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No. 21

SEA HISTORY OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE WORLD SHIP TRUST

SEA HISTORY is the journal of the National Maritime Historical Society, an educational, tax-exempt membership organization devoted to furthering the understanding of our maritime heritage. Copyright © 198 1 by the National Maritime Historical Society. OFFICE: 2 Fulton St., Brooklyn, NY 11201. Telephone: 212-858-1348. MEMBERSHIP is invited and should be sent to the Brooklyn office: Sponsor, $1,000; Patron, $100; Family, $20; Regular, $15; Student or Retired, $7 .50. CONTRIBUTIONS may be made for any recognized project. Make out checks "NMHSShip Trust," indicating on the check the project to which you wish support to be directed. OFFICERS & TRUSTEES are Chairman: Karl Kortum; Vice Chairman: F. Briggs Dalzell; President: Peter Stanford; Secretary: Alan G. Choate; Trustees: Norman J. Brouwer, John Bunker, Alan G. Choate, F. Briggs Dalzell, Thomas Hale, Harold D. Huycke, Barbara Johnson, James F. Kirk, Karl Kortum, Robert J . Lowen, Edward J. Pierson, Richard Rath, Kenneth D. Reynard, Walter F. Schlech, Jr., Howard Slotnick, Peter Stanford, John N. Thurman, Barclay H. Warburton III, Alen York. President Emeritus: Alan D. Hutchinson. ADVISORS: Chairman: Frank 0. Braynard; Francis E. Bowker, Oswald L. Brett, George Campbell, Robert Carl, Frank G. G. Carr, Harry Dring, John Ewald, Joseph L. Farr, Timothy G . Foote, Richard Goold-Adams, Robert G. Herbert, Melvin H . Jackson, R. C. Jefferson, Irving M. Johnson, John Kemble, Conrad Milster, Wi ll iam G. Muller, John Noble, Capt. David E. Perkins, USCG (ret.), Nancy Richardson, Ralph L. Snow, John Stobart, Albert Swanson, Peter Throckmorton, Curator-at-Large, Alan Vi ll iers, Shannon Wall, Robert A. Weinstein, Thomas Wells, AICH, Charles Wittholz. SHIP TRUST COMMITTEE: International Chairman, Frank Carr; Chairman, Peter Stanford ; George Bass; Norman Brouwer; Karl Kortum; Richard Rath; Peter W. Rogers; Barclay H. Warburton, lll; Senior Advisor, Irving M. Johnson. SEA HISTORY STAFF: Editor, Peter Stanford; Managing Editor, Norma Stanford; Associate Editors, Norman J. Brouwer, Naomi Person; Accounting, Jo Meisner; Membership, Marie Lore.

COVER: The Cape Horn sailing ship Wavertree stirs, trembles and begins to move out of her berth at South Street Seaport Museum in the lee of Lower Manhattan's skyscrapers . The Patrice McAllister nudges the proud old ship into motion, bound this soft May evening for rejuvenation at Bethlehem Steel's yard in Hoboken. See Editor's Log, page 10. Photo by John Watson.

ISSN 0146-9312

SUMMER 1981

CONTENTS 2 LETTERS 7 WE COULD DO NO LESS: JOHN M. WILL REMEMBERED 10 EDITOR'S LOG 12 TOWING IN TIME WITH McALLISTER, Oswald L. Brett 18 A MATTER OF RESTORATION: THE CHINA CABIN, Philip L. Molten & Robert G. Herbert, Jr. 24 THE WAWONA IS WAITING, Capt. Harold Huycke 29 SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS 36 MARINE ART: CONTEMPORARY MARINE ART AT THE PEABODY MUSEUM, John S. Carter 42 SAIL TRAINING: DAY'S RUN, Report of the American Sail Training Association 45 BOOKS

The National Maritime Historical Society is saving America's seafaring heritage. Join us. We are making America's seafaring past a living heritage. The National Maritime Historical Society discovers and restores the few remaining ships and seagoing artifacts-and helps keep them in trust for future generations. And the Society helps get young people to sea to keep alive the spirit of adventure, the discipline and skills it took to sail the magnificent vessels from our past. Won't you join us to keep alive

our nation's seafaring legacy? Membership in the National Maritime Historical Society costs only $15 a year. You' ll receive Sea History, a fasc inating magazine fi lled with articles of seafaring and historical lore. You' ll also be eligible for discounts on books, prints and other items. Help save our seafaring heritage. Join the National Maritime Historical Society today!

TO: National Maritime Historical Society, 2 Fulton Street, Brooklyn, New York 11201

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I want to help. I understand that my contribution goes to forward the work of the Society 'and that I'll be kept informed by receiving SEA HISTORY quarterly . Enclosed is: 0 $15 Regular

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NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY


LETTERS Greatly Underestimated Value I am impressed with SEA HISTORY. In Letters to the Editor and some of the articles I note that several individuals express feelings closely akin to my own regarding the importance of preserving what few examples remain of our great age of sail and its many diverse, but associated pioneer vessel types. I don't advocate living in the past or unduly glorifying it, but I believe in recognizing the greatly underestimated value and importance of past achievements . It has been said that no man can truly know where he is going until he knows where he has been. A recent article in Time quotes Christopher Lasch 's observation in The Culture of Narcissism: "To live for the moment is the prevailing passion-to live for yourself, not for your predecessors or posterity. We are fast losing the sense of historical continuity, the sense of belonging to a succession of generations originating in the past and stretching into the future. It is the waning of the sense of historical time-in particular the erosion of any strong concern for posterity-that distinguishes the spiritual crisis of the '70s." The National Maritime Historical Society and its programs address this sad situation directly and positively . I had no idea that an organization such as the NMHS existed . I have asked in the past what I can do. I appreciate finding an organization where I can join others oflike mind in common cause . While few of us can do anything alone, many of use together, each contributing what we are able, can do a great deal indeed . VERNE F. NEWHOUSE Stone Mountain, Georgia Schooner Lindo: "the Only Proper Way" We of the schooner Lindo were rather chagrined and felt somewhat left out by the tone of your coverage of the 1980 Tall Ships Races . Lindo is a US registry threemasted 125' topsail schooner, crossing three yards and setting sixteen sails. She is privately owned and survives as a working charter vessel. Built in Sweden 54 years ago to carry cargo under sail-which she did until 1970-she is maintained to high standards thanks to a dedicated crew of lifetime sailors, men who do things the only proper way, no short cuts, from rose lashings on her futtock shrouds to the pitch in her bottom. We spent one year, while chartering, in preparation for the Tall Ships Race from Boston to Norway. I asked 15 American and 4 European companies if they could help us out with equipment donations, etc. Each of the Europeans responded warmly; not one of the Americans did. This was

2

somewhat surpnsmg, but we continued our preparations, carefully selecting a crew from the circle of specialists in the traditional rig, and interviewing cadets to evaluate their intentions and their compatibility with each other. During the race, which generated much talk of sails blown out, dismastings, rough conditions , vessels hove to etc ., Lindo was consistently reeling off 280-mile days and carrying on cadet lessons on navigation, ship construction, and rigging. We arrived at the Orkney Islands at the same hour as one of the incongruous fiberglass racing yachts also in the race . We placed second, behind a four-year-old fiberglass boat. I for one am more than a little disillusioned. This will not, however, prevent us from entering the next Tall Ships Race . Nor will it have any effect upon our standards. We will continue to select top professionals to train cadets, and will work within a system which places a squarerigged 54-year-old cargo boat in the same class as a modern synthetic racing machine . G . FRANCISBIRRA Fort de France, Martinique Do We Believe in Sailors' Rights? Mariners International, a nonprofit association run by volunteers for the preservation of traditional sail and sailing skills, is concerned at US Coast Guard regulations which stifle sail training opportunities in the United States. In 1976 we brought the Irish brigantine Phoenix over to take part in the American Bicentennial. While the Tall Ships were sailing in from a score of foreign nations, most of the US sail trainers were confined to 20 miles offshore. This summer we are sending some of our members from England to Boston in the able and seaworthy Norwegian full-rigged ship Sorlandet. We had planned three training cruises from Boston to Bermuda -going to a foreign port to avoid rules against foreign ships in trade between US ports . Approved by the Coast Guard in Boston, this was overruled in Washington because the ship did not meet US standards of carrying passengers for hire. This ruling has forced us to the costly expedient of having our American trainees fly to Bermuda to join the ship to sail to Boston! And others, instead of embarking for the voyage back to Europe from Boston, will go to join the ship in Nova Scotia. Mariners International has been invited to send a tall ship to Philadelphia next year, to participate in its 300th anniversary. US regulations mandate that, if we send a ship from Europe, our American members cannot board the ship or disembark in Philadelphia. This would deprive

them of an opportunity to sail with Mariners from other nations and deprive the ship of part of her necessary complement, as many European trainees will be unable to take part because of the added cost of travel. Trainees are not recognized as such by US law . They are counted as passengers and their ships have to conform to passenger-ship regulations which are clearly incompatible with sail training requirements. We urge revision of the law to recognize sail training as an activity in its own right, and to permit American youth to be fully part of the international sail training family. ERIK c . ABRANSON, Chairman Mariners International, England The American Ship Trust advocates legislation recognizing sail training as a separate activity-we welcome letters on this, to 2 Fulton St., Brooklyn, NY 11201.-ED. For Steamer Fans Your superb cover on the Spring 1981 issue-the painting of the Fall River Liner Puritan by William G. Muller-prompts me to write for information concerning prints of this excellent painting. When I was a youngster in the 20s, my father used to take me down to Hudson Park in New Rochelle to watch the steamers pass Execution Rocks lighthouse, but unfortunately I never traveled on these fine vessels. RUSSELL A. YOUNG Trappe, Maryland The Puritan is not (yet) available as a print, but other paintings by Bill Muller are: the Hudson River steamer Grand Republic and a set offour smaller prints of Hudson steamers. Contact NMHS. -ED. Sic Transit Nightboats I was born and reared in Newport, RI, and in the period 1915-37 made many trips to New York and back in the Fall River Liners, originally to visit my mother's relatives in Bay Ridge and later, after I went to sea, to visit back home. Approaching New York, I used to get up at first light and station myself right up in the bow to gape at the wonders of the big city and the shipping along both shores . I last saw these boats, so well remembered in SH 20, Priscilla, Commonwealth, Providence and Plymouth, all four side by side at the shipbreakers' in Baltimore in 1937 . A sad sight. For years afterward, however, the Jamestown-Newport ferry Governor Carr carried the Priscilla's deep-throated whistle (and also was propelled by the beautiful little bark-yacht Aloha's original steam engine). During foggy periods the whole southern end of Narragansett Bay was reminded of the Fall River Liners by this

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981


distinctive whistle; then they built the damn bridge and junked the Governor Carr, sic transit gloria mundi. P.R. J. REYNOLDS Cold Spring Harbor, New York In Search of Whaleships, Clippers . .. I have just returned from Chile. A friend and I went to Concepcion and Telpahuana searching for the remains of the whaleship James Arnold, but to no avail. Could you help us find her? Also, further down the Chilean coast, and in Tierra de! Fuego, are there any hulks of whaleships or clipper ships? Or, in the Falkland Islands? JOSEPHPIVA

Moby Dick Marine Specialties New Beford, Massachusetts NMHS Trustee Norman Brouwer, who is Curator of Ships at South Street Seaport Museum, responds: "On four trips to the area of Patagonia and the Falkland Islands between 1969 and 1981, I have seen and photographed the remains of 23 deep water sailing ships. Only two ofthese vessels can be properly termed "clipper ships": the American Snow Squall in the Falklands, and ihe British Ambassador in the Straits of Magellan. The South Street magazine Seaport has run articles on both ships. "My most recent information on the James Arnold is that she was serving as a barge in Talcahuano in the 1930s. I have seen wooden barges anchored in that harbor, but none that appeared to be a cutdown whaler. Aside from the Charles W. Morgan at Mystic Seaport Museum, the only surviving whaling ship I am familiar with is Othello, built at Fairhaven, Massachusetts in the 1850s. Only her lower hull remains, sunk at the old whaling station at Stewart Island, off the southern tip of New Zealand. " For a complete accounting see Mr. Brouwer's "Historic Ships in South American Waters," SH 13:38-42. Xerox copies are available for $1. -ED. .t

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Telling the Maritime Story The Seafarers International Union and the National Maritime Historical Society have much in common. The Society is dedicated to the preservation of America's maritime traditions ... telling our sea history and saving old and historic ships as reminders of our seafaring heritage. The Seafarers International Union is dedicated to the preservation-and expansion-of our merchant marine. There are many who care less whether or not we even have a merchant fleet. Fighting this apathy-this indifference to our maritime traditions-means that we must tell the merchant marine story in every possible way. In the way that NMHS is doing; by preserving dramatic examples of our maritime heritage. And in the way that the SIU is doing-by convincing legislators and opinion makers that a merchant marine is vital to our trade and commerce and to our national defense. Time and again in our nation's history merchant ships have proven to be the always-ready "fourth arm" of our military forces, able to take the seas in time of crisis and carry the goods of war wherever they are needed. Millions of Americans must be made aware of our merchant marine. The NMHS can help in this by making history come alive. The SIU will continue to fight in Washington where merchant marine policy is formed ... where our maritime fortunes either live or die. For each of us in our own way it must be "full speed" and "steady as she goes."

f-v~ k./0-d Frank Drozak

Seafarers Int'/ Union of North America 675 Fourth Avenue, Brooklyn , N.Y. 11232

President Seafarers International Union


View of the Brooklyn Division taken just before the turn of the century

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We Could Do No Less Than Respond With Loyalty

"Today, in an age when it has become accepted that some men will be less than straight/orward, when firm convictions are too often spoken with care and caution, or not spoken at all, Admiral 'Dutch ' Will has spoken! He will always be remembered by all of us as a man of integrity and firm conviction. It was either Yes or No but never Maybe. He stood among us knowing exactly where he was and what he wanted to accomplish .. . And we knew that we could do no less than respond to his initiative with loyalty. " -CAPTAIN ROBERT E. HART, USN (RET.) "You call this a maritime museum? I call it a mess." With these words Admiral John M. Will, chairman and president of American Export Lines, strode out of the room in the New York Yacht Club where we had been looking at some early drawings of South Street Seaport Museum . Before turning on his heel and leaving, Admiral Will had made clear the reasons for his discontent-the commercial slickness of the museum plans and the lack of real feeling for the old working waterfront of New York . That was my first meeting, fourteen years ago, with Admiral "Dutch" Will. His point was well taken, and I made it a point to make new drawings of our plans, and to keep him informed of our efforts as the concept of the Museum developed. Before the year 1967 was over, he had agreed to serve as founding president of the New York State Maritime Museum, at our invitation-and such was his standing in the maritime community that his agreement to serve spurred Governor Rockefeller to make the appointments that brought the Museum Association into being . As State Museum President, Dutch helped in a thousand ways to bring the whole South Street scheme closer to reality. His steadfast, in fact stubborn defense of the scheme and his relentless push for its accomplishment ground away the entrenched opposition we had to deal with. Dutch Will liked practical things, he prized workability. He had a generosity of spirit that made him an invaluable friend in this world' s tough corners. He had been through plenty such corners himself. Against his family's wishes, he attended SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981

ADM JOHN MYLIN WILL,

USN, 1899-1981

the Naval Academy, graduating in 1923 . He went on to pick up a master's degree in engineering, and earned an enviable reputation as a combat leader in US submarine forces in the Pacific in World War II, and after the war as a training administrator and as head of the US Military Sealift Command. He retired in 1959 to become President of American Export Lines. Among his decorations were three awards of the Legion of Merit and a Commendation Medal. He was known and respected for his driving attack on what he conceived as vital issues-as for example his successful interest in opening the Northwest Passage across the top of North America, and his unsuccessful interest in keeping the nuclear-propelled merchant ship Savannah steaming. Helen Delich Bentley, during her term as Chairman of the Federal Maritime Commission, said : "Dutch is the kind of fellow who looks around to see where the going is toughest, where the action and the danger is , and then he plunges in-JOO percent!" He was known also for his versatility and unbounded willingness to try new things-at least once. In his later years he greatly enjoyed "retirement" farming in Deerfield Valley, Virginia, while pursuing an active day-to-day routine in New York . He had learned to drive battleships, cruisers, destroyers, submarines and various classes of merchant ship in his 4D-year career in the Navy. Upon retirement, he learned to drive an airplane in order to reach his farm conveniently from New York. In 1978, when the National Maritime

Historical Society was under severe attack from the National Trust for Historic Preservation, and in severe financial straits to boot, Dutch took the helm as Chairman of our Board of Trustees for a two-year term . His " go-ahead" insistence on pursuing what we felt to be the right courses, and not knuckling under to pressure, are vividly remembered by this writer. On February 25 this year, I met with Dutch at his offices in the Marine Index Bureau. He reviewed our long struggle to establish the National Society and to gather support to assure its future. Dutch warned that we could not afford to be too generous with our efforts. The first obligation was to see Sea History secure, then we would have strength to do more for the whole heritage. He shook his head over our work getting Federal money for historic ships, without assuring proper control of the funds or securing any funding for our own enterprise. He made a few calls while we were together, to develop some new interests in Sea History . I thanked him. "Don't thank me, I don't do enough ." We agreed before parting, to have dinner with the Managing Editor the following week, when Dutch would be through some medical tests he had been undergoing. But .. . this was not to be. Dutch went back into the hospital, and on May 8 died of cancer in Washington, DC. He was looked after by his son Captain John M. Will, Jr., USN and John's wife Linda, and his devoted friend Alice Dadourian during these difficult weeks . Memorial services were held on May 14 in Arlington, and on May 19 at Seamen's Church Institute in Lower Manhattan . His friends overflowed the chapel, and rows of people stood in an anteroom and in the entry hall. His comrade-in-arms Captain Robert Hart, USN (ret.), who had served with him in one capacity or another for thirty years, spoke of "this truly admirable man": "He devoted his full life to the service of his country and to a maritime industry that is the backbone of America's safety and defense . He was a man who did not look at the world always through a periscope, but rather saw it as God made it-and as man affected it-and he enjoyed it always, to the utmost!" PS 7


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EDITOR'S LOG The Wavertree Revived The great iron hull, gaunt, shabby, standing tall out of the water, stirred slowly at first, as if reluctant to be moved ... but the McAllister tugs Patrice and David pulled and shoved, and the Cape Horn sailing ship Wavertree slid out into the East River, clear of the lengthening shadows of the skyscrapers of Lower Manhattan. She was bound for the Bethlehem Steel Shipyard in Hoboken. There deckbeams and hatches would be reinstated where they had been removed to make way for huge steel bins during the ship's career as a sand barge in Argentina-in that twilight period of her life when, shorn of the sailing rig that was the glory of her salad days, men on the waterfront still called her not ponton or barge, but el gran velero-the great sailing ship. The restoration of the Wavertree to her sailing prime had languished since she was brought into New York eleven years ago. Then, in the fall of 1980, our Ship Trust went to work with South Street Seaport Museum to see the ship fully restored in full excellence. Contributions by the J. Aron, Vincent Astor, and Grace foundations provided a match for $180,000 appropriated from the Maritime Heritage Fund, and goods and services were contributed by Bethlehem Steel, GeorgiaPacific and McAllister Bros. Towing. So the Wavertree's story, narrated in the last two issues of Sea History, has come into a new chapter. The act of restoring a great ship is an act of learning and of caring, as well as funding. What her people know, and how they Photo by Robert Atkinson.

