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Table of Contents Boston Great Cove Proposal··· ·· ····· ............................. . .. . ........... . . 4 Square-rigged Sailing Craft in Existence . ............... ·•··• .. • .. ...... .. ........ 7 Ska reg rpm Log .. • •..... . .•.......•..•...... • •...•• • ••.....•..•••.•••••• · • ··•••••· ·16 Sydney Cove Waterfront Museum ............................... ···· ...... • .. · .. · ·27 Sea -Faring Men I Have Known Jeannette Edwards Rattray .................. ·.· .. •··· .. ······••· ·· ·• · · .. · .. ······ 29 Maritime Museum News·· · ·

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Photo Feature .••••••...•......• • ••...•.........•••... ... ...•. ··········•• • ···•••·• 34 Book Reviews .... ····· · ···· .. ······ .. • ·· .. ··· ... ··· ·· ·········· • •···• .. ··· ... · .. · • 36

sea history Historical articles and news of ship restorations, museums , marine art , and archaeology around the world. Published by the National Maritime Historical Society, 16 Fulton Street, New York, N.Y. 10036. Chairman of Editorial Committee: Editor : Managing Editor:

Peter Stanford Norman J . Brouwer Robert Mangieri

The National Maritime Historical Society is .a non-profit educational institution. Its officers are : Chairman , Rear Admiral Walter Schlech USN (ret ); Honorary CoChairman, Helen Delich Bentley ; President, Peter Stanford ; Vice-presidents, John Thurman and Karl Kortum; Secretary, John Lyman; Treasurer, Norman Brouwer. Advertising rates for SEA HISTORY may be obtained by writing the above address .

COVER: Alaska Packers' Yard in Alameda, California. " Star of Finland" "ex-Kaiulani" is ship being moved. San Francisco Maritime Museum



It's said man is the only animal that laughs. There must be a kind of wisdom in that whether the observation is strictly true or not. But unmistakably, man is the only being around the planet who learns consciously from his past, and can extend his experience and his understanding across generations. He is a voyager in time. Learned societies are haunted by this notion, and more or less timidly insist on its importance in a world going quietly or noisily mad. What we want to propose, quite seriously, is that we address the nation at large on our subject, that of a nation born from the sea. Address the nation, and invite it to celebrate, and learn from its own 2ooth birthday in 1976 and the years immediately following. To do this, as friends and doubters (bless them, they help us winnow out our own secondrate notions and stick with the difficult ones), as these and people merely indifferent know, we propose to save, restore and sail the KAIULANI. '.fhat was the founding purpose of the Society ten years ago, and a rattling good one that has grown in our estimation as the difficulties have become apparent. We've now also accepted the 19th century trading schooner ALICE S. WENTWORTH, the generous gift of Mr. Anthony Athanas, the proprietor of Anthony's Pier Four Restaurant in Boston, and are committed to a race of dollars against time to save that sacred ship and make her the centerpiece of a new maritime mqseum center in Boston. We have proposed to New York State that they take on the classic side-wheeler ALEXANDER HAMILTON and send her voyaging with a message of history expressed in art, song, and ecology, the whole discourse people bring to such monumental expressiJ)ns of man's design and work. We hope yet to see the VICAR OF BRAY, last survivor of the California Gold Rush, preserved and installed in the Haslett Warehouse in San Francisco. And while such projects hang in the balance, we go on with the discourse of our subject, finding considerable challenge and refreshment in it. Karl Kortum 's beautiful testament of KAIULANI, the Last Yankee Square Rigger, is still delayed. But here, at last, is the second issue of SEA HISTORY. We are sorry that it comes to our patient readers so late. The work is done by people fully engaged in other undertakings which depend on their work from dayto-day. It is supported by members and a few generous men of means who send in the extra dollar that makes it possible for the Society to move its cause to windward. It is right that a nation born of endeavor by sea come back to its sea heritage for better bearings. Let us come to the task with openness and laughter (that vanishing attribute of man!) and with all the arts we've mastered in our voyaging through time. For this heritage lives only as it lives for us today, no other way. Peter Stanford, President 3

Great Cove Square-A Sierra Club Proposal

Great Cove in the 1870's.

Courtesy Society For The Preservation Of New England Antiquities.

The Sierra Club advocates a new planning approach in Boston. Along the downtown waterfront it sees an opportunity to replace plans that degrade this area with plans that allow people access to their natural sea environment, that restore historic street patterns, and that encourage walking as an alternate transportation system. In the town cove, where Boston's commerce was founded and thrived for over two centuries, it proposes the creation of a Great Cove Square and a Harbor Esplanade, landscaped places designed to draw people together and to restore the excitement of the historic seaport. The Great Cove Square could once again give the city its traditional harbor focus and a cohesive waterfront. Century-old commercial buildings, now scattered throughout the area , would be drawn together into a square by new buildings compatible in materials and size. This would be an easily located waterfront place of strong identity. The Square is an eight acre area largely owned by the Boston Redevelopment Authority, bounded by existing and proposed buildings on Commercial and State Streets, by Commercial Wharf and Long Wharf, and by the Harbor. It is entirely within the Downtown Waterfront Urban Renewal Area and consists largely of vacant lots currently cleared and available. The present Boston Redevelopment Authority plan of 1965 threatens to Wock access to the water's edge. In contrast, the Sierra Club proposal presents residentialcommercial construction in keeping with the area's historic character. In the Great Cove Square the Sierra Club recommends that a non-tidal inlet be built to restore the 1857 pierhead line. A restored Eastern Packet Pier would contain a seaport museum and stalls for shows and various shops. Museum ships and visiting sail training vessels would dock alongside. A landscaped park would provide places to sit and relax. The Sierra Club maintains offices at 14 Beacon Street, Boston, 02108. 4


Foto Ferruzzi, Venice


Axel Nohr Fotograf




Square-rigged Sailing Craft In Existence LIST NO. 1-Former Merchant Vessels AF CHAPMAN-ex -G. D. KENNEDY, exDUNBOYNE- full rigged ship, iron , 243 ft., 1428 tons : Built at Whitehaven, England in 1888. Later a Swedish Naval schoolship. Now a youth hostel and restaurant at Stockholm .

BICE-ex-ANTONIO PADRE-Motorship, former full-rigged ship, steel, 233 ft ., 1459 tons: Built at Sestri Ponente , Italy in 1902. Now operating between Genoa and the Island of Elba . CARRICK-ex~CITY OF ADELAIDE-Hulk, former full-rigged ship, composite, 176 ft ., 791 tons.: Built at Sunderland, England in 1864. Now a clubhouse at Glasgow, Scotland.

AMBASSADOR-Hulk, former full-rigged ship , composite, 176 ft ., 692 tons: Tea clipper built at Rotherhithe, England in 1869. Now lying beached at Estancia San Gregorio , Chile.

CHARLES COOPER-Hulk, former full-rigged ship, 165 ft ., 977 tons : Built at Black Rock, Connecticut in 1856 for the Antwerp packet trade. A hulk in the Falkland Islands since 1866. Now belongs to the South Street Seaport Museum of New York.

ANDALUCIA-ex-VILLE DE MULHOUSE-Hulk, former four-masted bark, steel , 312 ft., 3231 tons : Built at Le Havre, France in 1899. Hulked at Punta Arenas , Chile in 1927 and still lying at anchor there though no longer in use. ARETHUSA-ex-PEKING-Hulk , former fourmasted bark, steel , 321 ft., 2152 tons : Built at Hamburg, Germany in 1911. Now a stationary training ship at Upnor, England. BALCLUTHA-ex-STAR OF ALASKA, ex.BALCLUTHA-Full-rigged ship , steel, 256 ft ., 1862 tons: Built at Glasgow , Scotland in 1886. Today a museum ship at San Francisco.

CHILLICOTHE-ex-GAMECOCK, ex-ARNOLDUS VINNEN, ex-ALSTERKAMP, ex-FLOTOW:,....,Hulk, former full-rigged ship, steel, 267 ft., 1860 tons: Built at Glasgow, Scotland in 1892. Later under German and American ownership. Now a grounded hulk at New Caledonia. CONEMAUGH-ex-ATLAS, ex-LORNTY-Hulk, former full-rigged ship, iron , 254 ft., 1774 tons : Built 7

at Liverpool, England in 1879. Later an American four masted schooner, and an oil barge. Now lying partially dismantled in Curtis Creek near Baltimore. COUNTY OF PEEBLES-Hulk, former fourmasted full-rigged ship, iron, 1613 tons: Built at Glasgow, Scotland in 1875. Grounded to serve as a pier at Punta Arenas, Chile. CUTTY SARK-ex-FERREIRA, ex-CUTTY SARKFull-rigged ship, composite, 212 ft., 963 tons: Tea clipper built at Dumbarton, Scotland in 1869. Later Portuguese-<>wned. Today a museum ship at Greenwich, England. DERG-ex-WESTERN MONARCH-Hulk, former full-rigged ship, iron, 237 ft., 1397 tons: Built at Barrow, England in 1875. Recently served. as a lighter at Limerick, Eire, but has now been towed to Dublin to be scrapped. EDWIN FOX-Hulk, former full-rigged ship, wood, 145 ft., 891 tons: Built at Sukeali, Bengal in 1853. For many years a storage hulk in New Zealand, and now lying beached there. ELISSA-ex-PIONEER, ex-CHRISTOPHOROS, exACHEOS, ex-GUSTAF, ex-FJELD, ex-ELISSAMotorship, former bark, iron, 149 ft., 436 tons: Built at Aberdeen, Scotland in 1877. Later Norwegianowned, and still later a Swedish barkentine and a Greek motorship. To be restored as a museum ship at Victoria, British Columbia.

GIORGIO CINI-ex FANTOME II, ex-BELEMbarkentine, former bark, steel, 168 ft ., 611 tons: Built at Nantes, France in 1896. Later a British yacht . Now operated by a school located in Venice, Italy. GREAT BRITAIN-Hulk, former full-rigged .ship, iron, 289 ft., 3270 tons : Historic North Atlantic passenger steamer built at Bristol, England in 1843. Converted to a sailing ship in 1882. For many years a storage hulk in the Falkland Islands. Now being restored at Bristol. JAMES CRAIG-ex CLAN MACLEOD-Hulk, former bark, iron, 179 ft., 646 tons : Built at Sunderland, England in 1874. Until recently was lying grounded and abandoned in Southern Tasmania. She is now being restored in a Hobart shipyard for a maritime museum at Sydney, Australia. JHELUM-Hulk, wood, 428 tons: Built at Liverpool in 1849. Now lying grounded in the harbor of Port Stanley, Falkland Islands. KAIULANI-ex STAR OF FINLAND, ex-KAIULANl-Hulk, steel, 226 ft., 1571 tons: Built at Bath, Maine in 1899. Now lying beached at Mariveles, Philippine Islands. Restoration proposed by the National Maritime Historical Society. KRUSENSTERN-ex-PADUA-Four-masted . bark, 320 ft., 3064 tons: Built at Wesermunde, Germany in 1926. A Russian training ship since 1946.

FALLS OF CLYDE-Hulk, former four-masted fullrigged ship, iron, 266 ft., 1809 tons: Built at Glasgow, Scotland in 1878. Undergoing restoration as a museum ship at Honolulu.

LADY ELIZABETH-Hulk, former bark, 223 ft., 1208 tons : Built at Sunderland, England in 1879. Lying grounded at Port Stanley in the Islands.

