Page 1

sea istor NO . 3 ¡

National Maritime Historical Society .

JULY 1975

Gathered to support the call for a National Ship Trust, in New York, on October 21, are, from the left rear, Rear Admiral Walter F. Schlech, Jr. USN <ret.), chairman of the National Maritime Historical Society; Joseph E. Farr, former president, Brotherhood of Marine Officers; Congressman John Murphy, sponsor of HR 15906, The Ship Trust bill; Ambassador Emil Mosbacher, Jr., chairman of Operation Sail; Mrs. Barbara Johnson, president of the Museum of American Folk Art, trustee of South Street Seaport Museum, Frank G.G. Carr, former director of the National Maritime Museum at Greenwich, England, and founder of the English Maritime Trust; Admiral John M. Will, USN, (ret.), former president of the N.Y. State Maritime Museum and member of the Advisory Council of South Street Seaport Museum; and, in front, Peter Stanford, President of the National Maritime I listorical Society and South Street Seaport Museum and Mel Barisic, Vice President and Treasurer of the Nittional Maritime Union. They are grouped round KAIULANl'S wheel, on the occasion of Mr. Carr delivering the Seventh Annual James Monroe adljress at luncheon aboard the Robert Fulton in South Street.

Sea History is devoted to historical articles and news of ship restorations, museums, marine art, and archaeo¡ logy around the world Published by the National Mari time Historical Society, 16 Fulton Street, New York, N . Y. 100038. Chairman of Editorial Committee : Peter Stanford Editor: Norman J. Brouwer The National Maritime Historical Society is a non -profit educational institution. Its officers are: Chairman, Rear Admiral Walter Schlech USN CretJ; Honorary CoCtiairman, Helen Deli ch Bentley; President, Peter Stanford; Vice-presidents, John Thurman and Karl Kortrum; Secretary, John Lym an; Treasu'rer, Norm an Brouwer .




Table of Contents Square-rigged Sailing Craft in Existence, Part II p. S Skaregrom Log p. 14 The CONSTELLATION and her Rebuilding p. 23 p. 29 Maritime Museum News Photo Feature p. 32 p. 34 The Sea mens Ba"k for Savings Book Reviews p. 36 List of Publications p. 37


Norman Brouwer


16 FULTON STREET, NEW YORJC, N. t'. 10038 • PHONE.· JJ2.J< ...JIO

Chairman: REAR ADMIRAL WALTER F. SCHLECH. JR .. USN tHI::'l' . 1 Honorary co.Chairman: HELEN DELICH BENTLEY



As we go to press with this issue of Sea History, two •naj or events are developing on the ship pL·eservation front: First, the remains of KAIULANI, object of an eleven year preservation effort, will ae landed in numbered sections at the Todd Shipyard in Seattle. Second, a bill for a National Trust for the preservation of historic ships, under the a11spices of the National Trust for Historic P•eservation, will be introduced.

If proposed funding for KAIUL.l\N'I ma':erial i.zes, she will be rebuilt to sail a0ain - a J:2construction that, to be done prJperly, must summon the best scholarship and craftsmanship we have in America.

If such a funding is not forthcoming, we must see that the remains a i:e properly set up and preserved, 50 t"hat people may come to learn the shape an-:l. co11st<7 •1ction of this last heir of packet and clipper ship, and come to know the story of this fast and comely Down Easter - a story embracing much of our American experience at sea. Her birthplace at Bath, Maine; her home port of San Francisco; and New York as a port of refuge on a famous occasion (when her captain wrote: "New York seemed the best place to go") are possible sites for a KAIULANI monument. We welcome your views on this. The Ship Trust opens wide horizons, on what has been a darkling scene of opportunities closing out. Think of the Gold Rush veteran VICAR OF BRAY returned to San Francisco, the 1850's packet ship CHARLES COOPER returned to New York, the 1840's lake schooner ALVIN CLARK preserved at Menominee, Michigan, New York's Pier A clock tower saved to welcome future generations of arriving ships, and San Francisco's Haslett Warehouse! A scattered, but dedicated constituency can now be summoned to these and other efforts that may take an expression of national purpose to achieve. Iri our next issue we'll present a first survey of such opportunities, and publish letters presenting your views on the work that lies ahead. Peter Stanford


Barclay Warburton III




Norman Brouwer

Norman Brouwer

Square-rigged Sailing Craft In Existence LIST NO. 4- BRIGANTINES, BARKENTINES AND TOPSAIL SCHOONERS ABEL TASMAN, ex-BONAIRE-Hulk, former barkentine, iron : Built at Rotterdam in 1876 as a steam gunboat for the Royal Netherlands Navy. Now an accommodation hulk at the Nautical Training College in Delfzijl. ALMA DOEPEL--Motorship, former three-masted topsail schooner, wood, 105 ft., 117 tons: Built on the Bellinger River in New South Wales in 1903 as a cargo vessel. Now used to carry limestone on a short run on the south coast of Tasmania. ALMIRANTE SALDANHA-Motorship, former four-masted topsail schooner, 262 ft., 3325 tons disp.: Built at Barrow, England in 1933 as a schoolship for the Brazilian Navy. Converted to a research vessel in 1962. ALPHA-Barkentine, wood, 144 ft., 322 tons : Built in Finland for the Soviet Union in 1948. Either used as a training ship or research vessel. ALVIN CLARK-Topsail schooner, wood, 105 ft., 218 tons : Built at Trenton, Michigan in 1846. Sank in Green Bay during 1864. Raised in 1969 and now a museum at Menominee, Michigan.


AMPHION-Brigantine: Swecfish or Finnish yacht: apparently converted from. some type of small motor vessel. AMPHITRITE, ex-HINEMOA, ex-JOYF ARER, exDOLORES-Barkentine, 161 tons : Built in England in 1887 as a three-masted schooner yacht. Currently operating under the French flag . ANNA MARIA-Brigantine, 32 ft.: A miniature square-rigger yacht owned in California. BARBA NEGRA-'Barkentine: Converted from a small schooner or ketch built in Norway in 1896. Canadian owned, and currently cruising in the West Indies. BEAVER, ex-VICTORIA, ex-GULLI, ex-AEROEBrig. wood, 96 ft., 76 tons: Built at Marstal, Denmark as a schooner in 1908. Purchased in 1971 to represent a ship involved in the Boston Tea Party, and now on display in Boston Harbor. BEL ESPOIR, ex-PRINCE LOUIS II, ex-PEDER MOST, ex-NETTE s. Three-masted topsail schooner, wood, 119.8 ft., 189 tons: Built by J. Ring Andersen at Svendborg, Denmark as a three-

ex-SUNBEAM II-Three-masted topsail schooner, steel, 167 ft. , 636 tons : Built in 1929 as a British yacht. Later a Swedi sh m erchant marin e schoolship, and now operated by Greece. F ALADO VON RHO DOS-Brigantine, wood, 49.2 ft., 44 tons : West German yacht built in 1968. FRAM-Barkentine, wood , 400 tons : Arctic research vessel used by Nansen 1893-1896, and by later explorers. Preserved inside a museum building at Oslo, Norway . GAZELA PRIMEIRO, ex-GAZELA-Barkentine, wood, 178 ft. , 324 tons : Built at Cacilhas, Portugal in 1883. Formerly a unit of the Portuguese Grand Banks fishing fleet. Now belongs to the Philadelphia Maritime Museum. GEFION, ex-KAREN SORENSEN, ex-AMELIRTopsail schooner, wood, 89.5 ft ., 95 tons: Built at Solvesborg, Sweden in 1894. Currently Americanowned and operating in the Baltic. HAI CHU, ex-HEATHER, ex-LIEUTENANT RENE GUILI~O~-.Motorship, former barkentine, steel, 179 ft., 850 tons : Built at Nantes in 1933 for the French Grand Banks fishing fleet. Now a cargo vessel owned in Hong Kong . HORIZONT-Barkentine, wood, 129 ft. , 322 tons : Built at Turku, Finland in 1948 as a training ship for the Russian merchant marine and still in service. HUASCAR-Naval relic, iron, 190 ft., 1870 tons disp.: Originally a brig-rigged seagoing turret ship built at Birkenhead, England for the Peruvian Navy in 1865. Now a museum ship at Talcahuano, Chile. INDEPENDENCE-Topsail schooner, wood, 90 ft. : West Indies passenger cruise ship. JACARE-Topsail schooner, 121 ft. , 100 tons : Operated by Carib Cruises Ltd. of St. Lucia, West Indies. JADRAN, ex-MARCO POLO, ex-JADRAN-Threemasted topsail schooner, steel, 190 ft. , 720 tons disp. : Built in Germany in 1931 as a schoolship for Yugoslavia and still in service. JOANNA OF FOULNESS-Brigantine, 53.5 ft., 18 tons, Thames Measurement : A British yacht built at Looe, Cornwall in 1970. JUAN SEBASTIAN DE ELCANO-Four-mastea topsail schooner, steel, 309 ft. , 3222 tons disp.: Built at Cadiz in 1927 as a Spanish Naval schoolship and still in service. JUNGA-Barkentine, wood, 126 ft. , 322 tons : Built at Raumo, Finland in 1947 for the Soviet Union. Serving either as a schciolship or· research vessel. KAPELLA-Barkentine, wood, 126 ft., 322 tons: Built at Turku, Finland in 1948 for the So_viet _Union. Lately a merchant marine schoolship based at Riga . KATHLEEN & MAY, ex-LIZZIE MAY-Threemasted topsail schooner, wood, 98 ft.: Built in 1900

masted schooner in 1944. Now owned by a French organization called "Les Amis de Jeudi Dimanche." BLACK PEARL-Brigantine, wood, 54.6 ft., 41 tons : A yacht built at Wickford. Rhode Island in 1957, and based at Newport, Rhode Island. CALIFORNIA-Barkentine, wood, 80 ft. overall : Built at Vallejo, California in 1935. Now making cruises out of Hawaii. CAPTAIN SCOTT-Three-masted topsail schooner, wood, 129 ft., 380 tons: Launched in 1971 for a Scottish youth training program. CARIB¥E-Topsail schooner, wood, 96 ft.: Built by William Robinson at Ipswich, Massachusetts in the late 1930's as a yacht, from plans of a vessel of around 1800. Now making cruises out of Jamaica. CENTURION, ex-AEGEAN, ex-BEEGIEBrigantine, wood, 43 tons : Built as a yacht at New Smyrna, Florida in 1947. Lately British-owned and cruising m the Aegean. CHARLOTTE RHODES, ex-META JAN , ex EVAThree-masted topsail schooner, wood, 89 ft.: Built at Fjellebroen, Denmark in 1904. Now owned in Dartmouth, England. CITY OF AUSTIN-Hulk, former five-masted barkentine, wood, 281.8 ft. , 2231 tons : Built at Orange, Texas in 1918 as a cargo vessel. Later the barge SMITH & TERRY NO . 4. Now lying abandoned at Port Johnson, Bayonne, New Jersey. CITY OF BEAUMONT-Hulk, former five-masted barkentine, wood, 254 ft. , 2043 tons disp. : Built at Orange, Texas in 1918 as a cargo vessel. Later the nightclub BUCCANEER, anchored in the Hudson River. Now lying grounded at Hastings-On-Hudson, New York. DEWARUTJI-Barkentine, steel, 180 ft., 847 tons disp.: Built in Germany in 1953 as a schoolship for the Indonesian Navy and still in service. DUENNA, ex-~iD, WILL & HARRY-Brigantine, wood, 61.9 ft. , 22 tons : A yacht converted from an oyster smack built at Brightlingsea, England in 1903. Now Owned in West Germany. EBE, ex-SAN GIORGIO-Brigantine, wood, 600 tons: Built at Viareggio, Italy in 1921 as a cargo vessel. An It~lian Naval schoolship 1952-1955. Now completely rebuilt inside the Science Museum at Milan. EOLUS-Barkentine, wood, 112 ft. : Built at Pukvik, Sweden in 1948 as a three-masted schooner. Rerigged at Ramsgate, England in 1970 for World cruises. Currently for sale at Singapore. ESMERALDA, ex-DON JUAN DE AUSTRIAFour-masted topsail schooner, steel, 308 ft . 3673 tons disp.: Built at Cadiz in 1952 as a Spanish Naval schoolship. Sold to Chile in 1953 and still in service. EUGENE EUGENIDES, ex-FL YING CLIPPER, 6