10

care about their ship should shine in the work. Coming down with volunteer crews to chip old paint and put on new this summer, I found great reward in the hot, brutal work as it proceeded under the direction (and personal example) of the Ship Trust's Friends of Wavertree Chairman Jakob Isbrandtsen, who is also chairman emeritus of the South Street Museum. The ship has always had, to me, a very strong sense of being-perhaps because I had come to know her story so well, and the lives of the men who sailed in her. There is also an unearthly beauty about her, which she gathers round her like a cloak as one leaves her in the summer gloaming, standing tall and aloof amid the debris of the industrial waterfront. She was born, after all, to roam in a wide free world, and to command men's service in a realm of flying fish and sounding whales. The Wawona Imperilled Hans Ditlev Bendixsen, whose serious, intelligent face looks out at you in our story on his ship in this issue of Sea History, was an important American artist-his medium Oregon pine, and his creation the West Coast lumber schooner. Walking through the hold of his schooner Wawona, you're in a symphony of fitted wooden shapes, robust but gently curved, swelling out into a capacious hold amidships, drawing in boldly at the bow and sweetly into the tapered run to the stern. One feels the force of Frank Carr's phrase for our historic ships-' 'cathedrals of the sea"-in Wawona's hold. We are now running the serious risk that future generations of Americans will miss that experience. Most of the ship is still there, as Bendixsen built her, and what has begun to go, through the rot that follows hard on the heels of neglect, can be made good. Sound plans exist to do so. We cannot believe that her story, whose beginnings are ably narrated in this issue by Captain Huycke, is now to end in desuetude and decay. Wawona has a vital message to deliver to Americans, and if enough of us care enough, she will live to deliver it. The Cedars of Lebanon When she was unearthed at the base of the Great Pyramid 27 years ago, it was reported that you could smell the cedar she was built of-cedar of Lebanon, used to build a funerary boat for the Pharoah Cheops 4,700 years ago. "Think of it! A vessel that was already a thousand years old when Moses led his people out of Egypt," as Frank Carr, chairman of the World Ship Trust, is wont to exclaim. Sealed in a huge grave with 16-ton limestone blocks, the vessel was in 1224

parts, ready for assembly in the after life as a remarkably graceful rowing barge 43.5 meters long, when discovered in 1952 as a roadbuilding project uncovered her tomb. Since then she has deteriorated very fast, and is in danger of complete dissolution.

Drawing by Milan Kovac.

Being aware of this, the World Ship Trust asked HRH Prince Philip to present a plan for conserving the priceless relic to President Sadat of Egypt. This was done in March of this year, and the Egyptian government is now moving in accordance with the plan first to save the vessel and next to provide for her long-term conservation and exhibition. The Brooklyn Museum, the British Museum and others had long taken an anxious interest in the vessel's fate; fortunately in the World Ship Trust an instrument existed to get that concern expressed in action before the boat was lost. We look forward to telling this whole story as it unfolds.

The Ship That Saves Others At the Annual Meeting held at Brooklyn headquarters on May 28, the offered slate of trustees was elected, with one addition by nomination from the floor: Captain Robert J. Lowen, International President of the International Organization of Masters, Mates & Pilots. Captain Lowen is welcomed as a new member of the board, but is an old friend of the Society, known to our members through the educational advertisements on the back covers of Sea History sponsored by the seagoing officers' union he heads. Other new trustees are Thomas Hale, president of the Martha's Vineyard Shipyard Shipyard and Richard Rath, editorial director of Yachting magazine, chairman of the Pioneer Marine School at South Street Seaport Museum, and member of the American Trust Committee. At the Annual Meeting the priority of Sea History was reaffirmed: nothing we can do matches in importance the full establishment of the journal. Sea History gives us a base, or a deck if you will from which to save other ships. Launched without startup capital, its finances are not yet, as our auditor notes in the annual financial report, on a going-concern basis. Each year finds Sea History stronger, however, and money contributed to support it is an investment in its future ... and the future of other things that depend on Sea History. PETER STANFORD

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981


MARINE ART by PAUL McGEHEE

THE DROMEDARY Ship Modelers Associates has rapidly become the LARGEST company in the UNITED STATES which is solely devoted to providing only the materials required by the MODEL SHIP BUILDER . Our PLAN department is the most complete in the world , offering drawings by such notables as, MacGregor, Lusci, Underhill , Gay, Channing , Leavitt, Musees de la Marine, Mantua / Sergal,

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"STORMY PASSAGE" a beautiful full color limited edition print by the talented American marine artist PAUL McGEHEE. Prints are available signed and numbered , or with artist's remarque sketch. Other full color prints depict steamboats, port scenes, sailing vessels. FREE COLOR CATALOG: Call (703) 528-5040, or write

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See our 2-page display ad elsewhere in this magazine. © 1981 by Paul McGehee (Artist Member of the American Society of Marine Artists).

Lois Roth 915 I 584-2445

6324 Belton Road El Paso, Texas 79912

On April 23, 1838, the wooden-hulled paddle steamer SIRIUS arrived at New York, responsible for starting the first North Atlantic steamship service, heralding a new era .

On April 25, 1981, we, the men and women comprising the SIRIUS crew of today, moved across the East River and settled into our own and permanent berth alongside this historic shore. Please note our new address and communications numbers below.

STAFF Capt. Woll Spille, President

DIRECT OFFICE

HOME PHONE

212-330-1817

212-875-5632

TANKER CHARTERING:

SIRIUS HOUSE - 76 Montague St reet Brooklyn Heights, New York 11201 Telepho ne : (212) 330-1800

Cable : "'SIRIUS NEWYORK"' lnt'I Tel ex: TRT 177881 /ITI 42287 1 I RCA 2251 11 Domestic Telex: WU 126758 / 645934 / TWX 710-584-2207

Theo Theocharides, V.P.

212-330-1810

212-768-7763

Chris Lesauvage

212-330-1808

516-485-8962

Ed Willis

212-330-1812

516-736-3709

Capt. George Giouzepis, V.P.

212-330-1830

212-229-8861

Phil Romano

212-330-1834

212-352-9015

212-330-1835

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OPERATIONS AND RESEARCH :

FINANCE AND ADMINISTRATION: Jose Fiorenzano, V.P.

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981

11


The varied traffics of New York's broad harbor waters about 1905 show a vanished world of archaic, somehow stately steam vessels, shaped with grace to deal with the work in hand. Notice the gold eagle atop the tug's pilothouse. And behind, Miss Liberty, today a lone survivor of this scene. Photo by R. W. McFadden.

A responsible Anthony J., at left, and affectionate James P. with their grandfather James in back of their Greenpoint House in Brooklyn, around 1910.

The narrower waters and byways of the harbor are equally the tugboat's domain. Here is Newtown Creek, emptying into the East River opposite midtown Manhattan, on June 30, 1913. Anthony McAllister remembers ferrying himself across some years before this scene of hayscow, schooner, and tall-stacked tug was recorded. Photo, Still Collection, National Archives.

Anthony (on right) and James three quarters of a century after our first photo, stand together on the Port Jefferson pier on the afternoon of August 7, 1981, while the McAllister steamer Martha's Vineyard comes in behind them.

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This story began, for me, one rainy night when James P. McAllister II drove me back from a reception we'd both been at. As we crossed the Brooklyn Bridge with the dark tide of the East River flowing beneath us, Jim talked of his younger days shoveling coal at sea in an Atlantic liner and of adventures in different corners of the harbor. He remembered going to visit and spin yarns with a canalboatman. "Mainly, "said Jim, "it was to be with his beautiful daughters who lived aboard. " ft was a pleasant picture, and only later that I thought: Wait a minute-how long is it since we had canalboats with families living aboard here in New York City? We had been talking about a world that had vanished half a century ago-talking so easily and naturally that I might easily have asked Jim to introduce me to the canalboatman. Tugboating is a business of many businesses. The officious, busy look of the tug going about her work reflects the reality: she gets into everything to make her living. So the living memories of tugboatmen are precious, they are in many respects the life of the harbor in time. It is a great pleasure here to publish the impressions of our ar(ist friend Os Brett, talking with Jim McAllister's older brother Anthony J. An oral history of the family's business in the harbor since 1864 is being pulled together, led by Brian McAllister, Anthony's second son and executive vice president, and ably abetted by James P. IV (who is Jim's grandson). Theirs is not the only tugboat act in town, of course. Their arch rivals Moran Towing & Transportation have as long a history in the harbor and as many tales to tell. A few rugged independents, like the Kosnacs, whose tug Haydee, built in 1887, was on exhibit at South Street Seaport Museum earlier this summer, hang on. But that is another story-the whole story of tugboating in the New World's greatest seaport-which we aspire to come to one day. Here in the meantime is a McAllister sampler, which we hope you will find as fascinating, true to life and touching as we did.-ED. SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981


A McAllister Brothers tug heads into the mis/ to pick up the incoming Manga Reva-a four-masted, 2,224-ton bark built in Scotland in 1891, stranded al the Pacific isle of Manga Reva after catching fire in December 1900, and rebuilt in 1902. Acquired by James P. McAllister in partnership with R. W. Geiske in 1914, she served in the New York-San Francisco trade. Painting by Os wald L. Breit.

Towing in Time with McAllister

By Oswald While conversing recently with Anthony McAllister Sr. in his office I noted beyond him on the Hudson River the handsome form and pleasing proportion of a tugboat, looking toylike far below. The familiar red funnel with two white bands topped with black, denoted a McAllister vessel. Mr. McAllister swivelled round in his office chair and picked up a pair of binoculars, handy on the window sill, through which he scrutinised the distant vessel. Smiling, he said how he once caught his son, Anthony Jr., through the glasses, sound asleep in.the sun on a coil of rope, on the deck of a passing McAllister tug, while supposedly working! "He's now 52, and President of the company," said his father. Mr. McAllister described the childhood pleasures of growing up just inside the Greenpoint Avenue Bridge in Brooklyn during the spacious , early years of this century. "When I was a little boy in 1905, I used to play in our shipyard on Saturdays and Sundays; The Creek is not very wide and they had what they called 'float stages', a raft of logs planked over for men to get on and work alongside a barge. I used to get aboard one of these and let the lines go and push myself back and forth across the Creek. When they were building a tugboat I used to climb through the framing when it was on the ways getting ready to launch . I was also fascinated with the workshops, but after a few years they bought the yard in Staten Island and did away with this one." Reminiscing about his early years he told me how his father gave him ''a very general education in the whole industry.' ' While still at school when only fifteen, he spent an entire summer as quartermaster in the big sidewheel passenger steamer Highlander running to Bear Mountain Park, and "that was my first job with McAllister Brothers," recalls Mr. McAllister. "A year or two later when on vacation from school, I helped repair tugboats SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981

L. Brett wherever they might be in port, either at a shipyard or pier, and I worked with the chief engineer. "In 1917 my father got me a job with the Sullivan Dry Dock Corporation," continued Mr. McAllister, "who built tugboats, steam tugs, and who did much of the repairs for McAllister Brothers fleet. I worked in the machine shop as an apprentice and became a lathe hand, and an assembler of main engines and so on. This was good background and experience because the next year I went to Stephens Tech." Mr. McAllister later graduated with a degree in Mechanical Engineering. He then went to sea as a fireman for eight months in one of the fleet of forty-three tankers which his father managed for the United States Government from 1918 till 1928. After this experience in deep-water ships, Mr. McAllister said that "about 1922 I was starting to get into the management of the shipping business to some degree . I was being sent by my father to meet ships coming in to port from voyages, to see that they were repaired , vittled, and paid off." Later Mr. McAllister had the responsibility ''to supervise the loading of cargoes on our lighters all over the port . If a man didn't show up, somebody had to jump in and load a bale or hoist cargo . I loaded every type of lighter with my own hands, and you worked six days a week. On Sunday my father liked to inspect the progress of work on the harbor, visit terminals and the shipyard. My job on Sunday, my day off, was to drive him around to these places because he didn't drive a car. In those days the lighter was a non-propelled unit, a simple barge of various types, many of them covered entirely by a house, in which case they were called covered barges. Others were equipped with a house on the after end only, which housed a coal burning steam boiler, and a steam hoisting engine; also a mast and boom. They 13


Captain James McAllister, the founder, in his office, 31 South Street. Below, a sailing lighter, like those the company operated until they switched to tugs in 1876. Photo, Smithsonian Institution. Bottom Daniel McAllister, New York Harbor's first diesel tug. Converting this lovely old coal-burner to diesel in the 1920s nearly cost Anthony McAllister his job. Photo, Steamship Historical Society.

\

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were handled by a captain, mate, and engineer, and their function licenced by the New York City Police Dept.'' McAllister Brothers was started in 1864 by Mr. McAllister's grandfather, Captain James McAllister. This was only a year or two after that enterprising young ship's officer arrived in the busy harbor of New York from County Antrim, Ireland. Dapper and reserved, he was described as "the perfect gentleman." Investing his savings in a sail lighter, he was shortly joined by five brothers from Ireland, each of whom became master of a similar lighter. They established themselves in partnership as the Greenpoint Lighterage Co. with offices at 31 South Street, which in the 1860s was literally a "Street of Ships." Lofty square-riggers, redolent with strange cargoes from the exotic ports of the Seven Seas, thrust their jib-booms almost to the buildings and offices opposite. This mile long, gas-lit, cobbled thoroughfare resounded interminably to the rumble of horse-drawn traffic; cargo drays, coaches and buggies. James McAllister would later remark that, "you felt like you could reach out the window and grab the bowsprit of a ship." The sail lighter which first established the McAllisters in New York, was a simple wind-driven, sloop-rigged vessel with loose footed mains'! and jib. The hundred tons of cargo carried was worked with boom and hand winch by the skipper and a deck hand. Being skipper of such a vessel, working with wind and tide in fair weather and foul, with no protection from the elements, was a tough life, but one offering great satisfaction and a personal sense of accomplishment. New York was the greatest port in the world for lighterage, and cargo was varied; barrels, case-goods, and bales, from railhead to points around the harbor, to and from ships-even drums of oil from the Standard Oil Refinery in Newtown Creek south through Kill Van Kull. The 60 ' sail lighter was the cargo workhorse of the harbor in those days before the constructon of bridges connecting Manhattan with the mainland. Lading and discharging such vessels under every condition of weather, in all parts of the harbor, required not only great skill, but much resourcefulness and initiative, all of which have subsequently proved to be the ideal basis upon which the present vast, diverse and far-flung McAllister towing and transportation operations are founded. With the continuing growth of New York, James McAllister optimistically made the transition from lighterage to towage, with the acquisition of his first steam tug in 1876; the 72' long, woodbuilt R. W. Bourke of 150 hp. Some years later he modified a number of sail lighters with sealed bulkheads to serve as small tankers for the bulk carriage of oil; thirty ton cargoes from Bayonne to Manhattan, Brooklyn and elsewhere on the harbor. John D. Rockefeller who was at that time considering the formation of Standard Oil, approached James McAllister proposing that he exchange the McAllister fleet for substantial stock in this new Rockefeller oil venture. The offer was refused, however, much to the chagrin of later McAllister generations! Continuing to grow and diversify, the company acquired its own shipyard towards the end of the last century in Newtown Creek, formerly a Standard Oil site, where scows, lighters, and tugboats were constructed for McAllister service. At the turn of the century the McAllisters formed the Yankee Salvage Co. in partnership with two other businessmen who owned the sole patent rights for the raising of sunken vessels by compressed air. The company also acquired the Stirin Fleet of five sidewheel passenger vessels which ran during the summer from the Battery to Glen Island. Later the famous side wheeler Bridgeport was bought and renamed Highlander, running with passengers to Bear Mountain Park till fairly recent years. Shortly before the First World War McAllister Brothers owned SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1910


