise the money required for such a major.engineering operation. Apart from anything else, I believe we owe it to the relays of dedicated divers, many of them volunteers, to the archaeological director and to the man who located the site of the wreck in 1965; all of whom have contributed a large part of their lives to this rather romantic project. I also believe that succeeding generations will be exceedingly grateful if we succeed in our objective.

A history-making English longbow (left) is raised from the wreck. Only a handful of these weapons existed before the Mary Rose excavation. Now there are over one hundred-including many found in the chest in which they were shipped (below). All photographs are Š The Mary Rose Trust.

SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982

A pewter flagon and candlesticks, some gold coins and ring, a wooden comb in a leather case and a wooden bowl-these personal items shed light on how officers lived aboard.

A diver escorts a wrought iron, breech loading gun to the surface. This gun was found on the weather deck in the waist of the ship, still mounted on its wooden carriage and wheels.

7


''I have the sort of The Mary Rose, flower of Henry VIII's navy, had been rebuilt and rearmed prior to her loss. With larger guns & more of them she had become much more than the usual fighting ships of the time-floating platforms for bowmen, infantry and anti-personnel guns. Rather, she was capable of delivering ship-killing broadsides. She'd become, in fact, the first battleship. The Mary Rose went down at the beginning of the engagement while apparently turning back to Portsmouth. It was widely believed that a badly executed maneuver attempted with her lower gun ports open led to her loss. When hailed and queried by another vessel, her commander, Sir George Carew responded, "l have the sort of knaves I cannot rule." Of her complement of over 400 men only 36 survived, most of them seamen who had been in the rigging.

This representation of the Mary Rose at the end of the 16th century shows her lying on the starboard side facing north. There was an attempt to raise her almost immediately. Then in the 1830s the Deane brothers, pioneers in underwater diving, came upon the wreck and removed 16 guns, some longbows and other "curiosities. "

•

/

8

SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982


knaves I cannot rule!'' Spithead! This famous stretch of water off the south coast of England in the lee of the Isle of Wight and hard by the ancient naval base of Portsmouth is now the scene of what is probably the greatest underwater archaeological project current in Europe, possibly the world. Forty feet below the surface lies the wreck of King Henry VIII's flagship Mary Rose, a 700 ton carrack which sank in the King's sight in July 1545 at the height of an attack on Portsmouth by a French invasion force. The First Battleship The Mary Rose was built in Portsmouth 1509-11 and probably resembled a typical king's ship of the period. Her career was not of special significance-a platform for infantry and small man killing guns-until her re-build of 1536. At this time her tonnage was increased from 600 to 700 tons and she had her armament increased to a total of 91 guns-in a ship half the size of HMS Victory! It is assumed that at this time major alterations were made to her structure so that she emerged as a carve! planked vessel mounting a broadside battery of heavy guns 'tween decks with lidded gun ports. She was probably the first English vessel thus adapted (and possibly the world's first) and marks the emergence of the true ocean-going fighting ship capable of presenting its broadside to an enemy. The circumstance of her loss is uncertain, but appears to have been a combination of poor handling, some lack of discipline, overcrowding, and gun ports open ready for action. Certainly she sank rapidly with a heavy loss of life. ReA diver surveys the planking and carting on the main deck. The fine silt that protects the wreck also severely limits visibility and necessitates the use of underwater lamps for much of the work. Notice the fine condition of the fiddle block in the foreground. At the end of the 1980 season this much of the Mary Rose had been uncovered by excavation. The very fine silt that has penetrated and covered the vessel has kept the wood, leather and even cloth items in astonishingly good condition.

SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982

9


"... you have a four or five-storey timber structure complete

This compass (on the right) and its protective cover with glass top (left) were found below supported on gimbals in a small box. It may be the oldest known compass in Europe. The iron compass needle, which has disintegrated, sat directly on the upright needle shown here.

This long range, light calibre cast bronze gun was recovered from the stern castle and brought to the surface complete with its trucked carriage.

The Tudor equivalent of a pocket watch was this lidded pocket sundial, originally made with a compass needle in the hollow.

10

SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982


with everything it contained on that day in 1545. '' discovery of the wreck of the Mary Rose occurred a little under 300 years after her loss when divers wearing waterproof suits and with air supplied to the helmet by surface pump, recovered some of her armament and timbers in the 1830s. After World War II Alexander McKee, historical author and sub-aqua enthusiast considered the task of locating the Mary Rose-a prospect that had intrigued him since childhood. He began researching the location of the wreck in 1962, and by 1965 the underwater search for the location of the Jost Mary Rose was underway. 1967 saw the birth of the Mary Rose Committee charged with "finding, excavating, raising and preserving for all time such remains of the ship Mary Rose as may be of historical and archaeological interest." A Time Capsule of Tudor Life McKee knew well the importance of what he had found. He worked to build up interest and assemble expertise, and to bring into being the "Protection of Historic Wrecks Act" passed by Parliament in 1973 to protect the Mary Rose and similar ships from predation by scavengers. In Alexander McKee's words, "The Mary Rose represents a day in the life of Tudor England. You cannot get that sort of information from libraries; you cannot get it from excavating a land site . .. . What you have in the Mary Rose is a four or five-storey timber structure complete with everything it contained on that day in 1545." Not only had this important ship been located, but the fine enveloping silts had preserved a large part of the hull and its contents to a remarkable degree, creating a time capsule of life at sea in the Tudor period. The magnitude and complexity of the task also became apparent, to excavate and raise a ship that pre-dates known ship drawings; quite apart from the conservation problem needing the services of a variety of disciplines. In consequence the Mary Rose Trust was set up as an organization with charitable status under the presidency of HRH the Prince of Wales in January 1979. Excavating the Site The first working season (1979) saw the excavation with seven trenches being worked across the site. Because of the limited underwater visibility-some 12 to 18 feet on a good day, low light intensity underwater video cameras have played an important role. A considerable number of Tudor artifacts were recovered in

this fust season-longbows, coins, rigging blocks, shoes, culminating in the lifting of a fine bronze gun, complete with carriage. The second season in 1980 was of shorter duration running from May to August. The team of six full time diving-archaeologists under the direction of Mrs. Margaret Rule (who has worked on the project from the onset), staunchly supported by volunteer divers from many parts of the world, ran a daily programme from dawn to dusk. Over seven thousand dives were made with 5,218 man hours Jogged at work on and below the seabed, as much as 60 feet from the surface. The ship lies on a north/south line, bows north, resting on her starboard side at an angle of 60 °. Most of the clinker built high castle structures have been eroded away, likewise a large part of the port side of the hull, but the rest of the ship is preserved to a remarkably high degree. Frames, riders, and deck beams are in place-the upper deck surviving to a breadth of nine feet in the waist of the ship, the main and orlop decks are even more promising. The wrought iron fastenings of the deck planking have corroded away, and planking is only held in place by angle of slope, snugness of fit, and surrounding silt. It was therefore necessary¡to remove this planking together with the associated structure of beams, carlings and knees to increase diver safety, ease the recovery of artifacts, and be a help in preparation for the lift of the hull. These timbers will be put back in their original position soon after the ship is raised . The main deck still carries several guns of bronze and iron in position on their carriages, but some of the equipment which was on and around them, ladles, rammers etc. were removed. The work in 1980 was concentrated on excavation of the midship section of the hull; to recover the artifacts in this area and continue the survey of the hull for ultimate recovery in 1982 (which has been designated Maritime Year by the English Tourist Board!). Many tons of silt were removed and around 3,000 objects recovered. This rich haul included many arrows, including one chest containing nearly 1,000 with only war heads and flight feathers missing. Also recovered were two pocket sundials, many rigging blocks complete with turning sheaves, beautiful sword scabbards, rope, longbows, guns, pikes and right at the end of this season the barber-surgeon's chest containing razors, syringes, turned wood containers and ceramic pots complete with

Despite their initially crude appearance, longbows were carefully made from the heartwood of the yew tree with a narrow strip of sapwood down the face: The bows were shaped to the grain of the wood, hence the irregular shape but great strength. The bows found on the Mary Rose range from 80 to 120 pound pull and are still supple enough to be drawn. These deceptively simple weapons could, at short range, pierce armor or three inches of oak, and at long range-up to 300 yards !-they were still deadly.

These arrows are fitted through a leather spacer, which protects their feathers (now missing) and makes handling easier-an archer could reload his empty quiver with one quick movement. The arrows had solid " bodkin" type points the same diameter as the shaft, and they relied on velocity, penetration and accuracy for effect, rather than the traditional broad head.

SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982

11


The Barber-Surgeonscabinyieldedointmentjars, bottles of medicine, a urethral syringe, a large shaving bowl and smaller bleeding bowl. A silk velvet cap, traditional headgear of the trade, was also found. With very few exceptions, land archaeology usually yields items that had been thrown away or abandoned. By contrast, everything found aboard the Mary Rose was in use and in place when she went down. A diver (right) surveys the broad, well preserved planks of the main deck, timbers that enclose a significant and almost complete piece of the 16th century. When the Mary Rose is raised and displayed ashore, she will provide a rare glimpse into a vanished world.

unguents, glass flasks etc. One turned wood container clearly showed the finger marks of the last person to use the contents nearly 440 years ago. Even the music world was featured with the recovery of a shawm-a popular reed instrument 3 Yi ' long used by professional players in the Tudor era and forerunner of the oboe. The 1981 season saw the excavation of the bow and stern sections of the hull and recovery and recording in situ of many more artifacts including a mariner's compass which will probably prove to be the oldest in existence in the western world. Work on the survey of the hull and preparation for the lift next year also continued. Raising the Hull ¡ A full photographic and film record of all aspects of the project is being made-above water, underwater and ashore, varying from the volunteer diver at work to the research scientist. Recovered artifacts have to be fully recorded, evaluated, and conserved-a formidable task . The shore HQ is housed in an old bond store in Old Portsmourth which has been loaned to the Trust, rent free, for three years. Recently installed is a freeze drying unit with a chamber more than eight feet long and eighteen inches in diameter, which will enable batches of wooden objects, leather items and delicate fabrics to be freeze dried. The problems of conservation of the recovered hull are currently being studied by the National Maritime Museum. The recovery of the hull in 1982 is being studied by naval architects, archaeologists, salvage experts and engineers. When the hull is finally raised, it will be displayed at Portsmouth in a museum site not far from Southsea Castle overlooking the stretch of water where she sank 437 years ago. Once ashore and in the ship hall, the hull will be lifted from its present 60 ° angle to the vertical. Archaeologists will then remove the internal bracing used for the physical recovery and replace the 12

ship's internal structure and deck-planking. This work will be conducted in a controlled environment; nevertheless it is intended that viewing facilities will be provided during this stage of the operation. Gradually the museum complex will expand to ensure that.the Mary Rose, her contents, associated records and research material are fully presented and interpreted. A section will be devoted to the discipline of nautical archaeology as illustrated by the survey, excavation and recovery of the Mary Rose. Financing the Operation The dedicated team-under the overall direction of Richard Harrison, the Trust's Executive Director, and Margaret Rule, the Archaeological Director-relies entirely on gifts in cash and kind for the operation. Donors range from individuals and small private firms to major British and international companies. The total operation culminating in the initial housing of the hull on shore will cost $3 million, of which half has been raised to date. A separate organization called The Mary Rose Development Trust has been created to fund this exciting operation and readers who wish to assist us can make donations direct to The Mary Rose Development Trust, Old Bond Store, 48, Warblington Street, Portsmouth, Hampshire. PLl 2ET, England. An American branch has been formed, providing tax deductibility for US citizens, by Mr. Russell S. Reynolds, Jr., Chairman, Russell Reynolds Associates, Inc., 245 Park Avenue, NY, NY 10167; 212-953-4300. Contributions may also be made through the Ship Trust, NMHS.

* * with their * remarkable preservaWhen finally the silts of Spithead, tion properties, deliver up the secrets of this important ship and those who sailed in her, she will make a tremendous contribution to knowledge of the evolution of the wooden fighting ship and to the education and delight of all those interested in sea history the .t world over. SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982


ime of Change... ¡

An upgrader at the Seafarers Harry Lundberg School of Seamanship learns automated engine controls on a training simulator.

Seafaring is in a period of great change and challenge. Radical new types of very costly ships that bear little resemblance to their predecessors. New methods of cargo handling. Changes in propulsion and ship design for energy efficiency. Widespread use of automation replacing manual jobs on board ship. The use of electronic data processing to expedite cargo movements and monitor ship operations. At the Seafarers Harry Lundeberg School of Seamanship at Piney Point, Md., we are up-grading the skills of our seamen to meet the technical challenges of this new age of seafaring. We are doing our part to maintain a strong, competitive and job-making American merchant marine on the trade routes of the world.

Seafarers International Union of North America 675 Fourth Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y. 11232

Frank Drozak, President


AMERICAN SOCIETY of MARINE ARTISTS Fifth National Official Juried Exhibition

April 16-May 16, 1982

Victor Mays

"Pool of London, Late 19th Century"

NEWMAN & SAUNDERS GALLERIES

Watercolor 201/z'' x 28"

120 BLOOMINGDALE A VENUE WAYNE, PENNSYLVANIA 19087 (215) 293-1280

Wayne is located seventeen miles west of Philadelphia along Route 30. Bloomingdale Avenue is one block west of the center of WaynP


DAY'S RUN Report of the American Sail Training Association

Something Our World Desperately Needs by Barclay H. Warburton, III President, American Sail Training Association What is meant by sail training? The term covers many activities and it is therefore difficult to come up with a narrow definition, nor am I convinced that a narrow definition would serve our purposes. It might be well, therefore, to review our purposes, so that as we go about our work, we will have some clear aids to help us stay on course. The first purpose of the sail training movement which shines as a steady fixed white light before us, is to promote international goodwill and friendship among the young people of many nations. This purpose is carried out by the biennial international sail training races, organized by the STA and the ASTA, and there is no other activity in which we can engage that compares in importance to this world-wide movement to bring about greater understanding among the peoples of the planet. The gatherings of the "Tall Ships" speak to the maritime heritage shared by all the seafaring countries; they speak to the bond which links us all together-the sea; they speak to trade and commerce and the interchange of ideas; they speak to the aspirations of youth-adventure, challenge, and growth in a world at peace; they speak to the protection and preservation of our environment-of clean air and clean seas; and finally, they speak to that great longing shared by all peoples for a planet at peace, where mankind can realize his dreams of self-fulfillment-free from want, fear, hunger, and impending planetary destruction. It may seem inappropriate to some to say that these naval vessels are truly the .ships of peace, but I submit for your consideration that it is not out of place at all, for it has always been the sailor-the seaman-who has, because of his voyages to far places, understood the commonality of all peoples, and who has therefore been in the van of those who strive to bring the peoples of the earth closer together in greater understanding and tolerance. -It matters not whether the sailor wears a naval uniform, a merchant officer's stripes, a yachtsman's cap, or the work-worn clothes of a fisherman; it matters rather that the sailors from every nation have two things in common: ships and the sea. It is through these shared interests that they speak a common language and have an understanding for each other's needs. The International Sail Training Races bring the ships of peace together-be they naval vessels, commercial ships, school16

"The successful handling of these challenges provides for growth of character, that indefinable quality which contemporary educational and charitable institutions turn away from with a groan because they can't measure it. " ships or yachts-and they exemplify to a world teetering on the edge of self-des- ¡ truction that the peoples of planet earth can go about their business peaceably; that they share much in common; and that, just as their aspirations of friendship, harmony, and understanding can be realized aboard these ships, so can they also be realized in every other human endeavor. Truly, as Captain Jurkewicz said, "The sea can be our bridge," That is the first great purpose of sail training, and in all our deliberations, in facing our various problems, we must never lose sight of the beacon of international goodwill that drews us onward. The second purpose of sail training is to provide as many young people as possible with the opportunity to place themselves in a challenging atmosphere; an atmosphere that encourages them to give of themselves the very best they have to offer; an atmosphere that demands sacrifice, courage, trust, and a willingness to push themselves beyond any preconceived limits. The real challenge in life is to make ourselves do those things we do not want to do: it is easy for all of us to do the things we want to do, but the young man or woman who finds himself or herself cleaning a foul-smelling head when he certainly doesn't want to, or turning out of a warm bunk to go stand watch on a cold, rainy windswept, open deck when he doesn't want to, or who has to force himself to go aloft when he is damned scared-these youngsters suddenly discover new levels of acceptance, accomplishment, and pride, and they recognize that inner growth has taken place . The other area which contributes so much to their growth is facing, possibly for the first time, the difficulty of living for a protracted period of time in very close quarters with a lot of other people. To handle this requires control, tolerance, and respect; control of one's emotions, tolerance of another's faults and shortcomings, and respect for

another's need for their own bit of space. The successful handling of these challenges provides for growth of character, that indefinable quality which contemporary educational and charitable institutions turn away from with a groan because they can't measure it. But it is character which, above all else, is so desperately needed in our world today. We can develop wonderful systems and marvelous machines-computers with undreamed of capabilities and nuclear weapons with unlimited powers of destruction; but if we don't have men and women of character to control the products of science, what earthly use are they-other than as additional means by which to destroy ourselves more rapidly. Sacrifice, courage, trust, effort, selfcontrol, tolerance, respect-these are the qualities of character which the sailing ships create in their creators. The creative energy between man and ship flows two ways; from the builder of the ship into his creation, and from the ship back to those who are privileged to sail in her. The building of character in aware and conscious human beings is the second great purpose of sail training. Without such youngsters the ideals of a bridge of friendship expressed in our primary purpose are not attainable. And obviously we cannot achieve either of these purposes without ships that can go to sea and cross the oceans. That is the purpose of this conference: to find solutions to the restrictions that keep American ships from getting to sea. Certainly we have the skills needed to build seaworthy sailing ships; and, without question, we have experienced seamen who can man our ships and sail them anywhere in the world. What we have lacked over the past few years, it seems, has been the will needed to identify the problems and work at them until the solutions were found. I believe we have the will to get to these solutions in the person of George Nichols. Even though George has been at sea most of the past year, he has still found the time to get to Washington and enlist the aid of Captain Tom Mills, whom I believe will prove to be of enormous help to us. With the interest and ability of people like Erik Abranson, whose letters to various US Senators have stirred up some real support for sail training, and with the wholehearted dedication of all of you who believe, as I do, that American boys and girls must not be denied the right to join in SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982


.}

Eisenhower House, Fort Adams State Park, Newport, RI 02840

friendship at sea with the youth of other nations, we can and will find the solutions we need. Let us resolve right now that we will not leave this gathering until we have produced solutions that we believe to be effective and sensible. Once we have done this, then I am sure that we will be able to persuade others to approve and implement them. From Mr. Warburton 's keynote address at the Ninth Annual Sail Training Conference, Oct. 15, 1981, at Kings Point, NY.