U.S. Coast Guard



Milan Science Museum

N. Brouwer Collection

ESMERALDA for the British coastal trade. at Con.nabs Qm_1y. Restored by the British National Maritime Trust and now on d.i_splay at Plymouth, England. LA BELLE POUi.E-Topsail schooner, wood, 128 ft., 227 tons disp.: Built at Fecamp in 1932 as a training vessel for the French Navy and still in service. L'ETOILE-Sistership of LA BELLE POULE: details same. LILLA DAN-Topsail schooner, wood, 84 ft., 120 tons: Launched at Svendborg, Denmark October 28, 1950 as a training ship for the J. Lauritzen School at Kogtved. Reportedly due to be retired in the near future. MALCOLM MILLER-Three-masted topsail schooner, steel, 300 tons: Launched at Aberdeen, Scotland October 5, 1967 for the British Sail Training Association. MARQUESAS-Brigantine, wood : Built in Spain in 1919. Currently being rerigged in England for use in films in the Mediterranean. MEKA II-Brigantine: A miniature square-rigger yacht owned in Detroit. MERCATOR-Barkentine, steel, 210 ft., 770 tons: Built at Leith, Scotland in 1932 as a schoolship for the Belgian merchant marine. Now a museum ship at Ostend. MERIDIAN-Barkentine, wood, 129 ft., 322 tons : Built in Finald for the Soviet Union around 1948. Training ship for the merchant marine ·based at Kaliningrad. MERRY, ex-SAM, ex-FRIEDRICH-Ketch, for·

merly topsail schooner, steel, 92 ft., 158 tons: Built at Hammelwarden, Germany in 1911 as a cargo vessel. Now in England being prepared for charter work. MOLFETTA-Hulk, former five-masted barkentine, wood, 284 ft., 2462 tons: Built at Pascagoula, Mississippi in 1920 as a cargo vessel. Now lying al>andone<fat Port Johnson, Bayonne, New Jersey. NEW ENDEAVOR, ex-CITO, ex-VOLO, ex-DANA, ex-TURO-Three-masted topsail schooner, wood, 102 ft., 136 tons: Built at Svendborg, Denm.ark in 1919. For a time a training ship of the Lauritzen School. Later ketch rigged. Now owned in Austrailia. NORLANDIA, ex-HARALD-Three-masted topsail schooner, wood, 112 ft., 95 tons : Built at Hobro, Denmark in 1918 as a cargo vessel. Now owned in England and making cruises. ORIETTA, ex-CADAMOSTO, ex-VERI AMICI, exRAFF AELA MADRE-Motorship, former brigantine, wood, 97 .5 ft., 161 tons : Built at Torre del Greco, Italy in 1902. Currently owned at Leghorn, Italy. PALINURO, ex-COMMANDANT LOUIS RICHARD-Barkentine, steel, 204 ft., 858 tons: Built in 1934 for the French Grand Banks fleet. Lately an Italian schoolship. PATHFINDER-Brigantine, steel, 60 ft., 39 tons disp.: Built in 1963 as a training ship for Canadian sea scouts and still in operation. Home port is Toronto. PERSEUS-Three-masted topsail schooner, wood, B

117 It., 110 tons: Built at Marstal, Denmark in 1913. Now owned in Marina Del Rey, California. PILGRIM, ex-JOAL-Brig, former schooner, wood, 100 ft., 180 tons: Former Danish cargo vessel. Converted to represent the brig PILGRIM of Two Years Before the Mast. Now enroute from Spain to her future home port of Monterey, California. PIOMBINO, ex-PATRIA, ex-SUZANNE VINNENMotorship, former five-masted topsail schooner, steel, 1847 tons : Built at Kiel,Germanyin 1922 as a cargo vessel. Now owned in Italy. PLAYFAIR-Brigantine : Built at Kingston, Ontario in 1974 for use as a training ship. Similar to ST. LAWRENCE II and PATHFINDER. Homeport i~ '.foronto. PRINCE LOUIS, ex-LILLEBAELT, ex-FANO, exASTREA-three masted schooner, former threemasted topsail schooner, wood, 97 ft., 150 tons : Built at Marstal, Denmark in . 1921. Museum ship at Marina Del Rey, California . REGINA MARIS, ex-REGINA-Barkentine, former three-masted schooner, wood, 139 ft. , 186 tons : Built at Svendborg, Denmark in 1908 as a cargo vessel. Now a yacht owned in the British Isles. RENDEZVOUS-Brigantine, 78 ft. : A yacht built at Seattle in 1933 and now owned in San Diego, California. RESULT- Ketch, former three-masted topsail

Capt. Arthur Kimberly schooner, steel, 102 ft. , 122 tons: Built at Carrickfergus, Ireland in 1893 as a cargo vessel. Now being restored by a museum in Northern Ireland. ROMANCE, ex-GRETHE-Brigantine, former ketch, wood, 75 ft., 77 tons : Built at Svendborg, Denmark in 1936 as a cargo vessel. Now making cruises out of the Virgin Islands. ROYALIST-Brig, steel, 76 ft .: Launched at Cowes, England in 1971 as a training vessel for British Sea Cadets. SANTA MONICA-Hulk, former barkentine, wood: Floating restaurant at Villareggio, Italy. SEKSTAN-Barkentine, wood, 129 ft., 322 tons : Built in Finland for the Soviet Union around 1948. Training ship for the Ministry of Fisheries attached to a school near Vladivostok. SHENANDOAH-Topsail schooner, wood, 108 ft.: Launched at South Bristol, Maine in 1964 for the passenger cruise trade. Home port is Martha 's Vineyard, Massachusetts. SHINTOKU MARU-Motorship, former fourmasted barkentine, steel, 280 ft. , 2518 tons: Built at Kobe in 1923 as a schoolship for the Japanese merchant marine. Converted to a motorship in the 1940's and now laid up. SHTURMAN-Barkentine, wood: Built at Raumo, Finland in 1947 for the Soviet Union. Either a training ship or research vessel. SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL-Three-masted topsail schooner, steel, 135 ft. , 235 tons : Launched at Hull, England February 7, 1966 for the British Sail Training Association. SIRIUS-Barkentine, wood, 129 ft., 322 tons : Built at Turku, Finland for the Soviet Union in 1948. Either a training ship or research "essel. SNOWFLAKE-Motorship, former topsail schooner, wood, 88.2 ft. , 109 tons : Built at Runcorn,


W. J. ECKERT-Four-masted barkentine, steel, 77 ft. , 50 tons: Built at Rustberg, Virginia. Launched at Portsmouth, Virginia October 1971. Now owned in the Bronx, New York. WAN FU-Topsail schooner, steel, 110 ft.: Built in 1959. A yacht owned by the Hong Kong Hilton Hotel. WETSERA-Brigantine, 56 ft.: Built in 1891 as a cargo vessel. Lately a Swedish yacht. WILHELM PIECK-Brigantine, steel, 105 ft , 290 tons displacement : Built in 1951 as a training ship for East Germany and still in service. ZENIT-Barkentine, wood, 129 ft., 322 tons : Built at Turku, Finland in 1948 for the Soviet Union. Either a training ship or research vessel. Information needed : BLACKJACK-Topsail schooner : East coast yacht. BUCCANEER QUEEN-Barkentine: Cruise ship based at San Pedro, California . LIEBCHEN-Topsail schooner: West coast yacht. Under construction or conversion :


BRENDAN-Brigantine: Irish training ship due for completion in 1976. DANA-Baltic ketch being converted to a brigiantine at Malta. ENCHANTRESS-Ferro-cement brigantine being built at Port Jefferson, New York. OSPREY-Barkentine in the course of conversion in Denmark, for world cruises. RACHEL AND EBENEZER-Ferro-cement topsail schooner being built at Bath, Maine. TAIYO-Steel brigantine under construction at Guaymas, Mexico.

Norman Brouwer

England in 18801 Now operating under the Yugoslav flag as HRVAT. ST. LAWRENCE II-Brigantine, steel, 60 ft., 43 tons <lisp. : Built in 1957 as a Sea Cadet training vessel. Based at Kingston, Ontario. SWIFT-Topsail schooner, wood, 70 ft.: Built at Ipswich, Massachusetts in the late 1930's as a yacht, using plans of a ship of around 1800. Now making cruises out of Santa Barbara, California. TABOR BOY, ex-BESTEVAER, exLOTSENSCHONER II-Topsail schooner, steel, 83 ft., 99 tons: Built at Amsterdam in 1914 for North Sea Pilot service. Now training ship of Tabor Academy in Marion, Massachusetts. TROPIK-Barkentine, wood, 144 ft. , 322 tons : Built in Finland around 1948 for the Soviet Union . Training ship for the Ministry of Fisheries, based at Riga. UNICORN, ex-LYRA-Brig, former ketch, wood, 94 ft., ~o tons deadweight: Built at Sibbo, Finland in 1948. Re-rigged in Sweden in 1971. Now based in the Cayman Islands. VALKYRIE-Topsail schooner, wood, 45 ft., 22 tons displacement : Built at Bald Rock, Nova Scotia in 1969 as a yacht for Richard Black of Woodbridge, Virginia. VARUA-Brigantine, composite, 59 ft. , 43 tons : Yacht built at Ipswich, Massachusetts in 1942. Owned by William Robinson of Tahiti.


N. Brouwer Collection


Heger Christensen



Richard Rath



Norman Brouwer

Some notes regarding the lists: It was originally intended to save all replicas for a possible later list. However, at the last minute, the BOUNTY was included in list No. 3 due to her extensive voyaging. Other replicas that might be mentioned, which were designed to be seagoing, are: MAYFLOWER II, the Canadian ketch NONSUCH, the frigate ROSE , and the GOLDEN HINDE recently built in England. Ships which have received their rigs purely for harbor service, as stationary schoolships or waterfront attractions, do not qualify for these lists. .The Japanese MEIJI MARU appearing in list No. 3 may be such a vessel. Other ships (or fake ships) in this category are: the stationary schoolships ; WORCESTER in England, POLLUX in Holland, and ARKEN in Denmark; and the (now sunk) schooner SONJA at Philadelphia. Remnants of square-riggers, where less than the complete hull remains, have generally not been included. (Two exceptions were CONEMAUGH and LONSDALE in List No. 1.) We are considering having a list of these vessels in a future issue.

Recent news of ships appearing in the first three lists (SEA HISTORY NO. 2) : ANDALUCIA-Parted her anchor cable during a severe gale in September 1973, and drifted ashore on Tierra Del Fuego, where she now lies abandoned. ARETHUSA-Retired from service as a schoolship, and sold in October 1974 to the South Street Seaport Museum of New York. She is scheduled to be towed to this country in late summer or early fall of 1975. BRITON-Reportedly broken up at Lewisporte, Newfoundland. CONEMAUGH-Now being scrapped where she lies at Baltimore . ELISSA-Plans for museum at Victoria, British Columbia have been dropped. She is now due for preservation at Galveston, Texas. KAIULANI-Remains of this ship have been dismantled for shipment to the U.S . MOSHULU-Plans for the purchase of this ship by the South Street Seaport Museum in New York have been dropped. She is now planned as a restaurant at Philadelphia. SORLANDET-Retired as a schoolship and sold to a Norwegian owner.

PEKING, later ARETHUSA, at Rochester, England in 1931. After 42 years as a British stationary training ship, she has now been purchased by the South Street Seaport Museum in New York (see inside back cover). Photo by Richard Cookson 13


SKAREGRQ)M LOG A journal kept

by Captain Archie Horka Conclusion

May 24, 1925, Sunday-Exceedingly hot weather and to this discomfort is added that caused by plenty of bracing to the fickle wind. Noon position is 50 degrees North-Long. 26 degrees West. Late this afternoon the gang lollin_g about gazing at the monotonous horizon espied a steamer hull down to leeward. In time she was made out to be heading N.E. and tho' she passed -about 5 miles astern of us, the glasses afforded a good look at her. Then at dark steamer's lights were seen to wind'ard! This fellow bore right down on us and shortly after 8 bells (8:00P.M.) he was close enough for our Mate to speak him with the Morse lamp. He proved to be an Admiral... .I forget the last name, it was a long one though, bound from Dakar to Pernambuco. After the customary exchange of names and courtesies she gathered way and stood S.S.W. on her course while we must wait for Nature to favor us . Tho' it's a wide ocean-these steamer fellows run in "tracks" and as soon as you cross these tracks there's always a chance of seeing one.


May 25, 1925, Monday-A sail was sighted this noon, well astern and while a light breeze held the stranger crept up on us. This caused us to believe that it was the PARCHIM and the Skipper wore a long face all day for he thought he left the Finn behind long ago. In the afternoon, having a job aloft I took my glasses in the "Top-bag" and had a good look at the fellow. She. was the same one we passed ten days ago, the fellow who was said to be PARCHIM. In the later afternoon, the wind died and the canvas slatted lazily from the yards. The stranger began to fall behind again and next day we saw no more of him. May 26, 1925, Tuesday-Shifting sail today as it's calm and no wind to be lost. Our watch (port) shifted the mizzen topsails, upper and lower in the forenoon and the starboard watch sent down the fore to'gallantsails and fore upper tops'ls. The "trade" sails that we bent in place of the others are a well-woq1, patched up set that won't stand much breeze farthq north. The lads hook a shark after dinner. Shark aboard means wind!