the fine Scots-built, steel four-masted barque Manga Reva exPyrenees. This handsome vessel had been beached in the lagoon at Manga Reva Atoll, near Pitcairn Island after her cargo of grain caught fire. She was bound from Tacoma towards Leith, and was later salved in 1902 by an enterprising American shipmaster. Her stranding formed the subject for a short story by Jack London entitled ''The Seed of McCoy.'' TheManga Reva later fell victim to a U-boat in the North Atlantic in 1917. In 1914 the company converted an old vessel into a tank barge for the bulk carriage of molasses from Cuba, and towed by the C. W. Moss, the largest tugboat afloat. Because of these operations the company later came to manage a large fleet of oil tankers for the U.S. Shipping Board in 1918. The high earnings which accrued were later returned with great pride to the Shipping Board. During both World Wars McAllister Brothers carried arms and munitions for the War Department, and became specialists in the handling and transportation of such items . Mr. McAllister explained how fascinated he was with the prospect of diesel propulsion when he graduated from Stephens Tech at Hoboken in 1921. He had written a paper on the subject at the time and felt confident the diesel would be the engine of the future. "In 1927 when I was Port Engineer for McAllister Brothers, I went to a ship breaking yard at Ford Motors in Detroit to buy pumps and condensers for further service in our steam tugs. With the full knowledge and consent of my father I visited the Winton Engine Co. in Cleveland, a forerunner of General Motors. Mr. Winton, formerly an auto manufacturer, but now a designer and builder of diesel engines, demonstrated the diesel engine for me on the test floor. I was immediately sold on this superior form of marine propulsion, and after an expansive dinner, I signed a purchase order, purely on my own initiative, for our first marine diesel. "When I returned to the office and delightedly reported to my father how we were now the owners of this revolutionary 375 hp. oil injection engine, he was furious and dismissed me from further employment with McAllister Brothers. I went and sat in Battery Park to contemplate my now ruined career. With a wife and family the future looked bleak. I called my mother and explained to her my predicament, and she said, 'I'll speak to your father when he comes home this evening, and tomorrow morning you return to work as usual, just as though nothing has happened.' I followed my mother's advice, and no further mention ever was made of my indiscretion in exceeding my authority. The economics of what I proposed were absolutely overwhelming; a diesel engine cost $4 daily for oil fuel, while a coalburning steam engine cost $25. The 375 hp. diesel engine I proposed was duly installed in our small, 250 hp . wooden tug Daniel McAllister, which became the first diesel powered tugboat in New York Harbor. "I next urged the use of an all welded oil fuel tank instead of the customary rivets. We riveted steam boilers which were always developing leaks, and these were repaired by welding; a most successful solution . I proposed the installation of an all welded fuel tank in the wooden hull of the James McAllister when she was converted from steam to diesel propulsion. However, the Steamboat Inspection Service would not accept this revolutionary concept unless the tank was first unrealistically subjected to 100 lbs. of internal hydrostatic pressure per sq. inch. The oil pressure in the tank would be minimal, but we acceded to the test, which was conducted successfully, and so we were permitted to install this new tank . These tanks were later redesigned cylindrically and as such were the first in the country. Welding was only then coming into general use. Oil fuel had the additional advantage of being cleaner in every way than coal. "I recall another occasion involving one of our tugs when Mr. SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981

II

In 1936, the Charles D. McAllister lay in her South Street slip the schooner Theoline, one of the last sailing ships in New York. Photo, Museum of the City of New York.

Eamon De Valera, later to be elected Prime Minister of Eire, arrived in New York on an Irish Bond drive in 1922. He had arrived at Hoboken in a German vessel, but unfortunately the Macom, the Mayor's Committee boat for transporting VIP's, was not available to bring Mr. De Valera across from New Jersey to Pier A, North River. Mayor Jimmy Walker asked my father whether we might furnish a tug for the occasion, to which request my father readily assented. I accompanied the tug when we brought Mr. De Valera across to Manhattan. When visiting Ireland almost forty years later, we happened to pass the Dail (Parliament House) in Dublin one morning. I inquired after Mr. De Valera and tendered my compliments. Word was returned to me and my wife that the Prime Minister would be only too delighted to receive us later that afternoon, which he did most cordially." Today the fourth McAllister generation is at the helm of McAllister Brothers, facing the challenges and problems of an always uncertain future. "They are my two sons", explains Mr. McAllister, "Anthony J. Jr. and Brian A. McAllister. President and Vice-President respectively. Both are professionally skilled and thoroughly versed in every facet of our operations. My grandfather who founded the company, Captain James McAllister died in 1916, but by then the active management of the company's affairs had passed to his son, the energetic James P. McAllister known as 'Captain Jim,' of the second generation who was my father. "Under my father the company enjoyed tremendous growth and prosperity till the advent of the Great Depression. Fortunately, my father had very wisely invested in New York movie theaters,

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IN MEMORIAM

JOHN MYLIN WILL ADMIRAL , UNITED STATES NAVY

1899-1981

NEW YORK COUNCIL, NAVY LEAGUE OF THE UNITED STATES

37 West 44 Street, New York, New York 10036


McALLISTER

and their dividends went a long way towards keeping us afloat during those critical times. At one point we almost foundered with only one tug and four scows actively employed. Captain Jim died in 1936 when the partnership was dissolved in favor of a corporate entity with one remaining former partner, together with me and my two brothers of the third generation. Restoring the ravaged company fortunes after the depression entailed enormous energy and ingenuity. "My earliest recollection (at the age of about 5) of the family business is of a snow filled squally Easter Sunday about 1903-04 when I was taken aboard one of our steam lighters for a trip down the East River, the Bay, and Kill Van Kull . It was on this occasion that the ownership of the McAllister Lighterage Line was divided into thirty one shares, and apportioned between by grandfather, two of his brothers eight shares, and the other brother six shares, while my father received four shares. That was my introduction to the transaction of family affairs." At the end of our conversation, Mr. McAllister told me that when he and Mrs. McAllister observed their 50th Wedding Anniversary, their eight children surprised them with a party to celebrate the occasion at the 21 Club. At the same time a new tug, the Marjorie A. McAllister, was named in honor of Mrs. McAllister, and a painting of the tug showing Stephens Tech in the background, was presented by the eight McAllister children to their proud parents. This gesture and this celebration surely epitomised family loyalty, integrity and enthusiasm-qualities which have also contributed to the professional and business success of the McAllister family members. All sailors are aware that aside from pilotage, the first and last link any arriving or departing vessel has with the land is through the port's fleet of tugboats; ubiquitous and nimble little vessels which have represented McAllister Brothers in the Port of New York for more than a century. These McAllister tugboats enthusiastically convey an air of splendid and competent purpose, not only in the handling of shipping, but in the towing and movement of many and varied commodities; within the port itself, and also in adjacent rivers, canal systems, coastal waters, and even including deep sea tows of mammoth barges and oil rigs. Their familiar funnel colors give testimony to a long tradition of service and hard work, which has been a significant contribution to the history and growth of the great port-city of New York.

ww w SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981

Sailing Adventures aboard the SCHOONER HARVEY GAMAGE -a windjammer in true "down East" tradition. U.S. Coast Guard inspected 95' o.a. in length

COLLEGE STUDENTS SEMESTER-AT-SEA Plan a college semester aboard the

SCHOONER HARVEY GAMAGE. Credits in arts and science you earn from Sout ha mpton College , a Center of Long Island University, may be transferred. Curriculum includes visits to many educational and historical places from Maine to the Virgin Islands. For curriculum, schedule and cost, write or phone-

Summer months the ship cruises the Maine coast out of Rockland .. . winter months in the Virgin Islands from Charlotte Amalie. Enjoy a week under sail ... make new friends ... relish hearty meals . . . return relaxed, filled with happy memories. Write or phone-

DIRIGO CRUISES Dept. SH, 39 Waterside Lane Clinton, Conn. 06413 Tel: 203-669-7068

Sailing at Five O'clock? Why Not? Dock your boat right at your

office door! Handsome workspace still available at Stamford's Harbor Plaza. Call Bill Fox: 203/357-0123

Harbor m PlazaW 43 Lindstrom Road

Stamford Connecticut

"Defiance" -

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Schoone r Cove/Harbor Plaza.

Collins Development Corporation

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Interior of China cabin during restoration showing temporary guy wires. This and accompanying photos are by Philip L. Molten, unless otherwise noted.

A MATTER OF RESTORATION The saloon of S.S. China by Philip L. Molten & Robert G. Herbert, Jr. In the spring of 1886, one of the last of her kind was scrapped and burned for her metal-the Pacific Mail Steamship Company's wood hulled, paddle-wheel, transPacific passenger steamer China, after only twelve years of trouble-free, active service and seven years of stand-by lay-up, was a casualty of progress. China (for her first year, Celestial Empire) was designed and built by William H. Webb in New York, 380 feet on deck, 363 on her load waterline, with a 50 foot beam and a depth of 30 feet. On a draft of 18 feet, her loaded displacement was about 6500 tons, which her 1500 horsepower, vertical beam engine (built by the Novelty Iron Works of New York) and 40 foot diameter side wheels pushed through the water at 10 knots and better. She and her sister Japan, and two slightly larger vessels of similar design were the largest wooden hull, steam powered ocean vessels ever built, and they were the answer to the contract requirements for U.S. mail service between America and the Orient. But they were outdated the day they slid down the ways, for ship design and construction technology had long passed they by. When the mail contract was reworked in 1897, it called for iron hulls and screw propulsion, so China, pride of the P.M.S.C. was doomed. Her three running mates had been lost in pre18

vious years by fire, sinking, stranding, etc. But she didn't totally disappear. One enterprising man bought her social saloon and all its furniture before she was put to the torch, but it was not the usual just lifting a house off the deck . Mr. J.T. Keefe had the deck sawn around the structure so that house, deck and supporting beams came off as a unit. Then he had the piece swung onto a barge and taken around to Belvedere Cove where it was set up on pilings on the shore in the midst of other small shacks and shanties that were used as weekend or summer residences. After a few years as a single family residence, the 20 by 40 foot building was partitioned, added to and subdivided into living quarters for two families. The Keefes retained one section and the other was rented to a retired master mariner, Nicholas Bichard. For a while after the 1906 earthquake and fire, refugees from that San Francisco disaster were housed there. Over the years, the original, crowned, clerestory roof deteriorated, and instead of patching or repairing it, a steeply pitched, hip roof was built over all, obliterating, but not destroying, the beautifully etched glass in the clerestory windows. In 1915, the house was sold to other owners, and was rented out to various summer tenants until 1938 when it was

leased to Mr. and Mrs . Fred Zelinsky. They removed the dividing partition and did considerable restorative work to the interior, using the whole saloon as the living room of the house, and they lived there until 1978 when the local Landmarks Society finally succeeded in purchasing and saving the building. This struggle started in the mid '70s when the residents of Belvedere became concerned about their could-be-beautiful waterfront, the views across the Cove and San Francisco Bay, with the towers of that city as a back-drop. The curious, old shacks, dilapidated and sitting on frail and rotting piles had to go! They had an old world charm, and bore such colorful names as "The Water Wagon," "Roos House," "The Mermaid," and were full of local history, but no matter. And there was one still in quite good condition and lived in whose name board proclaimed it to be "China Cabin." A cabin from China? To such new comers to the area who gave second thoughts to the beach cottages, this was a puzzlement since the hipped roof and strangely panelled, dark green walls were far from oriental architecture. But the older people, long time residents, knew the cabin's origin, and to many it was a interesting old relic. The year 1978 approached, and plans SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981


~ The SS China (1) new (her social saloon with ~ row of windows is visible at base of mainmast) ~ and (2) in service. The China cabin in use as residence (3) and being moved (4) onto new pier ...

J

(5).

for an open waterfront progressed as discussions ran to problems of removal of the ramshackle clutter obscuring the views from the expensive residences being built on the land side of Beach Road. Talk turned to the possibility of donation or sale of s!.., the buildings for relocation, or condemna- ~ tion and demolition. That last word hung heavy in the minds of the BelvedereTiburon Landmarks Society members as they searched for an appropriate and plausable location for the cabin. As early as 1976, the Society, in identifying the cabin for Bay area residents, had run a large ad in the local newspaper, "The Ark," calling attention to its historic aspect with photographs of both exterior and interior views and a picture of the vessel from which it came. But not everyone read the ad, and of those who did, some disparaged it as just another toy for a group of nostalgia nuts. So 1977 rolled by and deadlines for signing contracts for removal drew closer. Influential people said the cabin was just another old shack. Others said they personally knew of better interiors and more important ships. Again the idea of removal began to outweigh thoughts to preserve, and once more "demolition" came up as a viable alternative, while the Landmarks officers searched frantically for alternate locations within the community. Stormy sessions were held at City Council meetings. Factions formed, changed and broke, and gradually the story began to spread beyond the confines of the Cove. Belvedere's level-headed young mayor, Cameron Baker, put it succinctly when he said, "It's a battle between the good guys. Everyone's wearing a white hat! It's historic preservation versus open space." Then the situation began to brighten. An appeal by a Society member who was a Webb Institute alumnus, brought Rear Admiral C.N. Payne, USN (Ret.) out from the East Coast to inspect the China Cabin. As president of Webb Institute of Naval Architecture, he had a keen interest in any artifact from the brain and hand of the school's founder. (To advance the science of ship design and construction, and to help indigent young men learn a profession, Webb had set up his will to found and fund a free school of naval architecture in his residence in the Bronx, across the Harlem River from New York City. Some time in the 1930s, due to various changes and advances-in costs, SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981

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Between 1886, when the cabin was removedfrom the China, and 1938 when it was purchased by Mr. and Mrs. Fred Zelinsky, many alterations had been made to it, including partitions and extensions. The Zelinskys removed the partitions and did considerable restorative work on the interior. This is how the cabin looked when the Landmarks Society purchased it in 1978.

Woodrack holds new wood on the left, old wood on the right.

scope, technology, etc.-under the auspices of the American flag Steamship Owners Association, the school was relocated on one of the Pratt estates at Pratt Oval, Glen Cove, Long Island, N.Y.) Admiral Payne wrote the Landmarks Society, "It is believed that 'China Cabin' is the only completely original relic of any nineteenth century (steam) ship." He contacted all the alumni of Webb Institute with the story, resulting in the Belvedere City Council being inundated with some 200 letters asking that the China Cabin be preserved. Karl Kortum, Chief Curator of the National Maritime Museum in San Francisco, offered support and advice for the preservation of ''this maritime relic, one of the most valuable in California." William A. Baker, Curator of the Francis Hart Nautical Museum at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, wrote, "It would be a crime if the intact saloon of the China was to be destroyed." Finally, Dr. John Haskell Kemble, Warren Finney, Day Professor of History, Emeritus, from Pomona College and author of two definitive works on the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, visited the cabin and then turned over his resources to aid the Landmarks Society effort. The tide had turned! Local petitions surfaced. Lines of attack were redrawn. And at a memorable City Council meeting of 8 January, 1979, a compromise was announced that would allow the China Cabin to remain permanently on the shores of Belvedere Cove. "This is a first-rate example of politics at its best," quipped Councilwoman Sherry Levit, joking about the years of negotiation. "Nobody got their first choice but nobody got their third choice either." The Landmarks Society rescue project was a $63,500 plan to move the

could be determined, and it was found that most of the exterior was of East Coast pine. But to everyone's surprise, a section at the "forward" end of the saloon proved to be redwood, probably added during repairs or alterations at the company's piers in San Francisco. And other woods, thought to be mahogany, turned out to be black walnut. The survey raised many questions which wilLbe difficult to answer since records of the Pacific Mail company were lost during various fires in both San Francisco and New York, and China's voyages were too early in the history of photography for the casual snapshot which would be normal in a later period. By leasing the site and permitting restoration, the Belvedere City Council has officially declared the China Cabin to be an historical landmark, thereby exempting the construction work from local building codes and placing it under the special State code for historic buildings. And so the work goes forward as funds permit. The structure is now on its new platform, the hip roof and residential additions have been removed, and all work, both repair and restoration, is being done in a first class, A-1 fashion as was the original construction. And some is even going beyond that! After the cabin was relocated and the "domestic" roofremoved, the structure developed a noticable bulge along the wall head, and a sag of the arched roof. The restoration crew installed tensioning wire and come-alongs near the head line to gradually bring the walls back to alignment while the Society's volunteer engineer, Bob Van Blaricum, designed a glued plywood arrangement on top of the flat roof section around the clerestory. A simple and inexpensive solution that made the marginal section into a horizontal stiffener beam. This, with some steel bracing

20

cabin onto a new platform a few feet away from its first location; the platform to be on new pilings, large enough to extend beyond the cabin as a walk-around deck; removal of all nonhistoric additions; and making the original roof weather-tight. Phase II, faithful restoration of both the panelled exterior and the ornate interior, and Phase III, the aquisition of authentic furnishings would have to wait for further funding. With the goal of $63,500 before them, the Society launched a variety of fund raising ventures. An exhibit of paintings by the noted marine artist, John Manca, was held. Two paintings of the China were donated for auction to benefit the restoration fund. An open house was held in the China Cabin at its existing location, high-lighted by the presence of Admiral Payne from Webb, who spoke briefly about its history. Letters were written to a broad group of interested people, and funds began to come in, allowing specialists to be hired to begin planning the move and to dismantle the latter day additions and house roof. Si and Max Durney, whose youthful demeanor belied their experience in historic ship restoration, brought enthusiasm and ingenuity to the reconstruction and restoration. Siding was carefully lifted at critical points to reveal the original framing and floor-to-ceiling iron tie bars that held the cabin to the deck. At low tide, the under side of the old deck was examined, and they found the decorative trim on the ceilings of the passenger space below still in place! Mouldings and patchwork located the opening in the deck for the grand staircase to the dining saloon and the hole and partners for the main mast that went up through the center of the saloon. Chips of paint were removed so the species of wood

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981


Rotted ends of the China's deckbeams and missing sections of the starboard bulkhead are being worked on here.