"Tall Ships '82" A Progress Report At this writing, it appears that there will be a large number of ships participating in each of the races and port visits of ''Tall Ships '82" . Nine Class A ships have indicated that they will definitely take part. They are: Eagle (195 ' bark, of the US Coast Guard), Esmeralda (353 ' fourmasted barkentine, Chilean Navy), Marques (United Kingdom), Our Svanen (from British Columbia under charter to the Royal Canadian Navy), Regina Maris (144' barkentine, Ocean¡ Research and Education Society of Boston, Sagres (298 ' bark, Portuguese Navy), Simon Bolivar (268 'bark, Venezuelan Navy), and Young America (130' Hermaphrodite Brig, Young America Marine Education Society in Atlantic City, N.J.). Four others (Gloria, Guayas, Libertad, and Sorlandet) have indicated an interest in participating. In addition, more than twenty Class B ships have already notified us that they will enter one or more of the sail training races and thus be eligible to take part in the InShore Regatta and official port festivities planned for both Philadelphia and Newport. Class B entries range in size from the 36' Ny/la to the 150' Bill of Rights and represent the Bahamas, Bermuda, Canada, Denmark, Senegal, and the United Kingdom. Entry Forms, Communications Plans, and Information Bulletins will shortly be sent to all full-time sail training ships and to all others which have requested them. If you are interested in participating in the 1982 "Tall Ships" Races and port visits-and if your vessel is over 30 feet waterline length with a crew of which at least half will be between the ages of 16 and 25, then please write to "RACE INFO, AST A, Eisenhower House, Fort Adams State Park, Newport, RI 02840." Also please pass the word along to sailing friends and help us to have the largest Class B gathering ever! SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982

TENTATIVE SCHEDULE "TALL SHIPS '82" Philadelphia Tuesday, June 15th-Race 1 from Venezuela will finish at the Dela ware Light Tower, visible by spectator craft. Wednesday, June 16th-Vessels will make their way up the Delaware and anchor near Philadelphia. Thursday, June 17th-Sail Training Ships will sail in column up the last ten miles of the Delaware to enter Philadelphia greeted by thousands of spectators both ashore and afloat. They will proceed to Penn's Landing, where many will be open to the public. Friday, June 18th-Training Ships will undock in the morning and, if the wind is fair, will sail down Delaware Bay. The Class "A" ships will Cruise-in-Company to Newport, with an interchange of cadets between ships. Tuesday, June 22nd-Class "B" Ships will start a Race to Castle Hill Light from off Cape May. Newport Wednesday, June 23rd-Ships will be visible to spectators on shore and aboard spectator craft as they arrive at Newport. Class "B" will be finishing a race from either the mouth of the Delaware or Block Island. They will proceed to Newport Yachting Center. Thursday, June 24th and Friday, June 25th-The In-Shore Regatta, a two-day intership sports competition consisting of pulling boat races, sailing races, volleyball, soccer matches, and a tug-of-war, will be in progress. Many ships will be open to the public. Saturday, June 26th-Prize-Giving Ceremony for the winners of the Class "B" Races and those from the In-Shore Regatta sporting events. A Grand Ball in honor of the Captains of the Sail Training Ships will be held at "Rosecliff," one of the magnificent mansions of the Preservation Society of Newport County. Sunday, June 27th-A spectacular Parade of Sail a short way up Narragansett Bay and then out the East Passage to the Starting Line for Race 3. The Class "A" and Class "B" ships will start a Transatlantic Race which will take them nearly three thousand miles to the Finish at Lisbonwhere many European ships will join the fleet from the Americas for the festivities from August 3rd to August 8th. Many hospitality events-such as Receptions, Trainee Barbeques, Religious Services, Ethnic Festivals, and Trainee Tours to Museums-are scheduled for each port. Further details in next issue.

Eagle Update by Capt. Martin J. Moynihan, USCG Last summer, the Coast Guard Barque Eagle sailed to Europe during the annual cadet summer training cruise. This was her first voyage to European waters since 1977 and follows more recent training cruises along the East and West Coasts of North America and in the Caribbean. Eagle sailed on 21 May with 13 officers, 40enlisted men and 158 cadets aboard. Off Block Island a late Spring storm was encountered that gave all hands an immediate refresher course on weather conditions in the North Atlantic. Sailing off to the SE on a port tack, with top gallants and royals furled in the 25-35 knots wind, Eagle passed behind a deepening 992 mb low. As the winds backed to the west all sails were set and over 1000 miles were logged towards the Azores during the first five days. Following a nineteen day passage from New London, seventeen of which were under sail, Eagle anchored off Cobh, Ireland to step her masts for the river transit to Cork. during the three day port visit in Ireland, the Irish Sail Training Vessel T / V Asgard moored ahead of Eagle and visits were exchanged. Eagle then sailed southward across the Bay of Biscay for a visit to Lisbon, Portugal and an exchange of official calls with her sister ship, Sagres II. Additional port visits were made in Rota and Malaga, Spain and Las Palmas in the Canary Islands prior to heading home. The fresh breezes of the Eastern Atlantic diminished during the westward passage to Bermuda and Eagle had to complete the last few days of the seventeen day run from Las Palmas under power. Off the entrance to St. Georges Harbor, Bermuda, Eagle exchanged passing honors with the out-bound Norwegian squarerigger Sorlandet and missed an opportunity to exchange visits with another tall ship. The visit to Bermuda marked the end of the long cruise and the start of the short cruise program. After disembarking the first and third class cadets for their well17


DAY'S RUN earned leave, one-third of the new fourth class with their second class cadre reported aboard. These 130 new fourth class cadets, only 18 days after they were sworn in to the US Coast Guard, were soon sailing in Eagle from Bermuda to New London under the watchful eye of the Coast Guard Academy's new superintendent, RADM C.E. Larkin, USCG. The second short cruise featured a sail by and visit on-station to Nantucket Lightship . Eagle then made a weekend visit to New Haven, Ct., the homeport of all previous sailing cutters of the Revenue Cutter Service which were named Eagle. The short cruises ended at the Coast Guard Academy on 15 August. During this summer a total of 702 cadets received from 1 to 5 weeks of training aboard Eagle. In late August Eagle sailed to the Coast Guard Yard in Baltimore, Md. The small permanent crew was assisted by a mixed group of Coast Guard dependents and friends, some ASTA sponsored youths and a NJROTC Unit from Baltimore. Civilians outnumbered Coast Guardsmen two to one and were enthusiastic for this opportunity to sail and work their passage to Baltimore in a square rigger. Eagle is wintering over at the Coast Guard Yard, completing Phase II of a major modernization project to ensure her continued safe operation as a sail training vessel into the 1990s. This major renovation project is being conducted in three separate phases to allow use of the vessel each summer. Wooden deck coverings and compartment dividers below decks have been eliminated, and all steel decks and bulkheads have been repaired. Additional watertight bulkheads have been added. The original standing rigging is being thoroughly overhauled, and a program for replacement of the rigging is continuing. The original Machinefabrik Agusburg-Nurnberg A.G. (MAN) auxiliary propulsion engine is being replaced with a more modern diesel engine, and a collision avoidance radar system is being installed. This major renovation represents a continuing strong commitment by the US Coast Guard to the sail training of its future officers. Next summer Eagle is scheduled to visit Washington, DC for the Coast Guard Commandant's Change of Command and will be the host vessel at Philadelphia for the major tall-ships event honoring the 300th anniversary of the founding of that city.

Capt. Moynihan was appointed Commanding Officer of the Eagle in July 1980 after commanding the cutters Ewing, Evergreen, and Ingham. 18

ASTA Cruises 1982

Schedule: International Sail Training Races 1982

In addition to seven one-week cruises on the East and West Coasts, a new feature will be a cruise on the Great Lakes. Five of the cruises are also clustered around the ASTA "Tall Ships '82" events in Newport, RI. This international gathering, which occurs only once in several years in this locale, is a great opportunity for young people to meet, exchange ideas with, and grow towards understanding of others from around the globe. Our goal is to reach more youngsters every year and to help them experience the growth and enrichment which time at sea can bring. Confirmed cruises are planned in conjunction with "Tall Ships '82" will take place aboard the 115 ' Schooner Harvey Gamage, the 110 ' Topsail Sloop Providence (reproduction of John Paul Jones' first command), the 130 ' Brigantine Young America, and the 144' Barkentine Regina Maris (which will offer a special program open to marine science teachers and graduate students). The fifth cruise, tentatively planned to take part in the "Tall Ships" activities, will be aboard the 150 ' Schooner Bill of Rights. Cruises planned for other times and locations will be aboard the 101 'Schooner Adventuress and the Providence, with the addition of the 60' Schooner Sheila Yeates tentatively planned. Adventuress sails in the Puget Sound area, and Sheila Yeates in the Great Lakes; both will do an ASTA week in mid-summer. A second Providence cruise is scheduled for August. Young people, men and women from 15 to 25, are welcome to participate in the sail training cruises . No prior experience is necessary. Trainees will stand regular watches and learn to perform all duties on the ship as part of a watch team on alternating four-hour duty around the clock (although climbing the rigging is optional). They will be expected to care for their own gear, take a turn at galley duty, and participate in regular ship maintenanceamong other responsibilities. Marine biology or celestial navigation may be available on selected cruises. For trainees with adequate background, a personal qualification program leading to designation as able-bodied seaman or watch cap-

ASTA "Tall Ships" Races

20-27 June 20-27 June 27 June-4 July 28 June-5 July Mid-July Mid-July August

May26-29: Sat.,May 29:

At LaGuaira, Venezuela Start Race 1, LaGuaira to Philadelphia, approx. 1860 ' June 17-21: At Philadelphia Mon., June 21: Cruise-in-Company, Class A, Newport, R.l. Tues.,June 22: Start Race 2, Class B only, Cape May to Newport, R.l., approx. 220 ' June23-27 At Newport Sun.,June 27: Start Race 3, Newport to Lisbon, Portugal, appr. 3300 ' Special Class 8 In-Shore Races June 18-21 : At Mystic Seaport Mon.,June 21: Start Race 1-S, Mystic to Block Island Tues., June 22: At Block Island (lay day) Wed.,June 23: Start Race 2-S, Block Island to Newport STA Cutty Sark "Tall Ships" Races July25-Aug.3: Aug.3-7: Aug.7-11: Aug.11-14: Aug.14-21:

Race, Falmouth, England to Lisbon, Portugal At Lisbon Cruise-in-Company, Lisbon to Vigo, Spain At Vigo Race, Vigo to Southampton, England

tain will be undertaken. All cruises are six to seven days and include all bunk, food, and training charges. Cruises vary from $250 to $400. Trainees are responsible for their own gear (nothing expensive to purchase). Scholarship assistance, from $50 up, is available to qualified candidates. Should an applicant desire scholarship help, he must provide the name of a confidential reference to whom ASTA may write for advice on amount and urgency of need. Groups of six or more are accommodated at lOOJo reduction in individual cost. With 10 or more, one counselor will be included at food cost only. Early application is needed to reserve spa,ce. Anyone interested may write to "CRUISE, ASTA, Fort Adams State Park, Newport RI 02840" to secure a berth on a first-come, first-served basis, or for further information. Reservations must be accompanied by a $50 nonrefundable deposit. .i.

Cruise Schedule Bill of Rights Embark Mystic, CT; debark Newport, Rl. Harvey Gamage Embark Mystic, CT; debark Newport, RI. Young America Embark and debark Newport, RI. Providence Embark and debark Newport, RI. Adventuress Embark and debark Seattle area. Sheila Yeates Embark and debark Minnesota area. Providence Embark Gloucester MA; debark Newport. SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982


Inland Cruising with American Cruise Lines

Inland cruising means you are always close to shore and the fascinating natural wonders so plentiful along the coastline-. On an inland cruise, you have more time in port to sightsee and explore the scenic, history-packed towns along the way. Our cruises follow the seasons. Enjoy your summer discovering the real New England - places like Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard and Newport; or the scenic Maine coast. Cruise the Chesapeake Bay area in the spring or fall and experience a bit of colonial America with visits to Williamsburg and Yorktown. Witness Mother Nature's truly spectacular array of colors on the fall Hudson River Foliage Cruise or escape winter's wrath with our southern waterway cruises departing from Savannah, Georgia or Ft. Myers, Florida. Our 7-day round trip cruises operate in New England , the Chesapeake Bay, Carolina and the Golden Isles. Ten-day southern cruises depart alternately from Savannah and Ft. Meyers. Fourteen day cruises are available on the East Coast Inland Passage route, departing alternately from Savannah and Annapolis, Maryland .

All staterooms on the brand new MN AMERICA, MN INDEPENDENCE and MN AMERICAN EAGLE are outside, with private bath, lower berths and a large, opening picture window. The food is superb, the service personal and the atmosphere friendly and informal. For reservations and information send in the coupon, or call toll free 1-800-243-6755. In Connecticut call 345-8551 collect.

AMERICAN CRUISE LINES HADDAM, CT 06438 1-800-243-6 755

Address _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ City _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ State _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Zip _ _ _ __

Phone _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

SH¡W82


Like a cruise on your own private yacht.

Join just seventy other passengers for 12-day Saguenay River Cruises - up by boat from Warren, R.I. - return by chartered coach. Choice of 8 dates. Or choose 12-day Erie Canal/I 000 Islands Cruise, Sept. 19. Or Fall Foliage Cruise to Waterford, N.Y., Oct. 3. Enjoy great meals, comfortable cabins, air-conditioning and congenial shipmates. Step on shore direct from ship.

WEEKEND ISLAND HOPPING OFF CAPE COD 3 NIGHTS AFLOAT! Mini-cruises, June thru Sept., to Block Island, Martha's Vineyard and Newport. Swim from the ship. Relax. Write to Dept. SH for FREE Brochure.

NOW THRO APRIL '83 - CRUISES TO THE BAHAMAS "OUT ISLANDS". American Canadian Line, Inc. P.O. Box 368, Warren, R.I. 02885

I

R.1.on1y~401)245-t35o Toll Free 800-556-7450

A spirit of hard work, enterprise & cooperation sailed the tall ships of yesterday, and the Liberty Ships of World War II. .. and that's what makes things move today!

BAY REFRACTORY MARINE REFRACTORY AND MARINE INSULATION 164 WOLCOTI STREET • BROOKLYN, NY 11201

20

SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982


SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS by Naomi Person

INTERNATIONAL Restoration of the hull of the immigrant packet schooner Ernestina ex-Effie M. Morrissey is now being completed, with the installation of a new diesel as a gift of Cummins Engine Co. The vessel has been undergoing a complete rebuilding in Mindelo, Cape Verde (off the West Coast of Africa) since she was dismasted enroute to join Operation Sail-1976 in New York six years ago . The 94 ' clipperbowed schooner was built as a Gloucester fisherman in 1894 and later sailed in Arctic exploration by Captain Bob Bartlett through World War II , after which she went to the Cape Verde packet trade. Some $180,000 has been supplied by the Cape Verde Government, and some $80,000 raised in funds and supplies by the National Society's Friends of Ernestina/ Morrissey to restore the ship since the abortive effort to return her to the US in 1976. Next steps are to rig and sail the vessel home to begin a new career in sail training and other educational programs, operating from a proposed base in New Bedford. Information packet available from : Ernestina/ Morrissey, NMHS, 2 Fulton St., Brooklyn NY 11201, USA; (212) 858-1348 .

ENGLAND The 1929 steam tug St. Denys has been acquired by the Falmouth Maritime Museum and is now open to the public. Built by the yard of W. Beardmore of Coat bridge and.Salmuir, her name changed in 1959 when all the tugs of the Falmouth Towage Co. were called after Cornish saints. The Museum's other exhibits focus on the Post Office sailing packets that used to sail from that port. Museum, Royal Cornwall Polytechnic, Church St., Falmouth. Ocean Dock, Southhampton, will be the temporary home for the former Royal Navy destroyer HMS Cavalier. Her owners, the Cavalier Trust, are raising ÂŁ200,000 so that the 2,350-ton ship may be opened to the public at a permanent berth in the River Trent off Mayflower Park-nearly a decade after the project was publicly launched by Earl Mountbatten. Cavalier, Ocean Dock, Southhampton. The Marine Society celebrated its 225th anniversary last year. Founded at the outbreak of the Seven Years War at the initiative of Jonas Hanway, a London merchant, it worked to encourage volunteers for the Royal Navy and make their lives more bearable by providing sea kits. Today the Society works to support youth programs aboard the old frigate Foudroyant and in various sail training ventures. A remarkable quarterly magazine, The Seafarer, offers current and historic contributions by seamen. Subscription: ÂŁ3/yr., to the Society, 202 Lambeth Rd., London SEl 7 JW. (A free information packet, and MAST offering, available on request.) G.F. 'Paton, Hon. Secretary of the Bristol Shi plover's Society, reports that that esteemed body is celebrating its Golden Jubilee, after 50 years of "doing its bit in preservation." Mr.

SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982

Paton himself looks back on a seafaring career launched 55 years ago, when "Every coaling anchorage was full of hulks we would give our crown jewels for now ." Bristol Shi plovers' Society, c/ o G.F. Paton, Hon Sec., "Silverlea:' 2 Cambridge Rd., Clevedon, Avon BS21 7HX.

IRELAND The National Maritime Museum of Ireland, in the old Mariner's Church overlooking Dublin Bay in Kingstown, and operated by the Maritime Institute of Ireland was established in 1959. It houses a 38 ' longboat captured from the French fleet that sailed into Bantry Bay in 1796, the collection of Captain Halpin who commanded Brunel's supership Great Eastern which laid the first transatlantic cable from Ireland to Newfoundland), a 9 ' model of this vessel, models of small craft from around the Irish coast, and paintings, photographs, old charts, flags and ship relics. Museum, Haigh Terr., Dun Laoghaire, Co. Dublin.

UNITED STATES Recently formed, the Women's Maritime Association provides a network for women working or interested in working in maritime industry. Dues are $2, Association, 15816 NE 34th, Seattle WA 98156. The 70th anniversary of the sinking of the Titanic will be observed by the Oceanic Navigation Research Society, April 10-11, aboard the liner Queen Mary at Long Beach, California: films, Titanic survivor talks, deck sports and fashion shows, capped by a recreation of the first-class dinner served aboard the Titanic on her last night afloat. ORNS, Box 80005, Universal City CA 91608-005; (213) 985-1345.

The Thokpin is a curious little homegrown newsletter put out by Jim Thayer of Thayer & Co., who builds fiberglass Livery Whitehalls and other small pulling boats. His "spur of the moment" publication contains correspondence with his contacts round the country and provides interesting anecdotes related to small craft displays, races and shops. If you drop him a line, he may add you to his mailing list. Thayer & Co., 2106 Atlee Rd., Mechanicsville VA 23111.

