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VOL. l NO. l

National Martime Historical Society

APRIL, 1972

The Sea Museum Council Members CHESAPEAKE BAY MARITIME MUSEUM Location: The Museum is located at Navy Point in St. Michaels on the Eastern Shore of Maryland (21663). R. J. Hold is the Director. Vessels: J .T. LEONARD, built in 1882on the Chesapeake Bay, was used as an oyster sloop until 1967. Lightship No. 79 is a recent addition. Exhibits: A fine display of maritime artifacts pertaining to Chesapeake Bay. There are seven buildings including the Hooper Strait Lighthouse. Among the exhibits are 43 models, log books, a complete collection of drawings and an aquarium. Founded in 1965, this growing museum is doing an excellent job in preserving the history of the Bay region. Admission: Adults $1, Children 25 cents, under 12 free. School children in groups, 10 cents. Schedule: Daily except Mondays year-round, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.

DOSSIN GREAT LAKES MUSEUM Location: At Belle Isle Park in the middle of the Detroit River. The MacArthur Bridge leads from downtown Detroit to the island. Robert E. Lee is Curator. Vessels & Exhibits: The maritime history of the Great Lakes is covered extensively. The ship model display is considered the world's largest built to a uniform scale. A featured exhibit is the Gothic Room, an elaborately decorated area, once the smoking lounge from the steamer CITY OF DETROIT Ill. A reconstructed ship's bridge overlooks the Detroit River. The record breaking hydroplane MISS PEPSI is on display in one wing. Other exhibits include marine paintings, navigational equipment and nautical relics. Admission: Free. Schedule: Wednesday through Sunday, year round, 10 a.m. to 5:45 p.m . Closed Thanksgiving, Christmas, New Year's Day. THE MARINERS MUSEUM Location: The Museum entrance is at the intersection of Route 60 and Morris Blvd. (Route 312), Newport News, Va. ( 23606) . Rear Admiral George J. Dufek, USN (Ret.), is the Director. Exhibits: Founded in 1930 by Archer M. Huntington, The Mariners Museum features the most extensive nautical collections in the U.S. International in scope, the exhibits cover many areas of the history of man's conquest of. the sea. Over 1000 models show development' of water transportation. The painting and print collection contains 14,000 items which provide for frequently changing exhibits in the nine galleries. Among other nautical items are displays of ship decorations, navigation instruments, naval weapons and figureheads. Many small craft can be seen outside the main building. Admission: Adults 50 cents. Children 25 cents, under 12 free. Group rate available. Schedule: Daily year round except Christmas Day. Weekdays 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Sundays, noon to 5 p.m. PHILADELPHIA MARITIME MUSEUM Location: At 424 Chestnut Street, just off Independence Square in Philadelphill (19106). THE COVER Close -up of deta iled carvi ng on the stern of the French galley MADAME.

Courtesy : Mariners Museum

Robert Bruce Inverarity, Director. Vessels: GAZELA PRIMIERO, a Grand Banks fishing barkentine. Exhibits: The collections consist of models, figureheads, paintings, prints, documents, weapons and a small maritime library. There are special exhibits for children that can be "touched." Exhibits are arranged in chronological order beginning with exploration and discovery through nuclear power. Special exhibits on whaling, ship builders' tools, sailmakers' equipment, nautical instruments and maritime stamps. Admission: Adults 50 cents, Children 25 cents, group rates available. No charge for school groups. Schedule: Daily, June 15-Sept. 15, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m . Rest of the year 10 a .m . to 4 p.m.


SAN DIEGO MARITIME MUSEUM Location: The Museum is located on the waterfront at 1306 North Harbor Drive off the Embarcadero, San Diego, Cal. (92101). The Director is Captain Kenneth D. Reynard . Vessels: STAR OF INDIA, launched in 1863, was originally a full-rigged iron ship. In the early 1900's she was reduced to a bark to permit handling by a smaller crew. She made her last voyage in 1923 to Alaska. STAR OF INDIA is a National Historical Landmark. Aboard is an exhibit of ten models. Recently, the Museum acquired BUTCHER BOY, a 29' sloop. She is the last of the San Diego fishing fleet. When first built she gained a reputation for speed; she was the San Diego Yacht Club's flagship in her early years. ¡ Exhibits: Both ships contain photo and artifact exhibits. Admission: Adults 75 cents, Children 25 cents, under 5 free. Schedule: Weekdays 9-5, March 1 to Oct. 30. Weekdays 9-4, Nov. 1 to Feb. 28. Sundays and Holidays 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. Closed Thanksgiving, Christmas and New Years. SAN FRANCISCO MARITIME MUSEU~ Location: The Museum is near the State Marine Park at the foot of Polk Street on the waterfront in San Francisco, Calif. (94109). Karl Kortum is the Director. Vessels: BALCLUTHA, built in 1886 in Scotland is the main exhibit. She is a fully restored square rigger and has a series of fine marine displays in the 'tweendecks. Additional ships are maintained at the State Marine Park. Exhibits: The collection consists of parts of vessels, gear, ship models and builders' halfmodels, plans, navigation instruments, sailors' fancy work and scrimshaw, photographs, journals and logs. The Museum also contains a research library, including Lloyd's Registers and many works pertaining to West Coast maritime history. Admission: To the Museum there is no charge. To the BALCLUTHA, Adults 75 cents, Children 25 cents. Reduced rates for prearranged group tours of the BALCLUTHA. Schedule: Open daily 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. ; BALCLUTHA 10 a .m . to 10 p.m. daily.