Exposed structure of the after bulkhead.

set within the side walls at the corner posts, has made the structure sound and square. As removed paint exposed rotted wood, it was cut out, and along with any damaged sections, was replaced with artfully spliced-in new wood. New panels have been made for the missing section of the east wall, and that whole restored wall will be in place by April. Many layers of paint are being stripped from the interior walls to again reveal the delicate capitals of the walnut pilasters between the panels, and on those panels, some thirty different patterns of intricate mouldings and trim. Of the eighty clerestory and main windows, twenty of the originals with etched glass and walnut frames remain. New ones with frames and hand etched, floral designs to match the originals are being made, and repairs to existing windows plus installation of the new ones comes to some $300. each . These, together with the main exterior wall panels, are scheduled for installed completion by early April of this year. Besides the saloon itself, there were two "staterooms" at the original forward end of the salvaged structure. These are being rebuilt, the one which was the Chief Engineer's room will now house all servicing facilities including the toilet, while the other, which was for the ship's surgeon, will be restored as a ship's dispensary of the period with typical medical equipment of the nineteenth century. Already donated is the kit of Dr. B.H. Baumeister, class of 1882, University of California Medical School at San Francisco, and Dr. Gert Brieger, Chairman of the Dept. of History of Medical Sciences, U.C., S.F., is Technical Advisor for that restoration. Since China ran before the days of electricity-and to reduce the fire hazard-the soft, warm glow of oil lamps will be more or less simulated by indirect electric lights . SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981

The question of what to do with the hole in the roof for the main mast brought up several suggestions besides recreating the visual aspect of a large mast in the middle of the room. From making it a skylight to making a small hanging plant solarium to the final decision of covering the hole and putting in a hanging lighting fixture . Considering the future use of the room, a four foot diameter "mast" was thought to take up too much space. For installation around the perimeter Karl Kortum has loaned an iron rail stanchion of the period for copying. A mold and castings have been made, and are now in work so an authentic hand rail to suit the China's saloon can be installed. But much is still to be done before completion. Plumbing and wiring have to be installed before restoration can be completed and the interior finished. A grant of $62,500 from the National Trust, with matching funds from the Society, will cover only structural repairs, exterior restoration and electrical work. The estimated cost to complete the interior is $225,000, to be raised by the Society. This will include the cost of making molds and casting sections to repair damaged or replace missing parts of the decorative trim, which is estimated at$75,000. All this intricate trim was originally gilded, and redoing this with gold leaf is estimated at some $30,000, half of which would be for labor. While all this expense and work will put the physical structure back toward its original condition, fine details and information is still desired-and required-to complete all the "nitpiCkfo'" minutiae. Some good material has already come to light, but still wanted are any sort of photographs, diaries, letters or other data on S/ S China and her Social Saloon. From such records, the Society can learn how the

room was furnished, and get on with the next hard part of acquiring by gift or purchase, the proper chairs, tables, sofas and other equipment for the passengers' pleasure and comfort on a 20 day passage across the Pacific Ocean in the 1880s. While the exterior of the building is easily seen from boats in the water or from Beach Road, anyone wishing to visit the interior should make arrangements with the Landmarks Society beforehand. And whether or not you make a pilgrimage to Belvedere to see this authentic restoration, donations (which are tax deductible) in any amount are not only necessary to carry on the work, but are most welcome and greatly appreciated. If in the amount of $500 or more, the donor's name will be inscribed on a permanent plaque displayed in the saloon, and donors of $100 or more will receive, along with a note of thanks, a limited edition reproduction of an original lithograph of the vessel. The address for all communications is: Belvedere-Tiburon Landmarks Society, P.O. Box 134, Belvedere-Tiburon, California, 94920.

Philip Molten, a resident of Tiburon, Ca., is a member of the Board of Directors of the Belvedere-Tiburon Landmarks Society, a member of the China Cabin Committee, serving as Curator of Collections. Robert Herbert, a resident of East Northport, N. Y., is a retired mariner ofsail and steam, with experience in ship design and construction, and latterly in heavy building design and construction, and is a Member of the Advisory Committee ofthe National Maritime Historical Society. 21


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Paul McGehee,

A.s.M.A.

BALTIMORE - The Night Boat to Norfolk leaving the busy inner harbor in 1935. A limited-edition of 950 S/N $100 . Signed with Remarque $150. Image Size 18 3/4 ' x 30" .

A REMARQUE is an original pencil sketch personally drawn by the artist and placed in the lower left-hand margin of the print. The drawing above, shown actual size, is typical of the over fifty different scenes that Mr. McGehee has drawn on the various prints to date. Only a small number of each limited edition are designated for these original drawings. The remarque enhances the appearance, and ultimately, the value, of the print.

LOW INVENTORY ON REMARQUED EDITIONS DEALER INQUIRIES ARE WELCOME STANDARD DEALER DISCOUNTS APPLY. SEND FOR FREE COLOR CATALOG! © 1981 by Paul McGehee.

PAUL McGEHEE This phenomenal young artist is equal· ly at home whether sketching in the wild or researching in libraries and mu· seums. Releasing fourteen new lim· ited-edition prints in less than two years , Paul has depicted such varied subjects as 19th century steamboat scenes; oyster boats ; Heidelberg, Germany waterfront ; Baltimore harbor scene; Autumn hunt scene; George· town on the Potomac ; etc. This artist will indeed leave his mark in the mod· ern day art world. SEND TODAY FOR OUR DEALER INFORMATION KIT AND FREE FULL-COLOR CATALOG.

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NEW RELEASES BY

Paul McGehee,

A.s.M.A.

DOWN THE BAY -The "Emma Giles" in 1930 Image Size 19" x 30 112" 950 SIN $100. Signed with Remarque $200.

WINTER IN HEIDELBERG - German barges on the Neckar River Image Size 19" x 25 3/s " 950 SIN $100. Signed with Remarque $150.

CHESAPEAKE BAY HARBOR- The "Enoch Pratt" in 1889 Image Size 19" x 30 1h" 950 SIN $100. Signed with Remarque $150.

MALLARDS AT TILGHMAN ISLAND Image Size 16" x 20" 950 S/N $60. Signed with Remarque $110.

IN TROPICAL WATERS- Schooner at Havana in 1925 Image Size 18 3/.i " x 30" 950 SIN $100. Signed with Remarque $150.

END OF THE LINE

THE ROAD HOME (Detail)- Duck hunter and dogs

Image Size 16" x 24" Signed Edition $35. Signed with Remarque $85.

Image Size 25" x 20" 950 S/N "$100. Signed with Remarque $150.


A waiting her cargo of fir lumber at Port Blakeley early in her career, in 1899, the handsome Wawona (far right) nestles in against the kind offorest that gave her birth. Astern of her is schooner Excelsior,followed by schooner Wm . F. Witzemann, an unknown bark, and the unusual whaleback steamer Elm Branch . Photo by William Hester, courtesy National Maritime Museum, San Francisco.

The Wawona Is Waiting by Capt. Harold D. Huycke

One of America's most valuable and intact sailing ships, a relic and survivor of the 1890s and one of the long-vanished lumber ships of the Pacific Coast lies rotting away in Seattle's Lake Union. Her deteriorating condition is due to an ongoing cancer of dry-rot, which has taken a serious toll of her side planking and superstructure, and also some outboard strength members. But there is much that is still sound in the hull of the three-masted schooner Wawona, and she is by no means a lost cause. She lies quietly afloat in fresh water, at the southernmost end of Lake Union by the Naval Reserve Armory, close to the heart of the city. She patiently and gently tugs at the wire and. manila or nylon mooring lines which are bent to a few snags of piling left over from a demolished pier. It's an out of the way corner, but quite visible to busy streams of auto traffic which pass by. This old ship, with her forecastle head partially caved in, side planking rotted away in some local areas, and faded green paint peeling off her cement patches and planking, is in serious need of help and cannot wait much longer. When Hans Ditlev Bendixsen built the Wawona in 1897 at Fairhaven, California, across Humbolt Bay from the city of Eureka, he had already launched more than three dozen vessels, mostly sailing ships, and was pre-eminent amongst the West Coast builders of his time. Bendixsen was one of the most prolific builders in the wooden ship era on the entire Pacific Coast before World War I. Bendixsen immigrated to the United States from his native Captain Huycke, marine surveyor in Seattle, trustee of the National Society and author of To Santa Rosalia, Further and Back and other works, has laid aside his researches in West Coast maritime history to fight the cause of just one ship, the Bendixsen-built schooner Wawona.

24

Denmark, via Brazil, and worked in the shipyards in San Francisco in post-Civil War years. By the year 1868 he had moved to Eureka and worked for a year in the yard ofEuphronius Cousins. In the following year, at the age of about 25, he stepped out on his own and commenced building ships, which industry he followed until he retired thirty-two years later. It was a productive career to say the least. First in Eureka, and later in Fairhaven, Bendixsen turned out five dozen sailing ships alone. To this number must be added more sailing ships which were built up to 1904 by the Bendixsen Shipbuilding Corporation, a stock company which was formed in 1901 upon his retirement. Gordon Frazer Matthews, one of the last living shipbuilders of this era, described two aspects of the building of ships on Humboldt Bay which may account for Wawona's longevity. He was born in Eureka on 4 July 1877, and was a boy there when his father, Peter Mathews (sic), worked for Bendixsen. ''Wawona was constructed oflumber considered to be a species of the Douglas Fir, but the lumber was often called Humboldt Pine; in fact another softwood of the West Coast, tough and durable. The majority of the ship owners operating vessels in the lumber industry on the Pacific Coast were located in San Francisco, the home port for their vessels. A number of the owners had a preference for the vessels built with lumber cut on Humboldt Bay. No doubt that was the principal reason for the large number of bald-headed schooners having been built there. The long life of some ofthe vessels was second to none of those vessels built on the Pacific Coast. After Bendixsen established a permanent shipyard at Fairhaven, he erected a sawmill to cut long logs into the long SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981


Hans Ditlev Bendixsen, builder of Wawona, was born in Denmark and came to San Francisco as a youth. By age 25, in 1869, he began building his own schooners in Eureka.

timbers required for building larger vessels. The long timbers cut for keel, keelson and other timbers for the ceiling, plank, and deck timbers, were essentialfor the construction for the larger and stronger built vessels. The Humboldt Pine never grew in quality to compare with some of the Douglas Fir of Washington, for clear lumber, for door stock and finishing lumber. However for structural purposes, it did contain the qualities of strength and long life. The climate was also very favorable for a longer life for the vessels built there. The rainfall was about 35 inches a year, the prevailing winds from Spring to Fall were from the Northwest, dry winds, that no doubt dried the timbers, reduced the moisture content and gradually and thoroughly seasoned the lumber before the vessel was completed and launched. The Wawona is a good example of a vessel built under those favorable conditions." Given these factors as important to the Wawona's longevity, salt has also contributed to her long life. There were a few sailing ships employed in the salt cod fishery in the 1930s and 1940s, long after they were done for in the coasting lumber trade. Here it was thatthe Wawonaandhernearsister, C.A. Thayer, were seasonally employed for decades, even resuming this service for a short period after World War II. And bulk salt carried in her hold also pickled the interior of the Wawona for many years. This pickling arrested the relentless enemy of all wooden ships, fresh-water deterioration. But the salt was carried only amidships. Salt cod fishing vessels carried this commodity in bulk in the lower hold and confined it first in sacks, later in bins. Thus, the ends of the ship, superstructures and outboards, areas where water is trapped and allowed to leak through-these are the areas where Wawona developed a raging fever in her bones. Next to a modemday gas-powered chain saw, rain-water is the worst enemy a wooden vessel has. Today Wawona is open to the elements fore and aft. While this has been the primary cause of her accelerating deterioration during the past thirty-odd years, her open hatches allow the visitor a chance to go down stairways into the lower hold. This is where the shipwright's art, the intricacies of well-fitted ship timbers, is quite easily seen. Wawona is a relic from the late Victorian age of shipbuilding. Her construction is probably the most tangible and visible testimony to this fact. She is typical of the Pacific Coast lumber schooners which evolved from older concepts, brought to the West Coast from New England and European yards, adapted to

Pacific Coast requirements and materials. She is fairly beamy, with moderate deadrise and a noticeable and very pleasant sheer, which she still shows today. Though she has become slightly hogged through the years-which is quite common in any wooden vessel-she does not show this disfigurement along her sheer line. But one must look carefully at the timbers to appreciate what Bendixsen and his shipwrights built her with. Though Bendixsen has been gone these eighty years (he died in 1902 at the age of 59), his craftsmanship is still evident. Hans Bendixsen must have sold his soul for the two clamps which run from the stem to the break of the poop. There isn't a scarph or butt in the full length of each clamp, which is the timber bolted to the inboard upper ends of all frames, and supports the shelf, which in tum supports the heavy deck beams. Each clamp measures 13 11 thick by 15 11 wide, and approximately 145' in length . Two of them! One each side. And besides all that, one wonders how these great timbers were bent to form the shape of the ship between the fore rigging and the stem. The covering boards, the not-so-large timbers which run down each side of the deck from the stem full length of the vessel, cover the frame heads and also serve as a reinforcement to the general shape of the vessel along the bulwarks. They are notched along the bulwarks. Even these pieces are impressive in their dimensions: thickness 6 Vi 11 by width 23 11 , with lengths varying from 8 'at the forward end by the stem, to 100' aft, along the main deck. Deck beams measure 14 11 wide at the greatest dimension, and vary in thickness from 9 11 to 14 11 , not allowing for the camber

Drawing by Jay W. Spearman, consulting engineer for Wawona restoration.

tonN'~

SECT/QI\/ THf<OUGH MAIN HATCH .5CHOON ER "WAWONA' ~CA L I

0

I

Z.

,t,V ,#'-6.llr

_,

.,,

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which must be cut out of a larger piece of timber. The lengths of the beams as originally placed over the knees at the widest place in the ship are approximately 34 '. Ceiling planking is approximately 9Yi 11 thick along the sides. Exterior planking below the sheer strake is 5 11 thick and the frames are about 9 11 in the same location. Thus the aggregate bulk thickness of the outer hull plank, frames and ceiling is approximately 23 11 through. Other dimensions are equally impressive, and as closer examination is made throughout the ship, from bow to stern, one comes to realize that this vessel is an anachronism of an age long gone. Not so many years ago it was common to visit with the last surviving shipwrights who served their apprenticeship years in the yards which turned out these vessels. But the past thirty years has the critical period of dissipation of the knowledge that shipwrights of yore once applied to such ship construction, to say nothing of the supplies of forest which yielded the trees that produced these high grade and exceptional timbers. The old growth forests of the West are gone. Wawona is a bald-headed schooner, a peculiar type of foreand-after which evolved on the Pacific Coast in the late 1880s. The bald-header was not an unlovely ship, and was simply rigged. Each mast was a single stick, the critical diameter being just below the bolsters, or trestle-trees. The masthead was square for a length of approximately 10' or 11 ', depending upon the overall size of the ship, and above that, a tapered round pole extended the mast for another 10' to 13 '. This differed from the topmast schooner which had separate topmasts, fidded to the lowers at the doublings. Topmast schooners set topsails on these upper masts, footed to the gaff, and occasionally, if not frequently, a single yard and brailed square sail was set on the foremast. Nearly all of the threeand four-masted schooners, bald-headed or otherwise, were originally fitted with gaff-head fore-and-afters, but it appears that with the passing of years, an innovative leg-o' -mutton spanker was set with the peculiar Pacific Coast style of ring-tail, or small

upside-down appearing triangular sail on the spanker as well. The advantage to these bald-headed rigs was pretty obvious, as noted by the late Dr. John Lyman. Though the gaffs which were used on the three- and four-masted schooners were heavy and long, and of no mean dimension to hoist aloft, the bald-headed vessels eliminated the need for sailors to go aloft with the change of tack on the long beat up the coast in ballast, to shift the topsail sheets over the spring stays. A bald-headed schooner was a good berth for a coasting sailor. Eventually the bald-headed rig was employed on numerous four-masted schooners, and numerous shipbuilders in Washington, Oregon and California adopted the style. An occasional topmast schooner was rigged down to a bald-headed rig by some owners or masters. Matthews commented further: "H. D. Bendixsen built the first three-mast bald-headed schooner, the Esther Buhne, gross 290 tons, in 1887. He built the three-masted schooner Czarina, gross 230 tons in 1891, the smallest of that type on the Bay. He built the Wawona, gross 468

tons in 1897, the largest of the three-masted bald-headed schooners built on the Coast. Bendixsen built about twenty of that type of vesselfrom the same model. He increased the length, breadth and depth as required to increase the lumber capacity which the different owners contracted for." In her early years as a lumber schooner Wawonawas fitted with the customary bowsprit and jib-boom. The advantages in being so rigged were at least two-fold: (!) the extended jib-boom was a removable spar, and could be unshipped and withdrawn from its extended position when the ship was moored alongside a quay, and where her extended head-rigging would otherwise foul another ship ahead of her, or where allotted space was limited; (2) the bowsprit was, like it or not, a somewhat vulnerable spar, and if it were damaged in heavy weather or collision with ship or shore, could be replaced with less chance of severe damage and greater expense to the bowsprit which was butted to the pawl bitt inboard at the main forecastle head beam. Everitually, as it was done in

Outward bound in the Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wawona makes the best of a/air wind. She's loaded so deep that even this little sea comes aboard; you can see it pouring out her scuppers as she rolls. Photo by Capt. H. H. Morrison, Redding Photo Collection, Port Townsend.