FALSTAFF-Hulk, former full-rigged ship, 238 ft., 1419 tons: Built at Barrow, England in 1875. Grounded to serve as a pier at Punta Arenas,. Chile.

LONSDALE-Hulk, former full-rigged ship, 266 ft., 1756 tons: Built at Londonderry, Ireland in 1889. Now lying beached and partly dismantled at Punta Arenas, Chile.

FENNIA-ex-CHAMPIGNY-hulk, former fourmasted bark, steel, 312 ft., 3112 tons: Built at Le Havre, France in 1902. A storage hulk in the Falkland Islands for forty years. Now being rebuilt in a Uruguayan shipyard. GALATEA-ex-CLARASTELLA, ex-ISLAMOUNT, ex-GLENLEE-bark, steel, 254 ft., 1620 tons: Built at Glasgow, Scotland in 1896. Now a stationary training ship for the Spanish Navy at FerroI.

MOSHULU-ex-DREADNOUGHT, ex-KURT-Hulk, former four-masted bark, steel, 335 ft., 3116 tons: Built at Port Glasgow, Scotland in 1904-for German owners. Later under American and Finnish ownership. Restoration planned by the South Street Seaport Museum in New York. PASSAT-Four-masted bark, steel, 322 ft., 3181 tons: Built at Hamburg, Germany in 1911 .. Now a stationary training ship at Travemunde, Germany. B



courtesy Grahame Farr 9

POMMERN-ex-MNEME-Four-masted bark, steel, 332 ft., 2376 tons: Built at Glasgow, Scotland in 1903 for German owners. Now a museum ship at Mariehamn, Finland.

LIST NO. 2-School S'hips AMERIGO VESPUCCI- Full-rigged ship, steel, 229 ft. , 3542 tons disp .: Built at Castellamare in 1930 for the Italian Navy and still in service.

RONA-ex-POLLY WOODSIDE-Hulk, former bark, iron, 192 ft., 678 tons : Built at Belfast, Ireland in 1885. A coal hulk in Australia since 1922. Proposed museum ship at Melbourne.

CHRISTIAN RADICH-Full-rigged ship, steel, 192 ft. , 676 tons : Built in 1937 at Sandefjord as a training ship for the Norwegian merchant marine and still in service . Home port is Oslo .

SANTO ANDRE-ex-SAGRES, ex-FLORES, exMAX, ex-RICKMER RICKMERS-Bark, steel,. 263 ft., 1980 tons: Built at Bremerhaven, Germany in 1896. Later a Portuguese Naval school-ship. Now a stationary training ship at Lisbon.

DANMARK- Full-rigged ship, steel, 188 ft. , 777 tons : Built in 1933 as a training ship for the Danish merchant marine and still in service. POMORZA-ex-PRINZESS EITEL DAR FRIEDRICH- full-rigged ship, steel, 239 ft., 1566 tons : Built at Hamburg in 1909 as a training ship for the German merchant marine. Now operated by Poland.

SEDOV-ex-KOMMODORE JOHNSEN, ex-MAGDALENE VINNEN-Four-masted bark, steel, 329 ft., 2476 tons : Built at Kiel, Germany in 1921. A Russian training ship since 1946. SIGYN-Barkentine, former bark, wood, 149 ft. , 359 tons : Built at Gothenburg, Sweden in 1887. Now a museum ship at Abo, Finland. She is to be re-rigged as a bark when funds are available. STAR OF INDIA-ex-EUTERPE-Bark, iron, 205 ft ., 1318 tons : Built at Douglas, Isle of Man in 1863. Now a museum ship at San Diego, California. SUOMEN JOUTSEN-ex-OLDENBURG, exLAENNEC-Full-rigged ship, steel, 281 ft. , 2259 tons : Built at St. Nazaire, France in 1902. Later a German merchant marine schoolship and a Finnish Naval schoolship. Now a stationary training ship at Abo, Finland. VICAR OF BRAY-Hulk, former bark, wood, 121.5 ft ., 368 tons : Built at Whitehaven, England in 1841. She is the last survivor of the fleet that arrived in San Francisco during the Gold Rush (1849). Now used as a landing stage at Goose Green, Falkland Islands. VIKING-Four-masted bark, steel, 294 ft ., 2953 tons: Built at Copenhagen in 1907 as a cargo carrying schoolship for the Danish merchant marine . Later Finnish-owned. Now a stationary training ship at Gothenburg, Sweden. WAVERTREE-ex-SOUTHGATE-Hulk, former full-rigged ship, iron, 279 ft., 2170 tons: Built at Southampton, England in 1885. Later a storage hulk in Chile, and a sand barge in Argentina. Now being restored by the South Street Seaport Museum in New York.

DUCHESSE ANNE-ex-GROSSHERZOGIN ELIZABETH- hulk, former full-rigged ship, steel, 226 ft. , 1260 tons: Built at Geestemunde, Germany in 1901 as a training ship for the merchant marine. Since World War II an accommodations hulk for the French Navy at Brest. DUNAY-ex-CRISTOFORO COLOMBO-full-rigged ship, steel , 218 ft., 2787 tons disp .: Built at Castellamare in 1928 for the Italian Navy . Now operated by Russia . EAGLE-ex-HORST WESSEL-bark , steel, 226 ft. , 1634 tons disp .: Built at Hamburg in 1936 for the German Navy . Now operated by the United States Coast Guard Academy in New London, Connecticut. GEORGE STAGE- Full-rigged ship, steel, 124 ft., 298 tons : Built at Frederikshavn in 1935 as a training ship for the Danish merchant marine and still in service. GLORIA- Bark, steel, 250 ft. O.A., 1300 tons disp.: Launched at Bilbao, Spain in 1968 for the Colombian Navy . GORCH FOCK- Bark, steel , 295 ft. 0.A. , 1760 tons disp . : Launched at Hamburg in 1958 for the German Navy. JARRAMAS- Full-rigged ship, iron , 108 ft. , 350 tons disp .: Built in 1900 for the Swedish Navy. Now a restaurant at Karlskrona. JOSEPH CONRAD-ex-GEORGE STAGE-full 10




Colombian Navy

Peter Throckmorton


Edward Mueller

Peter Throckmorton

rigged ship, iron, 101 ft., 203 tons: Built in 1882 as a training ship for the Danish merchant marine. Later a British and an American yacht, and an American merchant marine training ship. Now preserved at Mystic, Connecticut.

schoolship based at Odessa . UNYO MARU- Bark, steel, 134 ft. , 448 tons : Built at Osaka in 1909 as a training ship for the Japanese merchant marine. Now a museum ship at Tokyo .

KAIWO MARU-Four-masted bark, steel , 260 ft., 2284 tons: Built at Kobe in 1931 as a training ship for the Japanese merchant marine and still in service.

LIST NO . 3-Naval and Miscellaneous ANTARNA-ex-PATRIA, ex-ANGELITA, ex-SEA CLOUD, ex-HUSSAR- four-masted bark, steel, 316 ft., 2323 tons: Built at Kiel, Germany in 1931 as an American yacht. Currently laid up at Cristobal , Panama.

LIBERTAD-Full-rigged ship, steel, 301 ft., O.A., 3765 tons disp.: Launched at Rio Santiago in 1956 for the Argentine Navy and still in service. MIRCEA-Bark, steel, 239 ft., 1604 tons disp. : Built at Hamburg, Germany in 1938 for the Rumanian Navy and still in service.

BOUNTY-Full-rigged ship , wood, 118 ft., 480 tons : Built at Lunenburg , Nova Scotia in 1960 as an oversize replica of the famous 18th Century armed merchantman . Now a museum ship at St. Petersburg, Florida.

NAJADEN-Full-rigged ship, wood, 108 ft., 350 tons disp.: Built in 1897 for the Swedish Navy . Now preserved at Halmstad. NIPPON MARU-Four-masted bark, steel, 260 ft., 2284 tons : Built at Kobe in 1930 as a training ship for the Japanese merchant marine and still in service .

BRITON-ex-H.M.S. CALYPSO-Hulk, former bark, steel , 235 ft. , 2770 tons disp.: Built at Chatham, England in 1883 as a steam gunboat. A storage hulk at Lewisporte , Newfoundland since 1952.

PRESIDENTE SARMIENTO-Full-rigged ship, steel, 251 ft. , 2850 tons disp .: Built at Birkenhead, England in 1897 for the Argentine Navy . Now a museum ship at Buenos Aires.

CHARLES W. MORGAN-Full-rigged ship, .wood, 105 ft., 314 tons: The last surviving sailing whaler. Built at New Bedford, Massachusetts in 1841. Now preserved at Mystic, Connecticut.

SAGRES-ex-GUANABARA, ex-ALBERT LEO SCHLAGETER-bark, steel, 295 ft. O.A., 1634 tons disp.: Built at Hamburg in 1938 for the German Navy . Later a Brazilian Naval training ship, and now operated by the Portuguese Navy.

CONSTELLATION-ex-U.S.S. CONSTELLATIONFull-rigged ship , wood , 176 ft., 1278 tons: Built at Norfolk, Virginia in 1855 as a sloop of war. For many years a Naval schoolship. Now being converted at Baltimore to a replica of the earlier frigate of the same name .

SCHULSCHIFF DEUTSCHLAND- Full-rigged ship, steel, 223 ft., 1257 tons: Built at Wesermunde, Germany in 1927 as a merchant marine training ship. Now in stationary service at Bremen. SORLANDET-Full-rigged ship, steel, 172 ft., 577 tons: Built at Kristiansand, Norway in 1927 as a merchant marine training ship and still in service. STATSRAAD LEHMKUHL-ex-GROSSHERZOG FRIEDRICH AUGUST-bark, steel , 258 ft., 1701 tons : Built at Geestemunde, Germany in 1914 as a training ship for the merchant marine. Later operated by a school in Bergen, Norway. Now chartered to various groups . TOV ARITSCH-ex-GORCH FOCK-bark, steel 204 ft., 1604 tons disp . : Built at Hamburg in 1933 for the German Navy. Since World War II a Russian

U.S.S. CONSTITUTION-Full-rigged ship, wood, 175 ft., 1444 tons : Frigate built at Boston, Massachusetts in 1797. Now a museum ship at the Boston Navy Yard . DISCOVERY-Bark, wood, 198 ft. O.A., 751 tons: Built at Dundee , Scotland in 1901 as an Antarctic research vessel. Now a stationary training ship and museum at London . DOLPHIN-ex-H .M.S. DOLPHIN-hulk , former bark, composite, 156 ft., 925 tons disp: Built at Middlesborough, England in 1882 as a steam gunboat. Now a stationary training ship at Leith, Scotland. FOUDROY ANT-ex-H.M.S. TRINCOMALEE- hulk , wood, 150 ft., 1066 tons : Frigate built at Bombay, 12


Norman Brouwer


India in 1817. Now a stationary training ship at Portsmouth, England. GANNET-ex-MERCURY, ex-H.M.S. PRESIDENT, ex-H.M.S. GANNET-hulk, former full-rigged ship, 1130 tons: Built in' 1878 as a steam gunboat. For many years a stationary training ship. Now being restored by the British National Maritime Trust. JYLLAND-hulk , wood, 2457 tons <lisp.: Built at Nyholm in 1860 as a steam frigate for the Danish Navy. Now lying at Ebeltoft, Denmark. There is a movement to have her restored and displayed in part of the old Copenhagen Navy Yard. MEIJI MARV- Full-rigged ship, iron, 240 ft., 1027 tons: Built in Glasgow, Scotland in 1874 as a schooner-rigged steamer for the Japanese lighthouse service. Later converted to a schoolship and rerigged. Now lying at Tokyo. SEUTE DEERN-ex-PIETER A. KOERTS, exBANDI. ex-ELIZABETH BANDI- bark , wood , 179 ft. , 814 tons : Built at Gulfport , Mississippi in 1919 as a four-masted schooner. Later Finnish-owned. Converted to a German merchant marine training ship and rerigged. Later a floating clubhouse in Holland , and now a restaurant at Bremerhaven , Germany .