Catch a breeze to-night, a breeze that sends the. ship along snoring six or seven knots heading N.W. on the starb'd tack. The N.E . trades usually come around to East as a ship gets north'ard allowing it to slowly describe an arc and thus get up to the Channel. Indications are that we've got the trades, allright. The lass was on deck my every wheel trick, sitting at her crocheting or sewing in such a position so that we could exchange conversation. That first conventional chat the evening we got the sou'east trade opened the portals of friendship wider and wider and in time the "two young people" became greatly attracted to each other. To my surprise and secret pleasure she told me she had learned the system of the wheel tricks and could tell days ahead when I'd be at the wheel. May 30, 1925, Saturday-What a day this would be at home! Decoration Day, when summer bathing beaches and vacationing begins and folk look forward to summer joys! Our good ship is in the throes of a howling trade and all talk of Queenstown and the end of the voyage. I look forward to it with a mixed feeling of pleasure and a thrill and also a deep pang of regret. I am keenly wondering what the cards of chance will turn up for me in Europe and because of this I am anxious for a change. On the other hand, the end of the passage means the end of the happiest voyage I've ever made at sea! A happy ship, an interesting passage and the sweet lass aboard have endeared the whole to my heart and the bitter days down in the westerlies and the glorious weather of the trades, the fun on the Line and best of all, my little amour-these will ever remain as gems of my youth in the reveries of afteryears. But the Trade Wind is inconsiderate of all this and bowls us along to our goal. Position to-day is 9 degrees N-32 degrees W. Steering about N.W. close-hauled on the starboard tack. Monday, June 1, 1925-Holiday aboard, a church holiday; the last we're to have this trip, but we've had a goodly number so let's not complain. All hands make good use of spare time at various hobbies. I haven't devoted as much time to reading this passage as I usually do. Instead I've learned considerable of fancy work of Chile John and Paddy Hunter. John taught me how to make a belt of fishline, worked by a succession of square knots; a job requiring the utmost patience. Previous to this I had made a bag shackle for the bottom of my sea-bag. My renown as a painter spread and I patiently undertook to paint coats of arms on several of the fellows' bags. I did the Danish crest for George on a square of canvas for John, which he intends to frame and hang as a bunk decoration. Dave Fulton, the young Aussie Deck Boy had me do the Austra-

lian Kangaroo and emu on his camera-case and lastly I painted monograms on several suitcases. All this I did gratis, glad to be occupied but I finally "closed" the business and declared that I had enough of painting for awhile. With Paddy's aid I set to work rigging a tiny model of a wool-clipper. I cut the hull to a three-inch length and then ambitiously set to rigging it and bending tiny sails on the yards! A painstaking, maniacal job but it's slowly being finished and my satisfaction is complete. In between these jobs I read and compile my logbook, my interest being to keep occupied, have my mind busy. Position to-day is 10 degrees N-35 degrees W. June 2nd and 3rd, 1925-This latitude is said to abound with a strong trade and we've apparently caught it. The good ship heels over to it and lays down ten knots regularly, tho' close-hauled on the starboard tack and heading N.N.W. We had a comical skit in the foc'sle this day. At breakfast time a huge platter of lim!l beans came in from the galley and immediately "Yank" Stone, being a Bostoner, began to boast of his prowess as a bean-eater. Usually given to exaggeration and bullyards we bore with him until he finally declared he'd eat half a soup tureen full of t~e beans for a ten shilling bet! Knowing that currency is usually scarce aboard a ship at sea especially forr'd, he insisted on a "money down" proposition and boasted louder tnarr ever. Great was his surprise when I dug up a tenbob note and offered to call him on his boast. This was hailed with glee by the gang for it meant a bit of fun to see a man gorge himself with the wager on the table before him. Well and good, the apportioned quantity of beans was put away until noon when the "tournament" was to take place and "Yank" turned in to rest up before his debauch. At noon he arose full of confidence and called for us to bring on the beans. These had been left standing cold all the forenoon and by dinner, full of pork and cold hard, the mound of limas was a very unpalatable dish. The rest of us were filling up on sweet soup and fish while Yank was trying to make an impression on his hill of beans. Soon he began to complain of the slimy pork declaring it made him sick and thereby lessened his chances of success. Hardly had he made a hole in his pile before he began to look about him with a sheepish grin and stab at the mess aimlessly. Meanwhile "Paddy" Hunter and others made his task the harder by drawing horrible comparisons and causing him to gulp and swallow with difficulty. Finally he picked up the ten shilling note and resignedly threw it over to me as a signal that he gave up the ghost and the crowd whooped and yelped with hilarity. Yank never bragged about bean-eating after that nor was he so willing to "bet" 15

at all things as he was wont to do before. These days ship's work is in full swing. One man from each watch is given to overhaul the rigging, our watch (port) taking the foretop and the jibboom while the starbowlines look after the main and mizzen. The younger hands are at painting the bulwarks and houses about decks and Paddy Hunter, still dayman, is hard at work helping the sailmaker overhaul the canvas we've sent down from the yards. I have the foretop and working aloft with a Boy as helper, the whole leaping ship beneath us ploughing thru' a smooth trade-swept sea, makes the days pleasant and such as live in a fellow's memory; days that cause you to forget the hell and misery of sail and forsake the luxury of steam to sail under canvas. Saturday, June 6, 1925-This day a light trade that drove a fleecy cloud rack before it, enabled us to lay up a little higher but it was of little use for the wind soon died and there descended upon us a week of lethargy, our first real calm spell. Monday and Tuesday, the 8th and 9th. Faint zephyrs prevailed and the ship barely steered. Tuesday's position was-25 degrees 44' N-43 degrees 52' W. It is remarked on all sides that the latitudes between 20 and 30 North are always dead especially in summer. This recalls the passage we had in the barque CALLAO from the River Plate and it was in this northing but a little to the west'ard that we lay becalmed a fortnight. This being the usual and knowing what to expect, a man had best take matters philosophically and not spoil his digestion as Old Bengtson is doing these days. Wednesday, June 10, 1925-Taking advantage of the calm spell the Mate had us unbend and send down the main upper and lower to'gallants'ls before breakfast and the star'd watch bent a shift after eight bells. June 11, 1925, Thursday-An oily swell heaving all the day. These days I'm occupied at making a model of a tiny full-rigger with sails on her yards. "Paddy" introduced the craft into the foc'sle and had taught young Frank the trick of making bottle models. I had helped him to make parts from time to time and had also painted a design on his wallpocket. In return he taught me how to proceed with the tiny model. I cut all the parts and he then patiently showed me how to go at each step after which I'd labor long and diligently with awkward hands. But in a surprisingly short time this clumsiness wore off and I executed the diminutive knots and hitches and bent the tiny linen sails to the yards with care and good success. Needless to say it requires herculean patience and an even temper for at times many minutes were spent in fumbling about trying to cast a hitch here or there with a

needle and thru' a maze of thread rigging. When finished the model measured about three and one half inches in length and crossed a main yard of an inch and a half. Her mainmast measured two and a half inches from deck to truck and she crossed double to'gallants'ls and royals on all three masts! Desiring to make her as cute as possible I painted her the wool-clipper colors (in fact she's supposed to be the clipper MOUNT STEWART). Her lower masts yellow and topmasts red, then white yards and white mastheads, she looked smart. A row of painted ports along her side finished the job and by now I was quite wearied with the task. Satisfied that I had seen it thru' I then stood it on a little shelf in my bunk and often took it down to admire and play with it like a boy with a new toy. At the same time "Chile" John taught me his art of belt-making. The man is a master at the game and has in his trunk a belt some four inches wide made of fishline that stuns one at the realization of the patience required in the making. Ordinarily it is made by working a series of square knots over two middle warps (four strands to each knot) but this alone would make a commonplace belt. He worked diamonds and screw sennit into it in various designs and at back and front he made huge triangular pieces. The secret of these he taught several who had not crossed his path (for John had his likes and dislikes and did not conceal them). I set to work making a strap for my binocular case and when complete the job will be a pleasure to behold as well as an object of pride. June 12, 1925, Friday-The hot calm weather still holding, the Mate deemed it a fine day to scrub out the forecastle. Complaints of vermin had been heard from some of the people so taking advantage of this he ordered a "field day" forr'd. There was some grumbling here and there where nice, homey bunks had to be dismantled and everything carried out on deck but all must give way to progress in this floating world as well as ashore so the growls went unheeded. Each man scrubbed out his own bunk and parts adjoining. In this way the job was done systematically and with expedition. The watch scoured the benches, table and the cupboard where our mess gear was stowed. The deck was given a brisk scrub with sand (which is done twice weekly) and the alleyway athwart the house was then cleaned. Late in the day the foc'sle was finished and "purged" for carbolic acid had been daubed into crevices about the troubled bunks. When the bedding and all accountrements that go to make up "home sweet home" aboard ship were toted in and stowed, the place assumed a cheery, fresh appearance and a sanitary odor pervaded the whole. A bit of a nuisance, all declared, but a necessary evil and a satis16

receives little sympathy. Some men make it a point to "lay up" occasionally so that they can get an edge on the owners or beat the skipper out of a couple of days . This practice, tho' not so harmful in these latitudes when the weather is fine , works cruelly on the man's shipmates when there's heavy work to be done. For this reason, a man often hears an earful of sarcasm and bantering when he lays up and unless his case is a serious, self-evident one, he is looked upon as a shirker. So with our crowd. Hunter lay down the day with a disordered stomach and shortly after another chap realized that he had an inflamed throat whilst " Finner" became concerned over a swelling of the knee. Some were worthy cases while others, the headachy and diarrhea case seized upon the least excuse for snatching a rest. The Old Man was lenient and no sooner did an invalid consult him than he'd dose him plenty and order him to lay up. Best to be tolerant, reck's he, than drive a sick man or one merely suspicious of being sick, out to work. June 23, 1925, Tuesday-41 degrees 36' N- 36 degrees W. Flat calm! The long passage and prevailing calm is working a spell of dejection over the people and the Skipper is said to be fuming like a tormented bull. But worse than this and adding to the lowered spirits is the skimping and the shortage of life's necessities. Potatoes have already run out and the preserved variety is being dished up, an indifferent dish at best. Orders are to exercise caution with the water whilst the ¡r ain-water tanks forr'd are nearly empty which means that unless we get a fall of heaven's dew, we'll soon go about 'thout washing clothes or person. Further the kerosene (illuminating oil) is being doled out and orders are that the foc 'sle lamp be kept very low between watch reliefs. The side lights are doused immediately dawn greys the horizon and the cabin is not so brightly lit up as before. A sorry predicament but a grim necessity when a man takes his ship to sea, reckoning on an hundred days passage and provisions his ship accordingly. It lowers the morale of the people aboard and sows the seeds of discontent. Come on, you breeze, for it's you that can alleviate this misery and by a miracle, raise our hopes and spirits. Saturday, June 27, 1925-Calm spell broken by a light sou'easterly air that, with galling slowness, works aft and raises hopes of a fair wind and " ten day more." Next day, Sunday, the 28th-It blew strong from aft and there was talk of winds, plotting courses on a chart and " betting." Never saw such a crowd for betting, especially the English speaking clean end. We already have a "five-bob" sweepstakes on the number of days passage in which nearly the whole ship's company is entered. The winner of this rakes in four pounds and to ensure proper management the list of names and dates is posted with the Mate. Now some are betting that we'll get into port next Sunday and others that we'll pay off in a fortnight ;

fying job when completed! June 15, 1925, Saturday-One hundred days at sea to date! Position at noon is 27 degreesN--42 degrees W. Light S.W. air wheeHng to the northeastard. June 14, 1925, Sunday-After a fickle afternoon and a squally night it settled down to a real sou'wester, a romping, homeward bound breeze. People getting the "Channels" and talking of wind and how many days more. Clothes being overhauled. June 16, 1925, Tuesday-A steamer sighted this forenoon on the starb'd bow. He came up quickly and when about three miles off, he showed his colors. The red, white and black of the German Republic . She surely was a credit to their industriousness, fine big motorship that she was. For his own reasons which he did not divulge, our skipper did not return the time-honoured courtesy and we sailed past the stranger in disdain . Wonder what his reasons for acting thus can be'? Is it pride that some sailingship men hold over steamboats or mayhap in his ship'? Or again, had he been torpedoed or for patriotic reasons, was he averse to saluting those who had sunk many of his nation's ships . Who knows : at any rate the old windbag bowled past the modern fellow with a fine but pathetic haughteur that reminds me of the epithet, " poor but proud." Fine breeze and squared yards . Wednesday, June 17, 1925-Noon position- 32 degrees 36' N--40 degrees W. June 19, 1925, Friday-We're on the southern track for New York. Mediterranean traffic to-day and see three steamboats as a result. Cheering ! June 20, 1925, Saturday-A leaden sky and a southerly wind that brings on a disgusting drizzle. Bowling along for old England with square yards, steering N.W. by W. for Queenstown. An Italian passenger steamer the S.S. COLOMBO bound west, passes us close astern this morn. June 21, 1925, Sunday- A dirty sou'wester today . The ship staggering along under all sail, dragging her sea-worn hulk, her moss-grown self thru' the spume at eight and nine knots. Rain and accompanying mist. Wind hauls to the nor'west and dies gradually. This is said to be typical N. Atlantic summer weather, a freshet for a few hours and then indifference. June 22, 1925, Monday-Wind goes ahead and falls light making it necessary to wear ship at 6 bells (7:00 P.M.) when all hands are called. These days there is a sudden epidemic of invalids, some whose cause is genuine and others who are merely " soldiering." A ship's forecastle is a bad place to fall ill as the unfortunate one is usually suspected of " laying down" on his shipmates and 17