EAST COAST Maine Maritime Museum's new Museum Director is John Swain Carter, managing editor of American Neptune and former Maritime Curator of the Peabody Museum in Salem. The Museum's 10th Annual Symposium on American Maritime History, with speakers from around the country and abroad, will be held in Bath, April 30-May 2. For program: Museum, 963 Washington St., Bath ME 04530. A Society honoring the WW II contribution of Maine shipbuilders is looking for a site for museum space in South Portland. They are searching out Liberty Ship artifacts and

welcome leads and suggestions. The Society has a slide presentation, and seeks a volunteer curator. WW II Shipbuilders, PO Box 161-DTS-Portland ME 04112. The Piscataqua Gundalow Captain Edward H. Adams, begun three years ago, is nearing completion: decks laid, masts turned and sails ready to be bent. Cabin construction , caulking, painting and rigging remain to be finished before she is launched this summer to take part in the 250th anniversary celebration of the town of Durham on June 26th. The 40 ' traditional flat-bottomed river craft will sail the Piscataqua, visiting ports and conducting environmental education programs, with her permanent berth at Strawbery Banke. The project is still seeki ng $25 ,000 for completion of work . Project, PO Box 1303, Portsmouth NH 03801 (see SH 20:37-38).

R IV Regina Maris is spending the winter months doing whale research 70 miles south of Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti) . Their scientific education program supplied much of the work which has led scientists to believe that "the whales have distinct feeding populations" which return each year to the same area. This spring the barkentine will Jiead back north and offer cruises out of Boston in early June, open to the public. ORES, 64 Commercial Wharf, Boston MA 02110. The Hart Nautical Museum, dedicated in 1925 as part of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's department of naval architecture and marine engineering is now under the management of the MIT Museum. Collections include all the working drawings of the Herreshoff Yard in Bristol, Rhode Island, the collection of Captain Arthur Clark, who for many years headed the Lloyd's office in Boston, the drawings of naval architect George Owen, and the George Lawley and Paine and Burgess yards. A ship model display is open to the public daily and museum files are open by appointment on Tuesdays and Thursday, 11 AM to 3 PM . Museum, 265 Mass. Ave., Cambridge MA 02137. Friends of Nobska is a nonprofit society whose goal is to return to New England the steamship Nobska, which for three years has been deteriorating in Baltimore's Inner Harbor. The plan is to steam her as an active passenger ship and operational interpreter of steamship history. With a growing membership, the group is also negotiating with the Bridgeport and Port Jefferson Steamboat Co., to acquire Martha's Vineyard, built two years earlier, which served as a model for Nobska. Friends, Box 87, Berlin MA 01503. Orleans Historical Society is saving CG 36500, 36 ' motor lifeboat from the Chatham Coast Station. Her four-man crew rescued all 32 members of the crew of the oil tanker Pendle- . ton which broke up in 60 ' waves over thirty years ago. The 1940s-built boat ended up behind a National Park Building in South Wellfleet, and has now been donated to the

21


SHIP NOTES, Sailing Adventures aboard the SCHOONER HARVEY GAMAGE -a windjammer in true "down East" tradition. U.S. Coast Guard inspected 95' o.a. in length

COLLEGE STUDENTS SEA QUARTER Plan a college semester aboard the SCHOONER HARVEY GAMAGE. Credits in arts and science you earn from Northeastern University, Marine Studies Department, may be transferred. Curriculum includes visits to many educational and historical places from Maine to the Virgin Islands. For curriculum, schedule and cost, write or phone-

Summer months the ship cruises the Maine coast out of Rockland ... winter months in the Virgin Islands from Charlotte Amalie. Enjoy a week under sail ... make new friends ... relish hearty meals ... return relaxed, filled with happy memories. Write or phone-

DIRIGO CRUISES Dept. SH, 39 Waterside Lane Clinton, Conn. 06413 Tel: 203-669-7068

The Tall Ship ROSE The last full -rigged ship still sailing in North America The only example of a Revolutionary War ship afloat The direct cause of the founding of the American Navy (October 1775 ) "The most significant achievement of the Bicentennial" National Park Service official James Murfin

500 tons; length over all 170' now und er new management, needs engines installed and major repairs to topside planking. To pay for this, a few shares of ownership are to be sold in a private offering; in order to comply with SEC regulations, shares will only be sold in increments of $ 1 o,ooo. As a wooden ship of over 100 tons, th e ROSE will neve r be allowed to carry passengers. However, shareholders (owners) will be invited to sail every time the ship moves on her busy schedule of appearances as a museum in the Caribbean and East Coast U.S. Essentially, for the one-time price of a vacation, shareholders get to take many sailing vacations AND still own part of the ship and share in whatever profits may come from museum activities and film charters. For more information, send a stamped, self-addressed envelope to Tall Ship Rose, Inc., 7 IO South H enry 6treet, Williamsburg, Virginia 23185.

22

Society . They plan to restore her for cruising Cape Cod waters during the summer with onboard displays of her famous rescue, and are campaigning to establish an endowment fund with a revenue of $2,000 a year to maintain the vessel. Tax deductible contributions to: "Rescue 36500," Orleans Historical Society, Box 353, Orleans MA 02653. The replica frigate HMS Rose(see SH 22:38) is now back under the ownership of her builder John Millar. She is now at City Pier in New

London, where it's planned to effect muchneeded repairs from March to June. Interested persons are welcome to join in! Millar, 710 S. Henry St., Williamsburg VA 23185. The environmental education group Schooner, Inc. has, in cooperation with the New Haven Board of Education, opened Schooner School, a four-year, fully accredited public high school whose 100 freshmen and sophomore students participate in boatbuilding projects, acquiring math and shop skills, and study literature of the sea, maritime history, oceanography and marine biology. Funding for planning came from the federal Elementary and Secondary Education Act and the Hazen Foundation of New Haven . (See SH20:39.) Schooner, Inc., 60 South Water St., New Haven CT 06519. Schooner Harvey Gamage underwent a bit of a refit last fall : her crew installed a new mainmast, crosstrees, and topmast step and renewed standing rigging. She completed her eleventh SeaMester program for Southampton College in the Caribbean this fall and will soon be offering Sea Quarter studies, affiliated with the Marine Studies department of Northeastern University. Dirigo Cruises, 39 Waterside Lane, Clinton CT 06413 . Norwalk Seaport, part of the Norwalk Maritime Center recently purchased Hope, a 49' oyster sloop, built in 1948 in Greenwich, Ct. by Stanley Chard of white oak from trees felled in the 1945 hurricane. Her mast is a section of a spar from the Brooklyn Navy Yard and original sails were cut from those of a square rigger. The Center, which should be completed by spring 1985, is devoted to the maritime heritage of Western Long Island Sound. Plans for Hope include restoration of the vessel and her original gear so that she may drag for oysters in the Sound, in addition to offering an educational program and visiting other ports. Seaport, 203 Liberty Ave., Norwalk CT 06855.

SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982


SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS When Bloomingdale's department store had Ireland as their display theme this fall, National Maritime Historical Society member and curragh aficionado Larry Otway spied a traditional Irish curragh amongst the store's exhibits and moved into action by organizing the St. Brendan Society to foster an awareness of the seafaring heritage and achievements of the Irish . The Irish Trade Board thereupon donated two canvas and pitch covered curraghs built in the Aran Islands, which Otway plans to restore and row with crew from various New York City community groups. Friends gathered on the National Society's East River pier to receive the curraghs as Guinness (as in stout) provided mid-morning refreshments. You don 't have to be Irish to love rowing. All volunteers welcome. Larry Otway, cl o NMHS . ... The Society presented its 13th James Monroe Award to marine artist John Noble (see SH 8:30-33) at dinner at Seamen's Church Institute. The award, named after the first Black Ball Line packet, is presented each year to an individual who has broadened our vision and understanding of the maritime world .... And the 3rd Annual Ship Trust Award was presented to Allen S. Rupley, at a reception at SCl sponsored by McAllister Bros. Towing in recognition of Mr. Rupley's outstanding contributions to the restoration of the Wavertree at South Street Seaport Museum .... The New York City Dept. of Ports and Terminals has sent in a crew of dockworkers and a wintage piledriver to do much needed repairs on the pier at the Society's headquarters in the old fireboathouse at Fulton Ferry Landing. It's hoped to finish work by the time spring rolls around and outdoor activities pick up. NMHS, 2 Fulton St. , Brooklyn NY 11201. Three years ago, just before the Mayor's Cup Schooner Race, students at the Pioneer Marine School at South Street Seaport Museum had an idea and decided to go for it. In three weeks, they lofted and built a 36 ( sharpie the schooner Russell Grinnell. Built by the Wood Epoxy Saturation Technique (WEST System), the sharpie is a light craft which draws 4 ' with her centerboard down. In the race that year, Grinnell had the lead, but her rudder broke in a heavy wind. In 1980, she was disqualified at the start of the race. This year Grinnell finished 2nd overall in Class B, and looked lovely all the way. First in Class A and winner of the Mayor's Cup (best corrected time) was Ebb Tide. Pioneer Marine School, c/ o SSSM (address below) . Restoration work on the sailing ship Wavertree continues at the Seaport, with the help of the American Ship Trust. In August, she returned to Pier 15 from the Bethlehem Steel Yard in Hoboken, where she received a new bowsprit. Wood for her decks, 65,000 board feet of yellow pine, was donated by the Georgia Pacific Company. A work crew from Bath, Maine came up, sorted and planed, the wood and laid her decks. Friends of Wavertree, a group of volunteers led by Museum Trustee Jakob Isbrandtsen and American Ship Trust Chairman Peter Stanford continue to pitch in each Saturday, tackling the rust and

SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982

fish oiling the hull, amongst other tasks. Museum, 203 Front St., New York NY 10038.

c/Hariners qnternational

The Intrepid Museum Foundation is moving ahead with plans to open the Intrepid Sea-AirSpace Museum aboard the 900 ' 1943 aircraft carrier USS Intrepid. One of 5 survivors of the

TALL SHIP SA I LINGS SAIL

24 Essex Class carriers, Intrepid played an important role in peacetime, as well as in three wars, serving twice as Prime Recovery Ship for the space program . Financed by a $14.2 million bond issue the project was supplemented by a $4.5 million Urban Development Action Grant which New York City obtained form the Department of Housing and Urban Development. In February, Intrepid will be towed from the Philadelphia Navy Yard to Bethlehem Steel Yard in Bayonne, New Jersey where she wil be refit and refurbished, allowing for extensive exhibit space. She will arrive at her permanent berth at Pier 86 on the Hudson in May and will be open to the public in July. Museum Fdtn., 53 W 43rd St., Suite 1410, New York NY 10036.

TRAINING CRUISES IN SQUARE AND GAFF RIGS Tall Ships Races; Europe, West Indies, elsewhere. Mixed crews and ages (minimum: 16 years); no previous experience required.

LOCH NESS EXPEDITIONS Expense~sharing

crews wanted for

107 ft R/V STINA (gaff schooner). fully equipped with advanced sonars, dredges, etc. Staff scientists. Biological surveys of known and unknown life forms.

MARINERS INTERNATIONAL 58 WOODVILLE ROAD NEW BARNET, HEATS. ENGLAND ENS 5EG Tel: 01 440 9927

The World's Only The Whaling Museum (see SH 18:41) has announced a $50,000 fundraising campaign for the restoration of the Captain James Wright House, located next to the Museum. Trustees and staff feel that Wright House will provide adequate space for maintenance of the museum's collection and flexibility of displays. Museum, PO Box 25, Cold Spring Harbor NY 11724. The fleet of the Heritage Shipcraft Guild, schooner Nellie and May catboat Salty Dog, lightship Barnegat has moved to Penn's Landing, joining Gaze/a Primeiro, to provide greater public access and security for the vessels. Guild, NE Corner of 3rd & Chestnut St., Philadelphia PA 19106. Constellation has received a $2,000 grant from the Thomas F. and Clementine L. Mullan Foundation to establish an exhibit aboard ship of antique ship's carpenter tools. Plans are now in progress for installation . Constellation Foundation, Constellation Dock, Baltimore MD 21202. Calvert Marine Museum has received a donation from The Chandler's Wharf Museum, the trailboards of the 1908-built skipjack Geneva May and has since received the original trailboards of the 1901 Kathryn and the 1940 Wilma Lee. The Calvert Marine Museum also loaned the oyster dredge winders from W.B. Tennison in exchange for the use of theMaggie Lee, which will be on display at the Museum

Universal/ Professional

UNDERWATER METAL DETECTOR

The

GARRETT

8(ft~ Selectable Dual Circuit permits detection , in fresh or salt water, of all metals or detection of gold , silver , copper, and lead , while ignoring most iron / junk metals . e200 ft. Certified Depthe Automatic / Manual Modes Outputs : Earphones / Meter / LEDse Detects : Single coins to 18 in . Larger objects to 6 ft. 9V NiCads . 110 / 12V Charger 2-year Warranty

e

e e CALL TOLL FREE

1-800-527-4011

t i

1-800-442-4889

GARRETT (lnl~:~:~r

¡ METAL DETECTORS

rn<1,,~:~d~

Dept SH981 - 28 14 Natrona! Dflve de Garland, Texas 75041 US A

23


SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT & this summer. Museum, PO Box 97, Solomons MD 20688. Chandler' s Wharf, 2 Ann St., Wilmington NC 28401.

Gold Bullion Badges Hand embroidered in the finest materials to your designs . • USMS and S.S. Company cap badges • Uniform Insignia • Yachting Regalia • Blazer Badges for clubs, & schools and family coats-of-arms

Hampton Mariners Museum will host the Museum's Small Craft Conference May 7-9, which focuses on small craft and traditional boatbuilding in the southeastern US, especially North Carolina. Chas. McNeil!, Curator, Museum, 120TurnerSt. , BeaufortNC28516.