UNICORN-ex-11.M.S. UNICORN- hulk , intended as full-rigged ship but never placed in service , 151 ft. , 1084 tons: Built as a frigate in 1824. For many years a stationary training ship at Dundee , Scotland. Restoration is planned. URUGUAY- Bark , iron , 158 ft. , 550 tons disp.: Built at Birkenhead, England in 1874 as a stream corvette for the Argentine Navy. Now a museum ship at Rio Santiago. VASA- Hulk , former full-rigged ship , wood , 150 ft ., 1400 tons: Built at Stockholm Harbor in 1628 for the Swedish Navy. Raised from the bottom of the harbor in 1961 and now displayed in a special museum there. II.M.S. VICTORY- Full-rigged ship, wood, 186 ft., 2162 tons: Ship of the Line built at Chatham , England in 1765. Now a museum ship at Portsmouth , England. WARRIOR-ex-H.M.S. WARRIOR-Hulk, former full-rigged ship, wood, 380 ft., 9210 tons: Built at Blackwall, England in 1861 as the British Navy's first armored steam frigate . Now an oil pipeline pier at Pembroke, Wales . Preservation is being considered.



CHARLES W. MORGAN afloat for the first time in 32 years, December 1973. 14.




Peter Throckmorton


Norma Stanford 15


SKAREGR</)M LOG A journal kept by Captain Archie Horka Part II April 29, 1925, Wednesday-This morn before breakfast our watch sent down the torn main tops'! and both watches swayed up and bent another after 8 bells. Wind from nor'ard and she falls off to everyone's chagrin. Thursday, Friday-May I, 1925-A calm fetches up a sou'eastcrly air and plenty of rain. We catch a goodly supply of rain water. Wind rises and goes W.S.W. so that on Friday afternoon it's blowing a gale and a tremendous sea is running. The clearness of the weather had encouraged the Old Man to keep his canvas on and under a press that drove her 11 knots she began to drown herself! Not even down south had she shipped the green so consistently, for no sooner did she try to right herself after a lee roll when another would roll over the rail in a casual, majestic manner as if it must be so and no use trying to avert it. Of course Old Bengston didn't tolerate that for long and with the decks frothing it was a battle royal getting the canvas in. The fore lower t'gallant came

in and then the main upper and lower. I was at the wheel when the watch was clewing up in the lee main rigging and the Skipper insisted on having her up to her course. Up to it she came and over the ship went, taking a veritable ocean aboard! The lads let go and scrambled for the rigging and for a time nothing but heads were visible . When she righted the gang was hung up on ratlines and some of the less fortunates like "Paddy" Hunter came out from under the bulwarks gasping and sputtering for breath. All had a good scare, they averred and the ship almost lost a few hands were it not that they had clung to buntlines and ratlines. Hands were already aloft snubbing the main t'gallants as they were clewed up and the poor gang who had just been nearly drowned had to take in the mizzen upper tops 'I. Relieved of a load of canvas the ship behaved much better and shipped less water, but she's earned the reputation of being a bathtub in the eyes of her crew. The Skipper and Mate are hopeful that this will be our last blow for this is a powerful urge to the 16

Trades and fine weather. For several days "Yank" Stoace, the cast-eyed O.S. from Mass. has been at fogger heads with the Norwegian lads of his watch. This forenoon he got mixed up with a Christiania lad but the Second Mate stopped the fray. It was then arranged to have a match on deck at 1 o'clock and at the appointed hour (2 bells) the gladiators clashed. By a peculiar .coincidence the Mate didn't come forr'd to turn the watch to and maybe he got wind of the affair and thought it best to let the foc'sle settle its own quarrels. Wind of the fray spread and everyone forr'd was gathered in a bunch under the foc'sle head, even the -cook deserting his pots and pans. I had offered to referee and see fair play, a delicate situation for it was more than a quarrel between these two; in fact it was a "blowing off of steam" between the "white-haired" lads and ourselves. I must see to it that I do not favor any side for altho' "Paddy" and John (Chileno) wanted the Christiania kid smeared up hook or crook, I declared we'd have it cleanand square. The Norwegian kid started in his native style of tripping and tackling, but we made him understand that such tactics were considered foul. Hitting in clinches was also barred and as it got under w.ay it assumed the character of a clean sparring match. Neither of them knew much about sparring, hopping about and clawing the air with furious swings, but occasionally a fist would find¡ a face and the crowd rooted harder. Be it said for the gallery that it was very sporty and for most a tense silence pervaded it. Had there been demonstrating, it may have ended up like an Irish wedding, a "free-forall." Well, Yank marked up his man .a bit and seemed to have the edge altho' both were anxious for the least sign to quit. This relief came in the form of a heavy squall and both lads were made to shake hands and the show broke up. It accomplished its purpose for it showed all that hereafter arguments were likely to be threshed out thus rather than allowed to fester. Secondly, it cooled the fighting ardor of these two gamecocks for one was unable to sit down because of a fall on deck and the other nursed a sprained hand where he had met the other's head. "Paddy" Hunter declared it was too tame and said I shouldn't have broke them clinches ; but allowed it to go "clothes, boots and all." But it ended up in a spirit of good nature and bantering, so what mote could be desired. May 2, 1925, Saturday-Noon position-Lat . .36 degrees 30 minutes s.-Long. 32 degrees w.. about due east of Buenos Aires and the River Plate. Heavy sea running and a fresh breeze bowling

us along N.N.E. but the weather is clear and Old Skipper makes sail during the day. May 3, 1925, Sunday-The oncoming tr.ade.-like weather limbered the lads up and there was gambolling about decks as lambs in spring. Bodies that hadn 't been washed for many weeks were now scrubbed and heavy clothing stowed away. This evening for the first time since leaving the Australian Bight and fine weather all hands gathered on the main hatch and had a "" Danish George furnished the music with his harmonica and several accompanied with "crackers;' ' two sticks held between the fingers of one hand and allowed to clap against each otlier. Dancing was also indulged in, the Norwegian lads doing a step for our benefit and the more graceful of our clique giving off a fox-trot of a kind. It denotes a thawing out and relaxing all 'round. May 4, 1925, Monday-Head wind continued from north and twice we wear ship, finally laying her up on the port tack, E. by N. Lighter canvas taken in. Start to get out wire for a new outer-jib stay that parted some weeks ago. May 5, 1925, Tuesday-A deceiving squall played us a prank this afternoon and. altho' it marked us up a little the like has proven the undoing of many a fine ship. I was at the wheel from 1:00 to 2:30 P .M. and observed the squall working aft; indeed it was.down so far as to cause the Mate to consider it passed. But tho' already astern it assumed such a blue-black and greasy appearance that it portended evil so the Skipper was called. A shift of wind was portended and as this often comes with a heavy squall, precautions must be taken! As I was relieved at the wheel the mainsail was being clewed up and luckily was quickly .snug in the gear. The squall bore down out of the nor'west as we were hauling down the fore upper t'gallant (mizzen being in ) and almost instantly laid the vessel over ! The buntlines were forgotten and the Mate mounted his place on the poop to con the helmsman. The Old Man was already there and even . the Steward, who was become panicky was lending a hand at the lee wheel. The Mate ordered the helm "down" to bring her up to the wind, but the Skipper overruled him and wiped her off or attempted to do so for she never did come off! It was now raining in torrents and the stricken, ship was laying over with her lee rail under water while we 'thout oilskins sought shelter under the overhang at the break of the poop, all drenched through . The Mate eased off the mizzen tops'l halliards so as to sort of reef the sail and we hurried 17

forr 'd to slacken down the fore and main. This relieved her some and appeared to be all she needed when "crack" and "flap" and a commotion forr'd shifted the scene of activity. The inner jib-stay had parted as the outer had done before and from the foc'sle head we surveyed the sorry spectacle of .a heavily-wetted sail hanging in the sea from the boom, that must be retrieved. This done we set about to rig preventer gear temporarily and for this purpose a mooring wire was got up out of the fore hatch. The end of this was sent aloft and a turn shackled onto its own part round the doubling in the crosstrees. The lower end was rove thru' the sheave on the jibboom and hove down with the .capstan. This served nicely as an outer jib stay. For the.inner jib a heavy purchase of two double-fold blocks and 3 inch rope was clapped onto a chain strap on the end of the parted stay. When this was hove down, the job was secure and snug for anything. Now comes a mooted question: who was right, the Skipper or the Mate in ordering the helm as he did. It would appear that a vessel struck by a squall is best able to withstand the force by falling off and thus taking the brunt of the wind in her strongest parts, the backstays and braces. Thus the Old Man would seem to be in the right. However, there is another theory advanced in support of the Mate's action. Tho' it is wisest to fall off for an approaching squall and take it full ; when suddenly caught, as we were, and laid lee rail under it is sometimes impossible to get her off owing to the heeling. This is precisely what happened to us for she didn't budge a point and was relieved only when the tops'l yards were eased down and after the squall had spent itself. Would it not have been good judgment to have luffed and taken the wind so that it did not exert its force full on the rigging but more on the hull and under easier canvas, have kept her so? I have seen it attested that this is sound judgment and therefore support the Mate. But, right or wrong his order was overruled and the Old Man's command prevailed altho' it might just as well never to have been uttered as it could not be executed in the light of circumstances. A very good point for discussion this. May 6, 1925, Wednesday-Sent aloft and .seized a new inner jib stay on this forenoon, the job being such a one as a man rarely gets at sea these days. Very instructive and fine practice in the. practical end of the business. Fine southeast wind and yards squared to it heading N.N.E. Glorious! May 7, 1925, Thursday-Flat calm this morning, and very hot. Before breakfast dolphins were seen around and the Mate, keen on such sport, got .out his line. Both he and "Chile" were at it in earnest with