¡all this raising much speculation and foc'sle navigation. Wind baffling and light from N.N.W. with a grey sky. Shift the mizzen lower to'gans'l before breakfast for it's getting threadbare and it proved fortunate for on Tuesday, June 30, 1925-it came on to blow strong from the sou'west, driving our good old ship onward toward Old England at ten knots. Hauled to the north'ard, cold and cloudy; braced up on port tack. The night was illuminated by a phosphorescenc:e on the water that made it difficult to distinguish a steamer's light from the natural phenomena and worried the Mate not a little. July 1, 1925, Wednesday-We kept this half-gale with us till noon when the wind backed 'round to south and fell calm with a heavy mist. Late in the afternoon, a steamer bore down toward us, coming far out of his course to do so and when distinguishable, he was seen to be flying his numbers. Even before this, I recognized the funnel, the yellow with blue bands of the United American Lines and was not surprised to see good old Glory at his staff. He acted a true gentleman in thus coming down to us and Old Bengtson didn't snub him as he did the German some time ago. She was the S.S. KERMIT of N.Y. (I had seen her in Seattle) and I felt inwardly proud of my land and my people. The SKAREGROM showed her colors and number after which the courtesy of "dipping" was exchanged. The "Yankee" executed his movements with a smart dexterity that betokened the fact that she carried ex-Navy Q.M.'s very likely. Proud as I was of my "countryman" I was glad to have been where I was then, on the deck of the square-rigger just up from 'round the Horn and many weary miles behind her. This proud, modern liner altering her course to have a look at her indicated that the new still maintains a respect for the hard-dying, sturdy few that plough the seas today. Incidentally I might mention, that upon reaching Falmouth we learned that this courteous fellow had reported us by radio; very kind of him and proof that the old etiquette of the sea is still observed even by these hurrying steamboat fellows. The night calm but a fair wind comes out during the mid-watch. July 2, 1925, Thursday-A fresh, northerly breeze just a point free sending the ship thru' the spume a boiling and steering herself! Later in the day it rises to a dirty northerly gale and a heavy chop is raised. During the dog-watch (7:00 P.M.) all hands take in the three upper to' gallants and mizzen topmast stays'!, the first canvas taken in since we passed the P ARCHIM well down South. With dry, bracing weather it was sport a'chasing aloft and skinning the "cotton" up on the stick. Midnight saw the fore and mizzen lowers in, but tho' she's heeling over to it and shipping some water Old Skipper is driving her by keeping his mains'! on. He seeks to hold her to it as much as she'll stand for

to shorten down would mean a considerable angle of leeway and loss of distance. It was somewhat uncomfortable but it was sailing close-hauled at a thrilling clip! They say that these summer gales don't last long yet .... July 3, 1925, Friday it blew harder than ever, but we still kept the mains'! on her and kept her to E.N.E. nicely! Rolling home! Spent the entire forenoon out on the jibboom, a 'patching the outer jib, a damnable job in the exposure of the blow! Hell ! July 4, 1925, Saturday-Independence Day at home. Big, merry-making day, no doubt. Late to-day the gale abated and the wind went ahead to the N.E. crushing the hopes of the optimistic betters. July 5, 1925, Sunday-It baffled during the night and the starb'd watch had her braced up on the starb'd tack for easterly wind when we came on in the forenoon. Slowly, it backed to the norrard and cleared up at which we gleefully tacked ship and layed her up to her course E.N.E. on the port tack. This occurred during my wheel trick from 9: 30 to 11: 00 in the forenoon and I was relieved by the Old Man that I could lend the watch a hand on the braces. What was my surprise when upon coming to take the wheel again after "coiling down," the wheel was in the hands of the maid who grasped the spokes firmly in her small, white hands and exerted her robust young strength to keep from being thrown by the kicking helm. I repeated her "Ost, nor-ost" (E.N.E.) and in taking the wheel from her I didn't miss the chance of squeezing her hand. Dad seemed to notice this for he watched the "relief" with a smiling expectancy as if waiting to see how I'd impressed. He didn't seem to mind my boldness, either. Incidentally, I might mention that this puff developed into the breeze that sent us across the tape. In the afternoon it freshened and the sky cleared and as soon as the veil of mist lifted a veritable fleet of ships was disclosed to our eyes. Evidently they were all about us only the mist hiding them from view, but now it could easily be seen that we were approaching an important avenue of sea traffic, the Channel. There were several outward-bounders, steamers all, who had just left Saturday, presumably, as is the style in the shipping world and these followed each other eastward in a procession. All about were tiny steam-trawlers, their trysails flapping idly as they plunged and reared into the leaping sea. This was indeed a cheering s1gnt to our eyes. All is tenseness and alert for sight of Bishop Rock Light! For four months we've seen no land and to-night between 9: 00 and 10: 00 the people aft tell us we'll raise the light. None of your worrying and guessing as in the old KATHERINE MACKALL, but a certainty. Tho' it seems ridiculously easy and self-evident 18

to seafaring-men, this science of navigation, yet it must be admitted there is a romance and wonder in it all to think that with no guidance but the sun and stars and a small instrument, man's brain is able to drive this fabric of steel and canvas thru' thousands of miles of sea, calm and tempestuous, taking winds good and bad and after four months out, bring it to its destination as a boy would draw a pencil line across a map! Surely enough, soon after eight o'clock (P.M.) several of the gang being impatient, clambered aloft to the fore upper to' gallant yard and reported a light 3 points on the weather (port) bow! Two flashes every fifteen seconds it was made out to be and this is Bishop Rock that solitary sentinel that pokes his finger up from the depths of the Atlantic and greets the east-bounder with the flashing intelligence that at last the Western Ocean is crossed and land is made again. The breeze held fine and at 10:45 P .M. the flash was seen from deck. At last, the old CASTLETON has made Old England again! About 11: 00 the Skipper holds her off for Lands End and we square in gleefully. July 6, 1925, Monday-Daylight at 3:00 A.M. these days and at 4:00 A.M. when the watch was relieved the weather was stln clear and the dim outline of Land's End could be made out on the port hand. Plenty of steamers inbound and out. But the sou' easterly wind portended evil, for in a while after we took the deck it hauled to the south'ard and we braced her up on the starboard tack. Thus, she was just able to lay her course E. by S. for the Lizard. But worse! It thickened and began to rain. We cursed the luck for it meant lying up heavy, wet sails, but more important than this it meant that if the weather didn't clear by 10:00 A.M. and allow the Skipper to get a bearing, he intended to snug down and heave to, for he judged he'd be off the Lizard by then. At 8: 00 o'clock all hands shorten sail and course altered to N.E. by E. Evidently he's plucked up courage to stand in under easy canvas. And well that he did for soon after the sun dispelled the veil of fog and revealed the rolling, green Cornish coast about ten miles to the nor'ard. Sail was made to the lower togans'ls and she was hauled up on the wind. Standing in past Manacles and up to Falmouth's Outer Harbour under a strong nor'wester, we must have been a pretty picture as we heeled over and rushed thru' the smooth water past the fishing and pleasure craft that knock about here. With pilot aboard, sail was gradually reduced and we were already furling the tops'ls when the anchor was let go with a splash! and a "whirr" and clatter of rusty chain! Previously each watch had furled its to'gansls and now the tops'ls and courses were swigged up in style. Be it said for the lads, they're nimble at the furling business and put a neat stow on the yards, too.

After this, it was clear up the deck and stand by for the Falmouth letter. Some were gladdened while those who gave Queenstown as an address had to curb their impatience and mark the time for two days yet. Too bad. I received three letters which contained no startling news. After a substantial supper of fried steak which the butcher had brought off, we cleaned up and paced the decks, longingly looking over the rail at the beautiful, green, rolling country side around us. But the weather, being cold and raw, drove us to bed early and we turned in for our first all night in. July 7, 1925, Tuesday-This day opened with a chilling, raw northerly wind that spoke ill for the summer n eather on this English Riviera. The Si{ipper, riggea out in a trim blue serge double-breaster, went ashore with the maid and they established themselves in town for we saw no more of the lass and but little of the Old Man, save when business made it imperative for him to be aboard. There's a bit of style to this and why shouldn't a man allow himself this comfort after four months of confinement aboard. As for the lass, I reek she was like a liberated bird, bored to death for want of other, more congenial companions and now flitting about imbibing of the free air. Makes a fellow feel a bit lonely, though. We did little wm-k to-day. The decks were thoroughly washed down and then shortly before noon, the order was to "knock off" for the day. This was partly due to the "tailor" being aboard. This "tailor" is an institution known to deep-water sailors who've put into Falmouth or Queenstown "for orders" and years back when the ships calling here were many, these "tailors" reaped a harvest. The man is a local clothier who brings a large assortment of clothes, boots and many requisites that tempt the eye of men with visions of a coming pay-day and spree ashore. With the Skipper's permission, he spreads his variety on the main hatch and invites all hands to inspect his wares. Our "tailor" was not of the traditional "crimp" type but he had some of their failings especially when quoting his prices. The lads were backward at first, but as the silk sox, the gaudy cravats and substantial boots were dug out, the buying became brisk and bills were run up that threatened to obliterate some of the younger fellows ' earnings. I buy a few necessary toilet articles and resist the tempting array before me, preferring to see for myself when ashore what I shall buy and how much things cost. From various persons, running errands out to the ship, we learned considerable of interest to ourselves. Shipping was quiet in the U.K. and many men were unemployed in that industry as well as the coal-mining. Of the ships that had left the Colonies with grain we had made as good a passage as any for all had taken well over four months. The 4mast bark BELLANDS, now discharging at Sunder19

sailing craft all 'round, yawls and tops'! schooners and it was thought it might be one of these. But at noon, all doubt was dispelled when the stranger put about on the other tack (port) and lay beating in, his three tops with their peculiar triangular shape when close-hauled just being discernible over the horizon. Was it PARCHIM? Who else could it be; surely it must be the Finn! A towboat scurried out to meet him and took him in hand about five miles away, the fellow doubtless glad to hook on and cheat the head wind. As she drew nearer, the glasses were put on her and seeing that she wanted a to' gallant yard and royal yard on the mizzen it was now a certainty that it was the old "P" Liner. She towed past us at 5:00 P .M. and anchored farther up the bay tho' within good range of the glass. I did not think her hull was as trim as ours but his lofty rigging was a sight for a sailor's eyes. She crossed double to'gallant and royal yards and her tapering sticks had a giddy rake to them. But she looked rust-streaked all over her black hull and appeared tired after 140 days at sea! We gave them a wave as they passed and their crowd did likewise for many of the people know each other having been "booze" partners down in Port Adelaide. After supper the Mate lowered the work-boat and three of us pulled him over to the P ARCHIM. It was a bit wet and heavy pulling into a head wind and chop but the diversion was welcomed. We hailed the fellow and soon there was a crowd of earnest, peering faces over the rail. The officer knew our Mate and invited him aboard but he declined, saying that he wasn't allowed. This w'as "wool" for the people, I reckon, for what could be the objection, I cannot think. We gave them our painter and hung on exchanging gossip of our respective voyages. They had nice weather running easting down they said and had made 10 knots but one watch the whole passage. No wonder, for look at the moss on her side. They crossed the Line May 20th, which, strange to say, the same day that the GRACE HARWAR and we, ourselves, made it! What a happy coincidence. Unlike our crowd of young chaps and first-voyagers, these fellows were all old-timers and several beards were in evidence; one in particular, "Bulldog" Anty known to our crowd from Port Adelaide, having a red "brush" that covered his throat from ear to ear and left his chin clean! After more "Neptune" news we shoved off and had an easy pull back, running before the wind. This excursion was a stroke of tact on the Mate's part. Before this "Paddy" has asked permission to use the boat for a pull ashore but acting under order from "old silver hair," he had to deny him the request. This caused growling and unrest all 'round for bad enough that the food was scarce and little fresh as is expected in port but this enforced confinement made people feel like convicts must have felt lying off the land in the Australian convict-ships. He has good reasons for wishing us