MILITARIA 14691-H Alder Lane Tustin, California 92680

~~~;.,,.;·~·~

"The Sea and Me," an educational program for children sponsored by The Mariners Museum this past summer, integrated Museum resources with hands-on experiences and local points of interest. A day in the program might consist of discussion on topics ranging from the design and use of work boats and sailmaking to visiting a fi shing pier, sailmaker and seafood processing house. An enthusiastic response ha s spurred the Museum's education department into expanding the program next summer. Museum, Museum Dr., Newport News VA 23606.

!}Cl

&\opp}£oU.r6-;;

Seafood Restaurant, 9i South St., NYC (212) 952-9651

The Second North Carolina Maritime Heritage Conference will meet at Cape Fear Technical Institute in Wilmington on March 5. Focusing on the life of people in North Carolina coastal communities and their contact with the sea, discussions will deal with early European exploration, the Lost Colony, underwater archaeology, ports and contemporary maritime folklife and art. NC Maritime Heritage, c/o USS North Carolina Battleship Memorial, PO Box 417, Wilmington NC 28402. Florida Maritime Museum is in the process of negotiating a lease with the City of Miami Commission that has already voted its intent to designate property in Bicentennial Park for use by the museum. Plans include a visiting ship program, small boat shop and administrative offices. Museum, PO Box 013162, Miami FL 33101.

GULF COAST The replica HMS Bounty, built in Nova Scotia in 1960 for the MGM movie "Mutiny on the Bounty," has been a dockside attraction in St. Petersburg for the past 16 years. Last spring, the square rigger made a 600-mile round trip to Pensacola while filming commercially. Her managers hope to continue to sail her for commercial purposes and festivals.

The Historic Skipjack MAMIE MISTER is now taking reservations for the 1982 sailing season. For information about daysails and twilight cruises in New York Harbor write: Captain Parker

c/o National Maritime Historical Society Fulton Ferry Dock, B'klyn, N.Y. 11201 or call

24

(212) 859·0146

The Galveston Historical Foundation has announced that the 1877 iron bark Elissa, undergoing restoration, has been moved to her permanent berth adjacent to the Strand. Her mainmast was stepped in October, and the mizzen the following month . All three topmasts are now up , while work continues on the deckhouse and poop accommodations. A shed area next to the pier, still being used as a work space, will eventually house a vis itors' center. (see Sh 20:30; 21 :32) Foundation, PO Drawer 802, Galveston TX 77553.

WEST COAST The sailing ship Balclutha, part of the National Maritime Museum's fleet at the Golden Gate National Recreation Area in San Francisco, recently underwent repairs and a new coat of paint at the Pacific Drydock Co. in Oakland. The 1886 square rigger, built in Scotland, remained in commercial service until 1933 and was saved by the Museum in 1954. The National Park Service has expended $180,000 to replace some hull plating, apply a plastic coating to the bottom, paint the hull and install new safety equipment. Museum, Ft. of Polk St., San Francisco CA 94109. Friends of Alma and Historic Ships has called for an all-out letter-writing campaign to support a solution whereby the National Park Service's Hughes Mining Barge (recently acquired from the General Services Administration) would be leased to Crowley Maritime Corporation in return for repairs needed to save the 1915 steam schooner Wapama. Friends points out that "this proposed solution would not cost the taxpayer a cent!" Letters of support may be addressed to President Reagan, Secretary of Interior Watt, Governor Brown, Mayor Feinstein and Senators and Congressional representatives from California. Wm . Whalen, GGNRA, Building 201, Ft. Mason, San Francisco CA 94123 (415-556-2920). Pacific Northwest Maritime Historical Society, in the process of gathering photographs of maritime interest for future exhibition, hopes to centralize such a collection in the Northwest, that will be accessible to the public. The Society recently became an affiliate Society to the Oregon Historical Society. Society, PO Box 1083, Lynnwood WA 98036/PO Box 66,0regon City OR 97045. According to Director Dick Wagner, the Center for Wooden Boats has gotten "the green light from the city and state,'' which will allow them to develop Waterway 4 on Lake Union for public use. Reconstruction of a building to be used as a boatbuilding workshop has begun . Docks at the Center's shoreside park will be open for anyone to "bring their lovingly restored classic boats and replicas," and for all to visit. The Center plans a grand opening on July 4th weekend, when they hold their annual Wooden Boat Show. Till early April, the Center also holds wooden boat seminars every Saturday . Center, 2770 Westlake Ave. N., Seattle WA 98109 . Traditional Wooden Boat Society was founded in 1975 "to encourage people interested in traditional plank-on-frame boats and the skills needed to build and maintain them," writes Secretary Robert Chapel. Monthly membership meetings-free and open to the public-include talks by square-rigger sailors, boatbuilders, maritime historians , wood scientists, museum curators and blacksmiths, and are held on the fourth Friday of each month at Seattle's Museum of History and Industry. For $10, one can receive Lines and Offsets, edited by Chapel, an open and outfront

SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982


MUSEUM NEWS newsletter. Society, 1101 Wing Pt. Way NE, Bainbridge WA 98110. In the year since their incorporation, Waterfront Awareness, a non-profit group "dedicated to building public awareness and affection for the urban waterfront,'' has developed a travelling exhibit and brochure on the history of Elliott Bay, and published a fine Seattle Waterfront Walker 's Guide. Other projects in the wings include signage for a waterfront interpretive center and a waterfront trolley system. Membership is $15 . 2342 34th Ave. South, Seattle WA 98144 .

----

l)(.)\"l-l

EAS" \"\"'l

B1\} ' I '

YACHT SAILS

~

I

--11\( NE

RIDING SAILS

_/

COTTON â&#x20AC;˘ FLAX â&#x20AC;˘ DACRON

LAKES AND RIVERS The trustees of the Thousand Islands Shipyard Museum have established a Museum Boatbuilding School associated with the Jefferson Community College Marine Trades program. Classes in marina management, repairs, small engines, model building and restoration were offered during the fall semester . The program, open to the public, hopes to expand its classes to boatbuilding and handling, navigation, welding and Thousand Islands history. According to Jeremy Taylor, curator and education director, a matching grant from the National Trust for Historic Preservation for a small boatbuilding course will be used to start building a replica of a St. Lawrence Bateau, a flat-bottom double-ended workboat, used by European explorers on the River. Museum, 750 Mary St., Clayton NY 13624. Ferry Sloop member Thomas Mauriello reports ... The 32 ' epoxy-coated ferrocement sloop Sojourner Truth, launched last August, is expected to be sailing the Hudson River this spring. Presently docked at Hastings-onHudson, Sojourner's program like those of the environmental flagship Clearwater, will help create an awareness of the environmental and public-access issues on the Hudson and Long Island Sound. They will also teach people in waterfront communities how to sail. A mast-sized pole has been promised as a donation by Con Edison . Volunteer hands are welcome for weekend work. Sojourner's sister ship, nicknamed "Willit" (as in "Will it float?"), is in the final stages of hull completion in New Hamburg, New York . The Indiana-based Lake Michigan Federation Ferry Sloop Project plans to put ' 1 Willit" to work on similar projects of education and organization on the Great Lakes. (See SH 20:42.) ... Clearwater is again docked at Lynch's Marine in Saugerties for the winter. Volunteers welcome to help with maintenance. Call (914) 246-8290 and let it ring! Ferry Sloops, Inc., Box 529, Yonkers NY 10702; Lake Michigan Ferry

Working the bench. Roping and wo rking grommets on square sails for the Gaze/a Primeiro. BOX 71 - EAST BOOTHBAY, MAINE 04544 - TEL. (207) 633-5071

WIDE DECK CANVAS

Sailing at Five O'clock? Why Not? Dock your boat right at your office door! Handsome workspace still available at Stamford's Harbor Plaza . Call Bill Fox: 203/357-0123

Harbor m PlazaW 43 Lindstrom Road

Stamford Connecticut

SCHOONER VOYAGER 6 DAY CARIBBEAN CRUISES

-

-

-

-

omas, St. Maarten & Antigua $440 all Inclusive. U.S.C.G. Inspected. VOYAGER CRUISES Steamboat Wharf Mystic, CT 06355 203-536-0416

"Defiance" -

SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982

Homeporf

Sclioo 11er Cove/Harbor Plnzn.

Collins Development Corporation

25


SHIP NOTES,

MUSEUM OUALilY

SHIP MODELS

Sloop Project, PO Box 283 , Michigan City IN 46360; Clearwater, 112 Market St., Poughkeepsie NY 12601. The maiden voyage of sloop Welcome took place in July as part of the 200th anniversary celebration of the founding of i\:{ackinac Island. Her construction took place as an ex-

THE DEPARTMENT OF SHIP MODEL SALES AND SERVICE

exists as the nation's first professional business devoted to the propagation, documentation and care of museum quality ship models. "MUSEUM QUALITY"

ship models, registered and scratch built using techniques and materials required to meet museum standards , are being offered by the Department of Ship Model Sales and Service. Priced from $1 ,000 .

Viewing by appointment only.

Museum Quality Ship Models Brochure

$1.00

DEPARTMENT OF SHIP MODEL SALES AND SERVICE

Inventory Subscription, published quarterly, and Museum Quality Ship Models Brochure $12 .00 Send check or money order to: RM. Wall, Director DEPARTMENT OF SHIP MODEL SALES & SERVICE Room 2 I Mystic Seaport Museum Stores, Inc. I Mystic, CT 06355

hibit at Ft. Mackinac and was funded from admission fees of that fort and Ft. MichiliMackinac-both administered by the Mackinac Island State Park Commission. The original Welcome was built at Ft. MichiliMackinac in 1775 as a private trading vessel sailing between that port on Lake Michigan and Detroit. The British government bought the vessel during the American Revolution and used her as a supply and transport vessel. She went down in 1891. Welcomeisnowdockedin Mackinac City and is open to the public from June through Labor Day. Commission, Mackinac Island Ml 49757 .

TRADITIONAL LAUNCHES Stern and Paddlewheelers, Tugs, Cruisers, Custom Design, Restorations The double-ended sidewheel ferry G.A. Boeckling, built in 1909 to ferry excursionists from downtown Sandusky, on Lake Erie, to nearby Cedar Point amusement park, is the object of a drive to see her returned to the Sandusky waterfront and opened to the public as a maritime museum . Since 1952, the 156' double-decked steamer has been used as a floating warehouse in Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin. It is hoped to see her return to Sandusky on the 30th anniversary of her departure, July IO, 1982. Friends of the Boeckling, PO 736, 111 E. Shoreline Drive, Sandusky OH 44870.

STEAM, ELECTRIC, GAS, DIESEL Glass, Wood Epoxy, Aluminum, Steel Teak, Mahogany, Cedars Bare hulls from $1,300 . Complete launches, quality finished, from $6,995. Please enclose $2 for literature and photos:

CLASSIC YACHTS DIVISION Rhode Island Marine Services, Inc. P.O. Box 209, Wakefield, RI 02880 26

"Viking World," an exhibit of 500 objects and artifacts ranging from 400 to 1100 AD (pre-Viking and Viking era) is on view at the Museum of Science and Industry, February 25-April 9. The Museum has expanded the exhibit, originally displayed at the Museum of National Antiquities in Stockholm, Sweden, which highlights the technology of the Vikings. Included are a ship model display showing the development of traditional shipbuilding and a full scale model cross-section of the 900 AD Gokstad warship. (The original vessel was found in Norway and is on display at the Viking Ship Museum in Oslo. A replica,

SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982


SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS sailed to Chicago in 1893 for the Columbian Exposition, is awaiting restoration at Lincoln Park .) Museum, 57th St. & Lake Shore Dr., Chicago IL 60637.

AUSTRALIA The Newsletter of the Australian Association for Maritime History reports that the wreck of Yongala, a 3664-ton liner of the Adelaide SS Co. which disappeared in a cyclone in March 1911 offTownsville, Queensland with 120 lost has been named "historic" under the Historic Shipwrecks Act of 1976. First located in 1947 and found again by divers in 1958, Yongala is within the Great Barrier Reef Region, soon to be declared a protected zone, permitting access but not salvaging or damage to the wreck or surrounding marine life. Minister for Home Affairs and the Environment, Queensland Government, Brisbane, Queensland. Queensland Maritime Museum exhibits include ship models, artifacts from wrecks in the area, a reconstruction of the bridge of an early steamship Diamantha, and a WW II frigate installed in drydock so that restoration may be undertaken. Plans include a shore-based museum at the South Brisbane Dry Dock site, and preservation and operation of the coalfired steam tug Forceful. Museum, S. Brisbane Dry Dock, Brisbane, Queensland. The Maritime Services Board of New South Wales has established the Goat Island

Museum, in Sydney Harbor, in order to provide an historical survey of the Board's work, a history of the island, piloting and navigation, and the changing shape of the outports of the harbor. The Museum has acquired one of the whaleboats of the pilot vessel Captain Cook Ill. Museum, Goat Island, Sydney Harbor, New South Wales. An energetic group of volunteers keeps on top of maintenance aboard the 1885 iron bark Polly Woodside, permanently berthed in the Yarra River at the Melbourne Maritime Museum: such tasks as sandblasting, refurbishing the pinrails, making new blocks and building bunks . Built in the yard of Harland and Wolff, Queen's Island, Belfast and acquired by a New Zealand firm in 1903 (who named her Rona), she traded with other Pacific Islands until she hit a reef in Well. ington (NZ) harbor in 1921. The Adelaide Steamship Co. then brought her to Sydney for use as a coal lighter and dredge. In 1967, the National Trust of Australia was given the bark for restoration, which was substantially completed in 1980 with the crossing of the main royal yard. Polly Woodside, corner Normanby & Phayer St., S. Melbourne 3205, Victoria.

JAPAN Remains of72 hulls discovered underwater off Nagasaki are believed to be from Kublai Khan's fleet, sunk during an attempted inva-

sion 700 years ago. Kublai, Mongol founder of the Ming dynasty in China and grandson of Genghis Khan, failed in his first invasion attempt, 1274, and tried again in 1281, coming across in overwhelming force from China and Korea. But a typhoon arose and sank 1,000 of the 4,400 invading warships, giving rise to the kamikaze or "divine wind" tradition which inspired Japanese suicide pilots in World War II. Artifacts from the su nken hulls include pottery, weapons, and the personal seal of one of the Khan's generals-all to be donated to the local museum at Imari Bay. Dr. Torao Mozai, professor emeritus at Tokyo University, discovered the ships by following up on local rumor. He is working to protect the wrecks, and to build up the archaeological expertise and controls required to preserve this priceless find. We look forward to reporting further developments in this work, which is of vital interest to the worldwide historic community.(See 'Letters.')

IN MEMORIAM WILLIAM AVERY BAKER, Curator of MIT's Francis Russell Hart Museum in Cambridge, Massachusetts, an historic naval architect of international renown, who was also a hero to aspiring scholars and boatbuilders, and a distinguished contributor to these pages, died September 8. An appreciation of his work will appear in a future issue. w

THE SYMBOL OF GOODS AND SERVICES TO THE INDUSTRY Martha's Vineyard Shipyard (Since 1861)

Gasoline • Diesel Fuel • Ice • CNG & Propane • Marine Hardware• U.S. Chart Agency• Dyer Dinghies • International Paints • Complete Marine Supplies We monitor VHF channels 9 & 16 A full service yard specializing in sailboats and auxilliaries. New boat construction in both wood and fiberglass. Complete hull and engine repairs. Rigging work of all kinds including swaging and rope-to-wire splices. 16 ton mobile lift. Over 112 acre of inside storage completely sprinkler protected. Builders of the 291 Vineyard Vixen and the Vixen 34, cruising auxilliaries built with traditional detail and craftsmanship.

Beach Road, Vineyard Haven, MA 02568 Telephone 61 7 -693-0400 SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982

•Wire Rope• Cordage/Mooring Lines • Splicing Capabilities to 5" LARGE INVENTORIES OVERNIGHT SERVICE

-ATLANTIC CORDAGE CORP. 60 Grant Ave., Carteret, New Jersey 07008 (201) 541-5300•Telex: 139374 Cable: ATLANCORD

27


The Providence at sea.

Firing a salute off Annapolis. Photos courtesy the author.

Sloop Providence at Yorktown by John R. Wadleigh, Rear Admiral, USN (ret.)

Our Advertisers are our Standing Rigging Tell them you 'Saw it in Sea History'~-

SOLID BRASS PAPERWTS prop keychain $ 4

SHIP MODELS INTERNATIONAL 1708 SALEM ROAD CHAMPAIGN, ILLINOIS 61820

add $1.50 postage,order 28

Sloop Providence from Newport, Rhode Island, the 67 ' reproduction of the Continental Navy's first authorized ship and the first combat command of John Paul Jones, stood up the York River on October 16, leading several sailing craft carrying soldiers of the "Rochambeau March" to the scene of the final battle of the Revolution. Victory at Yorktown in 1781 would not have been possible if the British under General Cornwallis could have been reinforced by sea. Six weeks before the Yorktown battle a French fleet under Admiral DeGrasse had defeated the British fleet off the Virginia Capes, sealing up Cornwallis's army. French and American forces were'able to close in by land and by sea, as Providence and her consorts were demonstrating. After a busy summer in New England waters, joining historic celebrations and cruising youthful apprentices of the American Sail Training Associaton, Providence had a brief refit and headed south on October 1 under the command of Al Roderick, with a crew augmented by ten volunteers. Dawn of October 15 found Providence and Pride of Baltimore moored at the Naval Academy's Crown Sailing Center ready to receive reinforcements for troops massing at Yorktown, Virginia. These reinforcements were units of a 1200-man army of militia organizations travelling the route of General Rochambeau's French regiments from Newport to Virginia in 1781. Providence had already taken part in the first leg of the "march," carrying Rhode Island "colonials" from Newport to Providence on June 7. As guns boomed, the Colonial sloop and Baltimore clipper cast off and with a northwest breeze headed towards Greenbury Point. Weather was favorable and the embarked troops lolled on sunny decks, happily comparing their lot with that of more numerous compatriots going overland, by bus, van, and on foot, parading for enthusiastic well-wishers en route. The Providence of 1977 is a fast sailer and led The Pride all the way. John Paul Jones would have approved! Stand-

ing into port the next morning the two ships engaged in a mock 18th century action off the Yorktown waterfront-under the guns and missles of modern warships gathered for the celebrations. Seven modern destroyers and frigates including a USS Comte DeGrasse and a French DeGrasse were anchored in the river. HMS Ariadne, representing Britain's Royal Navy, smartly returned the dipped colors of Providence, saluting an opponent of two hundred years ago. Sloop Providence was conceived and built as a Bicentennial project of the state of Rhode Island. The first Providence, as the Katy, became the first ship of Rhode Island's Navy of 1775, later renamed when she was given to the new Continental Navy. Participation of the modern sloop at Yorktown added another chapter in support of our maritime heritage, which the many hundred members of Seaport '76 Foundation, her owners, want to continue on into the future. <t