the lucky result that a dozen small fish were landed on the foc 'sle head. A busy group, both watch below and the gang on watch were hard at it skinning and cleaning the fish after breakfast. They were served up for supper, quite tasty and satisfying after the hard, monotonous ship's fare . The only unpleasantry about this fishing business is that instead of fishing so as to enjoy a meal out of the usual run we merely fish to conserve! When the fish were served, the usual course was omitted and hell's fire it was fish, fish, fish , for three meals afterwards, fish until there was no more left. Economical folks, eh! Position at nt:>on 29 degrees S-30 degrees W. May 8 and 9, Friday-Saturday-Ideal weather with a glorious moon. Ship close hauled on port tack barely making N.N.E . Fine moon these nights. Position at noon 28 degrees S-27 degrees W. The last seizings were clapped on the stays today and.the job is of a permanent and professional nature. A new inner jib stay was rigged and the mooring wire was turned up and seized in place for an outer-jib stay. Then a heavy preventer stay was hove down with wire lanyard and set fast on the boom next the inner jib stay, thus securing the whole as taut as ever. May 10, 1925, Sunday-Wind sneakingly works 'round to south and south-east and at sundown it freshens giving rise to a general belief that we're at last in the southeast trade. Today, a new system of wheel tricks was inaugurated for heretofore the sea and weather had made it impractical to send the lads to the.helm. But now that fine weather is come all hands are to .take their tricks. This is done so that the older fellows can be available for the numerous jobs to be done in the trades and is unjust in a way for it's hard to think that after sticking out long, cold wheel tricks down in the "50's" and looking ahead to the balmy trades , it's now given to others to enjoy the cream! But we all must learn I reckon, besides with eight taking the wheeJ it means longer free spells and plenty of dozing on the night watches. The glorious moon these nights has worked miracles not the least of which is that the lass has become friendly and tonight "the ice was broken." The adventure promises to develop into a little romance and in the future I shall remember and look back upon this trip with fond thoughts, consequently it were fitting to delineate the workings of Cupid! I shall chronicle the little incidents one by one and it will be interesting to note how the flame burns brighter and brighter. I was surprised tho' a bit pleased when I learned upon coming aboard at Port Adelaide that the skipper carried his daughter with him. I had oft 18

heard of the amusing experiences of fellows under such circumstances and was anxious to see for myself. The first glimpse of the young lady was had when she came aboard in the steam launch with her father. The lads "manned" the rail in force and feasted their eyes on a display of well-filled silkhosiery red garters, etc! Tho' curious myself, !restrained me and stayed forr 'd, feigning indifference, preferring to view the situation from afar as yet. The lass had the peach-bloom complexion and flaxen hair of the Nordic race and was exceedingly well-formed. She was aware of her position.aboard and rather haughtily dashed aft after giving a few curt words to the steward. Following this she went ashore and was not seen again till the Skipper came off on sailing day. While we were getting under way the lass shifted into a dull-red dress, presumably an old one for use about ship and surveyed the scene from the poop with her dad. Now follow me; what I am about to say is not in vanity, but the result of a keen observation and a deduction that when closely thrown together men and women disregard social barriers and consider only the physical appeals. I shall mention only the incidents that occurred to . me, what others experienced I don't know. Sailing day, the lads hurrying about decks in obedience to the Mate's commands and a group of us making for the poop ladder to haul taut the t'gallant braces. The girl was conversing with the steward and faced so as to see us. I gazed full at her and quickly turned away observing at the same time that she did likewise. Nearer the ladder, my eyes wandered to hers again and tho ' apparently intent in the conversation she had her another look, then another and by now we were mounting the ladder and at the braces. This was what aroused my interest and promised diversion for the months to come. The following weeks were occupied with affairs remote from those of the heart and I nearly forgot the existence of the girl for owing to the stormy weather she usually kept below. In sunshiny. spells she'd come up, bundled in a loose fitting top-coat and a becoming boy's cap and spend an hour or so promenading with the Mate or her father. At such times, I purposely averted my eyes for she appeared to be coy, shy and I thought that coarse gazing would embarrass her and drive her below. True, when she'd come up from below I'd greet her but ever so formally and she seemed to bite her tongue in answering so I reck'd that here was a "princess" that kept her place aboard, all right, too bad they can't screen the wheel in so that the sailors can't offend with their vulgar stares ! But, of course

I didn't know then. I noticed she began coming to air herself oftener fair weather or foul and usually huddled in the shelter of the weather cloth, rigged in the mizzen rigging. Here the Mate bantered and amused her in a big-brotherly way (for they're cousins) . and I noticed that she always faced about so as to view the wheelman. Ha, the wench! After gazing here and there and finding the horizon monotonous I began to find it restful to look at her and she seemed to find the same interest in me, tho ' I must have been a forbidding wretch wrapped in oilskins and a big sou'wester pulled down over one eye while a drawn expression of misery leered out from under it. As quickly were the eyes withdrawn lest she suspect me of designing to become familiar and never a smile was exchanged. But one fine day she walked the poop herself like a lost soul and walked all round the wheel box, even sitting on the side opposite to me. Maybe, I'm stupid but I feigned disinterestedness anyhow and tho' I felt her eyes surveying me I found the compass very interesting that day and nothing startling happened. After this whenever she'd sit under the weather cloth, I thought that at times she wanted openly to smile and I'd open up but apparently not enough for the suspicious twinkle quickly vanished and the light died. I was getting to look forward to my wheel-tricks now for I notieed that with improving weather milady was there with the stroke of the bell. The gang forr 'd was vying with each other and whenever one would receive a pleasant "good morning" the breakfast table heard about it. Care of the person was also noticeable and chins were scraped often, altho' " Paddy" Hunter went to the other extreme of growing a fine red beard and mustache that he trained in Van Dyke fashion . But I refrained from all attempts at fastidiousness, curious to find out what the attraction was ; wearing my one shift a week and washing whenever the muck impaired the sight. As yet never a word was exchanged twixt us, for myself I thought it just as well. But one dog-watch as I was atihe wheel from 6:30P.M. to 8:00 P .M. the lass stayed up late and as eight bells came on she watched the clock closely. It was the usual thing for the Mate to give the wheelman the .time but tonight after two or three glimpses, she shly informed me that it was now "ota Klas" (eight bells in Norwegian). Startled, I didn't understand at first and she repeated it at which the Mate laughed and jollied me for not being able to hear a young girl speak to me. The next day as she was watering the pot~plants in the skylight the usual "good morning" accompanied by a pronounced smile which I returned 19

in full. Ha! boy, coming on, eh? She also began to primp and attire herself with care, even resorting to silken hose and frequent changes of frocks which became her sturdy, girlish figure stunningly. Now on this particular day, Sunday May 10th, she had been very bewitchingly attired in a short gray skirt, gray silken hose and an embroidered blouse and I irked with impatience . to go to the wheel, being all day free . When my wheel trick came around from 8:00 to 9 :00 in the evening, the lass was there in a bizarre striped sweater and she looked pretty in the moonlight. The Mate, purposely or no I can't say, stayed away for a while and in this interval the girl came close to the wheel and I impulsively complimented her on the prettiness of .her appearance ! A capital stroke! The lass gushed and buried her face happily in the fur of the Persian cat she held in her arms thanking me coyly at the same time . This smoothed the way until the Mate came 'round and he helped admirably the dear man by furnishing most of the bantering and conversation for the whole hour. We talked of their home .town and drew comparisons, in fact a very proper conversation. I was quite pleased with the accomplishment of the hour for now at last the ice was. broken, thought I. But more later. May 11, 1925, Monday-Bounding along under a fine trade wind. We're in 19 degrees South, about 1,100 miles to the Equator. With the advent of the trades the ship settles down to a regular routine of work, a man delegated to each top for overhauling and one man told off as day man to work on sail. This last occasioned a little trouble for "Chile" John was told off on Sunday that he was to go off watch as dayman on the following day . Naturally bull-headed, John resented the idea as he had already turned it down when the Second Mate broached the subject to him before. He claimed that the prolonged sitting posture when working on sail aggravated a sharp pain across his chest, the result of injury when a boy. There was truth in this for long before he had oft complained of a stiff neck and when suddenly rising to an erect from a sitting posture a distinct crick was heard in his chest. Consequently, when John refused to go "dayman" today the Old Man was surprised and became angry. He called him aft and ordered.him to go about his work and when told that he was sick, he thought John was "soldiering" and told turn in. "Chile" laid up for the rest of the day and the next day . May 12, 1925, Tuesday-The Old Man summoned him aft , as well as "Paddy" Hunter and myself, to witness punishment, we thought then. We filed aft into the saloon and there sat the

Skipper, his specs far down the bridg~ of his nose over which he frequently frowned in a formidable manner. Bidding us to be seated, he gruffly called to the Mate to bring the official log! Aha ! Log eh? With several books of Norwegian Marine Law before him he began to read and dictate to the Mate the .nature of the charge, interspersing his dictation with occasional frowns at us over his glasses. He certainly assumed all the solemnity of a judge and in justice to his efforts we should have quaked and quivered. The Second Mate's door was ajar and the cook and steward had of a sudden found it necessary to be in the pantry, just within earshot. They were all on hand to hear the Skipper make the ten pounder back water, I reckon. When the charge was translated to us it to effect that the "seaman, John Oyarzo, had willfully disobeyed the captain's order and refused to perform his duty, pleading ill and unable to perform his work. " He then asked John brusquely, "Do you refuse to work? You say you do not refuse to work about deck or aloft and if you can do one kind of work, why cannot you do the other? " Frequently he raised his hand like a priest of the benediction and stopped John's interruptions with a "That'll do, you're here to listen." At this juncture the "witnesses" assembled to "witness the punishment" thought it time to intercede, for John in his broken English was getting unjustly dealt with . Between "Paddy" Hunter and myself we informed him that to our knowledge the argument hinged on John's refusing to go <layman. Yes, that was the keynote of it all, he replied. Well, is it within his right to insist upon a man's. doing work that is harmful to him? and : further, the man has expressed his willingness to work and stay his watch, thereby clearing him from the charge of "refusing duty." But if he can do one kind of work why not the other, he retorted? We reasoned, that oftimes a man was so incapacitated that he could do no active work , yet willingly took the wheel .and look-out to help out, thus making him immune to a charge of soldiering. John was so placed; willing to work at anything within physical ability. Then he asked how do we know he's sick, why hadn't he reported it before? We replied that he had often complained of it and his shipmates could corroborate his statements, but with him as with many men who take pride in their work, it was a case of carry on and not lay up like one with the "Cape fever." This rally was unexpected and took "old grey locks" aback . We were summoned to "listen" and here we were doing all the talking . Seeing that he could not honestly impose punishment he added to the charge that "Upon investigation anti statements 20

The author <right> and shipmate relax against the charthouse. of two witnesses, it was made out that the accused was ill and unable to perform certain duty, however showing his willingness to do the work he was able to do." With that he stated that the matter stands adjourned till we come to England when with proper medical examination it will be ascertained whether John is sick or not. "And," added he, "I will take the consequences and so will you! " With a last growl and frown the case was dismissed and "court" adjourned after we had signed our names to the statements in the official log book. Personally, I think the matter will rest thus for nothing more is heard since "court adjourned." However, it will be an interesting procedure if he keeps his word . Further: It developed the "Paddy" is to go dayman, seeing that John is officially "sick." Wind from E.N.E. bringing an ungodly drizzle down. Excellent paint scrubbing weather tho' disgusting work. Ship going along at 10 knots. May 13, 1925, Roaring trades, these; more like the "forties" for a high sea is running and heavy squalls bear us along . Heavy rains . T'gallants (upper), still she makes day's runs exceeding those in the westerlies. May 14, 1925-At daylight a sail was sighted ahead on the port bow. The cry was raised and even