The Carson mansion in Eureka, now the Ingamar Club. Here's how a lumber baron celebrated his heritage in wood!

many of her sisters, the jib-boom and bowsprit rig was supplanted by a single spike bowsprit. Wawona like her many sisters in the coasting trade was manned by a minimum crew. Being a big schooner, she was on the high side of size by comparison to smaller schooners, such as John A, Fanny Dutard or Esther Buhne. She certainly had a steam donkey engine in the forward deckhouse in her early lumber days, if not originally installed. The donkey was primarily used for loading and discharging cargo, and heaving up the anchor, if the Old Man were so disposed to relieve his crew of the onerous task of heaving it in by hand. It could also be rigged, through messengers, to hoist the gaffs and sails with the use of a gypsy head extending through each side of the deckhouse, turned by the donkey engine. So the donkey engine could possibly be construed as a crew-cutting device, but it was more a cargo-handling machine. Its operation was dependent upon available slab-wood from the sawmills, or more expensive coal. Sailing ship owners, like their next of kin, steam schooner operators, were not disposed to let their vessels lie in port any longer than was necessary. Thus the crew was kept to a fairly constant number of nine men, including the master, two mates, a donkeyman carpenter, four seamen and a cook. Often the ships were operated with less. A modern ocean racing yacht, 50' long or so, carries as many, or more. Eureka is located in the heart of the redwood empire of Northern California. Its earlies industry was the logging of the redwood forests; and the ship-building industry upon which it so dearly depended, was vital adjunct to the transportation of the sawn lumber cargoes to Southern California ports. The ships were built of Humboldt Pine. Redwood went into the manufacturing of housed, panelling, grapestakes, railroad ties and construction materials. And it was for the export of all species of the vast evergreen forests that the coasting schooner was built.* Prominent amongst the early titans of the sawmilling and logging industries were William Carson and John Dolbeer. Bolbeer and Carson acquired a fleet of sailing ships from numerous builders, including Bendixsen and the Hall Brothers of Port Blakeley, Washington. Lotte Carson, a three-masted schooner was built in 1881 by the Hall Bros., and in the same year Bendixson launched the three-masted schooner Bertha Do/beer. Thereafter a number of ships was added by purchase or contract to builders, until the Wawonawas built for the company in 1897. Probably the largest and grandest vessel of the fleet was the barkentine Wm. Carson, launched on 3 June 1899. She was chartered to load lumber at Port Blakeley and sailed for Sydney in *A comparison by size of several of this type of schooner is offered below. All are bald-headed except those with asterisk(*). Name

Joseph Russ Fanny Dutard 0. M. Kellog Esther Buhne F. W. Jewell* Allen A Chas. £. Falk Sequoia Azalea Charles £. Wilson Louise Czarina John A Ma weema C. A. Thayer Albert Meyer Metha Nelson• Mildred* Wawona

Gross Tons

Register Length

Year Built

Builder

Location

247 266 393 290 476 343 299 342 345 345 346 230 282 454 453 459 460

124.0' 126.5' 150.0' 134.6 ' 155 .7 ' 145.0' 142.3 ' 150.0' 150.0' 150.0' 150.0' 116.0' 131.7' 156.0' 156.0' 156.0' 156.0' 157.0' 156.0'

1881 1882 1882 1887 1887 1888 1889 1890 1890 1892 1892 1892 1893 1895 1895 1896 1896 1897 1897

E . Cousins C. G. White Bendixsen Bendixsen Hall Bros. Bendixsen Bendixsen Bendixsen Bendixsen Bendixsen Bendixsen Bendixsen Peter Mathews Bendixsen Bendixsen Bendixsen Bendixsen Bendixsen Bendixsen

Eureka San Francisco Fairhaven Fairhaven Port Ludlow Fairhaven Fairhaven Fairhaven Fairhaven Fairhaven Fairhaven Fairhaven Eureka Fairhaven Fairhaven Fairhaven Fairhaven Fairhaven Fairhaven

464 468

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981

the fall of that year. From Sydney she sailed to Newcastle, New South Wales and loaded coal for Honolulu. On the night of 27 December, while approaching Honolulu, she collided with the inter-island steamer Claudine and rolled over, her crew managing to escape. The following day she was towed in toward the beach, but was a constructive and actual total loss, being only six months old. The Bertha Do/beer lasted, under different ownership, for a good many years but went missing on a voyage in 1918 to New Zealand. Lottie Carson had a long and colorful career, including years in the movies in Southern California, and survived until the 1950s, finally ending her days as a motor-driven shrimp fisherman out of Mazatlan. A century has passed since the little schooners Lottie Carson and Bertha Do/beer were launched for the coastal lumber trade, and naught remains of each. Two other monuments to the Dolbeer and Carson fortunes have survived. One is the famous and prominent landmark in Eureka, the Carson mansion, now owned and maintained by a private club. The other is their last surviving schooner, awaiting a belated and inspiring restoration in Seattle. Nothing could be further from the working conditions on a deepsea freighter of modern times with hydraulic power equipment, clean sheets, one man to a room and bounteous feasts in the messroom, than the forecastle of this nineteenth century coasting schooner. The coasting sailor lived within arm's reach of the sea, and never beyond its sounds nor sight. Deep-loaded, the Wawona was not more than a floating pile of lumber, with a freeboard which allowed only a few inches at best between the water's edge and the top edge of the forecastle door coaming. Yet these little vessels were buoyant and reasonably safe and dry considering the times, and what was expected of them. Life in a coaster was not easy, but it was a lot better than going off-shore. In 1897 the Red Record of Walter MacArthur was being printed in the pages of the Coast Seamen's Journal. It was a bitter account of charges of brutality to offshore and sometimes coasting seamen who found themselves chained and handcuffed to their ships, unable to escape the kicks and abuses and disfiguring attacks of bucko mates and masters. Many years passed before this condition was ended by Jaw and by practice. Casualties on the other hand were an accepted price that the seafaring industry had come to expect, riot because it wanted to, but because there were lots of small sailing ships and coasting steamers and plenty of seafaring men to man them. In sheer 27


numbers they were known by the hundreds. Actuarily, the chances of death striking a seafaring man appear to be, from this distant period of review, extraordinarily high. The Coast Seamen's Journal was published by the Sailors' Union of the Pacific in San Francisco, and came out weekly. It was an extraordinary newspaper, but then its editor Walter MacArthur was a very exceptional and crusading type of individual. Being a seafaring man himself, whose beginnings were in the 1870s in Scotch square riggers, he had come face to face with the worst treatment found afloat and suffered no less and was a witness to the best and worst at sea amongst those men whose cause he later took up as a defender and spokesman within the organization of the old Coast Seamen's Union, later the Sailors' Union of the Pacific. Coasting sailors were indeed a whit better off than the deepwatermen of the Down Easters and foreign flag ships in the Western Ocean and Cape Horn trades. The life was not easy, but a coasting schooner generally plied between Puget Sound, Columbia River, Oregon coast ports and Humboldt Bay, and the lumber docks of San Francisco and Southern California. Hard work, and hazardous-yes. But the out-and-out brutality practiced more often on the deepwatermen was an isolated rarity in the coasters. Sometimes the small coasting vessel would make a run down the coast in fair weather in a matter of days, and then beat back up again in two weeks. But at least there was some escape from a ship in this service, if a seaman didn't like what he had to put up with. Being chained to the service in a ship in the coastal trade, as was often the case in the foreign-going ships was getting to be a thing of the past by the 1890s. Yet it happened. Casualties amongst seamen were commonplace, and a weekly notice was printed in the Journal of those who had died or were killed in the steamers, steam schooners and sailing ships. The

A

number shown by the name is the man's union membership number. A random sampling of the casualties follows: Alek Heikkela, No. 48, a native of Finland, aged 42, died at Seattle, Washington, October 22, 1904. Ben Moore, No . 19, a native of Baltimore, Maryland, aged 46, drowned at San Pedro, California, October 27, 1904. Henry Randes, No. 269, a native of Finland, aged 48, committed suicide on board the schooner Abbey, at San Francisco, November 14, 1904. The following members are reported as having been drowned in the wreck of the schooner Webfoot off the Columbia River: Otto Gunther, No. 556, a native of Germany, aged 22; Joseph O'Neill, No.749, a native of Mobile, Alabama, aged 40. Nils Olsen, No. 806, a native of Norway, aged 24, was drowned from the barkentine Makaweli at sea, November 1904. John Lind, No. 1080, a native of Astoria, Oregon, aged 21, drowned from the schooner Resolute on November 22, 1904, on her way from San Francisco to Mexico. Hans Knudsen, No. 62, a native of Norway, aged 35, drowned from the schooner Jos. Russ off Tillamook, December 1904. About three names per week were thus listed at the foot of a column edged in black. No screaming headlines in the big city daily papers. Seamen were in a hazardous trade and everybody seemed to accept this. Hundreds per year, it seems were the accepted and anticipated casualties when they drowned, fell from aloft, committed suicide of died of heart failure, alcoholism, consumption or perhaps were murdered in the normal course of their calling. Whatever casualties Wawona suffered in the way of crew losses during her coasting days may be buried in the back page columns of the Journal. ..V To be continued

uniQue experience.

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Distinctive sailing vacations along the New England coast. Day sails with or w/o overnight accommodations, $40-$65. 2-and-3-day cruises with lobster dinner and live entertainment, $150-$250. Write for brochure: Voyager, Steamboat Wharf , Mystic, Ct. 06355 , or call (203) 536-0416.

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LIGHTSHIP FOR SALE Former U.S. Coast Guard Relief Lightship Winter Quarter (WLV-529) is offered for sale to the highest bidder. Built in 1922 this steel hull lightship measures 133 feet stem to stern with a 30 foot beam width. Ship was undercoated and sealed "watertight" in November 1978. Also, partially converted for display as a museum. Wheelhouse, ships bell, light, engine, compressors and many appointments intact. For additional information and inspection visit, please contact: Mr. Fred Bayersdorfer Director of Museums City of Portsmouth, Virginia Tel: 804-393-8543

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981


SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS EVENTS Aug. 14-16: 350th Anniversary Celebration of Kent Island, site of first permanent English settlement in Maryland. Aug. 29-Sept. 7: 4th Annual Long Island Sound America '81 Summer Festival; Headquarters, Bridgeport Area Chamber of Commerce, 180 Fairfield Ave., Bridgeport CT06604. Sept. 11-13: Wooden Boat Festival; Sept. 14-18 Wooden Boat Symposium at Wooden Boat Foundation, 633 Water St., Port Townsend WA 98368, tel: 206-385-3628 . Sept. 19: Oyster Festival, Lighthouse Pt. Park, New Haven CT. Sept. 25-26: Schooner Race; Mystic Seaport. Sept. 26: "To The Sea in Ships: a conference on maritime history:" Prof. Karen Markoe, SUNY Maritime College, Fort Schuyler, Bronx, NY 10465 October 1-2: The 5th Naval History Symposium, US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402. October 10 or 17: Mayor's Cup Schooner Race; P ioneer Marine School, South Street Seaport Museum, 203 Front St., NY,NY 10038. October 15-16: American Sail Training Association Conference at US Merchant Marine Academy, King's Point NY. ASTA, Ft. Adams State Park, Newport RI 02840. October 17: Whaling Symposium; Kendall Whaling Museum, Sharon MA 02067.

INTERNATIONAL 1981 is the Year of the Disabled . In England, plans have been announced to build a 135 ' bark, provisionally known as Jubilee, due to be launched in 1982, Maritime England Year. The idea for the ship, which will accommodate 30 trainees, including up to 8 who may be in wheelchairs was proposed by a Sussex teacher and sailing instructor, and received its initial grant from the Queen's Silver Jubilee Appeal Fund. Handicapped Boaters Association publishes a bimonthly journal, Boating World Unlimited, which focuses on ways disabled boaters have developed to deal with their handicaps on the water. Handicapped Boaters Association, P. 0. Box 1134, Ansonia Station, NY, NY 10023 . The Norwegian full-rigged ship Sorlandet owned and recently refitted by the town of Kristiansand will be visiting the States during July and August. She will be picking up American sail trainees to add to her Norwegian crew, making 2 transatlantic passages and 2 roundtrip Boston / Bermuda voyages. Trainees age 16-25 should contact: New England Historic Seaport, 164 Northern Avenue, Boston, MA 02210. Mariners International reports that they will be booking trainees to sail aboard 2 full rigged ships in Europe this summer. China Cloud (exbark Marques) is now re-rigged as a clipper with 30 sails including stuns'ls. The 120' vessel was built in 1917 in Spain as a trading schooner. Her sister, the 124 ' White Witch, a former Mallor-

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981

can schooner built in 1858 (ex-Cuidad de Inca and Inca), claims to be the oldest square rigger still sailing. Mariners International, 58 Woodville Rd ., New Barnet, Herts, ENS 5EG, England. From June 12 to 25, 1982 a Maritime Ipswich 82 International Rally of traditional sailing ships will be held in the Wet Dock, Ipswich on the East Coast of England. Every type of sailing vessel from square rigger to smallest traditional fishing craft or gaff yachts are very welcome. Ipswich Lock is 17 'deep and can take vessels up to 260 ' long. The Ipswich Wet Dock, built in 1841, has one Tudor (16 century) warehouse and many 19th century warehouses and mills and a very attractive Victorian Customs House. Shore events June 19-24 include a civic reception and party at the local breweries, maritime exhibitions and other attractions in the town . For information: Robert Simper, Sluice Cottage, Ramsholt, Woodbridge, Suffolk IP12 3AD, Tel.: Shottisham 411273.

Oscar Huber, built in Germany in DuisburgRuhrort on the Rhine in 1922 as a paddletug, is now owned by that town's council who bought

her in 1971. She was towed back from Cologne in 1973, where she was in a yard, ready to be scrapped. Sunk in 1945 and raised in 1946, Oscar Huber was rebuilt from a coal-steamer to an oil-fired steamer in 1954. Now anchored near the Schifferborse, she is open to the public as a museum at no charge. Oscar Huber, Duisburg-Ruhrort, W . Germany. In 1975, Danish shipowner Per Henriksen acquired one of the few remaining Danish-built wooden vessels, Talata. Completely restored during 1975-77 in the J. Ring-Andersen shipyard in Svendborg, where she was originally built, and renamed Mercantic II, this tops' ) schooner now sails in Scandanavian waters. Volunteers welcome. Mercandia, 49 Bredgade, DK-1260, Copenhagen K, Denmark. The Tami Canoe Voyage Expedition is in the process of constructing and doing the traditional carvings on a Papua-New Guinean outrigger sailing canoe which they plan to sail on a 4000 mile round-trip voyage to the New Hebrides for the 1983 South Pacific Festival of the Arts. Only four or five elders are still alive who know how to build and carve these canoes . Expedition leader Terry Linehan, who first encountered Tami Island as a Young Explorer on Operation Drake (see Sh 10:21, 15:26, 20:34), plans to permanently record every step of canoe construction and simultaneously instruct the young villagers who will crew during the voyage. Contributions welcome. Tami Canoe Voyage, Rte. 5, River Falls, WI 54022. The latest report from the Sultanate of Oman indicates that the 80' dhow Sohar sailed by ex-

plorer Tim Severin with an Omani crew, scientific and film teams, is now on her way from Singapore to her final destination, Canton. Severin, who sailed trans-Atlantic to renact the voyage of St. Brendan in a cowhide curragh, left Muscat Harbor in Oman to follow the ancient silk and spice route to the Orient. (See SH 18:42.) The Sultanate of Oman, 2342 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington DC 20008. The Queensland Museum has recently been appointed administrator of Historic Wrecks Act in Queensland Waters and has set up a new Maritime Archaeology section to undertake research and fieldwork in this area. To date over 1500 wrecks are recorded off the coast including historic vessels such as HMS Pandora, and Mermaid. In its effort to locate and identify wreck sites for a comprehensive wreck register, the Museum would welcome the opportunity to copy or receive donations of records, research material, photographs, etc. Ron Coleman, Queensland Museum, Gregory Terr., Fortitude Valley, Old 4006 Australia.

GREAT BRITAIN Traditional Ship Association, an organization which was formed out of chairman Robin Davies' ¡ concern about the preservation and renovation of actual working ships, now has 20 owning and operating members. Always on the look out for work such as film charters, Davies reports that "the Association . .. produces liaison amongst various owners and has improved standards, rates, special discounts on insurance, etc." In addition, Davies and his brother/ partner Anthony, run Square Sail, a company which rebuilds, renovates and operates traditional ships. Currently, the brothers own the 145 ' brigantine Soren Larsen and the JOO' steel ketch Highland Prince. Subscription to T .S.A.: £ 15/ year. 8 Middleborough Co.1chester, Essex COi, !QT. The brigantine Luna, en route from Great Yarmouth to Amsterdam encountered heavy seas and malfunctioning pumps and decided to return to Yarmouth. In a series of unfortunate events including the breakdown of hand pumps, non-functioning flares, shifting winds which caused the anchor to drag, she was washed aground and ransacked by locals. In a few days she was nearly entirely broken up . HMS Warrior, the 9,210-ton iron warship Napoleon III called' 'the black snake among the rabbits" when she was completed in 1861 (SH 16: 12-15) is undergoing restoration at Hartlepool, under the aegis of the Maritime Trust. Personal recollections, photos, and other materials of the Royal Navy in Victoria's time are sought by Captain John G. Wells, RN, Research Director HMS Warrior, High Firs House, Liss, Hamphire GU33 7NJ.

CANADA Bluenose II, the 143 'replica of Canada's most famous and beloved sailing vessel wintered at the Lunenburg (Nova Scotia) Fisheries Museum of the Atlantic. Built in 1963 at Smith & Ruhland, the same yard as her predecessor, by

29


SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT many of the same men, she will be sailing this summer on the Great Lakes and visiting various ports in Nova Scotia. The original Bluenose was built in 1921 to challenge for the International Fisherman's Trophy-which she won that year and for 20 years to follow . In 1946, after having been sold as a freighter sailing in the West Indies, she foundered on a reef in Haiti . Bluenose II, PO Box 130, Halifax NS . The "petite goelette" was a common type of fishing schooner which worked off the Northeast coast of New Brunswick during the late 19th-early 20th century. Their registered lengths varied from 31 ' to 59 '; their beam, from 11Vi ' to14 Vi ';and registered tonnage of up to 21 tons . Naval architect Paul-Andre White has researched the history of these schooners and made new drawings so that such a vessel could be built on site, at the Village Historique Acadien, c.p. 310 Lac Beauport P.Q. GOA-2CO Canada.