Admiral Wadleigh served as President of Seaport '76, I 974-77. For his full account of Providence, see SH 12, pages 22-24.

Nautical Antiques

SEAFARER SHOP 4209 Landis Ave. Sea Isle City, NJ A full line of marine antiques and fine reproductions. Send for free brochure to:

SEAFARER Box 294 Townsends Inlet, NJ 08243 Or call: 609-263-1283 SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982


/

/

r ! /J

Since 1921, an industry leader in modernizing techniques for the movement of cargo and terminal management.

TiQ II ,

INTERNATIONAL TERMINAL OPERATING CO. INC.

â&#x20AC;¢

~

AN OGDE N COMPANY


The A111erican Sea111an Is he an endangered species like the bowhead whale? For many years our U.S. State Department has been energetically and commendably engaged in giving the oceans back to the whales. For many more decades, however, our foreign policy makers have ignored another rare and dwindling species, the American seaman. They have, in fact, .actively contributed to his wholesale disappearance. Successive U.S. Administrations have continued to sanction and encourage major American oil companies and corporations to flee the American flag and operate their ships under the shabby legalism of "flags of convenience." This "runaway" flag fleet now numbers 481 ships, whose massive tonnage dwarfs the legitimate U.S. flag merchant marine. Unfortunately, the American citizen on Main Street is not informed that this policy has brought us to the incredible point of now allowing foreign ships to carry 97% of our vital import trade and 98% of our critical and strategic raw materials without which our factories and armed forces cannot survive in a world hovering at the flashpoint of war. It is our belief that the American people elected a new President to radically change outworn policies such as this. We have high hopes for President Reagan's new Eight Point Maritime Program which pledges to reverse the longstanding and foolhardy disregard of the role of seapower in our country's future. NMU invites all Americans to join with us and with President Reagan in the continuing endeavor to keep the seafaring tradition, the skills and the way of life that are so basic a part of this nation's history flourishing under our own American flag.

National Maritime Union Shannon J. Wall, President Thomas Martinez, Secretary-Treasurer National Headquarters: 346 West 17 Street, New York NY 10011 â&#x20AC;˘ (212) 620-5700


.~

PILOT BOAT NEW YORK

New York and New Jersey Sandy Hook Pilots Serving the pilotage needs of New York Harbor since 1694

One Bay St. , P.O. Box 1694, Staten Island, N.Y. 10301 • 212 448 -3900

On April 23, 1838, the wooden -hulled paddle steamer SIRIUS arrived at New York , responsible for st.arting the first North Atlantic steamship service, heralding a new era.

~ ~

.

I

-· ~p

On April 25, 1981 , we, the men and women comprising the SIRIUS crew of today, moved across the East River and settled into our own and permanent berth alongside this historic shore. Please note our new address and communications numbers below. Capt. Wolf Spille, President

212·330· 1817

TANKER DEPARTMENT: Theo Theocharides, V.P. Chris LeSauvage

SIRIUS HOUSE - 76 Montague Street Brooklyn Hei ghts, New York 11201 Telepho ne: (212) 330-1800 Cable: .. SIRI US NEWYO RK .. lnl"I Telex: TRT 177881/I TT 422871 / RCA225111 Domestic Telex: WU 126758 / 645934 / TWX 710 -584-2207

Ed Willis Hugh Bellas·Simpson

212·330·1810 212-330· 1808 212·330·1812 212·330· 1806

DRY CARGO DEPARTMENT: James A. Bergonzi, V.P. MarkG. Wade

212·330-1843 212-330-1845

OPERATIONS AND RESEARCH: Capt. George Giouzepis, V.P. Phil Romano Janet Forti

212-330· 1830 212-330-1834 212·330· 1833

FINANCE AND ADMINISTRATION: Jose Fiorenzano, V.P. 212-330· 1835


THE BOOK LOCKER: Beyond Sumer It is, well, eerie and disturbing-and

ultimately challenging. Think of it: a sea people who came by boat to found this Tigris-Euphrates civilization! The little clay model sailboat we'd found, dating to about 31 00 BC, did not evolve on those meandering muddy rivers which we had thought embraced the cradle of civilization. It was made by people who came in under sail, from another civilization whose identity we do not know . The city of Ur, a thousand years old when Abraham left it to start the stillcontinuing story of Israel, was not the origin point of civilized, aware, timebinding man. Beyond Ur and its parent civilization Sumer (a civilization so old that the ancient Greeks and Romans had forgotten its existence) lies another civilization: a civilization that came ashore with a crash around 3100 BC, with wheeled carts, with bronze tools, weapons and ornaments (the raw materials for bronze did not exist in Sumer, so not only the materials, but the concept of bronze had to be imported from elsewhere) and with the agricultural and other disciplines necessary for urbanization. This is what Thor Heyerdahl, that invaluable world citizen, tells us, with the authoritative support of scholarly colleagues, in his Tigris book, which recounts his venture at deepsea voyaging in the kind of reed boat he believes these people might have sailed in. His book is thoughtfully reviewed by the able and learned Dr. Kreutz in the immediately adjacent column. She notes of Heyerdahl that he may have over-formalized some of his immediate conclusions, particularly in her elegant statement: ''The traffic between regions was perhaps more incremental, and less efficient and swift, than he assumes.'' And she dismisses, I think correctly, some of Heyerdahl's

second-remove speculations as to the nature of the founding civilization that came in from the sea. I think we may now accept what the legend of Gilgamesh told us, that his home, as prototypical Sumerian similar to Theseus who taught the Greeks (much later) to furrow the land with plows and the sea with oars, was overseas-in an island where he went to renew his youth toward the end of his life. A respectable body of opinion now holds that island to be Bahrein, off the Omani coast. And Bahrein clearly was a way station and probable entrepot for a seaborn commerce whose reach and power archaeologists are only now beginning to appreciate fully. How odd: I as a demicentagenarian can remember a high school pal who was all taken up with Gilgamesh-why did we not then believe what the legend so plainly told us? I lay that failure of perception to a general Western discounting of poetic truth which reached its height perhaps in the over-pragmatic Deweyesque first half of this century and is now (God be thanked) on the wane, for there are many truths about man besides this of his actual origins-which are to be come at best through poetic means. Certainly this is true of all the purposive questions of man's existence, and it is essential in seeking out the meanings of his experience as well as, to a surprising degree, the facts. Dr. Kreutz rightly calls Heyerdahl a romantic. I am reminded of Dr. George Bass's similar description in these pages of his colleague, our Curator-at-Large the Elizabethan Peter Throckmorton (SH 10:36). By wise and generous instinct both reviewers are quick to add that they would not have this otherwise: we gain too much from the quests of such romantics. PS

a

NAUTICAL BOOKS Sail • Steam • Liners • Yachts • Clippers • Schooners • Naval New • Old • Scarce • Rare Periodic Catal ogues, $4 a year

SEAWAYS BOOKS RD#1, Box 274, Rte. 94 Sali sbury Mills, NY 12577

32

BOOKS The Tigris Expedition, by Thor Heyerdahl (Doubleday & Co., Inc., Garden City, NY, 1981, 349 pp., illus., $17.95). Thor Heyerdahl' s Tigris expedition was in some ways a new departure for him. His earlier voyages, with the Kon-Tiki and the Ra II, were meant to demonstrate that man could have drifted across the oceans, using only the simplest sort of craft. The Tigris expedition was planned to prove that at least some reed boats were less primitive and more efficient than one might think, and could have provided the means to carry on extensive maritime commerce as early as 3000 BC. This experimental voyage with the Tigris, in 1978-79, could not have taken place at a better time. Scholars are increasingly prepared to accept ever earlier dates for human achievements of all sorts, as archaeological finds continue to push various forms of civilization further and further back. The cave paintings of France and Spain are perhaps 20,000 years old; we now know that skilled metallurgy was taking place in the Danube valley 6000 or more years ago, and in between those two periods hand tools became increasingly efficient. It is not hard to believe that reasonably efficient watercraft also came into use at some very remote period, and indeed Paul Johnstone, in his excellent Sea-Craft of Pre-History (Harvard University Press, 1980), assumes this to have been a paleolithic development. The only real issue, then, is how early one can date genuine sea-going voyages, over some considerable stretch of open water. Recent Mediterranean finds have provided evidence of sea commerce between Cyprus and Crete and the eastern Mediterranean mainland around 6000 BC, and this trade is assumed to have involved reed boats. Heyerdahl hoped to demonstrate the feasibility of more far-reaching sea-borne traffic around 3000 BC, between the Sumerian civilization of the Tigris and Euphrates basin and other contemporary civilizations, at the southern end of the Persian Gulf and even beyond, along the shores of the Indian Ocean. In this case, too, archaeological discoveries within the past twenty or thirty years have made it clear that interchanges were taking place, but one could not be sure by what means. Did the voyage of the Tigris prove once and for all that all of these peoples, and perhaps the contemporary Egyptians as well, were regularly and systematically in touch with each other by sea? To this question one can still give only a qualified "yes." Heyerdahl has certainly demonstrated that one can today build a reed boat capable of sailing from the Persian Gulf to SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982


II

the coast of Pakistan and then all the way back to the mouth of the Red Sea. Reed construction actually proved to be superior in several respects to a comparable wooden boat: strong, buoyant, eminently seaworthy, and more impervious to collision damage. Altogether, what Heyerdahl's experiment chiefly demonstrated was that reed hull construction in and of itself need not have precluded long ocean voyages. He is certainly right, too, in reminding us that sailing in the open sea is in many ways less hazardous than clinging to the coast. Yet cabotage, with very frequent stops, seems to have been favored by most early merchant-sailors. The trading patterns he suggests, involving long, unbroken and specialized voyages, seem too modem. One can believe in sea-trade which extended in some fashion all the way from Sumer to the Indus Valley, for example, without necessarily accepting his entire hypothesis. The traffic between regions was perhaps more incremental, and less efficient and swift, than he assumes. Moreover, surely the entire scene was not as idyllic as Heyerdahl would have us believe. He sentimentalizes, and exaggerates, the "freedom to go anywhere" of the past. Quite possibly, the Tigris came closest to the real conditions ¡of the Sumerian maritime world when it was threatened by pirates at the very start of the voyage and later found it unsafe to land at Socotra. And if Heyerdahl's "golden age" was spared our modem sorts of pollution, it unquestionably suffered from its own examples of man's greed and heedlessness. ' In other words, Thor Heyerdahl is an incurable romantic. Not content with making a solid contribution to our effort to piece together the puzzle of the past, as he has certainly done with this voyage, he cannot resist going on to postulate linkages with Atlantis and the western hemisphere. He remains a diffusionist at a time when scholarly opinion is increasingly leaning toward theories of simultaneous development. Yet if Heyerdahl were not a romantic he would never have built and sailed the Tigris, and maritime history would be the poorer for that, The Tigris Expedition is marvelous reading, and both sailors and scholars can learn a great deal from it. BARBARA M . KREUTZ

Dr. Kreutz is the Dean of the Graduate School ofArts and Sciences and a member of the History Department at Bryn Mawr College. She has published widely and given numerous scholarly papers on medieval Mediterranean shipping and maritime technology. SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982

Pacific Destiny: the Story of America in the Western Sea from the Early 1800s to the 1980s, by Edwin P. Hoyt (W.W. Norton&Co., New York, 1981, xii +323 pp., maps, $16.95). From the title, one would expect this book to be a comprehensive account of American activity in the Pacific in the 19th and 20th centuries; it is actually almost wholly devoted to a narrative of American naval operations. There is virtually nothing on the American merchant ships which first penetrated the Pacific in the late 18th century, and which continued to ply its waters under both sail and steam from that day to this. As a history of naval operations, the book opens with the cruise of the frigate Essex in the War of 1812, and proceeds with brief chapters on naval support for various mercantile enterprises, the expeditions of Wilkes, Perry, and others, the annexation of Hawaii, the Spanish-American War, the Philippine Insurrections, the Boxer Uprising, and the voyage of the "Great White Fleet" around the world. Over half of the text is devoted to a narrative of the background of World War II and American naval operations in the Pacific during that war . The book concludes with brief accounts of the Korean and Vietnam conflicts. Edwin P . Hoyt saw service in the Army Air Corps and the United States Office of War Information during World War II, and this was followed by a career as a foreign correspondent, editor, and freelance writer. He is the author of a dozen books on naval aspects of World War II as well as of others on episodes in the earlier naval history of the Pacific. He writes in a lively style, and his book makes absorbing and entertaining reading. Its coverage prior to 1941 is rather episodic, and slights the gradual development of policy between periods of action. And entertaining as it is, the book contains some careless errors-the Great White Fleet is described as passing through the Panama Canal in 1908 although that waterway was not completed until 1914 and was first used by a United States warship in 1915; the date of the establishment of the International Settlement in Shanghai is given as 1924 whereas 1863 is correct; San Diego is given as the Pacific Coast base for the American battle fleet after World War I although the ships actually anchored in the roadstead off San Pedro and Long Beach. The four-and-ahalf page bibliography is interesting but not comprehensive. Robert Johnson's important studies of the Pacific Squadron and the Asiatic Squadron, for instance, are omitted.

Naval Institute Press Over 250 books are described in this handsome, lavishly illustrated catalog and Spring '82 Supplement. Subjects include ships and aircraft, navigation and seamanship, science and engineering, nautical art and lore, history and current affairs, World War II, and professional and reference volumes. For your FREE copy, write: U.S. Naval Institute Annapolis, MD 21402 Rare and Out-of-Print Books

MARINE CATALOGS $3 (Overseas, $5) All Nautical Subjects

JULIAN BURNETI BOOKS P.O. Box 229, Atlanta, GA 30301

WANT GOOD BOOKS ABOUT BOATS? Send for International Marine Books, a great, free catalog of 500 marine titles. International Marine Publishing Company Box SH, Camden, Maine 04843

Harbor View Restaurant Italian Cuisine A delicious way to enjoy the Manhattan skyline. Live piano music nightly. Open for Lunch & Dinner. I Cadman Plaza West & Water St. Brooklyn, NY (212) 624-8820

J. Assenheim & Son Ltd. ESTABLISHED 1870

Fine Art Importers Dealers in

Marine Paintings. Watercolors & Engravings CORREGI' FRAMING 70 Pine Street New York City I0005 [212] 425-7577

33


BOOKS Such errors do not ruin a book, but they do shake the reader's confidence in the care taken by the author in JOHN HASKELL KEMBLE writing it. Dr. Kemble, retired professor of history at Pomona College, California, is author of numerous books and studies on Pacific maritime history and has pioneered or inspired much of the best work we have in this field today.

THE DROMEDARY Ship Modelers Associates has rapidly become the LARGEST company in the UNITED STATES which is solely devoted to providing only the materials required by BUILDER . Our PLAN the MODEL SHIP deparlment is the most complete in the world , offering draw ings by such notables as, MacGregor, Lusci , Underhill , Gay, Channing , Leavitt , Musees de la Marine, Mantua / Sergal, Corel , Art Amb Fusta , Breisinger, Campbell. In order lo be the only FULL SERVICE firm for the ship modeler, we also offer a com ·

plete line of books , tools , rigging and fittings, kits

from

the

U.S. and plank· on· frame

from

abroad , woods, and all of the advice that our experienced staff willingly offers. A CONTINUING CATALOG , which is never complete , is offered for a one time charge of $6 .00 postpaid .

Lois Roth 915/584-2445

6324 Belton Road El Paso, Texas 79912

FOLKWAYS RECORDS

Produces recordings in many fields of documentation around the world SINCE 1947 over 1800 records are available We have 24 Sea Song record albums available which have background and text of the songs: Shanties, war Ballads, l/'Jork, Foc'sle, On deck and below, dances, Whaler, Out-ports, River Canal, Sea. Write for complete free listings which includes detail description of our Sea Song record albums.

FOLKWAYS RECORDS 43 West 61 st Street New York. N.V. 10023

34

Jeffrey Simpson: The Hudson River, 1850-1918: a Photographic Portrait, by Jeffrey Simpson (Sleepy Hollow Press, Tarrytown, NY, 1981, 208 pp., 150 photos, $29.95) . The natural beauty of this flooded Atlantic inlet haunts these pages, in a beautiful book which shows that the camera can catch the sublimities sought after by the painters of the Hudson River School. And what an era these tumultuous decades cover! And what actors, on such a stage! We have the warm, stubborn humanity of the Roosevelts, the frigid rectitude of Vanderbilts, extravagances of Goulds and crazy-quilt eclectic cosiness of Washington Irving ... and the dazed, still confident hope shining in the eyes of immigrants newly debarked in the great city thatgrewupattheriver'sseawardend. We catch in this work a strong sense of timeless Hudson neighborhoods, and the vitality and fantastic change of the great cities, which as the author observes have a modern quality of nervous energy even in those more spacious, to us now vanished halcyon days . Vision, meticulous accuracy in historic fact, and a sense of time's sweep and flow inform the pages of this work, a visual delight and refreshment for the soul. I commend it to those who know and love the Hudson, and those who would like to understand the mightly role of the Hudson in our history and its powerful hold on men's minds. Sleepy Hollow Restorations, publishers of this book, are also custodians of that proud, eventful heritage in their three restored manors along the lower river. They have become an important regional resource and publishing authority. The Hudson River gives us new reason to be glad they do these things, and do them so well. PS Davis Boats, by Marty Loken (Center for Wooden Boats, 2770 Westlake Ave . North, Seattle WA 98109, 1981, 27 pp., $4.50 postpaid). The significance of this booklet lies in its treatment of a type of small craft important to regional history. Far too often the small work boats used by watermen and