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION Location: The exhibit is in the National Museum of History and Technology situated on Constitution Ave. at 14th Street next to the Mall in Washington, D.C. ( 20560) ; The Curator of Marine Transportation is Dr. Melvin Jackson. Vessels: The Gunboat PHILADELPHIA was built in 1776 and sunk at the Battle of Valcour Island on Lake Champlain. Raised in 1935, the vessel is now on display in the Armed Forces Hall. Exhibits: There are two exhibit areas of nautical interest at the Smithsonian. The Hall of American Merchant Marine features a collection of over 175 of the world's finest ship models. One can see the evolution of American shipping from Colonial times to the 20th


Century. The Armed Forces Hall displays models of fighting ships as well as collections of naval arms, uniforms and other memorabilia. Admission: Free to all. Schedule: April 2 through Sept. 30, 10 a.m. to 9:30 p.m. Oct. 1 through April 1, 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. Open every day of the year except Christmas. SOUTH STREET SEAPORT MUSEUM Location: The Museum, its four galleries and piers are located on the East River at the end of Fulton Street, Manhattan (10038). Peter Stanford is President. Vessels: Six vessels are at Pier 15and16. The square rigger WAVERTREE is the largest. Others are the fishing schooner HOWARD, trading schooner PIONEER, tug MATHILDA, ferry GENERAL HART and AMBROSE Light Vessel. Exhibits: Small exhibits are aboard the WAVERTREE, AMBROSE and HOWARD. The four galleries develop the New York shipping story with emphasis on packets, clippers and great ocean liners. The Seaport Museum plans to restore five blocks of early 19th Century waterfront and the five adjoining piers. Seamanship and sail training courses, seminars and ship visits by vessels of all types, special public events. Admission: Free except to WAVERTREE for which admission is Adults: $1, Children 50 cents, under 12 free. This money put toward ship's restoration. Schedule: Daily, year round, except for Christmas and Thanksgiving, noon to 6 p.m. Pier 16 summer hours 9 a.m. to 9 p.m.

Sea History News of marine art and archeology, ship restorations, museums and private collections, and historic programs across America. Published by the Sea Museums Council, National Maritime Historical Society, 16 Fulton Street, New York, N.Y., 10036. Chairman of Editorial Committee: Editor: Managing Editor:

Leonard Rennie Frank 0. Braynard R. Andrew Maass

The National Maritime Historical Society is a non-profit educational institution. Its President is Peter Stanford. Its Secretary Treasurer is Henry A. Newbold. The Sea Museums Council is headed by Robert Bruce Inverarity, as Chairman.

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EDITORIAL The Sea Museums Council came together in informal discussions among museum directors in the spring of 1971. In the Fall of the year a meeting was held at which a Chairman was elected and this statement of purpose was adopted: '' Tht' museums of the Sea Museums Council have joined together to promote greater cooperation among marine museums. Jointly we can share solutions, exchange technical information and unify the mass of maritime history , artifacts, legend and lore. Through our journal, Sea History, we disseminate our information and illuminate the activities and research being carried out in the field .' ' The first issue of Sea History reports news of the museums that have formed the Council. Sea History will help improve communications between these museums, and between them and the public who love the waters of the earth and the vessels that ply them, from canoes and canal barges to great square riggers and steamers. The Sea Museums Council and Sea H istory are the beginning of a new era of cooperation. Join us. We welcome your company.