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Toronto Brigantine, Inc., a non-profit sail training organization founded in 1963, operates a summer Adventure Afloat program for 12-18 year olds aboard two 60' steel-hulled brigantines, both built in Kingston, Ontario . Pathfinder was built in 1964, and a decade later Play/air, which was christened by her Majesty Queen Elizabeth . The group also runs a program aboard a 37 ' steel hulled cutter, Trident II. During winter months, rigging and gear are overhauled and courses are offered in seamanship and navigation . Toronto Brigantine, Inc., 283 Queen's Quay West, Toronto Ontario MSV IA2 Canada.

UNITED STATES Congressman Gerry E. Studds (D-Mass.) has introduced an ammendment to the Omnibus Maritime Bill for 1982 which would allow federal subsidies for construction and renovation of cargo vessels to improve their energy efficiency-including wind power. The bill has been approved by the Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee and is expected to be passed in a full House vote in the near future. Cong. Gerry Studds, US House of Representatives, Washington DC 20515.

WoodenBoat, whose recent issues have included a great debate on the maritime preservation movement, has added a "Free Boats" column to its classified section. Those seeking to find a good home for a vessel they can no longer care for, may find free ad space in that journal. Woodenboat, PO Box 78, Brooklin ME 04616. Brigantine Romance, after completing her second round-the-world voyage is back in her home waters of St. Thomas to do cruises, crew training, and marine biology projects. Gloria Kimberly, wife of Capt. Arthur Kimberly writes, "We are slanting our interests more and more toward sail training and youth groups. with a firm dedication toward fostering the arts and skills of the seaman, not in the classroom, but aloft." Former Romance-trained crew are now sailing as bosun and seaman in Danmark,

bosun in Eagle, and in Pride of Baltimore. Kimberly Cruises, PO Box 5086, St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands 00801 .

EAST COAST The 1911 schooner Sylvina W. Beal has been refitted by Capt. John Worth with a knockabout rig to sail out of Belfast, Maine. Built in East Boothbay, she last sailed in the '30s at which time her mainmast was removed. Later she worked as a power sardine netter. Her original foremast head has been restepped; a found old shaft log and Perkins engine have been installed . Sylvina W. Beal Cruises, PO Box 509, Bel fast ME 04915 . The Penobscot Marine Museum has opened an exhibit of 24 paintings by Thomas Buttersworth

(1768-1842) and his son James (1817-1894) in renovated galleries at the Museum. Open until October 15, 9:30-5 :00 daily . Penobscot Museum, Searsport, ME 04974. The canoe, the watercraft of Native Americans, which endured into this century as the mainstay of transport in the Maine woods is the focus of a year long exhibit opening in June at the Maine State Museum. The exhibit will trace the evolution of the birch bark canoe, which gave way to canvas industrial and sporting models. A decorated canvas canoe which depicts hunting and landscape scenes is currently being restored by the Museum's painting conservation laboratory. Maine State Museum, State House, Augusta JylE 04333. The Kittery Historical And Naval Museum is at work on a marine archaeological project to pinpoint the location of 17th and 18th century wrecks in an 108 square mile coastal area between Kittery and Portsmouth. The objective is to compile information and archaeological data which may be studied further in the future. Kittery Historical & Naval Museum, Rogers Rd ., Kittery ME 03904. The Puddle Dock area at Strawbery Banke is believed to have been settled in the late 1600s, and in the 1700s and 1800s been the site of early boatbuilding, fishing and warehousing. Findings from a previous dig have lead archaeologists to a half acre site where they are now excavating a quay and the foundations of two warehouses. Strawbery Banke, 454 Court St., Portsmouth NH 03801. The City of Gloucester, with a grant from the National Trust for Historic Preservation matched by HUD Small Cities funds has designed a

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981


& MUSEUM NEWS display building for Howard Blackburn 's 25' sloop Great Republic, which is temporarily housed in the Gloucester Armory. Funds are now being sought for the construction of the museum on a section of harborfront park. Great Republic, City of Gloucester, Gloucester MA01930. The Gloucester Fishermen's Museum is continuing its summer whale study cruises and has installed a 40 ' whale model as part of its whale study workshop. Gloucester Fishermen's Museum, Box 159, Gloucester MA 01930. Through the eyes of the surgeon's mate, the sailing master, a Marine, an able-bodied seaman and a boy, visitors at the USS Constitution Museum will be able to experience a bit of " life at sea'' including activities such as hoisting sails, manning the helm, and seamanship. "Shipboard life was not always exciting and romantic, " says Peter Sterling, director of the Museum. The new permanent exhibit explains how the 475 crew members were ranked , disciplined , accommodated, fed; how diseases and wounds were treated . USS Constitution Museum, PO Box 1812, Boston MA 02129. An account of the sinking of the whaleship Essex (the incident on which Herman Melville based Moby Dick), written by Captain Thomas Nickerson of Nantucket in 1880, has been donated to the Nantucket Historical Association by Mr. and Mrs. James Finch of Connecticut. Nickerson, who was 17 years old at the time ship went down in 1820, mid-Pacific, wrote that while he was at the helm, "The whale struck the ship with his head directly under the larboard (port) forechains," and after a second blow the ship sank-only eight men survived. The only other account of the incident was written by first mate Owen Chase, whose account was published in 1821. Nantucket Historical Association, Nantucket MA 02557. (Note: Stove by a Whale: Owen Chase and the Essex, by T.F. Heffernan has just been published by Wesleyan University Press; dist. by Columbia University Press, 562 W. 113 St., New York, NY 10025 .) Continental sloop Providence completed her first winter cruise on May 29 when she returned to her homeport, Newport, RI. With Revolutionary colors and a new 44 ' commission pennant flying, the 1976 reconstruction of John Paul Jones' first war command stood into the Newport Offshore yard, firing a salute from her starboard battery. Captain Al Roderick and his crew were glad to be home after a 4,000 mile cruise which began last October 3. Most of the winter was spent at Key West, where the 65 ' sloop went out twice a day with people learning the ways of an 18th century warship at sea. During the transits south last fall and north this spring the small regular crew was augmented by enthusiastic volunteers. Ports visited included Baltimore, Norfolk, Beaufort, N.C. and Beaufort, S.C., Savannah, and Charleston. Thousands of visitors came aboard at stops en route. During this summer, Providence will be busy with New England maritime events and making three AST A cruises. She will also continue sup-

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981

porting the Bicentennial events of this year, the march of Rochambeau' s French army from Newport to the Chesapeake area, and its transportation by ship down the bay to Yorktown, Virginia. At Yorktown on October 17 Providence will join other Tall Ships in celebrating that final great battle of the American Revolution , after which another winter in southern waters is planned. Seaport '76, PO Box 76, Newport RI 02840, (401) 846-1776. The turn of the century Thames shipyard, in New London, which has been on the National Register of Historic Places since 1975, has been sold for $600,000 to John H . Wronowski who has leased the yard for his repair business since 1967. Plans are to restore the yard under Federal guidelines, beginning with the 3 marine railways. Thames Shipyard, New London CT 06320. Mystic Seaport has received a $350,000 grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation for cataloging their oral history material, historic photographs, marine paintings and drawings. In addition, a $2 million project has been undertaken to replace the Museum's old wooden bulkheads with I, 700' of permanent steel and granite seawall, which will require minimal maintenance. Mystic Seaport, Mystic CT 06355 .

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A bit of history came full circle in Black Rock Connecticut where a replica of the stern carving of the packet ship Charles Cooper was on display this spring. The Cooper built in 1856 at Hall's Ship Yard in Black Rock was abandoned in the Falkland Islands in 1866 and was acquired by South Street Seaport Museum in 1969. The cast for the stern carving was made during one of the first NMHS expeditions to stabilize the condition of vessels in the Falklands in 1977. Bruce Williams, 152 Seabright Ave., Bridgeport CT 06605 . An expedition under the leadership of NMHS advisor Frank Braynard, curator of the American Merchant Museum, will be on Fire Island this summer searching for traces of the 19th century steam ship Savannah which ran aground during a storm in 1821. American Merchant Marine Museum, Kings Pt. NY I 1024.

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"Oysters, Dutchmen and the Bay" a permanent exhibit recently installed at the Suffolk Marine Museum focuses on the history of oystering and on the turn-of-the-century West Sayville Dutch community. Modesty and Priscilla, traditional

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Our Advertisers are our Standing Rigging Bay work boats are restored and on display at the Museum as well. " Dutchman on the Bay," a book which records the oral and written

Tell them you 'Saw it in Sea History' 31


SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS history of that community will soon be available. Suffolk Marine Museum, Montauk Highway, West Sayville NY 11796.

children's programs are scheduled throughout the summer. Hudson River Maritime Center, 41 Broadway (mail to 13 Fair St.), Kingston NY 12401, 914-338-0071.

The Whaling Museum has just mounted a new exhibit of photographs, taken by Dr. Robert Cushman when he served aboard the whaling brig Daisy in 1912-13, which features the whaleboat that the Museum owns, presently undergoing restoration. The Museum is also planning a joint exhibit with the Black History Museum in Hempstead, Long Island, exploring the role of black men and women in our country's growth as amaritime power. The Whaling Museum, Cold Spring Harbor NY 11724.

"New Jersey Under Sail," a new exhibit at the New Jersey Historical Society's Lehmann Gallery, looks at the wide variety of New Jersey sailing vessels, from the sailing oyster fleet to pleasure yachts-from earliest traders to modern times. The exhibit features photographs, ship models, sail plans and drawings from the Wayne B. Yarnall Maritime Collection and photographs by Graham Scofield of the Bridgeton Evening News. New Jersey Historical Society, 230 Broadway, Newark, NJ.

Summertime has brought a slew of ships to the "street of ships"-the South Street Seaport Museum-including the Hudson River sloop Clearwater, the sail training vessel Young America, the research vessel Westward from Woods Hole, Massachusetts, Lenie Marie from San Francisco, and the Danish sail training vessel Danmark. Temporarily absent from the Museum's pier is the Cape Horn sailing ship

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~

..S Cl;~ Wavertree, which was towed to the Bethlehem Steel Shipyard in Hoboken, New Jersey where work on the hull is being done in the initial stage of her restoration program sponsored by the Museum and the World Ship Trust. A full summer program at the Museum, including walking wours, workshop, concerts and harbor tours aboard the schooner Pioneer was launched with Tug Week in May. James P . McAllister, whose family's firm has operated tugs in New York Harbor for 117 years gave a special lecture, and two historic vessels still in operation, the 1887 HayDee (ex-New York Central No. 13) and the 1929 52' W{loden W. 0. Decker were open to the public. South Street Seaport Museum, 203 Front St., New York NY 10038.

The Hudson River Maritime Center celebrated its first birthday on July 4th. Festivities included a book signing for Museum Director Art Adams, "The Hudson: A Guidebook to the River" (see Book Reviews). Talks, films and

Expansion and renovation of the Philadelphia Maritime Museum include adding two stories to the Museum, more exhibition space, a nautical library, a collection area open to the public, and participation exhibits. A 100' lighter barge, Maple, is being converted with the help of many volunteers including the folks from the Heritage Ship Guild of the Port of Philadelphia, into a "Workshop on the Water," where students may learn boatbuilding techniques. The Workshop will house the Museum's small craft collection including four new acquisitions they have received as a result of a cooperative association with the Down Jersey Marine Historical Society: a 16' Barnegat Bay sneakbox; a 14' railbird skiff; an 1895 Delaware ducker; and an Applegarth crabbing skiff, which by prior arrangement is being traded with the Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum at Michael's Md., for a Delaware River gillnetter. Philadelphia Maritime Museum, 321 Chestnut St., Philadelphia PA 19106. Heritage Ship Guild of the Port of Philadelphia, NE Corner Third & Chestnut St., Phila. PA 19106.

The Hampton Mariners Museum, through a grant from the Institute of Museum Services (HEW) has undertaken a comprehensive research project to locate, study and record the history of small craft in North Carolina. Any info, artifacts, please contact: Michael B. Alford, Curator of Research, Hampton Mariners Museum, 120 Turner St., Beaufort NC 28576.

GULF COAST The work crew restoring the 1877 iron bark Elissa reports completed sandblasting and priming of her hold, deck beams, bulwarks, and is continuing this work on her topsides. Elissa's main, after and poop decks have been laid from

23,000 board feet of prime Douglas Fir from Oregon, and caulking of the maindeck is complete. The rigging crew is preparing more than 2

The I0 I' 1949 schooner, Shirley Blanche called into Fells Pt., Baltimore en route from Newfoundland to San Francisco via the Panama Canal, and was spotted by Society member Bill Eggert, who sent us this photo. The schooner,

which originally carried dories for fishing off the Grand Banks is skippered by Captain Rutherford Ross, who first went to sea on a small Greek freighter out of the port of Baltimore forty years ago, with his wife and two small sons. Shirley Blanche lost her anchor and fifty fathoms of chain during her transit in the Delaware Bay and had the starboard screw fouled by the everpresent Chesapeake crab pot. Bill Eggert, 21 Bidefort Ct., Bait. MD 21234. East Carolina University offers a history degree program with a focus on nautical archaeology

32

which grew out of the school's summer field programs co-sponsored by the North Carolina Division of Archives and History and the Institute of Applied History. Last summer's field school in Edenton, North Carolina uncovered a 67' early 19th century schooner, a 100' 17th century French sailing ship which they believe is from Marseilles, and the remains of a 19th century shipyard. Dr. Wm. Still, East Carolina University, Greenville NC 27834.

miles of standing rigging; both wooden and steel spars have arrived from Oregon and Houston respectively; and her lower foremast will be stepped on July 11. According to restoration director, Walter Rybka, she will be hauled later in the summer for bottom painting. Bulwarks have been rivetted to the sheer strake and work is beginning on the teak main and t'gallant rails. Her wooden blocks (some 300 of them) have been sent from Dauphinee & Sons, a Nova Scotian ship hardware firm that is also supplying the deadeyes. One of Elissa's volunteers is duplicating the missing brass hardware on the ship's skylight and companionway . Steady as she goes! Elissa, Galveston Historical Foundation, PO Box 802, Galveston TX 77553. (See SH 15:19-23.)

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981


Inland Cruising with American Cruise Lines

Inland cru1s1ng means you are always close to shore and a stone's throw from the fascinating natural wonders so plentiful along the coastline. On an inland cruise, you have more time in port to sightsee and explore the scenic , history-packed towns along the way. Our cruises follow the seasons. Enjoy your summer discovering the real New England - places like Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard and Newport. Cruise the Chesapeake Bay area in the sp ring or fall and experience a bit of colonial America with visits to Williamsburg and Yorktown . Witness Mother Nature's truly spectacular array of colors on the fall Hudson River Foliage Cruise or escape winter's wrath with our southern waterway cruises departing from Savannah , Georgia or Ft. Meyers, Florida. Our 7-day round trip cruises operate in New England, the Chesapeake Bay, Carolina and the Golden Isles. Ten-day southern cruises depart alternately from Savannah and Ft. Meyers. Fourteen day cruises are available on the East Coast Inland Passage route, departing alternately from Savannah and Annapolis, Maryland .

The MV/INDEPENDENCE has 47 staterooms, the MV/ AMERICAN EAGLE 28. All are outside, with private bath , lower berths and a large, opening picture window. The food is superb, the service personal and the atmosphere friendly and informal. For reservations and information send in the coupon , or call toll free 1-800-243-6755. In CT call 3458551 collect.

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SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT WEST COAST

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Hand Colored L ithograph

The HARTFORD of 1899 by Pet.er Sparre

A limited edition of 100 lithographs of the steamer Hartford, researched, drawn and hand colored by the artist is available at $100 each. Historical data on the vessel, which ran ovenight between New York and Hartford, Connecticut is included with each signed and numbered print. Order from:

The 97' brig Carthaginian (ex-Mary, ex-Komet) built as a 2-masted schooner in 1920 by Krupp shipworks in Kiel, Germany was purchased in 1972 by the Lahaina Restoration Foundation who sailed her from Denmark to Lahaina in 105 days. In 1974 work began on the exhibition area which now includes a 19th century whaleboat found near Pt. Barrow, Alaska in 1973, videotapes and recordings of humpback whales, which winter each year in Maui. The rigging of the ship commenced in 1978 from the plan of the 1870 English brig Marie Sophie. All spars, masts, yards and fittings were hand crafted and the project proudly raised the royal yards into position just a year ago. Open daily to the public. Brig Carthaginian, Lahaina Restoration Foundation, PO Box 338, Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii 96761. The steam engine of the San Diego Maritime Museum's 1898 289' ferryboat Berkeley is running on a continuous basis for the public to view ashore; while aboard the vessel a new 9' model of the USS Missouri has been installed as part of the permanent naval history section. Other Museum vessels include Medea, the 1904 steam

Pet.er Sparre 7 May Street Hartford, Connecticut 06105 Tel: 203-524 0775

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yacht which first sailed in her native Scottish waters in the hunt for grouse and later served under three flags in WWI and II. Medea is restored to full working order along with the Museum's 1863 bark Star of India (ex-Euterpe) which is open daily to the public. San Diego Maritime Museum, 1306 N. Harbor Drive, San Diego CA 92101. Brig Pilgrim (ex-foal) built in 1945 as a trading schooner by A. Neilsen in Denmark was rerigged in 1974 in Portugal and re-named for the vessel which Richard Henry Dana (author of Two Years Before the Mast) sailed in almost a century and a half ago. The 98' replica sailed into Dana Pt. Harbor this spring for a trial period as part of facilities of the Orange County Marine Institute. The Institute, which has an option to buy the vessel, hopes to raise funds by December to use her as part of their marine science program for school groups, and to be open to the general public. Orange County Marine Institute, 35502 Del Obispo, Dana Pt. CA 92629. The 68' topsail ketch Argus built as a wooden cargo vessel in Marstal, Denmark at the turn of the century is now used as a sail training vessel for Sea Scouts. Owned by Boy Scouts of the U.S.A., Argus conducts summer programs for both Boy and Girl Sea Scouts and Explorers. Presently the group is seeking donations as they are replacing her original engine. The Argus

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981


& MUSEUM NEWS Society, Sea Base, 1931 W. Coast Hwy., Newport Beach CA 92663. The Edmonds Historical Museum has installed a diorama depicting the Edmonds waterfront as it may have looked about the year 1910, when the waterfront was dominated by shingle mills and other industrial activity. Built by a group of railroad buffs and other volunteers, it took two years to research and build, and it includes a Y. scale working model shingle mill, with moving saws, a steam engine and shingle machines, built by Boyd Saterlee, retired machinist and model maker. A two minute tape recording sound track recites some historical background, blows the mill whistle and explains the mill's working process. The museum was incorporated and opened in 1973 in the old 1910 Carnegie Library building. It houses a treasure of paintings and artifacts, including photographs of early day Puget Sound freight and passenger vessels, ship models and other nautical memorabilia. Edmonds Historical Museum, 118 5th Ave. N., Edmonds WA 98020.