land had taken 122 days; Ship GRACE HARWAR lying in this port, had anchored three days before us after 125 days passage, same as ours. Those that have arrived state that they all had good run to the Line but a freakish N.E. trade frustrated the prospects of making a smart trip. This was exactly the counterpart of our experience. Several, like the Danish barque VIKING and the German GUSTAV had well in the 130's while the Finn barkentine MOZART was out over 150 days and a fortnight hence was reported passing Ascension, in the S. Atlantic. Considering these things the old SKAREGROM has done well. After supper, the lads pace the deck like caged tigers gazing longingly at the enticing stretch of beach with its suggestions of variety and pleasure. A pretty country it appears to be. The rolling hills are everywhere with cultivation and criss-crossed with hedgerows of hawthorne. Roads end along the beach and thru' groves of trees that reveal stately villas of which there are many here. It appears to be a country reserved for the gentry's play, an ideal yachting place and because of its geographical position is made the port of call for ships going for orders. I cannot say much for the weather prevailing at present and am astounded to hear that it is considered ideal summer weather. Raw, chill winds, skies now sunny, now grey and squally. I cannot share the native's satisfaction in their "excellent summer." July 8, 1925, Wednesday-Rainy and overcast. Penetrating to the bone! All hands shifted the fores'! and fore upper tops'! to-day so as to give the sailmaker some work. The fores'! has done noble work for it has carried the old ship all the way 'round from Port Adelaide. "Chile" John and myself are put to work sending down the jib stays that were rigged up at sea. New wire has been bought ashore and two new stays are to be spliced aloft. There is man's sized job but excellent training. Rest of the gang over the side scraping and scrubbing the barnacles from the ship's side, a busy scene all about the ship. Thursday, July 9, 1925-Word comes off with the Old Man that he has an unconfirmed wire from London that we're to discharge there! Hooray! We're going to a real place at any rate. Previous to this mails from the owners told the Skipper that the ship was to load for Melbourne at Fredrikshald in Norway. Good prospects of getting to Aussie, again! July 10, 1925, Friday-The forenoon was blustery but it brightened up in the afternoon. "Chile" John and myself aloft splicing an eye in the inner jib stay, a tough proposition working in close quarters. Slowly but surely, we made a job of it. While aloft, we made out what appeared to be a large square-rigger just rounding the Lizard and word went round the ship, setting all agog. For a time there was doubt and argument for there were 20

before and past us . Several came close and one coming up from astern proved to be a West boat S.S. WEST HARCUV AR a replica of the good old " Cherow." I felt a pang of homesickness. All the day it prevailed calm and variable and to soothe the people and doubtless himself, the Old Man stated that it mattered but little; after all we couldn't be berthed till Monday week and for that reason he didn't tow! Sour grapes, I reckon. July 13, 1925, Monday-Very hazy and it is often difficult to discern the horizon owing to the similarity of hue 'twixt sky and water. Were it not that the calm made the throbbing machinery audible, the steamers would have caused us anxiety for they loom up as if from nowhere and when finally spotted they appear to be hung in mid-air. Abreast of Portland Bill at noon. Breeze light and contrary, much bracing. This afternoon a long deferred task was performed, that of slaughtering the pig! It ought to have been done at sea and the fresh pork would then have tasted better. But better late than never. The Skipper performed the operation and a trusty hand he is. The actual killing was done by the Mate who fired a .32 into Dennis' brain, toppling the big fellow over instantly. Immediately willing hands dragged the carcass up on the hatch and the jugular vein was pierced causing the blood to drain out of the body. The blood was caught in a pan held by the steward who curdled it as it poured out and they intend to make blood puddings of it! Very nice, that is for the people aft, eh, what! Then the Old Man and three of the gang soaped the bristles off with hot water and knives after which the old fellow butchered the clean, white carcass. A clever job he made. Tonight at the wheel, I was allowed a favor and how I did grasp at it! It was my last, as it developed later, but it was of a lasting quality and doubtless will tide me over. July 14,-15th, 1925-Calm, oily calm and breathlessly hot these days. Finish seizing the outer jibstay today. July 16, 1925, Thursday-As the Channel narrows the converging traffic thickens and it is made unpleasant when a heavy fog sets down. No land is visible but the boom of Beachy Head's gun is heard every five minutes or so. At noon, the Royal Sovereign Lightship is abeam to port. Must hand it to this Old Man ; he's like a steamboat skipper in the way he hugs the land. Picture Beatty and the " Kranky Kate" (KATHERINE MACKALL) in such fog and such a place! Toward dark the fog lifted enabling us to pass close into Dungeness and speak the station there. What a beehive, a veritable nerve centre of trade . As we were speaking the station, three steamers were also blinking and this brought another blinker to light on the beach. At our request, he said he'd inform the towboats of our whereabouts as one was even now looking for us.

aboard, perhaps, for the voyage is not ended yet and lying thus awaiting orders he doesn't want his crew at loose ends. But after four months of "scouse and burgoo" and smelly beef why neglect to send fresh food off regularly and why not a little fruit? Further, why hasn't the pig been killed, a question which the GRACE HARWAR's skipper put to him one day that he was aboard? All these questions we asked each other and enlarged upon as we impatiently paced to and fro on the decks . Matters lying thus, it was a diplomatic stroke on the Mate's part to break the monotony and relieve the overpressure of "steam" by this diversion. July 11, 1925, Saturday-This forenoon the ship GRACE HARWAR towed out and made sail to a nor'west breeze. She looked a beauty with her canvas spread. She set course down Channel, bound round to Belfast as we heard later. Word came off in the pilot boat that we were going to sea in thP after noon and after dinner the anchor was hove short and all sails loosed. The pilot too, was aboard and we only awaited the Skipper's pleasure. Gladness reigns 'aboard when it's verified that we're bound for London! Spliced outer-jib stay in the morning. About 3 :30 the boat came off with the Old Man , his daughter and the PARCHIM's skipper. But we had little time for mooning. With the gas motor the upper tops'ls were hoisted and the lively lads sheeted home sail upon sail. She was cast upon the port tack, the norwesterly breeze sliding her thru' the water like an eel. We dipped to PARCHIM and curiously enough her skipper was even then taking his farewells of our Mate and betaking himself into the boat. It being Saturday, many pleasure yachts were gliding about and cameras were much in evidence to catch so rare a picture as a ship under canvas. Happy to be up and going, we catted and fished the anchor to a rousing "Californi-o" and when this was done, the port watch was sent below. It was then about 4 :45 and the Mate commented afterwards on the alacrity with which our ship's company "dressed" up their baby. Slipping along smoothly close to the beach and at 8 :00 o'clock still daylight, Eddystone's lonely tower was blinking abeam to port. Shipping to all sides, trawlers, fishing yawls, tramps, passenger-boats, every conceivable craft passed before us in review as we heeled over to the night breeze. It being Saturday, a heavy sailing day, it is usual to expect heavy traffic here. Very interesting but ticklish work in a fog, I reckon! July 12, 1925, Sunday-Forenoon, a flat calm reigns and a death-like silence pervades the ship, unlike the noisesome calm spells at sea when the heaving swells cause everything aloft to emit a sound of its own. Even the steamers passing far off could be heard as their propellers churned the water with a sound like the muffled rolling of a drum. This day a panorama of steamboats passed 21

Below Dover we were rolled out shortly before midnight to make fast the towboat and then take in all sail. Imagine how "killing" that is. Climb out of a warm bunk at midnight when energy is at low ebb and spend the whole mid-watch aloft, "rolling the cotton down" for the last time-bo! July 17, 1925, Friday-Up the Thames this forenoon and luckily the day was clear and warm. On the right bank stretched the tumbling suburbs and seaside resorts that always flank a huge metropolis. To the left rolled the green hills and hedge rows of conservative Kent. Passed the oil stores of Thameshaven about 10:00 A.M. and then anchored off Gravesend about 11:30 A.M. Typically characteristic of the Thames, the bulky, bluff-bowed sailing barges with their tarred sails. EDITOR'S NOTE: SKAREGROM was a steelhulled ship built by A. Rodger & Co. at Port

Glasgow, Scotland in 1903 as CASTLETON. She also sailed for a time under the name SV ALEN. Her length was 265 ft. and beam 40 ft., with a gross tonnage of 1976. In 1926, the year following Archie Horka's passage in her, SKAREGROM left Geelong, Australia for the English Channel on March 11th, arriving off the Lilzard on July 20th. Ordered to Antwerp to discharge, she then loaded lumber at Fredrikshald, Norway for Adelaide, Australia, sailing November 10th. On December 17th she was almost completely dismasted in a gale near the Island of Madeira. Towed into Ponta Delgada, Azores on Christmas Day, SKAREGROM was then taken to London to discharge her cargo and from there to Rotterdam to be scrapped. Captain Archie Horka retired in 1967 after spending 48 years at sea, and now lives in Fairlawn, New Jersey.



U. S. S. CONSTELLATION as a training ship in the late ISOO's.

The Constellation And Her Rebuilding By JOHN LYMAN Turned over in 1955 to a Baltimore-based committee for restoration and preservation as a historic relic, U.S.S. CONSTELLATION has since become the subject of a controversy among naval architects. One of these naval architects is Howard I. Chapelle, who has specialized in naval history since the 1930's and who recently retired as Senior Historian in the Department of Industry in the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of History and Technology. Another is Leon D. Polland, who is a Naval Architect in the Division of Engineering, Office of Ship Construction, in the Maritime Administration of the U.S. Department of Commerce and who has been Chief of Construction and Repair for the CONSTELLATION Restoration Committee since the early days of the project. Mr. Chapelle's opinion is that the present CONSTELLATION is a corvette designed and built at Norfolk in 1853-5 and hence that it is inappropriate to rebuild her as a replica of the original frigate launched at Baltimore in 1797 but scrapped at Norfolk in 1853. Mr. Polland holds that the 1797

CONSTELLATION was not scrapped and that the work done at Norfolk in 1853-5 was primarily a lengthening of the frigate 12 feet while altering her deck arrangement from that of a frigate to that of a corvette, so that bQth in hull form and material the present vessei incorporates much of the structure originally built at Baltimore. With others, Mr. Polland published these views in the Maryland Historical Magazine in 1961, basing the findings primarily on a manuscript whose authorship was attributed to Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1918. Further details of the CONSTELLATION restoration were presented by Mr. Polland before a meeting of the Chesapeake and Hampton Roads Section of the Society of Naval Architects and Naval Engineers in 1966. A book published by the Smithsonian Institution in 1970 <The Constellation Question, Number 5 of the Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology, Washington, D.C., 152 pp.) contains a criticism of these two papers by Mr. Chapelle and a rebuttal and further description of the restoration project by Mr. Polland. 23

existing physical structure of the ship. It is accepted by all who have entered into the CONSTELLATION question that the corvette after 1854 was 12 feet longer than the frigate of 1797. As Mr. Polland puts it (C.Q., p. 92) "the original length of the ship 164.0 feet plus the 12-foot extension is exactly 176.0 feet, the present length of the ship." He further points out that "4 1/2 frames when applied as a multiple of the 32-inch spacing equals 12.015 feet " <C.W., p. 92). It is not entirely clear in this computation where the additional 0.015 feet <or 316") comes from , but no doubt it is safe to ignore so small a dimension when dealing with unplanned timber. These 4112 frames , says Mr. Polland, on the basis of their appearance in the existing ship, are frames E , F, G, H, and the after sister of I (C.Q. p. 91, 117) . For those unfamiliar with the old method of designating frames, it can be explained that the widest frame or "dead flat" was designated )0( and the next one forward was A. Then followed B, C, etc. , and after Z came a, b, etc. Abaft )0(, frames were numbered 1, 2, 3, etc. Frames E to I, therefore are on the forebody of CONSTELLATION , starting at a distance of 13 1/2 feet with the fifth frame forward from the dead flat. Now, one of the points of the existing structure of CONSTELLATION that has been well established indeed is the fact that all her frames are double. See, for example, the plan reproduced as Figure 3, opposite page 112, of C.Q. So, if 4112 frames were added in 1853-5, one single and four double, and the enlarged ship has only double frames, then by the most elementary kind of calculation, the ship must have been built originally with all frames doub le but one, which is now the forward sister of I and was originally an anomalous E. I see no other w ay to explain an addition of 12 feet under Hypotheses (2) and (3), yet I regard this possibility to be so unlikely as virtually to destroy both of these hypotheses. But, for the sake of argument, let us accept the fantastic odds against the completion of the ship in 1797 with an unprecedented single frame E and examine some of the other features of the existing structure of CONSTELLATION in the light of the original documents. One of these document s is a detailed set of offsets, which are tables of numbers in which naval architects preserve the coordinates of the complex three-dimensional curves that constitute the h,,ull form of a ship. Dated 1853, these offsets bear the National Archives identification number 142-1-7. They are accepted both by l\1r. Chapelle (C.Q., p. 44 ), and by Mr. Polland <C.Q., p. 88 ) as an accurate record of the form of the corvette as built in 1853-5 and as existing today . Mr. Polland's Table 1 (C.Q., p. 145) likewise is a copy of