The captain's daughter . the watch below turned out to behold such an unusual sight. The good old SKAREGROM was actually overhauling another fellow so that by noon she was a little forr 'd of the port beam, about four miles off. Noon position 13 degrees S-Long. 24 degrees W. The stranger was made out to be a full-rigged ship, carrying double t'gallants and royals on fore and main and only one on the mizzen. This gave us the conviction that she was the Finnish Ship P ARCHIM which had left Port Adelaide better than a fortnight before us . The skippers of both ships had been very chummy and the impression and belief was that the black-painted old "P" liner would make a good passage for she had many good runs to her name yet here was the white-painted old CASTLETON caught up with her after seventy-five days at sea and actually passing her in one watch! About one o'clock the fellow was made out to be showing his colors from the monkey gaff and the glasses were trained on him. Sure enough it was the blue and white field of the Finnish Republic and the black hull and rigging at once proclaimed her to be the PARCHIM. The mate ran up the newest and biggest flag he had in the color locker and the old duster snapped smartly in the half gale. A beautiful contrast it made too, its bright red and blue with the white of her sails. The two ships dipped to each 21

other and all the time, it was discernible that we were drawing away from him. After coffee-time (3:00 P.M. ) the watch hoisted the mizzen .upper t'gallant, the Skipper's last card as it were and this must have taken the heart out of the Finn for he already had all his clothes on even a "crojack" where we had none bent. The sight of these two ships meeting thus and saluting each other is impressive and not without a tinge of romance. Talk of your precise yacht-racing over short and marked courses where the wind must be just so and the high-strung toys of rich men handled like bric-a-brac! This long, ocean voyaging from one end of the globe to another; ships leaving from the same port and ploughing over thousands of miles of sea-lanes never seeing each other for months yet ever aware that somewhere in roaring westerly or pounding it off Cape Horn or mayhap snoring thru ' the trades, the rivals are ever doing their utmost to get on. Not with the alacrity and smartness of the tea-clippers and wool-ships that raced for rewards but each one taking advantage of the weather that offered as a matter of routine and trying to do justice by his ship. Here was this lofty full-rigger abreast of us, three lofty pyramids of canvas silhouetted against the sky , his yards braced with the niceness that a deep-water mate strives to attain, when closehauled. The sea is extensive and days, nay weeks, since they lay together off Semaphore have passed yet here they are saluting each other again after thousands of miles are traversed. Each had her bath and drowned decks and blustery gales in the westerlies and studying their charts the skippers likely ran their fingers over "the same tracks their vessels were to pursue. So it is that like runningin a groove they find each other , these ocean racers of the deep water fraternity . I wonder what he thought as we passed him the afternoon ? Viewed from the lee side as he saw us , the sun gleaming on our white hull and great squareness of canvas, our "jubilee" rig giving more the appearance of squat doggedness rather than the graceful loftiness that was his, surely he might have thought that here was a stauncher, more weatherly ship than mine that must have "walloped" along down south when I had to nurse my charge. And how rude it must have appeared to him when thru ' his glass he made out another black square of canvas slowly assume shape on the mizzen when like a farewell wave of a handkerchief we gave her the upper t'gallant. By sundown she was well down to leeward and when darkness shut down only an occasional glimmer of light showed us where she was.

Needless to say our skipper was quite proud of his achievement and tho' he admitted that the other fellow must have met with adversity or perhaps nursed along too much, he didn't omit to mention that the SKAREGROM did her performing down in the west winds where she was "given the ship." We're getting to think well of the old ship what with overhauling and passing another, eh? May 15, 1925-At sunrise the PARCHIM was made out about three miles astern and with the light breeze that prevailed this past night appears to have gained on us. The sight he presented; the sun setting his lofty pyramid aglow would have inspired a painter. May 16, 1925, Saturday-With the booming trades we were fast approaching the Equator and the boys started talking of "Neptune. " Now, this ancient ceremony which is always remembered by those who have been thru ' it at sea, is practiced but little in ships today and consequently is dying out. I have read considerable of the proceedings and heard it related of what hilarity usually was produced. Now our crowd was composed of young blood, ever ready for a frolic and there being men among them who were making their first trip to sea . "Paddy" Hunter conceived the idea initiations en masse. True there was but one who had not crossed the Line, but we reckoned the more the merrier so it was secretly decided to "purge" the entire bunch of Scandina¡ vian lads who have come down in the ship on the passage out. "Chile" John also contributed suggestions and "Paddy " having witnessed several such ceremonies in men-o-war and passenger boats outlined the program. Thus , was launched the idea and this afternoon, on free watch we set to work making the necessary gear. Unlike the preparations fathers and mothers make for Christmas, preparations done in secret, we worked in the open letting the boys see the costumes and implements of torture that were to be used. This set them all a-talking and for the next few days anticipation ran high as to how they would fare. We told them "bogey " yarns of frightful paintings of the body and matting the hair and subjecting them to embarrassing exposures . At this they stated they wouldn't submit to the game for they weren't g~ing to be humiliated with the afterguard and the Skipper's girl looking on! No , there'd be a revolt in the ranks, they said. We made a wig of rope-yarns worked over a wire framing and tried it on "Paddy's" head, evidence that he was to play King Nfeptune. It was made so that the beard, long hair, and sweeping mustaches, when draped over the shoulders and c.ombed out produced a hoary, whitce appearance ; 22


the desired effect. Next, a crown was cut out of a butter tin so that a huge star surmounted it on the front. "Paddy" cut out a cloak and sewed stars and a moon on it, then made a trident of a broom handle and some old iron. "Finn" Wickholm was delegated as barber and "Arne" Gulbransen who produced a "discharge" of a "cleansing" in the last ship, was to be doctor. In the days following each made his own gear. "Finner," a cloak, an albatross beak with a moustache that fitted nicely over the nose while the ''doctor'' cutout a long, canvas robe and managed a pair of black goggles somewhere. Seeing these preparations going on and noticing the perpetrators in confidential council of a dog-watch, the victims were in a high state of anticipation and the trade wind swept us onward across the latitudes. I undertook a big job of making the discharges and in my efforts to repay the lads for their submission, I painted a pretty little testimonial that won their admiration. At the top in the centre was painted a tiny picture of Neptune driving thru' a foam-flecked sea, his golden chariot drawn by leaping mermaids. At each side of this was painted a gaudy Norwegian flag that gave the whale a colorful note. Then in lettered script followed the testimonial to the effect that, "By these present be it known to all Ancient Mariners of the Briny, all shell backs; all dolphins, porpoises and sea-urchins of the deep and all those duly initiated that (name) has this day been presented before me and accepted into the fold after due payment has been exacted. Aboard Ship SKAREGROM of Grimstad, Bengtson, Master this (date) of May, 1925. Lat 0 degrees 00'-Long. " Then in flowing red letters adorned with green "seaweed" followed "Neptunus-Rex" and under this was left a space for the Skipper's signing. In the lower left-hand corner was pasted a bright red seal adorned with a crossed anchor and a trident. This made a very presentable little discharge and altho' it was an undertaking that required my close application for several days I felt repaid in the subsequent merriment that followed. May 17, 1925, Sunday-Light, zephyr-like trades : Hot weather. The boys engage energetically in exercises of various kinds. Swinging in the hanging-rings and skipping rope are favorite pastimes just now. This afternoon I had a few rounds of sparring with young Sverre, a hefty young Norwegian lad and we worked up a good sweat. Followed this with a refreshing salt-water dousing and felt like a new man. The following days were characterized by light airs and rain squalls an indication that we're approaching the calm belt.

While at the wheel on Tuesday, I asked permission of the Skipper to stage the Neptune ceremonial and asked him to sign the dozen discharges. He seemed a little surprised that we should have thought of the idea for it's so seldom done, but he told me to go right ahead, he had no objections. Emboldened thus, I asked him further whether he'd object to our presenting the young lady with a discharge. He looked over his glasses at this and said gruffly, "But she isn't to be shaved!" Oh, no! No liberties would be taken and nothing of an offensive nature would be performed thru'out, we said. Then when further prodded about ."wetting" the show with a little spirits as is the custom he said that spirits had little of interest for him, but his tone was such as to cause me to believe he'd be sporty and come thru'. We had already arranged matters with the Mate, bless his heart, and while policing the deck of a night he gave me suggestions and help with the discharges. With a diplomatic forethought I had conceived the idea of making out several of the discharges in Norwegian for those of that nationality. I gave the Mate one of those written out in English and next day he handed me a translation that he and the Second Mate had worked out. This stroke pleased all hands highly for it showed we desired to be fair with them . Wednesday, May 20, 1925-This noon we crossed the Equator but as we 'had arranged the show for tomorrow, the boys had to curb their impatience. By a most happy bit of fortune it chanced that tomorrow (Thursday, May 21, 1925) is Ascension Day, a holiday in Norwegian ships and this gives us a whole day to stage a show and sleep it off afterwards. It now wants but a bit of consideration on the part of the weather . Note: Crossed the Equator in 26 degrees 45 minutes W. May 21, 1925, Thursday-Ascension Day. Holiday aboard, the day appointed for the festivities of Neptune, dawned bright and clear, bearing promise of holding fine thru' the forenoon. We have the morning watch on deck, which was spent in preparing the "stage." Amidships, just abaft the mainmast was a clear space of deck right up to the half-deck house which now houses the carpenter and "Sails." Forr'd of this house is a small trunk hatch opening into the hold. This hatch we chose for the "throne" of Neptune and altho' it placed his back to the spectators on the bridge atop the halfdeck it afforded a good survey of his court and saved him the embarrassment of gazing fullinto the faces of the "people." Atop this hatch we set several boxes and concealed their ugliness with the graceful 23

draping of old canvas. Around the main Fife-rail we set two barrels which were filled with the salt water for ablutions, for want of the customary canvas tanks . Buckets were neatly arranged alongside these barrels and then boxes were set down for the "candidates" to sit on whilst being "worked" on. To divide this "court" into a sort of "purgatory" and that section accessible only to those "of whom due payment was exacted," a t'gallant brace was stretched across the deck, athwartships and with that our stage was all ready for the little comedy. At breakfast all talk was of the "shenanigans" and a curious group collected outside the bosn's locker which served the "cast" as a dressing room. "Paddy" was arrayed first and was a perfect Neptune! Atop of the heavy hair I have described was set the bestarred crown at an angle just hinting at jauntiness. His cloak, draped over one shoulder left the other arm exposed and dropped to his knees. For realism we had persuaded him to disrobe and appear as nearly nude as he dared, but no urging would get him to shed his trousers! He compromised by rolling them well up under the cloak but have them on he must in case the drapery carried away, said he! His feet were shod in a pair of leather Romeos and his bare calves had wound around them a rope of sennit crossed and re-crossed like a Roman senator's. Truly he was a picturesque figure and were it not that he insisted on holding a cigarette in his teeth the while we made preparations, one would think Old Nep had stepped out of a picture. Next we rigged the Barber which was to be played by "Finner." A sack cut sleeveless and belted at the waist served as his main article of array. Atop his head was placed a conical cap of coconut husk , the kind that is sold in the West Indies and this struck a romantic note. But best of all was his albatross beak . He had fitted a rope yarn mustache to it and it slipped snugly over his nose so that you'd hardly know the man. Legs bared from the knees , he looked really like some monstrous half-man and half-bird one would expect to consort with creatures of the deep. In his belt he carried a huge wooden razor, the blade measuring about two feet in length and for shaving soap, a well filled can of black paint and graphite that was to be "sloshed" on with a big paint brush; this completed the barber's rig. The "doctor" had on a long canvas robe and atop his head a tall, tin cylindrical hat that was painted black. A pair of black goggles completed his costume and his stock in trade included two bottles of medicine, a can of "pitch" and a hefty pair of blacksmith's tongs for extracting teeth. It was our intention at first to have two