Lettie G. Howard & Pioneer on th e East Ri ve r

Washington State boatbuilder Robert Prothero, at the age of 73, with repairs on approximately 25,000 wooden boats under his belt, decided that retirement was not for him! Wanting to share his knowledge and insight with the younger generation, Prothero and friends have established the Northwest School of Wooden Boatbuilding. The program offers a 6 month minimum course in building, restoring , repairing and sailing wooden vessels. The first group of apprentices, to be graduated in July, have been working since January on a 26' sailboat and a 28' tug. Northwest School of Wooden Boatbuilding, PO Box 401, Port Townsend WA 98368.

Announces a limited -edition of 750 signed and numbered, full -color lithographic art prints of The Endurance from an original painting by

LAKES AND RIVERS

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After hauling out to have her hull checked, sandblasted and painted, the steam towboat W.P. Snyder, Jr. has returned to her berth at the Ohio River Museum where restoration work continues. John B. Briley, manager of the project which still needs $5,500 to match a $20,685 Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service grant, says the biggest disappointment of the overhaul was "that no woodwork could be accomplished since the shipyard no longer had qualified joiners." Ohio River Museum, 601 Second St. , Marietta, OH 45750. Dossin Great Lakes Museum, located on Belle Isle in the Detroit River, will be opening an exhibit on the Coast Guard in August, to coincide with the centennial year of the local lighthouse. The exhibit, which will run until December, includes the history of the Coast Guard station on the Isle, the revenues cutters, and the life saving service on the Lakes. The Museum's permanent exhibits which pertain specifically to the Great Lakes include the evolution of waterborne transport on the Lakes from the canoe to powerboat racing, and the "Gothic Room"the fully restored interior of the smoking lounge of the 1912 D&C liner, City of Detroit. Sossin Great Lakes Museum, Belle Isle, MI 48207. w

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981

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"The Widow Maker" by Tom Hoyne, oil, 34" x 40".

Contemporary Marine Art A juried exhibition by the American Society of Marine Artists at the Peabody Museum of Salem By John S. Carter, Curator of Maritime History, Peabody Museum

The celebration of marine art has been a long standing tradition in New England. Some of the earliest recorded marine depictions painted in the New World are the portraits of the shipmasters and their vessels completed in the eighteenth century when enterprising captains set sail from New England ports to the far reaches of the globe. Many of these early works have been preserved, allowing us to view first-hand the thread of our cultural experience that has linked us physically and spiritually to the sea. On 15 May, a major juried exhibition of contemporary marine art by members of the American Society of Marine Artists opened at the Peabody Museum of Salem in Salem, Massachusetts. This exhibit, one of a series of exhibits celebrating contemporary marine art sponsored by the museum, contains eighty-seven works by forty-two of America's best marine artists. The exhibit carries on the tradition of capturing and interpreting mankind's experience with the sea started by the museum's founders, members of the East India Marine Society, who being farsighted men of action, as well as shipmasters, sought to share their experiences across the trackless reaches of the sea with others through the establishment of the museum in 1799. It is only fitting that we sustain their sense of awareness for the present while continuing to expand our understanding of the rich maritime heritage that pervades our existence. So often when we remember the golden era of sail, we think of the men and the vessels that sailed in the wake of these pioneers . 36

The average vessel size that cleared the Salem Custom House for exotic ports such as Java, Sumatra and China during the late seventeen hundreds was of 300 to 500 tons with a length of approximately one hundred feet. Richard Brooks in his "Brig Acorn at Derby Wharf 1820'' shows the typical American East Indiaman of the period at the wharf of Elias Hasket Derby who was the first New Englander to sail his vessels to the Far East in search of trade. It must be remembered that at this time these vessels were sailing into what were largely uncharted waters in the Far East. However, the shipmasters of Salem were a determined lot, and at the first meeting of the East India Marine Society in 1799, twenty-two captains met the qualifications of' 'shipmasters only as have a register from Salem and who have navigated those seas at or beyond the Cape of Good Hope," that formed part of the articles. In the best Yankee tradition, the articles of formation were broad-based, charitable and provided for ample socialization. Members were called upon to submit journals describing their voyages, detailing routes followed, winds and currents encountered, the bearings of headlands, rocks and shoals and other phenomena pertaining to navigation. The articles further included a by-law providing assistance for widows and orphans, and finally, they arranged for the formation of a museum of curiosities "particularly such as are to be found beyond the Cape of Good Hope and Cape Horn.'' The artifacts brought back from distant lands may have been SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981


"The Port of Liverpool" by Peter W. Rogers, oil, 38" x 54". Light and shadow converge dramatically in this depiction of Britain's great port. The foreground tug gives scale and proportion to the receding view of port traffic. Photo by Mark Sexton.

curiosities to the New Englanders who collected them, but to the people who used them they were part of their everyday culture. Buy what of the shipmaster's utensils and their own unique culture? These articles were also collected. One early object was a nine-foot model of the vessel Friendship of Salem, given in 1803. Also in that year, members of the Society commissioned the first piece of contemporary marine art for their museum. Michele Felice Come completed a painting depicting a ship in Salem Harbor and a banner overhead with the inscription "EAST INDIA MARINE HALL." Thus, from this modest beginning almost two hundred years ago, we see an interest and commitment to preserving the rich maritime heritage that underscores American development. This same commitment to interpreting and preserving the diversity of our maritime experience is an objective of the American Society of Marine Artists. The quality of depth of the work in the exhibit communicates a fuller understanding of our continued symbiotic relationship with the sea. Viewed in the context of the outstanding art work in the permanent collection we see a continuity of tradition which aids in a more thorough explanation of human endeavor on the seas throughout American history. Images such as these that reconstruct the past and record the drama of the present are important connectors for our society; they tether us to our common traditions while helping to capture the existing ambience. Some of the artists' depictions echo past traditions in marine art in subject matter, form and texture. Christopher Blossom's

"Sandbaggers Running in Light Airs" by William D. Stille, oil, 21" x 29 ". The downwind leg of the race begins in light afternoon airs. The boats and reflections in this luminous view create a sense of geometric abstraction.

"Scarborough, circa 1890" records England's northeast coastal coal trading port. Under a high cloudy sky darkened by evening, a group of men gather at the end of a quay where a brig is tied. The quay provides a sense of depth and proportion heightened by the gray, empty sky in this classic scene. Similarly James V. Capua's "Ships of the Mediterranean Squadron, 1825" evokes a feeling of the great English and European ship portraits. The detailing on the vessels, the darkened foreground water and the varying attitudes of the frigates are reminiscent of the ambitious work completed in the eighteenth century by English masters such as Pocock and Huggins who had gone to sea before they took up ship painting. William Stille's "Sand baggers Running in Light Airs'' similarly elicits a remembrance of things past. The sandbaggers ghost before the wind on the downwind leg of a race, their forms creating a sense of geometric abstraction. Stille is concerned with the atmospheric effects found where sky and water meet and the painting has a luminous quality that captures the hazy summer days found in New England. His attention to detail is considerable, and "Mackerel Seining, Circa 1860" shows well the vessels and methods used in this fishery. William Kavanek portrays the working watermen of Chesapeake Bay in a realistic and inspiring manner. His use of broad brushstrokes and a limited palette combined with a keen sense of winter's translucent light lend much to a keen portrayal of the Bayman and his lifestyle. In Tom Hoyne's "The Window Maker" the fishing schooner


"Coffee Break" by William G. Kavanek, oil, 18" x 30". A working Bayman takes a break while his oyster boat runs along in this painting depicting the self-reliance and quiet of Chesapeake Bay and its people.

"Ship in Drydock" by Donald Stoltenberg, oil, 51" x 37". No particular ship in no particular drydock, but a composite of many impressions distilled into a composition that emphasizes the bulk of the ship against the spider web of scaffolding.

38

Oriole of Gloucester romps through the deep green sea that separates Gloucester from the Banks. Men on her bowsprit footropes shorten sail in this dramatic scene focusing on the powerful vessel as she pounds through a head sea. Hoyne's loose brushwork and interest in texture and light help him to create forceful images of American fishing schooners. Likewise, James Mitchell's interest in light and atmosphere and their effects on the sea has led him to do a series of paintings showing interpretations of the ocean. "Grand Banks Morning" shows that shallow area of the Continental Shelf as it might appear at one time of day. Mitchell has chosen his colors well to express the hazy sky reflecting on the shallow unpredictable water. Working watercraft and the ports they inhabit, are continuing themes in many marine artist's work. From the backwaters of the Bayou country in the south, shown in Carl Ever's "Bayou La Barte" done in the rich moss greens which thrive there, to the international port of Liverpool in Pete Roger's ''The Port of Liverpool," we see the artist's fascination with the patterns and perspectives of port life. Rogers, using light and shadow in a rhythmic composition has highlighted the major elements of Britain's great port. Galilee, Rhode Island is homeport to one of New England's largest fishing fleets. Jim Taylor depicts with pen and ink in careful detail, the everyday work that occurs in preparation for a trip to the Banks in "Taking on Ice." Norma Jay's "Gillnetter's Roost," done in the bright colors that typifies the Columbia River salmon boats of the port of Astoria, Oregon depicts yet another fishing port. Anticipation perhaps best describes the mood of the painting as salmon boats lie to their wharf ready at a moment's notice when the run begins. Yachts, past and present, are amply represented in the exhibit. John Mecray portrays three famous vessels in three separate paintings. Coronet regally fills the canvas in a full portrait depicting her in her prime. Her canvas is finely modelled and we can easily feel the power that filled her sails. Suzy Aalund's "Yacht Mischief" shows the fourth America's Cup defender under full sail captured as a marine artist of the period might have painted her, and the power of the mighty J-boats is well rendered in John Hutchinson's "J-Boat off Brown's Island Light, North Haven." Willard Bond's "Serendipity 43" and "To Skagen Light" are more modern and impressionistic in their handling of contemporary yachts. He believes the raw material of a painting to be gesture and that the action expressed in the painting is directly related to the energy given off by the actual subjects. His loose watercolors of sailboats are abstract and subjective. Diversity and excellence abound throughout the exhibit which will run through until 15 September. It is indeed gratifying to find such a celebration of the subjects and themes which run throughout marine art gathered together in one show. .t

SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981


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ABOVE POSTER AVAILABLE FOR LIMITED TIME FROM THE KIRSTEN GALLERY. PRINTED ON 100% RAG PAPE R IN BLUE AND BLACK. $25 SIGNED, $15 UNSIGNED.

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Paintings and Sketches of the Chesapeake Bay JOHN BARBER Reception for the Artist Saturday, September 19

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1981

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DAY'S RUN

Report of the American Sail Training Association

ASTA Sail Training Conference-1981 The American Sail Training Association has been invited to hold its 1981 Annual Sail Training Conference at the US Merchant Marine Academy at King's Point, NY (near La Guardia airport), Thursday and Friday, 15 and 16 October. The theme is "Sail Training Initiatives" and the twoday program will look at all who are conducting sail training or adventure sailing for youth to share their ideas on how programs might be expanded or improved. A highlight of the Conference will be a report by Commander John Bonds, US Navy, on the Navy's new requirement that every officer candidate or newly commissioned officer have some experience in sail. The Merchant Marine Academies are being approached to share their thoughts along these lines. Sea Education Association's Westward and Dr. Nichols' Regina Maris will give updated reports, together with reflections on what was needed to make such a prom-

ising start as Philadelphia's Gaze/a Primeiro a going project. The difficulties this year of New England Historic Seaport's sponsorship of Sorlandet (certification for U.S . operation was withdrawn by the USCG) will also be reviewed. Some of the charter boats from Maine and the Caribbean will also be invited to comment on the feasibility of AST A sponsorship of sail training cruises in the many East Coast windjammers, or from Caribbean islands during college Christmas or Spring vacations. It is obvious that the enthusiasm is there for sail training, a form of seagoing Outward Bound, and we only need provide timely opportunity and advertise it well. If you have ideas how to expand it, how to share in it, how to make it better, or how to make it more reasonably priced, we need you at King's Point, New York on 15 and 16 October. Write ASTA, Fort Adams, Newport RI 02840 for more information.

ASTA 1981 Sail Training Races Annapolis-Newport. A new sail training category was established for this year's race sponsored by the New York Yacht Club and the U.S. Naval Academy Sailing Squadron. Of the 80 entries, 16 were sail training vessels, which means that 50% of their crew were age 15 to 26. We were particularly heartened that the winner was a yachtsman with family and friends as crew, since our goal is to encourage more youth participation in the major yacht races. Congratulations to Immigrant, Captain McAteer, and his dedicated crew. East Coast Race Series. Nearly 140 trainees on 15 boats participated in this year's sail training races held from June 29th to July 3rd. Thick fog and poor winds hampered the sailors all week, but only Race Three was cancelled due to inclement weather. The sail training ships included both Class A and B ships, with a strong representation from the Coast Guard and Naval Academies. They had gathered in Mystic, Connecticut for Windjammer Weekend and were open to the public at Mystic Seaport on the weekend prior to the start of the races. Race #1 from Mystic to Block Island was won by Tar Baby, a 50' marconi schooner launched in 1928 and owned by Mr. Carl D. Sherman of Westbrook, CT. The second race, Block Island to Cut-

42

tyhunk, saw Mareva II win on corrected time. The 39 'sloop is operated by the U.S. Coast Guard Academy in New London, Connecticut and carried 8 cadets. After a cruise-in-company of the entire fleet to Padanaram, the final race began on July 3rd and finished at Castle Hill, Newport. Again Tar Baby led the boats to victory and won on corrected time. Following the race, a reception was held for all the Captains, on July 4th, an Inshore Regatta was held at the Newport Yachting Center between the ships trainees, who participated in friendly competition including tug o' war, heaving line tosses, and volleyball. Windsurfers were made available for the use of trainees by the Dufour Boardsailing Company. Overall race winners were presented at the Awards Ceremony following the Inshore Regatta: 1st Place went to Cotton Blossom JV, 71 ' Bermuda yawl and the oldest boat entered. Launched in 1926 and owned by Dr. Bruce Eissner of Marblehead, Mass., she was under charter to Mystic Seaport Museum for the week of the races. 2nd Place was won by Tar Baby. 3rd Place went to China Doll, Cornell University Naval ROTC 50' Bermuda ketch . Coming to us from Ithaca, New York, this boat and crew traveled the furthest distance to compete.

Sail Training Booms American Sail Training Association expanded its sail training program aboard Young America and Providence on the East Coast in 1981, added a cruise aboard Adventuress on the West Coast, and has just received word that there will be an opportunity for selected candidates to sail aboard the USCG bark Eagle. Thus by summer's end over 100 youngsters, 15 to 26, will have participated in a training adventure under sail in deep ocean waters, including overnight cruising. The first cruise aboard Young America was highlighted by the presence of two instructors, George Moffett for celestial navigation and piloting, and Molly Baxter for marine biology. The sail included a visit to Stillwagen Banks where the trainees glimpsed the whales. Starting at Newport, Young America visited Block Island and Provincetown and ended at Mystic, Connecticut in time to participate in the Windjammer Weekend and the beginning of the AST A Race Series. Young America is a 130 ' brigantine and carries a crew of six plus 24 trainees. Providence, the 110 ' Continental topsail sloop, replica of John Paul Jones' first command, started its cruise from Portsmouth, New Hampshire. With a crew of five, she carries 12 trainees. She sailed through the Cape Cod Canal and joined the ASTA Race Series from New Bedford to Newport. Despite poor weather, the trainees were enthusiastic about their experience. Other cruises for Providence will be from Gloucester to Newport, rounding Cape Cod if weather favors. These are planned for late July and late August. A waiting list of applicants is being kept as cruises have been sold out since the middle of June. Adventuress, a 100 ' schooner operated by Mrs. Erni Bennett in Puget Sound as a sail training ship, made the cruise in midJ uly available to ASTA participants. So many responded that two cruises may be requested next year, though Adventuress is already so popular that it will be difficult to find the time. In late August, as Eagle is en route Curtis Bay, Maryland for overhaul, a group of about thirty AST A-selected trainees and supervisors will sail with her from New London, Connecticut. It will be a five-day open ocean run through the Virginia Capes and then up the Chesapeake. Eagle, the only "Tall Ship" belonging to the United States government, is one of five of similar design. To sail in her is a once-in-aSEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981


Eisenhower House, Fort Adams State Park, Newport, RI 02840

lifetime experience. Plans for next year are just being formulated, but will undoubtedly include sail training cruises to complement our "Tall Ships" Race and our New England AST A Race Series. Efforts are being made to add one or two schooners for East Coast trainees, and to provide more marine scientific instruction for the larger groups. Write now if you are interested for next year so that you will be put on our mailing list and hear about the opportunities as they develop.