Much of the discussion in this book <which I will refer to hereafter as C.Q.) concerns the authenticity of the terminology used in some of the authorities cited by Mr. Polland or identified as sources of the 1918 Roosevelt essay. It seems fruitless to discuss these items in these pages . Nevertheless, it is possible to make a detailed examination of the main features of the controversy without referring to these secondary sources, many of which appear to exist only in transcripts made since CONSTELLATION came to Baltimore. The following discussion, therefore, considers only matters raised by Mr. Chapelle or Mr. Polland with regard to the vessels named CONSTELLATION at various periods of their career, and my interpretation of the primary source materials relating thereto. It is explicitly stated by Mr. Polland <C.Q., p. 63), concerning the existing vessel, that "enough valid evidence exists in the remaining original documents as well as in the physical structure of the ship to indicate this CONSTELLATION as having been reconstructed from Truxton's own ship. She has never lost her identity." A few lines farther along on the same page, he proposes three hypotheses, as follows : "The subject of this work, the Frigate CONSTELLATION was (1 ) broken up completely and destroyed in 1853-55 and the present ship is the result of a completely new construction; (2) hauled up and lengthened by 12 feet just forward of the midbody; (3) lengthened as above but completely torn down in the process, retaining only the keel. " Either of the two latter conclusions would infer the continuous existence of the Frigate, differing only in the degree of change." In accordance with Mr. Polland's approach, therefore, these three possibilities will be examined in the light of the original documents and the physical structure of the ship. Much has been made of the evidence concerning the frame spacirig, which in the existing ship is 32 inches. One of the original documents is a plan prepared in 1794 showing 26-inch frame spacing. Clearly, if CONSTELLATION had been built to this plan in 1794-7, then only hypothesis (1 ) above is valid. Mr. Polland surmounts this difficulty by proposing that CONSTELLATION was built in 1794-7 to a different plan, with 32-inch frame spacing. However, adopting such a conclusion does not automatically rule out hypothesis (1) and prove (2) or (3). A frigate with 32-inch frame spacing could have been scrapped in 1853-5 just as easily as one with 26-inch frame spacing. Therefore further arguments concerning frame spacing are fruitless, and we need to look at other aspects of the original documents and the 24

of to take off the lines of a ship from the plan, rather than to expend much more labor in the erection of scaffolding and then to send the draftsmen <and a crew would be required) out to the ship in midwinter to take their measurements, truly an unenviable job." He also states that search of the Gosport Log Book " gives no indication of people assigned to CONSTELLATION in the month of February for the purpose of erecting scaffolds and preparing the ship for an external take-off of her hull lines." It is therefore useful to look at the Gosport Log and see what it does say.

a portion of these offsets. The only controversy, in fact, is that Mr. Chapelle claims that these offsets were taken from a design prepared in 1853 by John Lenthall, whereas Mr. Polland proposes that these lines were taken from the hull of the ship as she existed in 1853. It is instructive to consider some of the figures in these offsets. Let us look at the widths of the frames in the vicinity of the section that was supposedly added to the ship in 1853-5. As we have noted , Mr. Polland claims that B, C, and D are original, as are the forward sister of I and the rest of the frames forward , and that E, F , G, H, and the after sister of I are additions. The following dimensions are half-widths of these original frames , measured horizontally from the centerline of the ship, at integral distances taken from 2 to IO feet above the lower edge of the rabbet of the keel. Remember that according to Mr. Polland the existing I followed D in the original ship. FRAME: B HEIGHTS 10 8 6 4 2

19· 0112 17 ·55/a 14· 101/a 10· 9'h 5-5 3/4

c Widths 18·1Pla 17· 41/4 14· 8112 10- 8'h 5. 4

D J (feet and inches)

18· lOl/4 17 · 27,le 14· 65/a 10- 71/a 5- 33/a

17· 7% 17 . 23/a 15· 87,le 15· 33/a 13· 03/8 12· 63/4 9. 41/a 9. 01/4 4-10 4. 7 7/ a

In the first place, we find that work assignments in the log are described in the most general terms. Here is a typical day's entry, quoted in its entirety : January 15th 1853. Saturday. 8 A.M . commences with moderate breezes from t)le N.E . and cloudy. Temperature 35 degrees . Employed eight overseers and 166 white laborers. Landing guns, assisting spar makers, stowing plank, grading the Yard, cleaning out Streamer PRINCETON, hauling out timber, raising Columbia anchors, stowing coal, &c., &c. Civil Engineers Dept. 2 overseers & 40 white laborers. Masons Dept. 1 overseer & 14 white laborers; 33 Blacks employed as follows : 15 scavengers, 13 drivers, 4 on daily duty & 1 at the stables. One overseer & 4 blacks at the mud dredge. Meridian moderate breezes from the N.W. and cloudy. Temperature40 degrees. At 4 P .M. the yard engine was exercised by Spratt & McHarney's gangs of laborers under the direction of Mr. Jordan master machinist. Sunset cloudy, moderate breeze from the N.W. Temperature 40 degrees . Hend. A. F . Young, Master It is clear that the log-keeper did not attempt to detail each work operation in the Yard and that his " &c., &c." could cover a great many projects such as rigging a scaf)Old. It is also clear that " midwinter" temperatures in Norfolk can be pleasant and do not necessarily preclude out-door operations. On the next work day, January 17, 1853, th ~ Gosport Log notes " Frigate CONSTELLATION was docked for the purpose of getting her bilge ways under her for hauling her up. " Perfectly consistent with this entry is the date of January 1853 on the drawing 107-13-4A mentioned above. As Mr. Chapelle points out, this drawing is an obvious takeoff, rather than (as proposed by Mr. Polland ) a drawing board project. It gives the degree of hog at the lower edge of the rabbet of the keel, referred to the bottom of the false keel as a straight line. Mr. Polland (C.Q., p. 78) tries to explain it away by


16· 8% 14· 9 12- 01/a s. 63/4 4- 53/a

It takes no training in naval architecture, nor does it even require plotting these coordinates, to realize that if CONSTELLATION had been built in 1797 with the existing frame I next forward of frame D there was a serious discontinuity in her form. There is of course no precedent for producing a hull with such a " knuckle." Hypothesis (2) is thus completely demolished. Hypothesis (3), though badly shaken by the existing frame arrangement, remains as a remote possibility. Let us consider further the disagreement between Mr. Chapelle and Mr. Polland as to the source of the Lenthall lines. Among the remaining original documents are two drawings designated 107-13-4A and 107-13-4B, which are reproduced at pages 26 and 28 of C.Q. Both Mr. Chapelle (C.Q., p. 29) and Mr. Polland (C.Q., p. 78) are in accord that these drawings agree well with the 1794 plan published by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1914 ("Our First Frigates, " Transactions of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, 22: 139-155) which, until 1961, was accepted as the plan from which CONSTELLATION was built. The only point of difference between these two authorities is that Mr. Chapelle feels that the two drawings were constructed from take-offs from the ship at Norfolk whereas Mr. Polland suggests "the take-off was accomplished on the drawing board, scaled from the old plan." He further argues " It is not unheard


the bottom, as might be expected from the ravages of time on a wooden ship, and a considerable decrease in height of topside near the dead-flat section, where the frigate's original bulwark line had been cut down to a waist. Neither of these differences would have appeared had 107-13-4B been compiled (as Mr. Polland would like us to believe) from the original plans and offsets. This plan therefore is physical evidence of the shape of CONSTELLATION as she existed in 1853 as well as proof that she had been built from the 1794 plans. The next Gosport Log entry concerning CONSTELLATION was on February 22, 1853: "Employed 8 overseers & 169 white laborers preparing to haul up Frigate CONSTELLATION .. Frigate CONSTELLATION was undocked and transported down to North Slip by the steamer ENGINEER and secured." So she had been in dock a month and five days, while her lines were taken off and the bilge ways constructed. Next day "Employed 8 overseers & 153 white laborers with all the mechanics from the different Depts. hauling up Frigate CONSTELLATION ... at 1 P.M. Frigate CONSTELLATION was hauled up on her ways at North Slip." Then on 24 February " landing ballast from CONSTELLATION. " No doubt this ballast had been left in her to avoid any chance of her capsizing while in the water between the drydock and North Slip. Incidentally, the noon temperature was 58 degrees on February 22 and 68 degrees on the 23rd. An item in the Gosport Log on May 16, 1853, is particularly significant : "Commenced cutting up Frigate CONSTELLATION. A number of hands was taken in the Carpenter's Dept. for that purpose." She was not "taken apart," or "stripped down. " She was "cut up." The next mention of CONSTELLATION was on June 25, 1853. "Laid the keel of the Frigate CONSTELLATION in Ship House (B) ." Ship House (B ) was a long way from North Slip as the Gosport Yard was laid . out in 1853 ; yet apparently Mr. Polland <C.Q., p. 85) feels that this entry means that the keel and parts of the attached timbers of the original structure at North Slip and dragged or floated to Ship House (B) to become the basis for the new corvette and hence of Hypo~hesis (3) . As Mr. Polland puts it "the keel of the old ship was placed in that ship house ... This immediately suggests that the floor timbers, at the very leas t, are still attached to that keel- and this in itself could constitute perpetuation of the old ship! " At this point, Mr. Polland seems to be defending only Hypothesis (3) and to have abandoned Hypothesis (2) . However, unfortunately for his argument, the Gosport Stores Reports for this period have survived, as noted by Mr. Polland on p. 129 of C.Q. The

stating that it "shows the original hog." But wooden ships are not originally built with hog; the keel is either straight or is laid with a "hang" (sag) which is the reverse of hog. Mr. Polland on the same page also states that drawing 4A is "compatible from the stern post to the stem and up through the forefoot" when " overlayed on the Lines Plan of the present ship." Inasmuch as 4A shows a vessel 164 feet between perpendiculars whereas the present ship is 176 feet between perpendiculars, it would be interesting to see how this overlay can be accomplished. As Mr. Chapelle has pointed out, the mate to this drawing, 4B, clearly shows that it is a take-off from an existing ship rather than a drawing board effort. For one thing, the measurements are made from a vertical surface outboard of the ship, as they would }lave to be for an existing ship if from plans or offset tables the measurements would have been made from the centerline. Also, the dimensions are mostiy to even inches, with only a few halves indicated; we have already seen that lofted offsets were figured to eighths of an inch. Another point to be considered is that the offsets are not shown at specified frames but instead are taken at stations arbitrarily spaced 10 feet apart. This distance 020 inches) is not an even multiple of either the 26 inches or the 32 inches that represented the frame spacing of the 1797 CONSTELLATION. Why, if plans and offsets were available for the frames of the original ship, with one or the other of th~se frame spacings, would anyone have gone to the trouble of redrawing plans for a 10-foot spacing? On the other hand, there was the requirement to fit bilge ways to a 55-year old hull, which was known to have changed shape to some extent, and this would call for an actual take-off, mid-winter or not. Mr. Chapelle (C.Q., p. 29) suggests that these offsets were taken when the planking was stripped from the hull. I feel, however, that they were taken while the planking and copper were still on her; thus the exact positions of the frames under the planking were uncertain and a 10-foot spacing was used instead. Probably the measurements were reduced to molded dimensions by the simple expedient of taking them to a short block of plank the same thickness as the outer skin, held against the side. Then adding twice the thickness of the block to the recorded offset from the vertical outboard reference would give the distance to the frame timbers, without the need for resorting to a scrive board or other more complicated means of reducing outside to molded dimensions. This plan is endorsed as made in Norfolk in February 1853. Mr. Chapelle (C.Q., p. 29) shows that it agrees closely but not perfectly with the 1797 plan of CONSTELLATION . The differences are slight changes in the shape of 26