fishermen have been ignored by maritime historians and writers. This work is an excellent example of what can be accomplished by diligent amateur research. There is nothing amateur however, about the booklet itself, which is not surprising since the author, Marty Loken, was managing editor of Alaska magazine for a number of years. The text centers around the small craft built by three generations of the Davis family in southeast Alaska. John Davis Sr. , a Tsimshian indian, was born in 1850 near Prince Rupert, British Columbia. The natives of that region were skilled builders of highly developed dugout canoes, but young John was impressed by the planked boats carried aboard visiting Hudson's Ba y Company trading schooners. He carved models of these gigs and shore boats and determined that one day he would build such craft. As he grew up he became a competent carpenter and blacksmith, eventually moving to Vancouver where he built flat-bottom skiffs. Carpenters were in demand as a result of the Seattle fire of 1889 and so John worked in that city for a time. When gold was discovered in the Yukon in 1898 John and his son Roderick joined the stampede, but instead of prospecting they mined the pockets of the miners by building flat-bottom boats and small barges on Lake Bennett. These crude craft were used for one-way trips down the Yukon River to the gold fields, carrying the prospectors and their provisions. There is included a fascinating photo of the camp at Lake Bennett, showing at least 23 boats, of great variety, under construction around a portable sawmill. After three summers of this the two Davis men returned to Seattle with enough gold to realize John' s dream of building boats. John then took his family to the Tsimshian village of Metlakatla in southeast Alaska and built a home, sawmill, boatyard, marine ways, fish saltery, general store and logging operation. The first boats turned out by Davis and Son, Boatbuilders, were flat-bottom skiffs used by the local watermen . Two men could turn out two 12-18' boats per day. Of course local woods, logged and sawn by their own mill were used. Some time before 1905 they built their first round-bottom craft, a sealing boat for the Sitka fishery. These led to the design by John of a smaller double-ender, 13' to 16' in length, which fishermen could row easier than the flat-iron skiffs, and which was considered more seaworthy. With leg of mutton rigs these boats could be sailed as well as rowed, and were used extensively in the hand-troll fishery for halibut and SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982


salmon. The discovery of one of these boats in Seattle prompted the author to do his research in Metlakatla. This boat is now owned by the Center for Wooden Boats. They are sweet little boats, stoutly built, and resemble a fine peapod in appearance. The lines and offsets of this boat were taken off by Dick Wagner and are clearly reproduced on two pages here. The advent of outboard power cau sed Roderick Davis to develop a square sterned version of the boat, and this model was built in the greatest numbers until after WW2. Roderick's son, John Davis Jr., now 65 years of age, apprenticed in the boatshop from the age of six, and is still working in shipbuilding . It is he who provides the first hand narrative that makes this history come alive. An appendix includes a description of materials for the 14' Davis boat, color scheme, and John Davis Jr. 's stem rabbit cutting jig. Scantlings are only minimally covered however. It would have been beneficial, in a work of this type, to attempt to explain why the Tsimshians, or at least John Davis Sr., so readily took up plank on frame construction when the native craft had reached such a high degree of perfection. The author mentions this change but does not explain why it came about. Did the Indian boatbuilders see the white man's boats as superior, and if so why? Were they lighter, easier to build or more seaworthy? Many today do not realize just how highly developed native canoes had become. ROBERT

B.

The 3 Masted Schooner

VICTORY CHIMES Largest Passenger Windjammer Under The U .S. Flag Sails weekly from Rockland, Maine. Coasr Guard inspected. We invite comparison. For FREE color brochure call 207-596-6060 or write:

Capt. Frederick B. Guild Box 368, Rockland, Maine, 04841

Commission Your Favorite Ship Sall or Steam ~ New or Old

ORIGINAL OIL PAINTING S OF THE SHIP OF YO UR CHOICE BY THE WELL KNO WN MARIN E ARTI ST,

" CHAUNCEY M. DEPEW" •11 N ¥'~ 24x28 PAINTING COMPLETE WITH QUALITY FRAME - $295.00 OTHER StZES PRICED PROPORTIONATELY

Why settle for a print when yo u can have an ORIGIN AL OI L PAINTING. The ship you really want for about the cost of a good lithograph. All ship portraits are on fine artist ca nvas, on ly the best oi1 paint is used. BUY DIRECT FROM THE ARTIST ANO SAVE THE DEALER COMM ISSION OF 40/60 %.

Your Broker Will Tell You: Todays best investment is origi nal art.

Calf or write: HERB H EWITT 10-R DRU ID HILL AVE. WAK EFIELD, MA. 0 1880 (6171 24S·S242

Transatlantic Liners 1945-1980 by Wiiiiam H . Miiier ''The majestic passenger liners that once cro ssed th e Atlantic before being driven from the seas by air

CHAPEL

Mr. Chapel is the Secretary of the Traditional Wooden Boat Society and Editor of its journal Lines and Offsets, in which a fuller version of this review originally appeared.

travel live again h ere in all th eir splendor." -JOHN BARKHAM REVIEW S

This h andsome new vo lume catal ogs a complete his· tory and statist ica l data for eac h vessel, accompanied by a ph otograph , for over 240 ships grouped by

owner compan y. Includes a co mplete index of pas·

Pirates, Shipwrecks and Historic Chronicles, by Edward Rowe Snow (Dodd Mead, New York 1981, 216 pp., illus., $10.95). Mr. Snow's 97th book will be appreciated by young and old, but is directed more specifically towards the younger reader. The best of the 28 tales it contains deal with his own experiences. I was enthralled by "The Code to the Treasure," a tale of the happenstance and detective work that led him to $1800 in buried treasure. The story of his mother's girlhood adventures in ''Alice on the Bark Russell'' is quite diverting, but the best is, I think, the last one, "Forget-Me-Not," a haunting love story. Illustrations include one particularly noteworthy photograph taken of Boston in 1860, from a balloon. It is America's first aerial photo. Anyone inSEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982

senger ships, a listing of th e 25 largest and th e 25 longest liners from 1945- 1980. 222 pages.6'!4' x

9 3!•'. cloth,250 halftones.

-----------,

Send your check to ARCO PUBLISHING . INC . 219 Park Avenue South . New York . Ny 10003 I enclose a check for the lollowing books· copy(ies) of TRANSATLANTIC LINERS • 5267 at $21 .95 each plus postage and handling . copy(ies) of THE WOODEN FIGHTING SHIPS IN THE ROYAL NAVY at $19 .95 each plus postage and handling . • 2369 Add $1.00 lor the first book and 35¢ for each additional book·s postage and handling . NOTE : New York. New Jersey and California residents must add local tax .

$21.95

The Wooden Fighting Ship In the Royal Navy, AD 897 - 1860 by E .H _H_ Archibald With magnifice nt illustrations. this superb book describes the history of th e wooden battle ship . showing ho w ship des ign affected battle ta ctics , and providing co mplete tec hnical information -from dimensions and ratin g syst ems to riggin g and gunnerv. M eticulously drawn illustra ti ons of Twodeckers. Frigat es. Sloops, Ga lleons, Fireships.

Corvettes, were copied from original architect's plans and models. Re prints rare ly seen hist ori cal notes and data on th e Royal Service. Appendices. Glossarv.

Name

174 poges, 9" x 12", 60fu//-co /or and II b/ack -and# $l . wh ite il/usrrarions, cloth . 2369 9 95

Address City

-------------State

# 5267

Zip

ARCO PUBLISHING, INC. 219 Peril AYenue South , New York, N.Y. 10003

5-37-12-81-T

35


BOOKS terested in the lore and legend of the sea, especially of the New England area, will find this book both interesting and informative. ANDREW BESHEER

Mr. Besheer is a crew member of the Chesapeake Bay skipjack Mamie A. Mister, sailing out of the National Society's East River pier. The Window to the Street, a mid-19th Century View of Cold Spring Harbor, by Harriet G. Valentine (Exposition Press, Smithtown NY, 1981, 150 pp., illus., $8.00). Helen Rogers was a bright, inquisitive and watchful observer of much that transpired in the whaling era of Cold Spring Harbor, New York. Her diary, which forms the core of this book, provides the reader with a rare and observant look into the social ways of her life, told with attention to detail and perceptiveness. We are in great need of such personal accounts to inform us of the setting in which maritime matters occurred. Helen Rogers was clearly an interesting and interested person and we are indebted to Harriet C. Valentine for opening the window she provided. MELVIN A. CONANT

~ri:3'.;l3~~3'B__,__.._....,~....... nn~a·-tltltl

0

MARINE ANTIQUES, DECORS, GIFTS • OIL & ELECTR IC LAMP • TEL EGRAPH

f>\

• SQUARE & ROUND

w

w1wooo

PORTHOLE . PORTHOLE

O R BRASS LE G . SHIP CLOCK

e>

More books ...

t

John Haley Bellamy: Carver of Eagles, by Yvonne Brault Smith (Portsmouth Marine Society, Peter E. Randall, Publisher, Portsmouth NH, 1982, 103 pp., illus., color photo, $15.95). The career and somewhat stormy life of one of this country's most famed wood carvers. Bellamy (18361914) was responsible for such figureheads as the monumental Lancaster Eagle, the 3,200 pound figurehead now on display at the Mariners Museum.

,

• SHIP FURNITURE • DIVER ' S HELMET • SHIP BELL & PL ATE • SEARCH LIGH T; TEAK

tm r5

.

GRATE • BINNACLE & SHIP COMPASS•

CHRONOMETER • BAROME T ER ,

.

OAR • SEXTANT • CARGO NET

BAROGRAPH , • FOG HORN

• INCLINOMETER • PRESSURE GAUGE

r

__..._...

.

· LOG METE R •R OPE FENDER & LADDER · PULLEY

~. . .~~ ~ ~....~~

• SEACHEST •WINO SPEED METER • BRASS GIFT

OUR SHIP- BREAKING YARD

(l

AND REPRODUCTION PLANT IN TAIWAN

~

--

~

·t~

225 KEARNY ST SAN FRANCISCO, CA 94108 TEL. ( 415 ) 433-0464

-

TELEX · RCA 171027

-O~;R- ~; ~~ ~:;-A-:- -;;O~

-;- -

1)

RETAIL BUYERS: SEND $3 FOR •a2 COLOR CAT A.. AV AIL. 9/81. 300 ITEMS AT THE LOWEST PRICE IN U.S.

2)

WHOLESALE DEALER: SEND $1.5 FOR NEW •a 1 CAT A.. BUSINESS CARD & RESALE NO. ARE REQUIRED.

3)

DISTRIBUTOR WANTED: PLS WRITE LETTERHEAD FOR DETAILS. MOST TERRITORIES ARE OPENED.

~

~aa~GG~~uann36

Mr. Conant, trustee of the Cold Spring Harbor Whaling Museum and of the Calvert Maritime Museum in Solomons, Maryland, is author of "Heralds of Their Age" and other studies.

~l

gl

A Book of Sea Journeys, by Ludovic Kennedy (Rawson, Wade Publishers, Inc., New York NY, 1981, 395 pp., illus., $14.95). A collection of writings about the sea and voyaging by travellers, explorers, naval personalities, sailors in small boats on large oceans, it includes accounts of stylish times on liners, grim conditions of slave ships, naval incidents, immigrant packets, told by the likes of Kipling, Whitman, Sylvia Plath, Ann Davison, Churchill, Nicholas Monsaratt, Noel Coward, W,IH. Auden and Shackleton amongst othrers well-known and not-so wellknmwn. SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982


The Oyster Wars of Chesapeake Bay, by John R. Wennersten (Tidewater Publishers, Centerville MD, 1981, 147 pp., illus. , $12.95) . This lively and well researched account of the community and watermen who oystered on the Chesapeake in the decades following the Civil War includes investigation of the political struggles between Maryland and Virginia over boundaries for the sake of this profitable crop, police and pirates on the water, and the often untold contribution of black watermen to the heritage. Material Culture of the Wooden Age, ed. by Brooke Hindle (Sleepy Hollow Press, Tarrytown NY, 394 pp., illus., $22.50). A collection of ten essays on various topics relating to how wood shaped our culture, including "Saw, Axe and Auger," by Professor Joseph A. Goldenberg, Virginia State University at Petersburg. This piece deals with economic and cultural factors in the evolution of wooden shipbuilding in this country and touches upon socio-economic, political and resource changes that contributed to the decline of the trade. Mr. Roosevelt's Steamboat, by Mary Helen Dohan (Dodd Mead & Co., New York, NY, 1981, 194 pp., illus., $10.95). Story and adventures of the New Orleans, built and driven by Nicholas and Lydia Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelt's greatgrandfather and mother. She was the first steamboat to voyage down the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, from Pittsburgh to New Orleans, in 1811-12.

WHEN GRAIN WAS KING-BUFFALO HARBOUR 1870

In 1842 Mr. Dart built the world's first grain elevator; by 1870 Buffalo's second generation of his elevators attest that this bustling Great Lakes' port had surpassed even Danzig on the Baltic as the grain milling ca~ital ?f the world. Now available in a limited edition of 750 full color art pnnts 1s When Grain Was King-Buffalo Harbour in 1870 by marine artist, Raymond A. Massey, ASMA. The print image size is 32" x 20". Signed print, $75. Signed and remarqued print, $125 . VISA/MC accepted. Also available: Darwin's HMS Beagle; Shackleton's Endurance; USS The Sullivans in Convoy of the Cripples. Order from:

TYNE PRINTS 112 Walton Drive, Buffalo, New York 14226 (716) 839-0185

Piloting and Dead Reckoning, by Capt. H.H. Shufeldt, USN (Ret.) and G.D. Dunlap (Naval Institute Press, Annapolis MD, 143 pp., illus., $11.95). A basic text geared to boaters who need to know how to handle a vessel safely offshore. The book is written in an informal style, yet provides adequate information regarding seamanship, rules of the road, navigation, weather and basic equipment. Seattle's Waterfront: The Walker's Guide to Elliott Bay, by Marc J. Hershman, Susan Heikkala and Caroline Tobin (Waterfront Awareness, dist. by University of Washington Press, Seattle WA, 97 pp., illus., photo, $5.95) . "The waterfront is Seattle's raison d'etre." This publication traces the history and dynamics of the port of Seattle, from the time before the white man pushed out th~ Duwamish Indian settlements to early commercial pioneers, shipbuilding, the "mosquito fleet" of steamers that carried mail, passengers and cargo in Puget Sound, the railroads, the boom brought SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982

Figurehead, circa 1850, 28 inches high.

HESPER

â&#x20AC;˘ Int.

Fine 19th Century Marine Art P.O. Box 218,

Wiscasset, Maine 04578

207-882-7208 37


BOOKS about by the Alaskan Gold Rush, cargo handling and recreation. Illustrated with wonderful photographs which make this guide to Elliott Bay worthwhile and educational, even if you don't live near Seattle.

PRESENTS

THE FIRST ANNUAL EXHIBITION OF AMERICAN MARINE ARTISTS AN INVITATIONAL SHOW FOR SELECTED MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MARINE ARTISTS.

MARCH 25-APRIL 11 LIST OF PARTICIPATING ARTISTS Lou Bonamarte Peter Egeli Edward J. Elhoff John A. English Carl G. Evers Henry Jerome Gorin, Jr. Frank Handlen Al Helner Norma Jay Charles F. Kenney Raymond Massey Raul J. Mina-Mora James E. Mitchell Richard C. Moore Ben Neill Bruce Roberts Charles Raskob Robinson Peter W. Rogers William E. Ryan Robert 0. Skemp William D. Stille Charles Vickery Thomas W. Wells Elaine M. Wentworth

Motorboat Historical Society Yearbook (MHS, c/ o David Eastmen, PO Box 1080 Durham NH, 20 pp., $5 postpaid). A fine booklet which promotes serious research and reporting of recreational motorboating history. In addition to articles on subjects such as " The Disappearing Propeller Motor Boat, ' ' research techniques such as photographing printed matter and boats in the field, the Yearbook offers listings of pertinent resources such as other publications, dealers and reprints . (See SH 20:37)

MARINE CHRONOMETERS Bought, Sold and Serviced Restoration and Appraisals

Notes on Chesapeake Bay Skipjacks, by Howard I. Chapelle (Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, St. Michaels, Md ., 44 pp ., illus., incl. 12 plan drawings, $2.95) . This fine booklet, with an introduction by Museum Director R.J . Holt, is a reprint of a Chapelle article which originally appeared in American Neptune. It includes a history and carefully detailed description of the design and construction of the Chesapeake Bay oyster boats with rigging specifications and plans for twelve historic vessels. For want of Trade: Shipping and the New Jersey Ports, 1880-1783, by James H . Levitt (The New Jersey Historical Society, Newark NJ, 1981, 224 pp., illus., $19.95). First in the Thomas Alva Edison series on New Jersey economic history focusing on Perth Amboy, Burlington, and Salem. Majesty at Sea: The Four-Stackers, by John H. Shaum, Jr. and William H . Flayhart III (W .W. Norton & Co ., Inc., NewYorkNY, 1981, 168pp.,oversizeand illus., $29.95) . The careers of these luxurious passenger liners built between 1897 ¡ and 1921 for transatlantic and UK/ South African service. Some of the vessels served important wartime roles as well. Extensive photos including 28 color plates. ERRATUM Through editorial confusion, we listed Frederick S. Allis, Jr. as editor of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts' Seafaring in Colonial Massachusetts, reviewed in SH 22. The actual editor of this volume is Philip C.F. Smith, Curator of the Philadelphia Maritime Museum. Mr. Allis's distinguished contribution is as general editor of the Society's publications.

(BROCHURE S A VAILABLE )

See New York by Water

GATEWAY ART GALLERY

55' RN Wahoo is avai lable for your custom tailored cruises and scuba diving trips. Cruise NY, Conn., Block Is., or the Hudson, daily or weekends.

333-A PERUVIAN AVENUE PALM BEACH . FLORIDA 33 480 TELEPHONE 305-832-0010

38

Steamboats for Rondout: Passenger Service between New York and Rondout Creek, 1829 through 1963, by Donald C. Ringwald (The Steamship Historical Society, 345 Blackstone Blvd., Providence, RI, 144 pp., illus., maps, $17.CX>) . A well-presented history of the steamboats which ran between Rondout (one of the major ports on the Hudson during the coal trade) and New York from 1829 to 1863 . An appendix includes the operational schedules, measurements and engine data on all the known steamers employed on that route during that time. The author, who has served as president of the Steamship Historical Society and as editor of their publication, Steamboat Bill, also tells of the people who handled these vessels. Many fine photos and maps.

The Voyage of Torres, by Brett Hilder (University of Queensland Press, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia, 1980, 194 pp., 71 illus., incl. 6 color maps, $21.75). A reconstruction of the day-to-day route of Captain Luis de Baez Torres' voyage in 1606 along the southern coast of New Guinea, through the straits which are now named after him, to Manila. Hilder, an Australian navigator and seaman, has amassed considerable evidence to develop a detailed and credible account of this important voyage.

J. P. Connor & Co. Agents for Thomas Mercer, Ltd.

P.O. Box 794, Devon PA 19333 Tel: 215-644-1474

Unders ea Adventures, Inc. Box 888, Miller Place, NY 11 764 T e l: 516-928-3849

SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982


SHIP MODELS SOLD• APPRAISED• PURCHASED• RESTORED

Traditional scrimshaw from leading maritime museums and contemporary scrimshaw now available in replica-teeth, boxes, desk accessories, jewelry. These fine reproductions have been painstakingly recreated in a specially formulated material, polymer ivory, to provide you with the beauty of the original without using whale products. Do your own, scrimshaw with our kits and blanks. For a full color brochure of our "Save the Whale Collection" of scrimshaw send $1 . 00 to