The able and seaworthy Norwegian sail-trainer Sorlandet has been barred from taking American trainees from US ports because of Coast Guard regulations that insist on the same requirements (cubic feet per head, number of toilets per person) as for passengers on an ocean liner -conditions that trainees neither want nor need. For more on this see "Letters," page 2.

The International Sail Training Races 1982 Every two years, in tribute to the great sailing ships of old, in remembrance of deeds past, in the knowledge that time at sea fits young people for life more quickly than any other way, and in an awareness of the interdependency of all the peoples of the planet, the Sail Training Association and the American Sail Training Association bring the great sailing ships of the present together in friendly competition. They come from across the seas to gather at a port, then race to two or three other ports, and at their final destination take part in a festival of sports competitions, inter-ship visits, and hospitality. Ideas are exchanged, friendships are formed, understanding grows. The Inter-American Race In 1981, the City of Philadelphia requested the American Sail Training Association to organize and run an Inter-American Sail Training Race to finish at the entrance to Delaware Bay. This Race was to bring the ''Tall Ships'' to the City of Brotherly Love as a part of that city's 300th Anniversary celebrations. The American Sail Training Association agreed to this request, it was approved by the international Sail Training Association, and thus the stage was set for "Tall Ships Century IV Philadelphia '82." Following on this decision, the government of Venezuela has agreed to host the start of the Inter-American Race at La Guaira in honour of its new sail training ship, the Simon Bolivar. In addition to the Simon Bolivar, four other large squarerigged sail training ships are home-based in South America-Esmeralda from Chile, Gloria from Colombia, Guayas from Ecuador, and Libertad from Argentina; and Uruguay has the large three-masted schooner Captitan Miranda as their sail training ship. This Inter-American Race SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981

will bring them, together with many smaller Class B training ships, to North America for the festivities in Philadelphia. Their visit will be followed by a Cruise-inCompany from Delaware Bay to Newport, Rhode Island, and a visit to that port. The Transatlantic Race On June 27, 1982, two or three of the South American ships will be on the starting line for the Transatlantic Race to Lisbon, Portugal. They will be joined by several of the European Class A and Class B sail training ships which have made visits to Philadelphia and Newport. All ships participating in Sail Training Races are manned by cadets and trainees between the ages of 15 and 26 who, by race requirements, must make up a least 50% of

the ships' working complements. The Transatlantic Race is being organized and run by the American Sail Training Association to bring the ships of the Western Hemisphere to Europe to participate in the Sail Training Association's gathering at Lisbon and race series from there to Vigo, Spain and then on to Southampton. It is expected that there will be 2,000 youngsters from some twelve nations taking part in this series of races. These International Sail Training Races are the heart of the American Sail Training Association's program for promoting closer ties between nations and for adding to the character growth of those young people with whom we work. For further information about this program, please write to ASTA.

Schedule of ASTA "Tall Ships" Races Wednesday 26 May to Saturday 29 May-At La Guaira, Venezuela. Saturday 29 May to Thursday 17 June-Race 1, La Guaira to Philadelphia. Thursday 17 June to Monday 21 June-At Philadelphia. Monday 21 June to Wednesday 23 June-Cruise-In-Company, Philadelphia to Newport for Class A Ships. Race 2, Cape May to Castle Hill for Class B's. Wednesday 23 June to Sunday 27 June-At Newport. Sunday 27 June to Tuesday 27 July-Race 3, Newport to Lisbon, Portugal.

Schedule of Cutty Sark "Tall Ships" Races Organized by the ST A Sunday 25 July to Tuesday 3 August-Race, Falmouth, England to Lisbon. Tuesday 3 August to Saturday 7 August-At Lisbon. Saturday 7 August to Wednesday 11 August-Cruise-In-Company, Lisbon to Vigo, Spain Saturday 14 August to Saturday 21 August-Race, Vigo to Southampton, England. 43


BOOKS Sailing Alone Around the World, by Capt. Joshua Slocum, illus. James E. Mitchell, intro. Moulton H. Farnham (Volvo Penta, S-405 08 Goteborg, Sweden, 1980, 180 pp., 41 + illus., $30). Few Sea History readers will be without a copy of Slocum, the captain of famous square riggers who rebuilt an old sloop to take up a latter-day career of solitary voyaging. Why, then, should anyone consider buying yet another copy of Sailing Alone Around the World? The reason for buying (yet another) Slocum is Mitchell. Jim Mitchell offers forty-one black-and-white illustrations, a full-color dust jacket, and two 4-page pullout endpapers, one with a chart of Slocum's voyage and the other with a large compelling cutaway of Spray's interior plus small sail and deck plans. Because Mitchell is not only a famous marine artist but a fanatical researcher, his illustrations of Spray and her voyage are probably as close as any of us will ever get to visualizing the real thing. When Mitchell gives us a block a certain number of feet out on the boomkin, readers can be sure that there's no guesswork involved: for decades Mitchell has been harassing writers and editors about the imprecision of their texts. Years of study went into the present

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volume. It's not cheap, but Slocum rendered by Mitchell is worth it. STEPHEN H. RUBIN Mr. Rubin is chairman of the English Dept. at SUNY, Oneonta and a marine journalist. Morning Was Starlight; My Maine Boyhood, by Ernest Dodge (Globe Pequot Press, Chester, Conn., 1980, 202 pp., illus., $8.95). The steady rhythm of the seasons, broken by the abrupt changes nature brings to those who live close to it, infuse this volume of memories by a distinguished son of Maine and longtime Director of the Peabody Museum of Salem, Massachusetts, the late Ernest Dodge. And with these things, an elegiac sense of ways of life lived close to nature's beauties and nature's difficulties. ''Then the voices of the sailors on vessels anchored in the cove could be heard, the chonk of rowlocks and the dip of oars, a little later the creak of blocks and halyards as the sails were hoisted and the chug of the donkey engine and the clank of the anchor chain. So imperceptibly can a race of men," Dodge concludes, "and all they knew and their work, slide into oblivion that we scarce know they have passed." But their passing is well and vividly PETER STANFORD remembered here. Sovereignty For Sale, by Rodney P. Carlisle (Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Md., 1981, 278 pp., illus., $19.95). Why does a country with the resources, the coastline and the maritime roots of the United States carry less than five percent of its own ocean-borne commerce in USregistered ships manned by American seamen? The answer can in large part be found in this important new book, in which Rodney P. Carlisle, professor of history at Rutgers University, explores the origins and evolution of the Panamanian and Liberian "flags of convenience" that have so drastically altered the complexion of world shipping since the end of World War II. By definition any ship owned in one country while it is registered in another for purposes of commercial or legal advantage sails under a flag of convenience. Throughout the years these flags-most notably the Liberian and Panamanianhave provided a "cheap, convenient, efficient system that left each shipowner free to make his own labor policy and to maintain his ship as he saw fit." Time and time again we have seen the effects of a system that allows an owner to man and maintain a ship "as he sees fit." The result have washed up on beaches all around the world. SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981

But Carlisle does not dwell on a history of flag of convenience shipping diasters at sea. As the title of his book seems to suggest, more may have been sacrificed in the quest for profit than pristine beaches. Have we also compromised ourselves with regard to defense and energy considerations? Do we really have "effective control" over all those US-owned but foreigncrewed and foreign-registered tankers? "In the 1980s," says Carlisle, "issues such as petroleum supply, environmental protection, and national defense bring once again a need for information about this system and its particular logic.'' Carlisle's well written and documented book satisfies to a large degree that need for information and, we can hope, may help stimulate a reappraisal of the flag of convenience system MICHAEL GILLEN

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Traditions of the Navy, by Cedric W. Windas, ed. Arnold S. Lott (Annapolis, MD, Leeward Publications, 1978, 81 pp., ill., paperback $5.95). By republishing this compendium of naval facts and lore in the low-cost paperback format, Leeward Publications makes available once again a fascinating reference tool for all lovers of the sea. Cedric W. Windas' text and artwork, which originally appeared in Our Navy magazine in the 1930s, were first published as a book in 1942. Designed for general audiences, the book covers a potpourri of naval terms, customs, and facts, and includes some 150 delightful line drawings by the author. The random arrangement of entries contributes to the pleasure of casually flipping through its pages. An index provides easy and swift access to needed information, and a brief bibliography is provided for those who wish to explore further. This volume is of an all-too-rare genre that delights while it educates. KENNETH JOHN BLUME Mr. Blume is a PhD candidate in American diplomatic and maritime history at SUNY, Binghamton. The World of the Small Commercial Fishermen: Their Lives and Their Boats, by Michael Meltzer (Dover Publications, New York, NY, 1980, 88 pp., illus., $4.95). An interesting, well rounded look at small commercial fishing, from Pacific salmoning to New England lobstering, tuna, menhaden, Gulf Coast shrimping. The ways of life, heritage, and ethnic origins of the fishermen and their communities are explored, with an account of the various techniques, vessels and gear for each speci fie catch.

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BOOKS Deane's Doctrine of Naval Architecture, 1670, ed. and intro. by Brian Lavery (Conway Maritime Press, Greenwich, England, 1981, 128 pp., illus., 20). A never-before published treatise written over 300 years ago by English born Master Shipwright Sir Anthony Deane, whose approach is scientifically documented rather than purely traditional. He is credited with being the first to be able to accurately calculate displacement of vessels from drawings. Includes introduction with historical background, sections on arithmetic, hull design, and specifications for rigging. Traditions and Memories of American Yachting, by William P . Stephens (International Marine Publishing, Camden, Me., 1981, 355 pp., illus., $35 .00) . This book is a compilation of articles Bill Stephens wrote for Motor Boating Magazine from 1939 to 1946. Rare and Out-of-Print Books

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Neal Parker is Captain of the Chesapeake Bay skipjack Mamie A. Mister out of Fulton Ferry Landing, Brooklyn. Saga of A Yankee Whaleman, by Sylvia Thomas (Old Dartmouth Historical Society, Whaling Museum, New Bedford Mass . 1981 , 132 pp., illus., $10).

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A granddaughter of a New Bedford whaling captain traces his career from apprenticeship as ship's carpenter in 1853 to ship master until 1876. A fine and through work , includes research logs and journals, oral histories. The author herself retraced numerous South Pacific voyages to New Zealand, the Chatham Islands . Admiral of the Fleet Earl Beatty: The Last Naval Hero, by Stephen Roskill (Atheneum, New York, 1981, 430 pp. illus., $19.95). The consciously colorful WW I British Grand Fleet commander who led the battle cruisers at Jutland finds sympathetic but not uncritical treatment in this well documented biography. Three books by William H. Miller, Jr. : Great Luxury Liners 1927-1954: A Photographic Record (New York NY, Dover Publications, Inc., 1981, 160 pp., illus., photo., $8.95). Luxury Liner Row: Passenger Ships at New York (New York NY, Quadrant Press, Inc,. 1981, 97 pp., illus., photos, $9.50). Transatlantic Liners 19451980 (New York NY, Arco Publishing, Inc,. 1981, 222 pp., illus., 250 photos, $21.95). Bill Miller was born in Hoboken, New Jersey, across the Hudson from New York City-a waterfront town where the great passenger liners used to dock-and from an early age these vessels captured his imagination, and indeed his serious study. These three books are a compilation of photographs and material tracing the careers of these vessels from their golden age in the earlier half of this century to the present. The Norse Discovery of America, by Paul H. Chapman (One Candle Press, Atlanta, Ga., 1981, 120 pp., illus., $5.95/ paperback, $9.95/hardcover). The author of The Man Who Led Columbus to America traces the routes and pinpoints the three lands and seven locales where the Norse explorer Eric, and his children may have landed, using navigational calculations in conjunction with original historical texts. The Hudson: A Guidebook to the River, by Arthur G. Adams (State University of New York Press, Albany, NY, 1980, 424 pp., illus., maps, $14.95). Mr. Adams, president of the Hudson River Maritime Center (see Ship Notes) gives five possible routes for exploring the Hudson-up the river channel, along the east or west banks, by rail or road. Histtorical, geological, architectural details are i.given on a mile-by-mile basis. .t SEA HISTORY, SUMMER 1981


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BOOK ORDER DEPARTMENT , U .S. Naval Institute Annapo li s, Maryland 21402 SI Pl ease send me: _ _ copy(ies) of Red S un Setting (532-9) at $18.95 each. Ex p. Date _ _ copy(ies) of Warsh ip, Volume I (975-8) at $17 .95 each. Acct. No. _ _ copy(ies) of Warship, Volume II (976-6) at $18.95 each. _ _ copy(ies) of Warship, Volume Ill (977-4) at $21.95 each. , Signature D I have enclosed my check or money order for$ including$ for postage & handling. (Postage & handling is $2.50 for orders up to $30.00 or $3.25 for Name - -- - - - - - - - - -- -- - - - - orders of $30.01 or more. Pl ease add 5% sales tax for deli very within the Stat e o f Maryland .) Address D Please charge my

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NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY SPONSORS AMERADA HESS CORPORATION AMERICAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ANNENBERG FUND APEX MACHINE CORPORATION ) ACK R. ARON V INCENT ASTOR FOUNDATION BEEFEATER FOUNDATION A LLEN G. BERRIEN C H ARLES F. CHAPMAN MEMORIAL C HEMICA L BANK

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IRV ING J OHNSON J . M. KAPLAN FUND A. ATWATER KENT, JR. L UCILLE L ANGLOIS JAMES A. MACDONALD FOUNDATION MRS. ELLICE MCDONALD, J R. MILFORD BOAT WORKS, INC. NAUTILUS FOUNDAT ION RADM EDMOND J. MORAN USN R (RET.) NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR T HE HUMANITIES NAVY LEAGUE NY STATE B I CENTENNIAL COMMISSION MICH AE L PLATZER RCA MR. & MRS. PETER SEEGER S IRIUS BROKERS H OWARD SLOTNICK SETH SPRAGUE FOUNDATION MR .& MRS. PETER STANFORD EDMUND A. STANLEY, ) R. T. H . WRIGHT, ) R.

PATRONS ABRA HAM & STRAUS R. G. ADAMS RAYMOND AKER AMER ICAN BUREAU OF SHI PPI NG AMERICAN H OIST & D ERRICK Co. CAPT. E. R. ANDERSON ANSEL PRODUCT IONS ARID YACHT C LUB ARTE K INC. ATLANTIC CORDAGE CORP . AT LANTIC MARITIME ENTERPR ISES AUDIO MAGAZINE BR UNO J. AUG ENT I WILLIAM E. BACON H . K. BAILEY, MD )OE BAKER P ET E R B. BAKER JOH N B. BALCH B. A. BALDWIN, J R. PRICE BANISTER BANKERS TRUST Co. RUSSELL BANKS BARBA NEGRA J EFFREY BARLOW H ARRY BARON FRANCIS J . BARRY J . H . BASCOM BAY REFRACTORY BAY RIDGE WATER & LIG HTERAGE BE-AN/KAHN JOH N BEAN STUDIO BEA YER ENGINEERING C HARLES A. BENORE ADM. RUSSELLS. BERKEY ALLEN BERNSTEIN STUDIO H . E. BILKEY 路NORTON LI LLY BRONSON BINGER R. M. BIRMINGHAM CARROLL N. BJORNSON P ETER BLACK REBECCA B LAKE STUDIOS JEFF BLINN E. JARED BLISS

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US¡ Flag Flexibility...

... that's what American Maritime Officers Service is all about. The widest variety of American-flag merchant ships operating independently in the most diverse trades. From the largest supertankers to the new America class 2,000-deadweight-ton, multi-purpose container/reefer/break-bulk dry cargo vessels, US-flag ship operators working through AMOS for a strong merchant marine will meet any maritime call, any time.

American Maritime Officers Service Town House 14, Harbour Square 456 N Street S. W. Washington, D.C. 20024 Captain Joseph C. Fox, Executive Director


The Overseas Washington , shown transiting the Panama Canal, is one of the s hips operated b y the Maritim e Overseas Corp. under contract with the MM&P

This is MM&P Country. There goes a beautiful MM&P-manned ta nker that, on e ntering this waterway, has been ad measured by MM&P Admeasurers a nd which is being assisted on its journey ROBERT J. LOWEN International President

through the Canal by an MM&P-manned Panama Canal Commission tugboat under the guidance of MM&P Pilots and MM&P Marine Traffic Controllers.

ALLEN C. SCOTT International Executive Vice President

DONALDS. GRANT

LLOYD M. MARTIN International Secretary-Treasurer

JOHN F. BEIRNE

Vice President, Pilotage

Vice President, A&G Maritime Region

International Organization of

Masters, Mates & Pilots 39 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10006/(212) 425-3860 / Cable: BRIDGEDECK/Telex No.: 12-5858

Sea History 021 - Summer 1981  

7 WE COULD DO NO LESS: JOHN M. WILL REMEMBERED • 12 TOWING IN TIME WITH McALLISTER, Oswald L. Brett • 18 A MATTER OF RESTORATION: THE CHINA...

Sea History 021 - Summer 1981  

7 WE COULD DO NO LESS: JOHN M. WILL REMEMBERED • 12 TOWING IN TIME WITH McALLISTER, Oswald L. Brett • 18 A MATTER OF RESTORATION: THE CHINA...