policemen but "Chile" John seemed out of. spirits and it being his wheel the first hour, he seized this as an excuse for declining to take part in the game. Fortunately he was the only man out of tune with the sport for had there been more it would have dampened the show. Consequently it devolved upon myself to officiate as policeman and I began to attire myself some little bit. My long oilskin coat drawn in at the waist with a wide belt of fancily braided marline and adorned with a huge, red star was my principal piece of costumery. A green felt hat also bearing a red star and held on the head with a chin strap served as head gear and the badge of office was a thick heaver with a lanyard thru' the end that allowed it to be swung like a New York cop's nightstick. Paddy painted some hirsute .effects on the face and that completed the policeman's masque. The two-wheeled truck we had managed from below had a box nailed on its front and canvas was thrown across for effect. Plenty of red paint on the wheels and side and "Neptune's Car" was ready. The entire company gathered forr'd under the foc'sle head and hung about till half-nine when .word came along that the "people" had breakfasted and were ready to witness the revels. Then the leash was slipped and the show was on! There was a rapid ringing of the ship's bell accompanied by an unearthly din of shackles in tin cans and all hands ho~ling and yipping at the top of their voices. Neptune mounted his chariot and was drawn rapidly along the deck to amidships and so unsteady was his mount that he had to grasp the box before him with both hands tho' he tried to stand majestically holding his trident and appear serene. The chariot came hurtling along the deck at a goodly pace and being of an unmanageable construction it swerved sharply into the galley door nearly unshipping the door and unhorsing "his majesty." This brought guffaws from the victims who must stay forr 'd until called and also excited merriment among the spectators on the bridge. Here stood the Skipper whose deep laughter was something we had never heard before. The girl was rigged in holiday attire and a frequent titter and a laugh were heard from her, while the young Second Mate, easily aroused to laughter at any time, was now in constant hysterics. The Mate stood a bit in advance of this group with a book in hand, ready to play his little part. Well, when we got the chariot under way again we hauled it smartly up into the space atnaft the main-mast and were pleased to hear thte complimentary remarks about the costumery. 1'.1Jeptune then alighted and in a loud voice hailed thle ship. :24


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Crew of the SKARE GROM poses for a picture following ceremonies for crossing the Equator.

"Ship, ahoy, what ship is that?" The Mate in like spirit sang out "Ship SKAREGROM, Port Adelaide to Queenstown." His Nibs then demanded to know whether there were any aboard who had not been cleansed and paid the usual dues when crossing his dominions. "Yes," replied the Mate, "we've twelve or so aboard and here are their names." With that the policeman advanced and was handed the book containing the list of wretches. Neptune then seated himself on his throne and the doctors made ready for the victims. The first name was read out of the book, that of a big Norse Deck Boy who was to be sworn in as policeman as soon as passed. I picked him out forr'd and led him blindfolded and naked save for a pair of trousers, to the execution. He was seated upon the box amid a hushed silence, the gang forr'd straining its eyes from around the forr'd house to see what awaited them. "Big Boy" was first looked over by the doctor who sounded him well with carpenter's mallet and the cook's funnel for a stethoscope. An occasional rap would find a protruding bone that brought forth protests but that was as it should be, of course. Then his teeth were looked at and when the big tongs were applied the grip was so firm that any wriggling would mean the loss of a tooth, so the lad usually behaved. Sitting thus, submissively with jaws wide open, he was ready for his next treat-

ment. Seizing the bottle of vinegar and "God knows what" the doctor poured a goodly quantity down the unsuspecting wretch's throat and there was a furious sputtering and gasping whilst the "house" reared on its hind legs and applauded with laughter. The soap and pepper and dough pills were then jammed into reluctant teeth and the doctor pronounced his man ready for the shaving process. The barber dipped his swab deep into the pot and brought up a good brush full of the black ointment which he applied with a free hand to the face, the chest and under the arms. Seeing the white nakedness thus changed to a shiny black brought low laughter and affected horror from the gallery and the girl most of all. When the man was well "lathered" the big razor was brought across his features and thus was he purged. Next came the ablutions, usually a ducking in a tank butas we had no canvas we had other means. Some of the lads we stood up on a canvas mat and one man jerked this smartly from under his feet. Away would go his underpinning and as he sprawled over the dec11., splash, splash, a couple of buckets of good seawater or some water the cook had just scrubbed his potatoes in. The lighter chaps and those who showed resistence, we grasped by the legs (when the other policeman was sworn in) and turned them over head-down into the barrel. So zealous were we to 25

give them plenty that the Mate sang out "not so long, boys," for the victims came out well filled with water and short of air. Then when he had been passed by the doctor and was still spitting out the infernal drink, and the barber's razor had spread the blacking still more over him, the water running from him after the dipping he was stood before the "King" and shaken by the hand. This was done on the other side of the brace, "across the Line" figuratively, and the King greeted him and acknowledged him as one of the accepted with the warning to bring his discharge with him next time else he'd be subjected to the same treatment. In this manner, we treated all the eleven, some causing -more merriment by their nervousness and obstinacy under treatment. We had no "thrill," no bucking till the last man. Kersten Grom, a stalwart young Norwegian who didn't like the idea of his being left till last and tho' he walked between the two "coppers" in a docile manner till he got nearly to the "arena" there he "up and at 'em." He kicked the feet from under the gawky Norwegian policeman first and I, unsuspecting anything, was taken by surprise. I forgot club and oilskin coat and all, only seeing an unruly one before me who was going to show the "police force" up! I jumped on him and he caught me by the middle in such a manner that he swung me off my feet. The big Norse boy who was policeman stood by oblivious of duty, honor and country leaving the task all to me. The gallery, by now swelled with a dozen blackened past victims cheered the unruly lad and laughed gleefully to see the "police force" being so roughly handled. Well, determined to make him appear before the King, and uphold the traditions of the seaguardians I hung on to the "mustang" tenaciously tho' handicapped by a great oilskin coat. Down to the deck we came and into the scuppers we rolled all of which provided great fun for the "house" no doubt but which was making it a life for me. Neptune himself rooted for his guardsman and the Old Man also bellowed to "make him take his medicine." Finner, tho' Barber, drew off his albatross beak and came to the fray. He caught the lad's legs and then it was an easy matter to carry him, still struggling to the "bar of justice." We pinned him to the deck and smeared him over well, much to the joy of the "heathen" who were now glad that the outlaw was to be tamed. I put in a good brushful on my own account and then we allowed him to appear before the King . All the gang had now been passed and there was a hemming and hawing as Neptune announced that there was yet another name, that of Miss Gudveig Bengtson, and he desired that she be brought.before him . With protests and blushes of embarrassment

the lass was got down whilst her Dad slyly told us to give her a daub with the brush, else she wouldn't be a daughter of the sea. As she took Neptune's proferred hand I dipped a couple of fingers in the paint pot and brought them nicely down the ~urve of her nose! For a fleeting moment she was indignant, but then like a good sport she joined in the merriment whilst "Pa" Bengtson showed all his teeth in a good round laugh. She was saved from further torture by his saying that he'd pay the forfeit! Ah! Immediately thirsty lips smacked at that. The entire group was now seated before his Majesty and he then read the discharge aloud so that it was properly impressed upon them. The doctor read the Norwegian translation in fairness to all concerned; then each was handed his discharge in turn. Paddy had suggested singing a merry ditty as a finale and all hands joined in with heartiness. ''All the nice gals love a sailor; all the nice gals love a tar," and so on, a merry swing to it and the words a fitting description of the joys that are a sailor's when he's full blown! This closed the performance and then the entire group stood for photos of which several were taken. Then the Old Man invited Neptune aft and Paddy came forr'd triumphantly with a bottle of Danish aquavit under each arm! Hooray! The perfect finish to a perfect show! Cheers rang in the foc'sle as the spirit was doled out and eulogies were.sung in praise of Captain Bengtson and his daughter, tho' what epithets he'd have received had he been contrary is not nice to mention. With the spirit under their belts the lads spent the holiday sleeping and easing their minds that at last, now that the "milling" was over they could sleep easy. Paddy and I congratulated ourselves on the happy success of the whole proceedings and the sporty manner in which the skipper ''saw it through." We had done our duty by the younger element in the foc'sle in showing them, and helping to keep up, an ancient custom of the sea .. To be concluded in the next issue of Sea History.

Alexander Byron would like to return to New Bedford a whaling ship which sailed from there 103 years ago . She is the ANSEL GIBBS , which sank in northwest Hudson Bay in the winter of 1872.

Byron, an amateur historian who is active in efforts to restore New Bedford, decided! that the ship, rediscovered accidentally by scub)a divers in 1970, could become a monument ancd tourist attraction to bolster the old city's ecomomy. 26

Sydney Cove Waterfront Museum


A remarkable new maritime museum in Sydney, Australia maintains four historic steamers and is reaching out to recover and restore one of the hulks of the historic squareriggers that brought Australia its people and its trade. The four steamers are the 77 ft. steam launch, LADY HOPETOUN (1902), the tugs WARATAH (1902) and WATTLE (1933) and the 168 ft. pilot ship JOHN OXLEY (1927) . The immediate objective of the hard-working people who formed the museum is to preserve and actually operate historic ships that should be saved because they believe, as a museum publication notes, that "the ideal way to capture the full flavor of old ships is not by studying plans and pictures, but by walking the decks and watching the ships in operation." The museum was conceived in 1963 when it was learned that the LADY HOPETOUN, an

elegant Edwardian steam launch built for harbor ceremonies (but subsequently used on tasks as varied as light towage jobs and busing children to school across the harbor), was to be declared surplus and scrapped. Late in 1965 the vessel was acquired for scrap value (about $1,000) and was rebuilt to operating condition by 1970, through the devoted efforts of teams of skilled volunteers. Incorporated in December 1965, when LADY HOPETOUN was acquired, the museum's ultimate objective was to bring into being a national maritime museum worthy of Australia's seafaring origins and unique heritage. Today the LADY HOPETOUN is operated on regular harbor cruises for members and guests, having passed stringent survey and the 544-ton steamer JOHN OXLEY is operated on occasional cruises. The tugs WARAT AH and WATTLE are being brought up to first-class condition as 27

far as donated labor and service permit. "Our greatest problem," the Museum noted a year ago in its journal, "has always been the lack of a permanent museum site at which the vessels can be berthed together . It is frustrating to say the least, to be scattered as we are around Sydney Harbor and to be continually worried about a possible order to "move along." That problem is still not entirely solved. Continuing efforts have been made, in accordance with the founding purpose to save and restore the sailing vessels which for so many years served as the only form of communication between Australia and the rest of the world. One sailing vessel, representative of the small craft that linked Australia to the Pacific Islands, was acquired in sadly deteriorated condition in 1969. This was the topsail ketch AVANT! , built in Denmark in 1901. Efforts to restore her on the mudbank where she lay proved unavailing , and permission could not be obtained from harbor authorities to move her to a slipway where she

could be properly restored . With great regret, and after heroic efforts by the volunteer crews laboring under impossible conditions, the museum gave up its plans and allowed the stout old hulk to be demolished in July 1971. Saddened but undeterred by this, the museum pressed ahead with its restoration work and ever-growing operational program for the steamers it had saved. And further, realizing that future generations would not forgive the failure to save an ocean-going sailing ship of the long line of such ships that built Australia, a museum task force began work on the hulk of an iron square-rigger grounded off a remote beach in south Tasmania. On Sunday, May 27, 1973, the burned-out, but well preserved hull was refloated and towed through 60 miles of open sea to a Hobart shipyard. This graceful iron hull dates from 1874, when it was launched as the bark CLAN MACLEOD by Bartram , Haswell & Company of Sunderland. continued on page 33



-...,,,,....-..-.... .