material. The discrepancy between the recorded keel-laying date of June 25th and the issue of keel timbers in July is readily explained as a result of the usual bureaucratic shuffling of requisitions and other papers between the storehouse where the material was issued and the office where the books were kept. Month after month these Store Returns list the issue of timber for the rebuilding of CONSTELLATION, and the totals, which are far too long to detail here, clearly establish that she was cone structed from keel to truck of new materials. It is instructive to observe how the Navy officially regarded CONSTELLATION in itf early lists. Commencing in 1874, the official Treasury Depar:tment List of Merchant Vessels of the United States contained annually a list of vessels of the United States Navy, which was revised and updated each year by the Navy Department. Year and place of building were first entered in this list of 1887. In that year's list, CONSTELLATION'S place ,and year of building were given as Gosport, Va. 1854. (In contrast, CONSTITUTION was listed as built at Charlestown, Mass. 1797.) In view of the assertion sometimes made today that the Navy concealed the building of a new CONSTELLATION in 1854 by considering the work done on her then as a large repair, it is interesting to note that this official list, compiled only 33 years after the event, when persons with personal recollection of the circumstances were available for consultation, regarded her as a new vessel. Except for a change of building site to Norfolk, Va., this entry continued through the 1908 list. Then, inexplicably, in 1909 CONSTELLATION'S date and place of building were altered to Baltimore, Md., 1797. This attribution has persisted in official Navy lists since that time, and is of course the basis on which the present ship was transferred to the Baltimore group in 1955. Yet an examination of the records concerning the ship show that there is no doubt that what was undertaken in 1853 and 1854 was not a repair but a scrapping which proceeded simultaneously with construction of a new hull on a different site with new materials. Contemporary newspaper stories, including one quoted by Mr. Chapelle on p. 37 of C.Q. from the 11 July 1854 Norfolk Daily Southern Argus, agree fully with the shipyard records . Mr. Polland has attempted to discredit the Argus story by introducing another account from a Philadelphia paper in 1845 which stated that CONSTELLATION was to be rebuilt as a steamer (C.Q., p. 85) . It needs to be emphasized, however, that quite different value should be given to a newspaper statement of something that "will happen" in comparison to a report of what "is happening." The Argus story is in the latter category and is not easily impeached as

items in these reports provide information that amplifies considerably the brief entries of the Gosport Log. After a long period of inactivity, with regard to CONSTELLATION, the Stores Report for February 1853 notes the delivery to her of 1,500 lb. of cordage, 550 lb. of tallow, 75 lb. of castile soap, 60 lb. of pulverized black lead. Clearly, these are the tackles required for hauling her out of the water and the lubricants needed on the ways. In May there was delivered to her 54 lb. of cast steel, doubtless wedges to be used in taking her apart, and in the same month, with demolition under way, there was received from her and taken into store 1,230 lb. old sheet lead, two lots, 6,490 lb. and 16,245 lb., old bolt copper, 200 lb. old sheet copper, 1,610 lb. old composition (i.e. brass) and 15,750 lb. old wrought iron. Such entries continued through September, in which month there was recorded receipt of a 1,400-lb. tank, one 58-lb .._Frigate's ship's bell, 350 lb. old composition, 2,700 lb. old wrought iron, and 1,412 lb. old bolt copper. In October, 3,570 lb. '.¡old cast iron is recorded, , and in December 400 lb. scrap copper. Since in scrapping a wooden ship the floors and keeJ structure are reached last, it is quite clear from these records that there is no possibility that the keel stretched in June at Ship House (B) could have been the original keel still being worked over as late as September or even December at North Point. Use of the phrase "Frigate CONSTELLATION" in the Gosport Log with reference to this keel has no significance, since as late as November 20, 1854 the log refers to the new vessel (launched August 26, 1854) as "Frigate CONSTELLATION." It is gratifying to observe that the conclusion from the records of stores received is confirmed by the record of stores issued. The Gosport Store Returns list as delivered to "New CONSTELLATION" (and note here that at least one official concerned with the work, the Gosport Storekeeper, felt that he was dealing with a new ship in July 1853 200 lb. % bolt copper, 208 lb. % bolt copper, 6,000 lb. factory oakum, 100 lb. cotton bats, 503 lb. 1-in. bolt copper, 811 cub. ft. keel pieces (ship of the line, 5 pieces) , 368 cubic feet keel pieces (frigates, 3 pieces), and 98 cubic feet keel pieces (sloops, one piece) . Further along, for the same month, there is a record of the issue of a total of 3,589 cubic feet of live oak keelson and "promiscuous timber." CONSTELLATION'S 18-inch x 30-inch keel <C.Q., p. 138) would, for its approximately 166 feet of length (176 feet between perpendiculars minus 12 feet 9 inches forward plus the molded dimension of the sternpost aft) require a total of about 625 cubic feet of timber. It is clear that the above issue of 1,277 cubic feet was ample, even allowing for 50 percent loss in conversion ti! permit the keel of the new CONSTELLATION to be built entirely of !le\\ 27

C.Q. leads to the unmistakable conclusion that the 1853 ship was built with new materials to a design different from that of her predecessor. Thus , neither in material nor in hull form is there any connection between the CONSTELLATION now at Baltimore and the CONSTELLATION launched at Baltimore in 1797.

irresponsiJ:>le journalism or the result of a " leak." Little more need be said. As Mr. Polland well said, " valid evidence exists in the remaining original documents as well as in the physical structure of the ship." But, contrary to the conclusions that he drew from these data, an unbiased examination of the material already published in

U.S. S. CONSTELLATION at the 1926 Sesqui-centennial Celebration in l'hiladelphia. Ship in background is Admiral Dewey's flagship U.S. S. OLYMPIA 28


H. M. S. WARRIOR in the 1860's.

Maritime Museum And Museum Ship News The growth of maritime historic preservation in the British Isles over the last five years has been nothing short of phenomenal. As recently as 1970, Britain had only two historic ships restored and open to the public ; Nelson's H.M.S. VICTORY of 1765, and the clipper ship CUTTY SARK of 1869; and one active preserved vessel, the Wherry ALBION of 1898. Today, more than thirty preservation projects are well underway, and many more are in the planning stages. Certainly the major factor has been creation in 1970 of the British Maritime Trust. The great majority of the ships being saved are either Trust projects, or have been recipients of Trust assistance. In the field of warships, virtually every era in British naval history since the day of Nelson is now well represented. Two frigates survive from the early 1800's. They are the former H.M.S. TRINCOMALEE, now the training ship FOUDROYANT, built at Bombay in 1817, and the former H.M.S. UNICORN built at Chatham in 1824. Both are slated for restoration, and both were drY.docked with the aid of Maritime Trustfunds during 1972. The Trust also dry-docked in 1972 a warship from the last era of sail; the former bark-rigged steam gunboat H.M.S. GANNET of 1878. The GANNET last served as the training hulk MERCURY near Southampton. When restored, she is to be moored in the Thames near Tower Bridge.


An even more significant warship of the mid1800's is the former H.M.S. WARRIOR of 1860, the first British seagoing ironclad. She currently serves as an oil pipeline pier at Pembroke, Wales. The warrior was drydocked during 1974 and examined by representatives of the Trust. Due to the magnitude of the task of restoring this 380 foot vessel, and the facl that she 1s relatively secure at present, it has been decided to put off any such project until work on other Trust ships is somewhat further along . From the World War I period, the Trust intends to preserve the light cruiser H.M.S. CAROLINE of 1914, last survivor of the Battle of Jutland; when she is retired from her present service as a naval reserve drill ship at Belfast. In 1972 the Trust provided financial assistance toward the establishment of a group which saved the destroyer H.M.S. CAVALIER of 1944 at Southampton. Another veteran of the Second World War, the cruiser H.M.S. BELFAST of 1939, has been a very successful naval museum at London since 1971. A missing link in this naval evolution is the 19th century turreted _warship. One such vessel, the former H.M.S. .CEREBERUS ¡ of 1870 survives, remarkably intact, as part of a breakwater near Melbourne, Australia, where she is the subject of a local preservation effort. The first vessel fully restored by the Maritime

Trust was the three-masted topsail schooner KATHLEEN & MAY, a coastal freight carrier built in 1900. She has been open to the public at Plymouth since 1972. A similar vessel, of steel rather than wood, the RESULT of 1893, is being restored by the Ulster Folk Museum of Northern Ireland. The Maritime Trust also maintains the sailing barge CAMBRIA of 1906, normally berthed in the Medway River, and has provided assistance in the preservation of the active barge THALATTA and the west country barge SHAMROCK of 1899 being restored at Cotahele Quay in Cornwall. Meanwhile, a group in North Wales is restoring the coastal trading ketch GARLANDSTONE of 1909 to serve as a museun1 at Portmadoc. In the area of merchant steam vessels, the Maritime Trust has provided financial assistance in the restoration of the first iron transatlantic passenger steamer GREAT BRITAIN of 1843, now in drydock at Bristol. During 1974 the Trust acquired the former British steam coaster ROBIN of 1890, lately sailing under the Spanish flag as the MARIA. She has since been drydocked, and is undergoing restoration in the Medway River. Britain's last sidewheel paddle steamers have been the subject of a number of preservation efforts, beginning with the Paddle Steamer Preservation Society's unsuccessful attempt to save the little Pembroke ferry ALUMCHINE in 1962. Also unsuccessful was a 1960's effort to save the MEDWAY QUEEN of 1924. Fortunately, in this case, the vessel went to private owners for use as a clubhouse rather than to the shipbreakers. In the more favorable climate of the 70's, the plan to restore her. as a museum ship and Dunkirk evacuation memorial in her namesake river has been revived. Meanwhile. the Paddle Steamer Preservation Society is restor-

ing the little KINGSWEAR CASTLE of 1924 to be an operating vessel. In 1973 they were offered the much larger Scottish paddle steamer WA VERLEY of 1946. Initial plans to run this vessel have encountered serious financial problems, but she may be preserved as a stationary museum ship. A bridge over the Humber River now under construction will be replacing Britain's last paddle ferries in the near future. When this happens, the LINCOLN CASTLE of 1940 has already been slated for preservation locally, as an active vessel. Other paddle steamers survive in the British Isles as restaurants and clubhouses, including the CALEDONIA of 1934, the COMPTON CASTLE of 1914, the RYDE of 1937, and the PRINCESS ELIZABETH of 1927. The British sidewheel tug EPPLETON HALL of 1914 is now in San Francisco. When she departed the British Isles in 1969 the JOHN H. AMOS of 1931 became the only remaining steam paddle tug in that part of the world. The latter vessel, laid up since 1967, was slated to become a museumship at Middelsbrough, but at last report little work had been done on her. Other steam vessels preserved in Great Britain are; the ancient dredger BERTHA of 1844 at Exeter, the Danish-built tug STE. CANUTE of 1931 at Exeter, the tug CHALLENGE of 1931 at London, the Admiralty tug TID 164 in the Medway, and the pleasure steamer RESOLUTE of 1903 in Norfolk. A plan was recently announced to preserve the tug CANNING at Swansea in South Wales. The last steam tug in operation at Swansea, she was built as recently as 1954. The Maritime Trust is also preserving three representative British fishing craft, the Brixham trawler PROVIDENT of 1922, the Cornish lugger 1




BARNABAS of 1880, and the steam herring drifter LYDIA EVA of 1930. Another place where maritime histor.ic preservation seems to be thriving is Australia 's Murray River System. No less than eleven paddle boats are being maintained in operation, while five more are permanently berthed as museum ships. The oldest, and also the oldest Australian ship, is the ADELAIDE of 1866 preserved ashore at Echuca. Still further to the south, Tasmanians are discussing the possibility of creating a Maritime Trust. Highest on the list of candidates for preservation are three sailing vessels typical of the region; ALMA DOEPAL, a three-masted topsail schooner built in 1903; CATHKIT, a three-n ¡asted scow schooner built in 1912 and MAY QUEEN a sailing barge built in 1867. In spite of their age, and wooden hulls, all three have been in use recently as motor vessels in local waters. Fires have ended preservation hopes for three important North American sternwheel steamboats. The WHITEHORSE of 1901 , and CASCA of 1936, were destroyed at Whitehorse, Yukon, on June 20, 1974. Earlier, the giant Mississippi towboat SPRAGUE of 1902 was reduced to a smoldering hull and framework at Vicksburg, Mississippi. Loss of

the SPRAGUE was particularly tragic, as she was the giant of the rivers. 318 feet overall, with a paddlewheel 38 feet in diameter, she was given the nickname " Big Mama" early in her career. In 1907 the SPRAGUE moved a record tow of sixty coal barges, covering an area of over six acres, with a total tonnage of 67,307. She was one of our earliest museum ships, having been given to the city of Vicksburg in 1948. Work is going ahead on restoration of the Canadian sidewheel ferryboat TRILLIUM of 1910 for operation in Toronto Harbor. Vital funds for this project were received from the Canadian Government last 'year. The Norwegian Maritime Museum in Oslo has now joined the small, but growing, ranks of museums with operating sailing vessels. Their ship is the SVANEN, a wooden three ~ masted schooner Svendborg, Denmark in 1916. She operates as a youth training ship during the summer months, and is moored at the Museum during the winter. A similar vessel, the FULTON, built at Marstal, Denmark in 1915, has been operated in the same capacity since 1971 by the National Museum of Den1mark.


Sail and Steam ...