~

(~

America's largest ship model emporium-over 350 clipperships, whalers, schooners, riverboats, tugboats, admiralty models, partial cutaways, etc. presently in inventory. Models range from 8" to 8' in length! Our clientele includes numerous collectors, dealers, restaurants, museums, banks, etc. Long recognized as realistic investments, ship models have become one of the country's major art forms which offer pleasure as well as a key hedge to inflation. The pleasure of viewing a beautiful ship model never wanes! Our integrity and reputation in this very specialized field has led to our receiving no less than 11 national writeups! It has also allowed us to acquire many of the country's finest collections and estate settlements. If you desire a museum quality scale model of your own yacht, one of our 38 qualtiy model builders will build it for you! NOTE: Please write for a spectacular color photo of our shop! Visitation by appointment only. Thank you.

J,

ARTEK, INC. Dept. S

<'Ive

., ANTRIM,~-

'>)tx.

\\·\)

LANNAN NAUTIQUES 259 Harvard Street, Quincy, Mass. 02170 Tel: 617-479-5091 Write or call day/night. Conveniently located 7 mi. south of Boston

MARINE ART by PAUL McGEHEE

NANTUCKET in 1908, a beautiful full -color limited-edition print by PAUL McGEHEE, renowned American marine and landscape artist. Image size 18314'' x 30" Edition 750 SIN $100; 200 Remarqued $150. Send for FREE 14-PAGE FULL-COLOR CATALOG depicting all 16 editions listing sizes and prices. Subjects include 19th century American steamboats, wildlife, hunting scenes, sailing ships, trains, etc. © 1982 hy Poul McGehee DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME

SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982

FREE COLOR CATALOG ART RECOLLECTION S, INC. 704 N. Glebe Rd., SH212 Arlington, Virginia 22203 Tel.: (703) 528-5040

39


MARINE ART: Noble, Heuston, Wells Look at Three Quite Different Vessels There is space in John Noble's art, and a sense of things that matter moving through the universe, caught pictorially in small particulars. Does not the quick smear of white under the dolphin striker suggest-instantly and completely-the smell of wind-disturbed water, rain in the offing, and more of both to come? Don't you feel the great fabric of the schooner, her weathered wood and salt-seasoned canvas, turning and bridling to her anchor while she settles her feathers and her people thank God they'll spend this night at rest? These are seamanly perceptions; but I submit that a non-seaman can feel them as well. One need only walk into John Noble's world-which can be done with confidence, for nothing in it will ever let you down.

Museum Quality Ship Models large collection for sale SHIP MODELS INTERNATIONAL

1708 Salem Champaign, Ill. 61820

John paints nothing but what he sees and has known; he hates nostalgia and sentimentalism passionately, because they blur and smudge his intimate affair with a world full of meanings. Is art, after all, a way to come at history? You bet it is. For history is not the dead hand of the past, it is the living, continuing story of man. Man before our time, man in our time, and man in time to come. The whole world does not, by the way, agree with this definition of history but we are dedicated to it. So it comes rather easy and natural that John Noble became the recipient of the National Society's 13th Annual James Monroe Award ... walking in the footsteps of such good chaps as Bob Albion and Alan Villiers. We do not present

c Print fold er w r i t e: OF SEA & SHIPS

Š

420 So. Beverly Dr., Sui te 207 Beverl y Hill s, CA 90212.

a full discussion of John's work here-a thing we long to see done in a separate publication-but it has been reviewed in SH 8 and 13, and we would be glad to send copies of that discussion gratis to anyone who writes to ask for it. No, instead we hope to shed a little light in the work of two other artists who do not know each other, or John Noble. What do they have in common? They have been in the scenes they depict, "they have been there" as the current idiom has it-and in their work they are true to what they have lived through. Each paints, thinks, sees the world in utterly different style from the others. But history dwells, we think, in the work of each-and she is a very discriminating lady. PS

NAUTICAL ANTIQUES Nautical Brass is the only newsletter for collectors of nautical antiques and collectibles. Send for our free brochure. NAUTICAL BRASS P .O. Box 744T Montrose, CA, 91020

KIRSTEN GALLERY INC. 5320 Roosevelt Way, NE Seattle, WA 98105 206-522-2011

Introduces ''The Coast Guard Buoy Tender Fir"

13314" x 20" image size

Steve Mayo

A new series of four limited edition historical maritime prints by Steve Mayo: 1 The Coast Guard Buoy Tender Fir 2 The Steam Tug Iroquois 3 The Send $2 for 4 full Imperial Eagle and 4 The Bark}. 0. Peters & the Richard Holyoke.

color cards of prints

Edition of each print: 650 signed and numbered. Price $65 and $200 remarqued Printed on 100% rag buckeye museum finish paperr. 40

SE1A HISTORY, WINTER 1982


Schooners Running for Cover Behind Cape Henry circa 1930 by John Noble

The date of this scene of vessels scooting for the protection of land is 1929 and, to pursue the time element further, the vessel in the foreground is the Bath-built 4-master, Annie C. Ross. She is 12 years old. The tern in the distance only 10 and I, older than either, am an aged 16. The Ross has just dropped anchor and the crew is tying up sails waiting for the worst. Notice the two figures struggling with the inner jib. At this time the Ross carried 5 head sails. There was the fifth jib (morning glory-taken in at dark, set in the morning) beyond the outer jib seen in the picture-but I was afraid of making the drawing less legible by including it. Oddly, two years later in a blow she carried away this jibboom-a shorter one was shipped which set jibs as seen here . Now Captain Zuljevic of the Ross had something that was none too common aboard sail at this time-a radio-not a commercial one but a contrivance of the period which enabled him to get an occasional weather report. It ran off one wet battery plus two kinds of dry batteries. That may give a hint about it to some electronics historian. There was, of course, no electricity on the schooner. It was late summer. Now the Captain, somewhere between and off Hatteras and Virginia Beach, hearing an ominous note from this radio (probably seconded by the glass), had run here to escape as much dirt as possible. This escaping and running for cover were, after all, the ne plus ultra hallmarks of the schoonerman's cunning and art. The three-master followed us in. She probably had no radio but her barometer gave warning and no doubt we influenced her by giving her a clue. This phenomenon of schooner following schooner-following schooner to shelter was common. The vessel ahead must know something. I must add that Captain Zuljevic besides this radio had a unique barometer-French-made which recorded changing pressures via pen on a paper cylinder hour by hour, day by day. It pictorialized the rhythm of pressures. This barometer it was hinted (plus his abiding and unholy luck) was the real reason for his making some of the fastest passages recorded in his time on the East Coast. He had a third and even more im-

Joe's Rope Shop 159 John Street New York, NY 10038 Tel: 212-344-0130

SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982

II .

.

.

pressive possession. Framed on the cabin wall was a universal master's ticket-giving him license to command all tonnages-in all oceans-freight or passenger-sail or steam. I wonder if there is a living man today having this awesome carte blanche. It was decorated with a fine engraving of the great American sailing vessel the Shenandoah. And do you know what? For all my former vaunting of memory I really don't know whether we were running for the lee of Cape Henry or Cape Charles. Unroll the chart and decide where you would run your four-master with a Northeaster due. .ti

FERRYBANK RESTAURANT Seafood• Steaks• Chops

(212) 852-3137 One Front Street, Brooklyn, NY 11201

SONGS AND SEA CHANTIES from the days of commercial sail. STEADY AS SHE GOES is the title of this beautiful LP record album of 14 stirri ng, raucous, lovely, tragic songs of the sea sung by experts. Unique gift for· Sea History buffs. Send mailing instructions and $7.75 to Collector Records, 1604 Arbor View Rd ., Silver Spring , MD 20902.

Rare and Out of Print

MARITIME & NAVAL BOOKS

Send 2 International Reply Coupons for Airmail Despatch of lists containing over 1000 REASONABLY PRICED BOOKS Frank Smith 60 Salisbury Avenue North Shields Tyne and Wear NE29 9PF England

R.H. JOHN CHART AGENCY Salutes the

Galveston Historical Foundation and the barque

Elissa 518 23rd St.. Galveston. Texas

41


HARTFORD, A View of the State House from the Connecticut River Waterfront, 1876.

SEA HISTORY PRINTS BY JOHN STOBART

A collection of important harbor and river views BOSTON, Clipper Lightning 1854; GEORGETOWN, Potomac Wharf 1842; NEW YORK, Packet Orpheus, East River 1835; NANTUCKET, Sailing Day 1841. Published as signed, limited edition collector's prints, prices are $300 signed. Other prints are

during the heyday of the merchant sailing ship. also available. All prices are subject to change by availability and the dictates of the collector's market. Through the generosity of the artist, half the cost of each print will go to benefit the work of the NMHS, and is therefore tax-deductible.

NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY 2 Fulton Street, Brooklyn, NY 11201 Tel: 212-858-1348

SEA HISTORY PRINTS The Young America This famous ship has become a symbol of the sail training effort of the Ship Trust in the United States. We are now pleased to offer a limited edition of 850 prints of the brigantine Young America by the gifted young artist Christopher Blossom, who sails in her crew. This painting, which appeared on the cover of SEA HISTORY #17, is beautifuly reproduced using six inks on 1000/o rag paper. Each print is numbered and signed by the artist, and the first 100 are also remarqued.

The Brigantine Young America, by Christopher Blossom ~--------------------------

Image size is 30" x 17 Yi". Paper size 23" x 35". Price: $75. Price remarqued $150.

! I I

To: National Maritime Historical Society, 2 Fulton St., Brooklyn, NY 11201

Through the generosity of the artist, proceeds from the sale of this print will go to the Ship Trust to keep the Young America sailing.

I ! I I I

NAME - - - - - - - --

I have enclosed my check for D $75 for a signed and numbered print. D $150 for a signed, numbered and remarqued print. ----------------

ADDRESS _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ ZIP _ __

_

_

_ __


"FOG PERIL" The "L.A. Dunton" menaced by an ocean giant on Georges Bank in 1921.

TH 0 MAS ff 0 YNE

The Great Schooners, limited edition prints from paintings by

"Not only does he possess a thorough understanding of the anatomy of oceans, waves, wind and the weight of water - he also has an instinctive sense of the poetry of the sea." Hoyne's interest in the history and ro-

mance of the great sailing and fishing vessels began during his boyhood on the coast of Maine and continued through his Naval Career. Today he is one of the prime historians in this field.

Retail price - signed and numbered $200.00. Remarqued $500.00. Editions limited to 780. Eight color plate lithograph process, finest rag paper.

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED

Prices subject to change.

Image 211/2 x 27 - $200.00.

rJoEDEMERSPRIN~,INC.------------,

I

P. 0. BOX 3303, HILTON HEAD ISLAND, s. c. 29928 PHONE 803-842-4242

I I I I I

0 Color catalog $2.00 0 Print $200.00 plus $12.00 shipping

s I

I I

Name Address C ity

State

Zip

I I I I

LPh:------------ ~JoeD~e=i:l:_l: J


Torpedoed!

WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE . .. between a CLARK SAIL and all the rest? CLAR K sails are made expressly for cruising. so eve ry detail is aimed at making our sa il s s tronger, longer lasting and easier to ha ndle. We use on ly soft. eas ily ma naged sa il c loth . Al l fi ni sh deta il s suc h as bo ltrope, ra tt a ils, ta ck, clew. luff. foo t and ree f eyes are hand· sewn in t he bes t t ime- ho nored and proven fashion. In th e long hau l, wouldn't you real ly be better off with CLA RK sails? There really is a big difference•

ST.

ESSE~,CONNECTICUT 084%8 _20:1>181-0512

Born in 1906, Mr Heuston studied art in the 1930s and signed on a freighter to see the world. When the US was thrust into World War II late in 1941 he went to sea again. On July 9, 1942 Heuston 's ship, the year-old, 16. 5 knot Grace Line freighter Santa Rita, was torpedoed 750 miles off Puerto Rico. Heuston and all but three of the crew got away in the ship's boats. Heuston 's boat was picked up by the US destroyer Mayo after 8 days. Here is his picture painted aboard the /ifeboat using salt water because the f resh water was needed for the men-who signed their names on the sail; below, his account of the incident. It was almost 11: 10 in the morning when I came up from the engine room of the S.S. Santa Rita. Down below the big pumps were thumping away steadily; the little pumps wheezing or purring just as they should . In the shaft alley, the bearings were cool against the shaft, whose every revolution was bringing us closer to our destination. I wrote some figures in the log book , picked up some keys, a sounding line and wrench and went up on deck to call the 12 to 4 watch, check the steering engine and sound the depth of fresh water in the forepeak tank . I had taken the sounding and was coiling the line in my hand, glad to enjoy a breath of fresh air and thankful that a hot four hours was almost over, when from the fo rward look-out station the ship's bell gave two loud clangs-then two more and two more. It was not time for bells! I looked up and saw the look-out staring back toward the midship house. Down the long ship 's deck, beside the bridge, a round puff of smoke appeared- and then came the noise of the explosion . It sounded and looked like a firecracker on the Fourth of July. In the smoke, flying debris seemed hardly more than paper. There was no shock where I stood . I remembered that it was bad to run at such times, so I began a

The heritage of the coastal trade lives on in the Wawona.

George Wales: American Maritime Printmaker (1868-1940) Childs is the exclusive represen tative of the estate of Geo rge Wales. We have a vast select io n of h is etc hings and lith ographs as well as original d rawings, many of whic h are studies for the prints. Wales is one of the foremost American marine printmakers of the frrst half of the 20th century and his work rivals that of his English contemporary, Arthur Briscoe. All prints are signed in pencil . Editions are limi ted to generally less than 150 impressions. The Wales prints are priced at $50 and up and a 4-page catalogue is available free upon request. Also, sen d SS for our 198182 Print Annual, a 44-page illustrated catalogue of ot her fme p rints in stock by Dlirer, Rembrandt, Bellows, Sloan, etc.

"Niiia" lichogcaph 1928

CHILDS

169 Newbury Street • Bosro n, Massachusetts 02 11 6 • (617) 266-1108 fine A men'can and European paintings, prints and drawings since 1937.

44

magine the coasting schooner Wawona cutting smartly to a freshening breeze. A work boat, lumber laden from Northwest forests or fishing the Bering Sea. Its gaff rigged sails and smaller crew continued to trade the waters the square riggers first explored. Today the Wawona calls Seattle home. And even now you can see this three-masted lady of coastal waters at North· west Seaport. Your purchase of this print by Thomas Wells, one of America's foremost marine artists, will help North· west Seaport to reclaim her for today's and future generations. All profits from the sale of this limited edition print will be used for her restoration. Make an investment in the future that keeps the past alive.

I

Title . . . . . . . . Wawona

Painter . . Thomas Wells Medium ..... . . . . Oil Sh eet Size . . . . . . 18x24 Limited Edition . .... . .. . 550

- Limited Edition Art Print O(feringShips History Included Tu order send 165.00 (Washington Res. add 6.4% sales tax) plus S2.50 shipping and handling to:

Wa wona Bayless Enterprises, Inc. 427 Ninth Avenue North Seattle, WA 98109 1509) 622-6395

SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982


by George F. Heuston

fast walk aft. I could see the ship on an even keel but sinking in the water as she slid ahead. The whistle began to blow "Abandon ship'' as I came into the midship house and went down the ladder to the 'tween decks. Then I knew it was the engine room that had been hit. Complete blackness surrounded me. My flashlight shone a few inches only against the smoke and steam. There was water in the deck and a thin stream from somewhere hit me on the waist. There was the sound of rushing water everywhere and the smell of burnt powder. The engine room was a tomb-my tomb, but I wasn't there. Like kings of old, the crew were dead in the surroundings they knew in life-the paint work they did, the tools they used, the engines they served. There was a dream-like quality to my actions. I only saw what was directly before me; only did what I was drilled to, ordered to, or had thought out before. So I crossed over to the port side, looking for the raft there. It had been launched. Then I walked back to the stern and saw the two other lifeboats drifting over two hundred yards away. Men in brilliant orange life jackets were climbing over the rail and jumping into the sea. Someone said, "She's beginning to list. Everybody off!" and for the last time we left the ship, a group including the Captain, Chief Engineer and four officers with sextants and a few bags ..A mate grabbed my sketching bag with a wry face when I handed it to him, but he took it like a man and put it in the stern. We pulled away in a confusion of buckets and oars, with our boat still half full of water. Hope sprang up again as clear water appeared between us and the ship. In the small boat we were once more a crew of men; gone was the gripping loneliness of walking on the flat deck between sky and sea. Astern of the ship, beyond the long expanse of water, were our lifeboats and amidst them was the gray marauder. Then the sub fired and the soft sound o(wind and water was ripped apart by the violent energy of gunfire. "They want us to get away from the ship," a calm voice said. We struggled to reverse our direction and go downwind. Then the harsher sound of cannon came over the water and the shells plunged over us into the ship, little puffs of smoke coming out. One passed through a corner of the house and exploded as it came out with a bright flare, not very big. A slow fire began to burn there. The U-boat was going the same direction we were. No matter how hard we rowed, we could not get out of the line of fire. Every stroke was an effort of the will. Then the noise and the shooting stopped. She was now alongside one of our other boats. We still pulled at the oars, but the Captain said, "It's no use, boys. She can catch us any time that she wants to." We rested. SEA HISTORY, WINTER 1982