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In my childhood, old men were still living who had gone to sea in whaleships sailing out of Long Island ports- Sag Harbor, Greenport, or Cold Spring Harbor. Old people were still living wh_o could remember the wreck of the JOHN MILTON at Montauk Point on February 20, 1858. Twenty-two seamen from that wreck were borne in farm wagons from the point to the old Queen Anne church then on East Hampton's Main Street, to be buried in a common grave in the old South End Burying Ground, under a monument erected by popular subscription ... And I knew people who could remember the terrible night of December 30, 1876, when the British full-rigged ship CIRCASSIAN went to pieces just west of Bridgehampton. Twenty~ight men were lost; ten of them young Shinnecock Indians. The CIRCASSIAN wreck practically wiped out the pure-blooded members of that tribe. My grandfather sailed around the world on. whaleships for eighteen years, before he married the girl next door and settled down. Not exactly on land, though; Grandma had to run the farm, with the aid of a hired man and her sons, as soon as they reached the then working age of seven or eight years old. Grandfather fished and whaled. off his native beach, and commanded coastal vessels, in-

eluding the menhaden steamers (bunker boats, they were commonly called) that sailed out of Promised Land on Gardiner's Bay, and furnished millions of small fish that were turned into oil and fertilizer. Perhaps I owe my existence to the fact that Grandfather was a good judge of a ship. There is a family tradition that he was asked, toward the end of his deepsea days , to command a New Bedford whaleship. He refused the offer. "Topheavy," he said . The owners had put on more sail than he thought she should carry-in order to increase her speed and make a shorter voyage . After she left port she was never heard from again. It did not occur to me to try to verify that tradition, until all of the older generation of the family had gone . I was grown , when Grandfather died ; but he ¡nevl'!r discussed whaling or anything else with his grandchildren. I remember him as a stern , silent, handsome old man with long white hair and beard, and clear, ice-blue eyes. He looked like a Biblical prophet. My father , Everett J . Edwards, was just as knowledgeable about the sea as grandfather was , although he never rounded Cape Horn ; and he was much more communicative. He and two of his brothers had their master's licenses by the time they were 21 ; the third brother became a doctor . The old whaleman 's sons were all taught how to 29

undamaged boats had to take in the crews of the two that were stove; loaded like that, there was nothing to do but let the whales go . A schooner bound to Provincetown picked up one. The other drifted to Patchogue and whoever found it there, claimed it. Our men spent what little they made on the small whale, going to law." Whales , as you know , yielded oil and bone and afforded not only the excitement and danger of biggame hunting, but a little extra income for the combined farmer-fisherman of that day . Our attitude toward whaling has changed , during the past century. But that sort of whaling , or the deepsea whaling of sailing-ship days , was on such a small scale that it would never have exterminated the species. It is the big whale-factory ships of Russia and Japan that seem likely to do that today. Every young man in our town in my grandfather's and father 's time knew how to maneuver a rowing boat through the surf- something which is not part of a Coast Guardman 's training today. I have heard how Grandfather once maneuvered a stranded vessel off the sandbar (which stretches the length of Long Island , on the south side, about a quarter-mile offshore.) And how my father, on one occasion , years later, was asked by the captain of the local Coast Guard station to head a lifeboat which the government had ordered to go off to a ship fast on the bar in a storm. The weather was so bad that he , a newcomer to our shore , dared not attempt it. Father agreed to go, but only if he could pick his own crew . He looked up and down the beach , knowing the surfmanship of each man. Just about the whole community had gathered there . One man , perfectly able and willing, had to " hide behind his wife's shirts ,'' Father said. She was there , and refused to let him go . But he assembled a crew , including the Coast Guard keeper. Not to embarrass him , Father gave his orders softly , so the government man could repeat them in a loud voice. I was away at that time, but they told me afterward that my maternal grandfather-a landsman- paced the beach with tears rolling down his cheeks. He said afterward " I never expected to see Ev again." Anthony Bedell, one of the men Father picked for that trip , told me years afterward: " Your father said 'Pull a little harder , Anthony! ' I said 'Captain, I'm pulling just as hard as I can now. ' He roared at me : 'Then pull a little harder than you can!" And I did. We made it. " They were able to get a line on the ship for the breeches-buoy , and hauled ashore an old man and woman , passengers. The crew stayed on and im a few days the vessel could be worked off the bar ¡; it did not go to pieces .

whale off the shore at Amagansett. Father helped kill fifteen right whales, the last one with his father, "Cap'n Josh,'' on Washington's birthday, 1907 . Grandfather was 78 at the time . The old family whaleboat and all the implements are now in the East Hampton Town Marine Museum on Bluff Road in Amagansett. Shore whaling , in 28-foot rowing boats, began off the Hamptons in the 1640's and ended with that 1907 whale, which was captured off East Hampton and brought ashore three miles to the eastward , at Amagansett. Father used to take me witt. him when he went to call on old fishermen, and Life Saving men who had been friends of Grandfather's. I would make myself as unobtrusive as possible, but listening hard while they "gammed." Father also took me to call on some of Southampton's whaling veterans , among them Edward Reeves, 95, the oldest whaleman then living . He and his brother Albert, who also had had deepsea experience, were glad to talk about old times. We sat on the sunny porch in rocking chairs. Edward Reeves said: "Southampton owned six whaleboats, within my memory. In those days they took turns every day to watch, just as our ancestors did in the 1640's. When a whale appeared , the watcher would weft with a coat on a pole. Tin horns were blown through the street. I remember five big whales on the beach at one time , when I was young. We had great stress to cut them up. " "The most excitement I ever saw here,' ' said another Southampton veteran "was one pleasant day in spring o' the year , when I was a boy. Father and I were plowing. Somebody swung a coat for a whale, and Father started. I saw one fellow on the farm next to ours jump on one of his team, harness swinging, gallop across lots not stopping for fences, toward the beach . He came to head o'the pond and dove right in . The horse went down, mired, but he didn't stop to see what happened to it. Somehow or other he got to the beach and onto his thwart in the whaleboat. Father walked round the pond , and was the last one in before they shoved off. "There were three whales ; a cow, bull , and calf. The big calf, two years old, came up inside the bar and they hooked onto him right away. Then Southampton's five other boats fastened to the two big ones. They were bad whales, and the whalemen were a little bit galleyed by the crowd on the beach. There's a good deal of show about this shore-whaling. Two boats were stove, and one man overboard, by the time they had the two whales spouting blood, and they worked offshore three or four miles. The man overboard hollered, 'Git me first, I'm bit!' " Well, of course he wasn 't ; right whales haven't any teeth; but he was hurt with something . The 30

Maritime Museum And Museum Ship News If all the projects now being announced materialize, the 1970's are going to be not a period of the establishment of museum ships, but rather of museum fleets. Two such projects are described elsewhere in this issue ; the very much alive and growing museum fleet at Sydney, Australia, and an interesting proposal which could lead to saving important ships at Boston. Here are some of the other locations that deserve to be mentioned. San Diego has already been the scene of a very fine restoration of the world's oldest iron bark STAR OF INDIA. This restoration was partly inspired by the ship's achieving her first century in 1963. It has now been completed to the extent of a full suit of sails which are set, at the pier, under favorable conditions. Now the Maritime Museum Association of San Diego has taken on the saving of two steam vessels , the ferry BERKELEY and the yacht MEDEA. Both ships came to the Association remarkably intact but, particularly in the case of BERKELEY, funds will still have to be raised for some renovation and proper preservation. BERKELEY arrived at San Diego in tow from San Francisco on June 3, 1973. She was originally launched in 1898 by the Union Iron Works at San Francisco for service on the Bay. After retirement she became, in 1959, the "Trade Fair" Gift Shop at Sausalito. Fortunately, she was virtually unaltered during this stationary career, even retaining her triple-expansion engines and boilers. Prior to starting out for San Diego, the 261 ft. vessel was drydocked at Richmond, California. MEDEA came to the Museum Association as a gift. Launched in Scotland in 1904 and measuring 137 ft. in length, she is an elegant clipperbowed example of a steam yacht of the Edwardian era. Major restoration .work was done on the vessel at Goudge Island, British Columbia before she joined BERKELEY in San Diego. In Seattle , the Northwest Seaport has acquired a sizeable fleet of museum ships in just a few years. Efforts to save the threemasted schooner WAWONA, near sistership of San Francisco's C. A. THAYER, built at Fairhaven, California in 1897 have gone on for some time. Now her future seems secure, and she has been joined by the steam vessels ARTHUR FOSS, SAN MATEO and W- T. PRESTON, and lightship No . 84 RELIEF. In November WAWONA was towed out of Lake Union at Seattle to "winter quarters" at Kirkland, Washington. There are hopes in Kirkland that the entire museum fleet will eventually make its home there.

ARTHUR FOSS is a 111 ft. steam tug built at Portland, Oregon in 1889 as WALLOWA. SAN MATEO is another former San Francisco Bay ferry, built there in 1922, but last operated on the Puget Sound. W.T. PRESTON is a sternwheel steamer, 161 ft. in length, built at Winslow , Washington in 1915. She is a former Army Corps of Engineers workboat The older museum fleets of this country continued to expand during 1973. The San Francisco Maritime Historic State Park added its fifth vessel, the 135 ft. steam tug HERCULES built by Dialogue & Sons at Camden, New Jersey in 1907. HERCULES made the voyage to the West Coast soon after completion, and spent the early part of her career towing sailing vessels through the Golden Gate. The South Street Seaport Museum in New York acquired the waterboat, formerly steam lighter, AQUA. She is the eighth vessel for this fleet counting the packet-ship hulk CHARLES COOPER, which .still lies in the Falkland Islands, but not cowiting the steamer ALEXANDER HAMIL TON and the fourmasted bark MOSHULU which , though lying at the Museum 's piers, at the end of 1973 were still to be acquired. AQUA was launched on Staten Island in 1912 as NEW YORK CENTRAL No . 29. She still has her original boiler, converted to oil fuel, and her original single cylinder steam engine, and measures 99 feet in length. Mystic Seaport experimented this summer with an operational, authentic, coal burning steamboat. She is the tiny SABINO built at East Boothbay, Maine in 1908, and recently based at Newburyport, Massachusetts. The 52 ft. craft retired from service in Maine waters in 1958, but was thoroughly restored in 1967. If it is decided that the 73 season was a success, the Seaport intends to purchase the vessel. In Europe, several ports have already begun saving groups of historic vessels, while other such fleets are still in the planning stages. At Bremerhaven, Germany the SEUTE DEERN, a bark-rigged schoolship of the 1930's which began life as the four-masted schooner ELIZABETH BAND! launched at Gulfport, Mississippi in 1919, has been serving as a bar and restaurant moored in a corner of the old harbor . A Museum is now developing around her , beginning with the venerable lightship ELBE 3, and the seagoing salvage tug SEEF ALKE built at Bremerhaven by J.C. Techlenborg in 1924. Gothenburg, Sweden has also had a squarerigger for many years ; the four-masted bark VIKING (see photo Page 9), rescued from a scrap