-View from the foredeck of the former b1c1-rk CHARLES RACJNE, serving as a storage hulk at Lourenco Marques, Mi>zambique in the 1930's. The CHARLES RACINE was a steel vessel of 1.635 tons buili at Sund~rland. England in 1892. She has since been beached and abandoned. Andrew Nesdall

Chilean steamer AMADEO owned in Punta Arenas on the Straits of Magellan, 1892-1931. She was originally built at Liverpool in 1884, and now rests on the beach at Estancia San Gregorio on the eastern Straits. Oswaldo Wegmann 32

From the Past ...

-Hulk LASIRENA at Puerto Chile around 1950. She was formerly the full-rigged ship ALLERTON built at Southampton, England in 1884. LA SIRENA was scrapped near Talcahuano, Chile in the late 1950's. Kurt Grassau

·: ..,..::.····

-Seagoing tourboat CATAWISSA: one of a numerous series built by the Reading Company to tow long strings of coal barges from · the Delaware Bay to New England ports. Built at Wilmington, Delaware in 1897, she is still in use as a steam tank cleaning plant at New York. Mariners Museum 33

Seamen's Bank Has Large Collection Of Maritime Americana In the late 1820's at least one member in every family among New York's 200,000 population was said to be connected with the maritime trades. Yet, while there were commercial banks for the city's shippers and merchants, no place existed where the common man could leave his money and be sure.of finding it when he returned from the next long voyage. This lack made seafarers even less anxious to save, and it was not uncommon for their wages of

many months to be taken from them in local pubs soon after they arrived back in port.


But help was on the way, with the chartering on January 31, 1829 of The Seamen's Bank for Savings, a mutual bank having as its purpose the "desire to serve this useful class of men, whose occupation, necessarily calling them so much from home, leaves them but an imperfect opportunity of finding

8avings, past and present, is as apparent now as it was in its beginnings, for each of locations holds a part of the bank's maritime museum . It might well be called a "floating" museum, since the ship models and artworks !ind antique coin banks and scrimshaw circulate among the bank's seven offices.

who are trustworthy; and whose generous and confiding disposition¡ often leads them to place confidence where it is not merited ..." The bank first opened its doors on May 11 of that same year, on the second floor of 149 Maiden Lane, at the corner of Front Street, with merchant and importer Najah Taylor as president. The first depositor was a stevedore named James Chappel who had been brought into the bank by trustee Moses H. Grinnell. Mr. Grinnell, though only 23 years old, was at that time the senior partner of the company that owned the famed Swallowtail Line of ocean packets. Others among the original trustees of the Bank who were important leaders in New York's maritime trade include : William Whitlock, Jr., shipping line owner, one of whose ships, CADMUS, brought Lafayette to America on his second visit in 1824. Charles N. Talbot and D.W.C. Olyphant, whose firm, Talbot, Olyphant and Company of South Street, had an office in Canton, China, and owned the famous record-making ship ROMAN. Captain Charles H. Marshall, principal owner of the Black Ball Line of packets, the first line to establish regular, scheduled service from America to foreign ports. Paul Spofford, a partner in Spofford, Tileston and Company, .owner of SOUTHERNER, America's first regular steamship (launched in 1818). Captain E.E. Morgan, owner of the London "X" or Morgan Line of packets. Josiah A. Low, a partner in the famous shipping firm of A.A. Low and Brothers, whose house flag was equally well known in New York and the Orient. An original trustee, Benjamin Strong, became the second president, serving until 1851, and at recurring times in the bank's history, the tradition he set has been followed by succeeding generations. Benjamin Strong, Jr. served as a trustee from 1912 to 1914. Today there is still a Benjamin Strong helping to chart the bank's course. A great-great-grandson of the original trustee, the retired chairman and president of the United States Trust Company has been serving on the board since 1937. For the first four and one-half years, the bank's depositors were only seamen and others connected with seafaring life, and, although the bank extended its services to pepple of every calling by 1833, it has kept its traditional interest in men of the sea and in ships. E. Virgil Conway, the bank's Chairman of the Board and President, is a trustee and member of the Executive Committee of the South Street Seaport Museum. A boating enthusiast, he is also chairman of the South Street Seaport Museum Council. The salty, seaworthy character of Seamen's 35

The beginnings of the museum are not as clear as those of the bank, because the collection was never officially founded or established-it simply grew. The interests of bank officials and of its seafaring depositors made it natural that gifts of ship models and other articles of maritime art would find their way¡ into the bank. It is known that a number of ship models were already informally displayed, during the 1870's, on top of the huge steel vault that always stood in the middle of the main banking floor-so that depositors could see where their money was kept. Gradually these models were added to, became a collection, then grew into a museum as more and more models, paintings and nautical memorabilia were acquired. George D. Wintress, curator of the museum, says the collection was quite a fine one, with many rarities, when he came to his position 36 years ago. Since that time it has more than doubled and today requires the attention of a full time staff of skilled artisans to maintain, repair and preserve. Museum displays include about 300 handsome ship models of both naval and merchant ships, ranging from three inches to twelve feet. Most are constructed of wood, as were 'their originals, and perhaps the most intricately detailed is a model of the USS CONSTITUTION representing 6,000 hours of painstaking work by a skilled and devoted craftsman. The most delicate of all are the ten smaller models fashioned of beef bones by Frenchmen held prisoner in England during the Napoleonic Wars. There are 230 marine oil paintings in the collection, as well as a number of water colors, lithograph prints and paintings on glass. The subjects are mostly American and include vessels and ocean scenes painted by such renowned marine artists as James E. Buttersworth, Thomas Birch, Samuel Walter, Gordon Grant, Charles Robert Patterson, Frank .Vining Stnith and Montague Dawson. Anyone who visits all of the Seamen's Bank branches or drops in to any one branch over a period of time, will see one of the largest collections of 19th century maritime Americana in existence. Their locations in Manhattan, in addition to the main office at 30 Wall Street, are 25 Pine Street, 15 Beaver Street, 546 Fifth Avenue at 45th Street, 666 Fifth Avenue at 52nd Street, and 127 West 50th Street in the Time and Life Building. The Nassau County branch is at 2469 Hempstead Turnpike, East Meadow.

Book Review L' Antiquaire De Marine, by Jean Randier Editions Maritimes et d'Outre-Mer, Paris, 1973, $48.00 The Handicrafts ·. of the Sailor, by Steven Banks Arco Publishing Co. Inc., New York, 1974, $5.95 American Nautical Art and Antiques, by Jacqueline L. Kranz Crown Publishers Inc., New York, 1975, $10.95

appeared on the subject in English which are of distinctly poor quality. The author of The Handicrafts of the Sailor, Steven Banks, admits he lacks knowledge of his subject. Then, why publish a book on it? Apparently short of things to · say about his topic, Banks digresses at length (in what is a rather brief text) into discussions of the life of seamen, over several ~enturies, and the design of ships. As it happens, he is not very knowledgeable on these subjects either. Though the book was published in this Country, Banks' limited background is strictly British. The illustrations are of mild interest. For some reason, pictures of wool and embroidery work predominate. ,-\merican Nautical Art and Antiques by Jacqueline L. Kranz, however, manages to achieve a new low in maritime scholarship. The Author clearly believed she could become an authority on her subject overnight. The book is literally riddled with innaccuracies and misconceptions. Most of the numerous illustrations are either poorly r~produced, or were very poor photos to begin with ; simply crude snapshots, taken recently ; blurred, out of focus, or poorly exposed. Probably the crowning example of the low level of scholarship is an illustration of a framed tea towel, of the type popular in maritime museum gift shops. The caption is mind-jarring, "Sailing scrolls are rare, but they provide tangible descriptions of a way of life that is gone. Here, Yankee whaling scenes were drawn with india ink on homespun cloth and signed by the artist." NORMAN BROUWER

The maritime field has probably always had its share of poor writing and sloppy scholarship, but, over the last few years, we have been experiencing something of an epidemic. The problem was felt serious enough to be included on the agenda of a recent annual consortium on maritime history held by the Bath Marine Museum in Maine. At one point a "maritime history review board" was proposeH, to advise would-be authors, and warn the public against works it found to be harmfully innaccurate and misleading. No action was taken, and the responsibility remains with those' persons who have the opportunity to review maritime books for various publications. · The tremendous rise in interest in antiques in general, and nautical antiques in particular, has led to a series of works on maritime arts and crafts. This is obviously a very complex subject, which deserves the fullest socialogical and ethnological study. Ideally, scholars should concentrate on a single art form, or craft, and research it in great depth . Thus far, the most successful books in this area have been those made up of collections of Workaday Schooners; The Edward W. Smith essays by authorities who have done exactly that. Photographs, by Edward W. Smith, Jr. Probably the best book in English, on maritime Internation~l Marine Publishing Company, arts and crcifts, to date, is Art and the Seafarer Camden, Mame, 1975, $15.00 edited by Hans Jurgen Hansen. This work came out in the late 1960's, in several languages, and now Every marine historian , amateur or appears to be, out of print. Hansen assembled a professional must some time dream of finding that competent group of scholars, and each goes into his attic trunk full of crystal clear glass plate negatives topic in some depth. Not quite so successful, was a of a whole fleet of vessels which have long since book titled The Decorative Arts of the Mariner vanished from the seas. Edward W. Smith has which appeared around the same time. In this case there seems to have been greater concern with lrought to light just such a collection, taken by his father at Newport, Rhode Island around 1895-1900. prpducing an attractive picture book, than with The subjects are coastal schooners from five producing a scholarly work, and the value of the masts, numerous fishing schooners, and a few of the different essays varies considerably. last brigantines and barkentines. The quality of the In 1973, French author Jean Randier brought pictures is good, and in some cases outstanding. To out L' Antiquaire De Marine. Randier set out to supplement the photographs, essays are included cover the entire range of marine and marineby Howard I. Chapelle, George Brown Goode, related arts and crafts by himself, and, everything Charles S. Morgan, and John T. Rowland ; lines considered, was reasonably successful. A great plans of the FREDONIA, GLORIANA, DAVID many topics are covered in this book, and conTORREY, J .W. PARKER, and the WILLIAM sequently none is gone into very deeply. Most BISBEE; and sail plans of the JOHN FEENEY receive a page or less of text. But, Randier's GLORIANA, and WILLIAM BISBEE. This book research is adequate for an introductory work, and will be a very worthwhile addition to the library of the illustrations are of very high quality. This book anyone interested in American working sail. has not yet been translated into English, which is unfortunate, as over the past year, two books have . NORMAN BROUWER 36

Historical Society Publications A vailahle The Ships That Brought Us So Far by Peter Stanford, 54 pages, 46 ills. : $1.50 The President of the South Street Seaport Museum gives an account of the successful and unsuccessful efforts to preserve historic sailing ships around the world, and discusses some of the important ships yet to be saved. Condemned at Stanley by John Smith, 33 pages, 20 ills.: $1.50 The leading marine historian of thl' Falkland Islands describes the remarkable collection of wooden sailing ship hulks surviving at Port 'stanley. The KAIULANI, Last of the Yankee Square-riggers by Peter Stanford, 1:i pages, 111 ills. : $1.00 <Originally appeared in United States Naval Institute Proceedinp;, March 1974) A pictorial history of the last American-built square-rigger to make a commercial voyage . "Take Good Care of Her Mister" by Peter Stanford, 12 pages, 5 ills.: $.75 A tribute to the man who saved the clipper ship CUTTY SARK, and who played an important role in the creation of the British National Maritime Trust. Copies of the first two issues of SEA HISTORY are available at $.50 for issue No . 1, and $.75 for issue No. 2. Publications may be ordered by writing to : The National Maritime Historical Society, 16 Fulton Street, New York, N.Y. 10038.

JOIN THE NMHS-WE NEED YOU TO MAKE OUR VOYAGE IN HISTORY. TO: NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY 16 Fulton Street NEW YORK, N.Y. 10038 Gentlemen: I am pleased to sign on for your voyage, and enclose my dues and a further contribution as indicated. Regular Members-$10


Al I contributions to the National Maritime Historical Society are tax deductible



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PEKING<ex-ARETHUSA, ex-PEKING) in drydock at Hlack\1all, near London, in !\larch 1975, after her purchase by the South Street Seaport J\luseum in l\°t•w York. 39

British sidewheel tug EPPLETON HALL, photographed early in her career.

National Maritime Historical Society 16 Fulton Street, New York, NY. 10038

Sea History 003 - July 1975  

5 Square-rigged Sailing Craft in Existence, Part II • 14 Skaregrom Log • 23 The CONSTELLATION and her Rebuilding • 29 Maritime Museum News •...

Sea History 003 - July 1975  

5 Square-rigged Sailing Craft in Existence, Part II • 14 Skaregrom Log • 23 The CONSTELLATION and her Rebuilding • 29 Maritime Museum News •...