Somebody asked what time it was. It .was 12: 15. The Skipper was right. The submarine turned and slid over the water towards us. In a few minutes she was with us, water running from her rusty gills, shouting for us to come alongside. We did the best we could, but she had to reverse her engines before we made it. A bearded German with a broad face and black hair threw a line aboard. The crew was clustered about the high conning tower, staring at us with curious eyes . We stared back, almost glad to see that these executors of stealth and violence were not mechanical instruments, but men. They were of an unexpected variety in faces and bodies . All looked healthy and sunburned, and many wore beards. On the foredeck, a tall young man, sunburned and bearded strode back and forth. He was a handsome fellow. His time too, would come some day. In school English, he hailed us, "What ship? Where bound? Where is the Captain?" "I am the Captain," the Old Man said. "Where are the papers?" "They are lost." "Captain, I am sorry to sink y9ur ship. Will you come aboard?" He went aboard. "Captain, I am sorry, I must make you a prisoner of war." "All right," said the Captain. "Chief, will you give me my cigars?" he said to the Engineer in our boat. "We have plenty of cigars, Captain. Black ones," said the U-boat Commander. More was said, but I did not catch it. "Goodbye, boys!" our Captain cried. "Goodbye, Captain;' we replied, waving our arms. We shoved off and the U-boat's diesel began to chug, as she glided off. We rowed on down the wind, searching each drifting life-raft as we came to it for men, for water and food. All were bare, the other boats had gotten there first. When we came alongside the other boats, we saw there were injured men in them, and our Second Mate left us to help out in another boat. Meanwhile, I had a chance to speak to my fireman, who told me the water had washed him and another man up from the engine room to the level of the deck in a minute of time. Each boat now hoisted its sail and began the long voyage for land, many hundred of miles away. .t Other survivors noted that Captain Stephenson refused the German cigars, and took halfthe Chief's box with him-the exchange that Heuston notes he did not catch. Stephenson was exchanged in 1944, and immediately asked for another ship. In 1945 a Liberty ship, the James A. Butts, was launched from Todd's yard in South Portland Maine. She was named for one of the three men lost aboard the Santa Rita- who, his shipmates said, lost his life helping others out of the flooded engineroom. 45


Captain Bob Bartlett's ''Little Morrissey'' The Story Behind a Painting by Thomas Wells, AICH, Fl ASMA The Gloucester schooner Effie M. Morrissey was over 40 years old when I put-putted out to her in a little gasoline motor launch in 1936. She lay at anchor off City Island, N.Y. on that never-to-be-forgotten June afternoon when I clambered up her boarding ladder to sign on. I was 19 years old. Standing on her deck my first impressions were t!ie massiveness of everything, the staunchness of her rig, the smell of Albany grease on her mast hoops, marlin in her servings, and Stockholm tar in her stay lanyards. The Morrissey was famous before I had heard her name; she had already passed more Arctic water beneath her keel than any vessel afloat. Captain Robert A. (for Abram) Bartlett, her owner and skipper, was born in Brigus, Newfoundland on August 15, 1875, and died in New York City on April 28, 1946. In that life span he made Arctic history. A few months before he died, he wrote: "My first love is the Effie M. Morrissey, my schooner; my second, the Arctic, whose icy waters I have sailed for nigh on to half a century.'' He had begun exploring the Arctic in 1898 with North Pole discoverer Robert E. Peary. In command of Peary's supply ship Roosevelt, he established the last "pit stop" for Peary's dash to the Pole of 1909. In 1913, he took Vilhjalmur Stefansson up into the Beaufort Sea in the old sealer Karluk. The vessel was crushed in the Arctic ice, and Captain Bob with an Eskimo traveled hundreds of miles over ice to

Nome, Alaska for help to save the crew. He served in the Navy in World War I. In 1926 we started sailing his own ship the Morrissey. After I sailed with him he carried out wartime surveys for the Navy, backed by President Roosevelt's order that he was to have whatever he needed . In 1930 he had begun taking teenage boys along, whose parents paid a stipend to help the voyage. That is how I came aboard, as a student floundering around in my first year of Yale's School of Fine Arts. I was lucky to be assigned to George Richard's watch. He was a fisherman from Bay Roberts, Newfoundland, and had a voice that could command the wind, a hand like an ape that could two-block a throat halyard in one pull. Yet in the watch below, down in the fo'c's'le, George would gently play his fiddle to the roll of the ship, the noise of the sea against the forepeak, anchor chains clanking in the chain locker pipes, and up would come the melodic tune "Over the Waves." Captain Bob had the midship fish hold built into quarters for us boys, plus mess hall, radio shack and sick bay. The professional crew were Newfoundland fishermen, \he best in the business. They berthed forward. The cook, Billy Pritchard, had been with Captain Bob since he sailed with Admiral Peary. The Captain and First Mate, his brother Bill Bartlett, the Second Mate George Bartlett, a cousin, berthed with expedition scientists aft. We forged our way north, up Green-

Some of the Morrissey's boys, with Captain Robert A. Bartlett in the foreground, hands on railcap. A mixed crew of professional Newfoundland seamen and college lads stand behind him: from the left (back row) Jim Dooling; engineer Len with chin in hand; Jack Cunningham in white hat (skipping three unidentifiable souls); Jeff Kennedy; the formidable Bos'n George Richards; Philip Morris; John Beal; Stanley Burke; and the ship's photographer. Dr. Province (eyeglasses); Ted Donaldson in Camp Calumet sweater; Pete Cantrell.

land's east coast, until on July 30 we were turned back by heavy ice at 73°30'N. We then caught our two musk ox in a seine net (after a false start in which two of the same sex were caught), and started the voyage home on August 3, stopping at the Eskimo village Angmagssalik, the only habitation .on the grim east coast. When on this side, Captain Bob would always drop a hook here to bring gifts and greet old friends. Captain Bob's knowledge of piloting in ice, confronting Arctic currents and floes under sail was the best of his day, and I am sure that some of his nautical artistry rubbed off on a great many of the Morrissey boys. I served my last two years of World War II as a Lieutenant (Junior Grade) navigator and salvage officer in the USS Sarsi (ATF 111) in the Aleutians. Captain Bob and our days in the Arctic ice in Greenland were often in my mind. I'll bet that many Morrissey boys will be discovered with fine records on land and sea, and that they will be the fust to attribute this to sailing with Captain Bob in the "little Morrissey, " as he liked to call her. At the end of his life he said: "The twomasted, 98-foot Morrissey has been my home, office and magic carpet for 22 years .... Though she is 51 years old, this confirmed bachelor cherishes her as he would a wife."

www

Mr. Wells went to sea in a Cape Horn voyage in Passat two years after this, as recounted in Sea History 18, pages 57-63.


The schooner in Musk Ox Fjord, where she stopped to pick up two musk ox for the Brookfield Zoo, Chicago, typical of many assignments filled for zoos, museums, the Smithsonian and the National Geographic Society. Photographs by the author.

The Morrissey, painted by Tom Wells, who sailed her, closing with the cold and rocky coast of Greenland. Her rig is reduced from what she carried as a first-class Grand Banks fishing schooner, but her long sweet run aft and lifting bows mark her as one of the fastest breed of schooners ever built. Captain Bob Bartlett, who bought her when her fishing days were over, made her famous in 21 years of voyaging to Greenland (and once to Alaska). After his death in 1946she became the Cape Verde immigrant packet Ernestina, making her last transatlantic passage in 1965. Friends of Ernestina/ Morrissey are working with the Cape Verde government to return her to the United States later this year. Those contributing $100 or more to this campaign will receive a copy of a signed, limited edition print (image 16 V:z "x20 ")of this painting, as a gift of the artist to help his old ship. Contributions: NMHS-Ernestina! Morrissey, 2 Fulton Street, Brooklyn NY 11201.

Eskimo mother and children aboard ship at Angmagssalik, Greenland, September 1936. Hershey bar (in child's pocket) notwithstanding, Bartlett was an admirer of native Eskimo folkways and sought to protect them. Taking up on the boom tackle, the author working closest to the mast, Bos'n George Richards at the helm. The "Morrissey boys" worked ship side-by-side with professional crew, a proud point in Captain Bob 's philosophy.

47


NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY

SPONSORS AMERADA HESS CORPORATION AMERJCAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ANNENBERG FUND APEX MACHINE CORPORATION

) ACK R. ARON VINCENT ASTOR F OUNDAT ION BEEFEATER FOUNDATION

BRONSON BINGER R. M. BIRMINGHAM CARROLL N . BJORNSON REBECCA BLAKE STUDIOS J EFF BLINN E. J ARED Buss OLGA BLOOM 8LOOMINGDALES WILLARD BoND

R. A. BOWLING WILLIAM A. Bovu J. W. BOYLE F'REDERJCK BREWSTER

ALLEN G. BERRIEN

PAUL H . BRJGER

CHEMICAL BANK Dow CORN ING CORP.

BROOKLYN C HAMBER OF COMMERCE

EVA GEBHARD-GOURGAU D FDTN .

BROOKLYN EASTERN D ISTRJCT

FU ND FOR T HE C I TY OF' NEW YORK

TERMINAL BROOKLYN SA VlNGS BANK

W . R . GRACE FOUNDATION MR. & MRS. PA UL R. H ENRY

BROOKLYN UNJON GAS

ELI SABETH S. HOOPER FOUNDATION CECIL HOWARD CHARITABLE TRUST INDUCTIVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

R. C. JEFFERSON BARBARA JOH NSON

CHRISTIAN A. JOHNSON E NDEAVOR FON. IRV ING JOHNSON

NORMAN J. BROUWER STEVEN W. BRUMMEL

WM. F . BUCKLEY , JR. JOHN BUNKER AGA BURDOX ADM. ARLEIGH BURKE USN(RET.) ROBERT J . B URKE ALAN BURROUG H, CBE STEVEN BUTTERWORTH

J.M . KAPLAN F UND A. ATWATER KE NT, JR .

BYE BYE BIRDIE )AMES R. CADY BoYD W. CAFFEY H ARRJET CAMPBELL, INC.

LUCILLE LA NG LOIS JAMES A. MACDONALD FOUNDATI ON

CAPE VERDEAN I SL ANDS RELIEF

MRS. ELLICE M CDONA LD, JR . M ILFORD BOAT WORKS, INC. NAU TILUS FOUNDATION

RADM EDMOND J . MORA N USNR (RET.) NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE H UMANITIES AVY L EAGUE NY STATE BICENTENNIAL COMMISSION MICHAEL PLATZER

CAPE VERDEAN FOLKLORE

GROUP ASSN. O.CAREY MEL CARLIN

C. A. C HAPIN )AMES E. C HAPMAN R.CHARMAN

CHARLES FORTES MEMORIAL FUND MISS HAZEL ANN Fox MARBURY B. Fox FRED FREEMAN J . E. FRICKER BENNO FRIEDMAN DR. HARRY FRJEDMAN FR ITZSCHE, DODGE

& OLCOTT,

I NC. J OHNS. FULLERTON R.A. FULTON FULTON FERRY LOCAL DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GAGE & TOLLNER MR . & MRS. C HARLES GA LLAGHER

NORMAN G. GER M ANY

M ARSH M CL ENNAN

ROBERT MCV!TTIE M EBA DISTRJCT 2 MAURJCE MEDCALFE CHRISTINE MEE R. I. MEICZINGER THE MENDES FAMILY MIDLAND INSURANCE Co. A.C. MILOT J ERRY D. MINTON LEEDS MITCHELL, JR.

ROGER GILMAN STEVE GOLD PRODUCTIONS

C. A. GOULD F. CECIL GRACE JOH N GRAHAM, A IA GRAND CENTRAL ART GALLERY )IM GRAY R. GREENBERG, Assoc. MARK GREENE H ENRY F. GREINER

WILLIAM 8. MOLLARD

MONOMOY FUND MONTAN TRANSPORT (USA) I NC. MOORE-MCCORMACK LINES, INC. MR. & MRS. J. A. MORAN R.E. MORRJS

ROLAND D. GRIMM HOWARD GUGGENHEIM

CALF. HADDEN, JR . MRS. E.A. H AGSTROM WALTER L. HAGSTROM H AIG HT, GARDNER, POOR HA VENS THOMAS HALE

&

M. IV . HALL H ARMONY PICTUR ES

CAPT. GLEN R. CH EEK, USN (RET.)

LEO & CYNT HIA 0. HARRI S

CHEMICAL BANK

ALANG.CHOATE

CAPT. ROBERT H ART USN (RET.) CAPT. J.E . HEG

MARTIN E. CITRIN

H ELLENIC LINES L IM ITED

HELE N MARSHALL SCHOLZ

ARTHUR CLEVELAND

MR. & MRS. PETER SEEGER

F. S. COLLINS R. F. COHEN

H ENRY 'S END RESTAURANT H . H ERBER W.R. H ERVEY A.E. HEYDENREICH J UDSON HIGG INS

SUNLIGHT PICTURES

J. FERRELL COLTON CONSOLIDATED EDISON Co., INC. TREVOR CONSTABLE

H ENRY A. CORREA )AMES COSTELLO )AMES W. COULTER COUNCIL OF MASTER MARINERS

PATRONS ABRAHAM

& STRAUS

R.G .ADAMS RAYMOND AKER

T. R . AL LEN AMERICAN BUREAU OF SHIPPING AMERICAN H OI ST & DERRICK Co.

C. E. ANDERSON CAPT. E. R. A DERSON ANSEL PRODUCTIONS

G. J . ARDEN ARID YACHT CLUB

ARTEK I NC. ATLANTIC CORDAGE CORP. ATLANTIC MARITrME ENTERPRI SES AUDIO MAGAZINE

BRUNO J . AUGENTI AVRO WILLIAM E. BACON

H . K . BAILEY, MD JOE BAKER JOHN B. BALCH B. A. BALDWIN, JR. BANKERS TRUST CO. RUSSELL BANKS BARBA NEGRA

BEN & SALLY CRANE CREATIVE GROUP PRODUCTIONS

DAN & JOYCE CURLL DG M STUDIOS

INTERNATIONA L ORGANIZATION OF MASTERS, MATES & P ILOTS

ALICE DADOURIAN REBEKAH T. D ALLAS f. BRIGGS DALZELL PETER T. DAMON

JOT CORPORATION

MILTON

G.

NOTTINGHAM

Y STATE COUNCIL ON THE ARTS OG ILVY & MATHER T . MORGAN O ' HORA J AMES O'KEEFE P AUL OLANDER ORES B. J . O'NEILL PACIFIC·GULF M ARI NE, INC. RICHARD K . PAGE PAISLEY & FRIENDS

J OHN T. PATTE RSON

PIERO PATRI OTIS PEARSALL PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOLSHIP

ASSN. ARMANDO PERRY

DEBORAH L. PERRY BERTHA

& PHILIP PERSON

CAPTAIN W. R. P ETERSON R. L. PETRJE

JOSEPH DIRSA THEOOORE DONALDSON

NORMAN K)ELDSEN MR. & MRS. BERNIE KLAY W. K LEINDIENST, MD R . J . KNEELAND KOBI ENTERPRJSES KOBRAND CORPORATION BETTY KOHAREK DAVID H. KOLLOCK EDITH KOONTZ WILLAIM H . KRAMER ANDREW KRA VIC C . ScOTT K ULICKE DANIEL LADD ANTHONY LANDI

EPIROTIKI LINES

BAY RIDG E WAT ER &

UL F ERJKSEN J OHN & CAROL EWALD )AMES P . FARLEY CAPT. J OSE PH FARR ROBERT S. FELNER MRS. JEAN FlNDLA Y

H . E. BILKEY ·NORTON LILLY

ROBERT A. NICHOLS J OHN OBLE DAVID J . OLAN J .A. NORTON

PINKERTON'S ROBERT POTTERS

BAY REFRACTORY

ADM. RUSSELLS. BERKEY A LLEN BERNSTEIN STUDIO

EW YORK AIR NEW YORK TELEPHONE CO.

JrM & PEGGY KINGSBURY

DAMON L. ENGLE

FRED C. ENNO

MELANIE FLEISHMANN PETER FLEMING JAMES FOLEY

MUSEUM

PORT AUTHORITY OF NY & NJ TIMOTHY POUCH

THEODORE PRATT PRINCE H ENRY COLLEGE PRUDENTIAL LINES

THOR H . RAMSING

WILLIAM A. SHEEHAN

ROBERT V. SHEEN, JR. JAMES R . SHEPLEY ROBERT F . SHERMAN S HIPS OF THE SEA MUSEUM

MER VIN J. S HUMAN L. S. S IMONS D. W. S IMPSON FRANCIS D . SKELLEY E. KEITH SLINGSBY

A . MACY SM ITH JEA N SM ITH

s.

THOMAS SOULES T. SPIGELMIRE

GEN. & MRS. A. A. SPROUL CHRISTIAN SPURLING ALFRED STANFORD

C HARLES E. STANFORD BRIAN STARER ROGER STARR F. WILLIAM STECHMANN

EDNA & ISAAC STERN FDTN. W. T. STEVENS

J . T. STILLMAN )AMES J . STORROW OSCAR STRAUSS, II H UMPHREY SULL I VAN

S WI SS AMERICAN SECURIT IES I NC. SYLVOR COMPANY

G. H . T ABER DA Y ID L. THOMPSON

JOH N TH URMAN ROBERT TISHMAN TOAD PRODUCTIONS

JOHN H . TOBEY, JR. GEORGE F . TOLLEFSEN ALLEN W .L. TOPPING ANTHONY TRALLA BRUCE TREMBLY, MD )AMES D. TURNER TWENTY-TEN ADVERTISING UNJON DRY DocK U.S. NAVIGATION Co. U.S. LINES VANGUARD FOUNDATI ON

JOHN D. VAN !TALLIE VAN METER RANCH CHARLES VICKERY VJNMONT FOUNDATION

JOHN VREELAND SHANNON WALL

E. R . W ALLENBERG R. C. W ALLI NG BARCLAY H . WARBURTON , III PATER M. WARD

wARSA w PHOTOGRAPHIC Assoc. A. L. WATSON G. P.H. WATSON N. W. WATSON MRS. ELIZABETH WEEDON THOMAS WELLS L. HERNDON WERTH WESTLAND FOUNDATION

CARROLL WETZEL S IR GORDON WHITE RAYMOND D. WHITE G. G. WHITNEY, JR. ANTHONY WIDMAN

CAPT. & MRS. JOHN M. W ILL , JR . KAMA U W ILLIAMS

REMEMBER BA SIL, INC. HON. FRED RICHMOND

P.J. WILLIAMSON SUZANNE C. WI LSON

Russ RIEMANN EDWARD RITENHOUSE

LAURENCE F. W!TTEMORE CHARLES WITTHOLZ WOMEN'S PROPELLER CLUB YACHTfNG

RICK LEVINE P RODUCTIONS

DAVID M. LEVITT RUTHERFORD P. LILLEY

D ANIEL ROSE M. R OSENBLATT

L INCOLN SA VJNGS BANK

W. A ROTHERMEL ALLEN S. RUPLEY DAVID F . RYAN

A. S. LISS H . R . LOGAN

MRS. AVICE M. SEWALL

RICHARD RA TH DONALD REARDON VERONICA REILLY

THE RIVER CAFE C HARLES R. ROBINSO N PETER W . ROGERS H A VEN C. R OOSEVELT

KEVIN LEARY PHILIP LEONARD

MR . & MRS. T. E. LEONARD

SEA-LAND SERVICE, INC. SEAMEN'S CHURCH I NSTITUTE

SUNSET-GOWER ST UDIOS

JOSEPH F. EIL ERIC ELSON

P . DINE

R.L. DoXSEE T HOMAS P. DO\YD JEREMIAH T . DRJSCOLL DRYBULK CHARTERING R . J. D UNPHY SAMUEL DUPONT

WAREHAM ) AMES SEACREST

NATIONAL HISTORICA L SOCIETY NATIONAL MAR ITIME UNION

JACKSON & Co. CAPT. GEORGE JAHN LEONARD C. J AQUES R. H . JOH NCHART AGENCY BARBARA JOHNSON NEILS W. JOHNSEN W.J.JOVAN W. HADDON J UDSON

& ABER.MAN REAL TY

D.S. SCHEEL RADM. W ALTER F. SCHLECH, JR. JOYCE E. ScHNOBRICH ScHOONER ER.i.'IESTINA Ass'N,

SUN SHIP, INC.

S. T . PARKS

K.AzEROrD

FRANK ScAVO

MYERS & GRINER/CUESTA

JAKOB I SBRANDTSEN GEORGE ( VEY

w.

SANDERS TOWBOAT Soc., I NC. A. HERBERT SANDWEN

J OSEPH G. SAWTELLE

JOHN STOBART

JOH N J . KENNY W . A. KIGGINS F. H . KINGSBURY

DAVrD D URRELL

CHARLES A . BENORE

JR .

M. J. RYAN PETER R. RYUS D. R. SAGARINO T. ) OE MI NERALS

FRA NK MOSCATI, I NC. RICHARD MOSES WILLIAM G. MULLER

WALTER N. PHARR PHILADELPHIA MARITIME

EDSON CORPORATION )AM ES ELMER, JR.

BEAVER ENGINEERING

KAZI NOUYE

RICHARD I. MORRIS MR . & MRS. E MIL MOSBACHER,

H IRAM DEXTER JAMES DICKMAN DIME SAVINGS BANK

JEFFREY BARLOW

L IGHTERAGE

CAPT. M. F. H ORVATH LA URA PIRES HOUSTON GODFREY G. H ow ARD THOMAS HOYNE, III ALAND. H UTC!l!SON HAROLD D. HUYCKE IMPERIAL CUP CoRP. INDUSTRIAL FABRICATING

H ARRY BARON G ERALD BARTLETT J .H. BASCOM R. S. BAUER

BEANIKAI-IN JOHN BEAN STUDIO

JOHNSON PEDERSON HINRICHS STEPHEN HOPKINS

CRUCIBLE STEEL CASTING COMPANY

CHARLES D ANA P. S. DE BEAUMONT ANTHONY & JOA NNA DEAN J .A. D E LUCE DEBORAH D. D EMPSEY RICHARD A. DENNY J OSEPH DE PAUL & SONS ROHJT M. DESAI

MARTIN MATHEWS

J . T. GILBRIDE

GEORGE F. CLEMENTS

MR .& MRS. PETER STANFORD EDMUND A. STANLEY , JR . ADM. JOHN M. WILL. USN (RET.)

TRUST MARJNER'S VILLAGE ELISABETH M. MARTELL

F RANK GARRETT JOSEPH A. GEMMA GEORGE ENG INE COMPANY H . E. GERHARD

RICHARD GALLANT

C H.ASE MANHATTAN BANK

AUSTEN COLGATE

MANUFACTURERS HANOVER

GEO. M ATTESON III PETER MAX CECIL R. MA YES JOHN G. McCARTHY CAPTAIN J . M cGOVERN R.M. MCINTOSH

RCA

SIRIUS BROKERS HOWARD SLOTNICK SETH SPRAGUE FOUNDATION

JEFF LOVINGER KLAUS LUCKA CHARLES LUNDGREN LYKES BROS. STEAMSHIP Co., INC. ROSS MACDUFFlE BoBMACKEN ALEN MACWEENEY, INC. GASTON MAGRINOT J OHN MAGUIRE MICHAEL & MARCIA MANN

H . SEWALL W ILLIAMS

)AMES S. Y APLEE )AMES H . YOCUM ALEN SANDS YORK HENRY A. YOUMANS PAUL ZIMMERMAN

R . W . ZINGLER H . T. Z IOBRO


US¡ Flag Flexibility...

... that's what American Maritime Officers Service is all about. The widest variety of American-flag merchant ships operating independently in the most diverse trades. From the largest supertankers to the new America class 2,000-deadweight-ton, multi-purpose container/reefer/break-bulk dry cargo vessels, US-flag ship operators working through AMOS for a strong merchant marine will meet any maritime call, any time.

American Maritime Officers Service Town House 14, Harbour Square 456 N Street S. W. Washington, D.C. 20024 Captain Joseph C. Fox, Executive Director


Training on the cryogenic simulato r at the Maritime In stitute of Technology and Graduate Studies .

This Is MM&P Country The MM&P' s cryogenic simulator on which these ships officers are training has been designed to duplicate the actual cargo handling consoles of every cryogenic carrier afloat. This sophisticated simulator can be programmed to represent not only ocean-going ships , but also cryogenic barges and liquifaction and regasification terminals ashore . Without risk of pollution , MM&P officers practice loading, discharging and transferring LNG , LPG, ammonia and all other types of cryogenic cargoes . The MM&P's world-renowned Maritime Institute of Technology and Graduate Studies, located on a 55-acre campus outside of Baltimore, stands as a shining symbol of the goal of professional excellence shared by MM&P and the American flag shipping companies in their joint Maritime Advancement, Training, Education and Safety (MATES) Program .

ROBERT J. LOWEN International President

ALLEN C. SCOTT

LLOYD M. MARTIN International Secretary-Treasurer

International Executive Vice President

International Organization of

Masters, Mates & Pilots

Sea History 023 - Winter 1981-1982  
Sea History 023 - Winter 1981-1982  

3 THE FIRST BATTLESHIP, Peter Stanford • 6 TO RAISE THE MARY ROSE, Peter Whitlock • 21 SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS, Naomi Person • 28...