BUFFEL during her service as a stationary schoolship. 32

yard in the late 1940's to serve as a stationary schoolship. Now a "Maritime Open Air Museum" has been begun nearby with the lightship FLADEN, ex-OLANDSREV, built at Stockholm in 1915, and the motor schooner VALBORG II, ex-GERD, exNINA, built at Sjotorp in 1902. Both Gothenburg and Bremerhaven have well-established maritime museums ashore. The Gothenburg Museum, which was founded in 1913 and has around 30 galleries, rivals Sweden's National Maritime Musewn at Sotckholm in size and scope. Bremerhaven has the smaller, but excellent maritime collections of the Morgenstern Museum. A relatively new Maritime Museum at Exeter, England has been very actively collecting representative craft from all parts of the World. Most of these are small sailing or rowing boats displayed in a group of old warehouses. However, two noteworthy steam vessels also belong to the museum. Largest of these is the tug ST. CANUTE, built in Denmark in 1931. She measures 310 tons and still has her coal-fired boilers and triple-expansion engine. The other steam craft is quite a remarkable survival. She is a small dredge, built at Bristol in 1844, probably to designs of I. K. Brunel of GREAT BRITAIN and GREAT EASTERN fame. She was designed for dredging the docks of Bridgewater, England, and performed this function until 1969. Her engine bears a builder's plate for a firm which

passed out of existence before 1850. Copenhagen, Denmark has plans for a maritime museum complex which would also include preserved ships. A portion of the older part of the City's Navy Yard is now being vacated and there are proposals to move into these buildings two collections now exhibited elsewhere, the fine Marine Museum in Kronborg Castle at Elsinore, and the Naval Museum which now occupies a former church in Copenhagen. The steam frigate JYLLAND (see photo Page 6) would also be brought from Ebeltoft to the Navy Yard and completely restored. Several typical Danish coastal craft are also being considered for preservation with the JYLLAND. A similar situation exists at Amsterdam, where the Maritime Museum has now moved from a location remote from the harbor, to a recently vacated building in the Navy Yard. Dutch steam enthusiasts are already preserving three canal and harbor towboats and a ferry. With the Navy Yard location available they have begun to consider also saving and restoring an early warship. The .most likely candidate seems to be BUFFEL, a former seagoing turret ship built at Glasgow in 1868. She has served as a stationary schoolship and floating barracks at Amsterdam for many years. A similar vessel, SCHORPIOEN, built at Toulon in 1868, serves as a floating barracks at Den Helder.

steering compass was inside the after end of the saloon skylight. ..The saloon was painted white and gold , and there was much plush and mahogany. Her forecastle was a house on deck immediately abaft the foremast. I never saw a better foes '! in a sailing ship anywhere. A locker was provided for each man to stow his gear , and the mess-room was also a recreation room. "

Sydney Cove Museum continued from page 28 England. Her first owners were Thomas Dunlop's Clan Line , who sent the ship on voyages to various parts of the globe. Late in the century she visited New York's South Street and was captured on film there by Staten Island's famous photographer Alice Austin. Later she was sold to A. and J . Craig of New Zealand and operated by them on shorter voyages in the western Pacific under the name JAMES CRAIG. The little 179 ft. bark was reduced to a hulk at Port Moresby , New Guinea around 1912, but rerigged five years later as the demand for shipping increased. She was laid up again, for the last time , in the early 1920's. Shortly before this happened , seaman-author Alan Villiers spent some time in her . In autobiography , The Set of the Sails, he desribes the JAMES CRAIG as a " ... highly responsive thoroughbred of a ship, and ...a delight to steer . Her

The ship was rigged down after her last voyage to serve as a storage hulk for a Tasmanian coal mine. She had been abandoned , grounded in shallow water , for a number of years , before the Sydney group began its efforts to save her. Anyone interested in following the progress of this museum may join for $10, or subscribe to its informative bi-monthly journal for $2. Correspondence should be addressed to: The Sydney Cove Waterfront Museum , Ltd ., Box 3160, G.P.O. , Sydney, Australia. For further illustrations see back cover and inside back cover. 33

From the Past ...

Barkentine CAP PILAR arriving in New York July 1938 on the return leg of a round the world voyage which lasted two years. She was built at St. Malo in 1911 for the French fishing fleet, and broken up in England around 1961.

The Mariners Museum

Hudson River ferry ORANGE making .a winter crossing between the New York towns of Newburgh and Beacon. She was built at Newburgh in 1914 and retired in 1963. An attempt to preserve her failed in the following year and she was scrapped.

Conrad Milster Colllection 34

Sail and Steam ...

1 ., r

- f t'"

¡+"' :1f""

Schooner ANNIE C. ROSS at New York arowid 1954 as a training ship for Sea Scouts. She was built at Bath, Maine in 1917, and sank at anchor in Hempstead Harbor, Long Island, September 1955.

South Street Seaport Museum

Steamer EXODUS at Haifa, Israel around 1948, showing damage received from British Naval units while attempting to land illegal immigr.ants. She was built at Wilmington, Delaware in 1928 for passenger service on the Chesapeake Bay and, after further damage by fire, was broken up at Haifa. 35

The Mariners Museum

Book Reviews SQ UARE-RIGGERS, THE FI NAL EPOCH 1921- 1958 By : A. A. Hurst, Teredo Books, Brighton , England

book is a joy! From its fascinating end papers giving old nautical advertisements, to its ten pages of chatty and interesting notes, the work is a masterpiece of "digging" and love of the past. From the simple standpoint of layout it is a real achievement, as well, with lots of white space, with grand photo enlargements, with pictures that bleed and with a three-page fold out picture sequence that will knock your hat off. Mr . Bunting uses photographic studies to create a visual history of Boston's growth in the latter half of the 19th Century. He pictures schooners , sloops, catboats, yachts, fishing boats and picturesque wharves not to mention grand old steamboats of every sort. For a New York-oriented reader, a book like this is good medicine, helps him from becoming too New York centered. The pictures are superb, but the text is equally golden and worthy , must be mentioned too with superlatives . As a rich addition to any ship lover's library or a marvelous gift , this book must rank high. Frank Braynard


This is a thick volume full of information and profusely illustrated . However, it does not, as the title would suggest, cover the complete story of the last epoch of merchant square-rig. The author 's special area of interest is the Australian grain trade and this story he recounts in great detail. He also apparently studied the files of the late Gustav Erikson of Mariehamn , Finland as the book con tains probably the best history in English of that important shipowner 's career. Other square-rig trades of the era receive a spotty coverage . Some , for example our West Coast lumber and salmon packing fleets of the 1920's , are barely mentioned. Considering Mr . Hurst 's often scathing criticism of other maritime writers, the number of errors in this work is rather disturbing . For some reason , American ships are the most frequent victims . KAIULANI (which receives a nice mention in the acknowledgements l has her name mi spelled throughout. MONONGAHELA ' s active career ended in 1928, not during World War I as stated on page 421. TUSITALA was scrapped in 1948, not 1938 (page 450). And , the picture on page 449 shows the American ship , BRYNHILDA , not Captain Learmont 's BRENHILDA. Several ships described as "scrapped " early in the book reappear later as barges or storage hulks . On page 492 Hurst repeats the statement that MOSHULU was to have been renamed OPLAG under the Germ an flag in 1952. This reviewer has been suspicious of that story for sometime, having been unable to find a German meaning for the latter word , which in Norwegian merely means "laid up." Yet , there is a worthwhile quantity of previously unpublished information in The Last Epoch which will make it a valuable addition to the library of anyone interested in square-rig in this century, particularly if he or she is familiar enough with the subject to be aware of the book's minor shortcomings . Norman Brouwer

SKETCHES OF H.M.S. CHALLENGER VOYAGE AROUND THE WORLD , by B. Shephard, published by Philadelphia Maritime Museum ; distributed by NY Graphic Society , (140 Greenwich Ave., Greenwich, Conn. 06830 ), 1972, $25. Benjamin Shephard was a 31-year old cooper aboard the CHALLENGER when she sailed in 1873 for what is considered by many as "the greatest oceanographic expedition of all time ." His sketchbook was discovered by J. Welles Henderson , president of the Philadelphia Maritime Museum,.in 1968. There are 34 watercolors with historical background comments by Harris B. Stewart, Jr., of the Museum ' s Underwater Advisory Board. The sketches are not only lively and detailed, but remarkably good in perspective and artistic value. The book is a true collector 's item . Frank Braynard

THE SHIP'S BELL, Its History and Romance.

PORTRAIT OF A PORT: BOSTON, 1852-1914, W.H. Bunting, compiler and annotator, Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press. (Cambridge, Mass), 1971, $20

As " The church bell tolls the knell of parting day " for the land lubber , so does the ringing of the ship 's bell regulate the life of the mariner at sea . Karl Wede 's book , The Ship's Bell, Its History and Homance , is a fascinating and highly readable compilation of historical information and an-

Worth every cent and more this wonderful picture 36

ecdotes about the ship's bell-and object of interest to all sea buffs and ship lovers . According to Mr. Wede , bells undoubtedly were used by vessels skippered by such men as Columbus, da Gama, Magellan and Drake to signal watches. strike the time, call the crew to meals or prayer and warn of danger. In fact, it was their mystical and religious attributes as a source of divine protection which caused bells to first be carried on board ships. Throughout the Christian era seamen believed bells had magical powers to protect them from real and imagined oceanic dangers. A Dutch engraving by Philip Galle reproduced in the book shows a ship replete with bells charging through an ocean of sea monsters. Mr. Wede note$)\(hat Jean Baptiste Thiers wrote in his Traitez des Cloches, "Bells are rung to ... drive away the demons of the air ... to dissolve thunders, storms , and tempests which is not done by their nature, but by the divine virtue given them when they are blessed." In turn , some ship's bells eventually end up on land , often as church bells . Take the bell from the S.S . ATLANTIC, for instance. The ATLANTIC, built in 1846, sank during a storm in the shallow water off Fisher's Island, Connecticut ; the foremast where the bell hung was above water and it sounded.loudly over the tragedy until it was removed three weeks later. In time, it was given to the Seamen's Mission

in New York, an actual church that had been set afloat moored at a pier. There it hung for many years, acting as a church bell and calling the seamen to prayer. Eventually it went to the Seamen's Church Institute of New York where it hung over the main entrance for years. Since 1968, when the Institute relocated, the bell has been on display in the second floor lobby. The ATLANTIC'S bell has found a home between its two worlds-the church and the sea. ¡ Mr. Wede's book relates the stories of bells from many famous ships such as the NORMANDIE, which burned and capsized at a pier in New York in 1942 ; the CUTTY SARK, whose bell was stolen from the ship, traded , returned after 12 years and finally stored at the Thames Nautical Training College; the QUEEN MARY, whose bell was purchased.ey a dealer for $325 and one hour later was wearing a price tag of $750; and the famous Lloyd's of London bell from the LUTINE. The Ship's Bell also includes references to Hudson and Mississippi River .steamboats such as the MARY POWELL and DELTA QUEEN and to naval vessels such as the U.S.S. ENTERPRISE. In all, with its total of more than 130 ship's bells described and 48 illustrations The Ship's Bell becomes a most informative and welcome addition to both professional and personal maritime collections . Faye Argentine Seamen 's Church Institute

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Sea History 002 - December 1973  

4 Boston Great Cove Proposal • 7 Square-rigged Sailing Craft in Existence • 16 Skaregrom Log • 27 Sydney Cove Waterfront Museum • 29 Sea -F...

Sea History 002 - December 1973  

4 Boston Great Cove Proposal • 7 Square-rigged Sailing Craft in Existence • 16 Skaregrom Log • 27 Sydney Cove Waterfront Museum • 29 Sea -F...