SMITHSONIAN OFFERS $5000 PRIZE FOR KAIULANI MODEL CONTEST Other prizes being sought by NMHS Smithsonian Institution wants a model of KAIULANI for their permanent collection and for display in the new Hall of American Maritime Enterprise, to open for the American Revolution Bicentennial in 1976. The National Maritime Historical Society proposes a nation-wide model building contest with First Prize of $5,000 for a model acceptable to the Museum. Other prizes are being sought to permit awards for wooden hulled models (Class B) and for models made by school children (Class C). Ship model clubs are to be encouraged to enter Class A. The Smithsonian's statement reads as follows: .... Some Notes respecting the Participation of the National Museum of History and Technology in the NMHS KAIULANI Ship Model Building Contest. The Section of Marine Transportation of the National Museum of History and Technology is planning to contract for a complete set of plans of the bark KAIULANI to be made up from data in the possession of the National Maritime Historical Society. The NMHS was appointed trustee for the bark KAIULANI by President Johnson in 1964 after the vessel was given to the American people by President Macapagal of the Phillipines. The KAIULANI is of interest to the museum as a representative steel square-rigged ocean carrier of the turn of the century and because she symbolizes the close of the age of sail for the American merchant marine and the American ship building industry. The plans to be made of the KAIULANI will be deposited in the Howard I. Chapelle Plan Collection of the National Museum of History and Technology. The acquisition of a model of the vessel is planned for the museum's new Hall of American Maritime Enterprise, the completion date of which is scheduled for 1976. The National Maritime Historical Society desiring to bring before the American public the plight of the KAIULANI, presently lying at Subic Bay, The Phillipines, and in enlisting public aid in the salvage, restoration and preservation of the vessel as a Bicentenary monument to America and the age of merchant sail, is planning to inaugurate a nation-wide ship model building contest. The contest is designed to appeal to model builders of varying skills with suitable prizes to be awarded to various skill levels. (Details of NMHS contest to be developed.) Because of the coincidence of interests in acquiring models of the KAIULANI, the National Museum of History and Technology will offer to registered contestants comolete and detailed olans of the vessel at reproduction costs. NMHS on its part will make available sets of photos of the KAIULANI under sail to supplement the plans. &

Should the NMHS contest produce a model of museum quality built to museum specifications, the National Museum of History and Technology will tender an offer of $5.000 for the purchase of such a model for exhibit in the Hall of American Maritime Enterprise. The National Museum of History and Technology, however, is not bqund to make such an offer should no entry be judged suitable. Specifications for the National Museum of History and Technology model may be obtained from the NMHS. In general the following will be required: The model to be scaled 1/4'' - 1', framed and plated in brass. All joints in metal to be silver soldered. One side to be completely plated, the other partially plated to reveal details of bow and stern sections and typical body sections. Rivet simulation not required but if employed extreme care should be taken to maintain scale. Vessel to be rigged and masted. Metal spars to be of brass, wood spars to be of wood. Standing rigging to be of stainless steel, and running rigging to be of laid up linen or dacron colored to simulate manila. All spar fittings that are ironwork on the prototype to be fabricated of silver-soldered brass. Sails are not required. Deck, deck houses, etc. to be of wood. Preferably box or fine grained fruitwood. In short the rule of wood-prototype wood-model to be observed. No other metal than brass to be used in the model but consideration will be given to plastics of the epoxy family. It should be emphasized that the concern of the National Museum of History and Technology is entirely in the possible acquisition of a model of the KAIULANI and while it cannot but sympathize with the desires of the National Maritime Historical Society to reconstitute the vessel, its friendly cooperation cannot be construed as an endorsement of the NMHS program beyond that point. A set of contest rules is now being drawn up, together with specifications for each class, prices for a set of the scaled drawings and of the glossy photographs. Because the National Maritime Historical Society does not have funds to cover costs of organizing and administering the contest, an advance entry fee of $2.50 is being charged for registering each interested entrant. For this fee, the interested entrant will receive a copy of all rules and specifications, procedure for securing the full sets of drawings and photos, instructions for packing and shipping, and other helpful material, including a copy of ''The Ships That Brought Us So Far,'' which contains pictures and references to KAIULANI. The judging of finished models will take place during 1975, which gives the entrants ample timt to do their best work. Winners and runners-up in all classes will be displayed in the Smithsonian Institution's Museum of History and Technology. For information write to the NMHS, 16 Fulton Street, New York, N.Y. 10036.

Sea Forum SEA FORUM is intended to elicit provocative and informative discussions on a wide range of topics. The first Forum is a report of a discussion of the values of the foreand-aft schooner versus the square rigger. Peter Stanford of the South Street Seaport initiated the discourse with following comments by Stanley Gerr and John Lyman.

inflict,'' Parker concludes. It has also been observed that hasty construction, poor materials, overloading, short crews, even inadequate pumps, all contributed to the vulnerability of the schooners. The schooner experience, a phenomena of the latter days of sail, should be examined in some kind of perspective.



One wonders how satisfactory big foreand-afters really were in ocean trade. Some of our big West Coast schooners traded to Africa and Australia but the reports of this voyaging were not always happy. The long unstayed stretch of the lower masts and the strains put one the hull and gear by huge free-swinging gaffs and booms, seem to make the schooner a less seaworthy type than the square rigger in which the West did most of its ocean voyaging under sail. Alan Villiers, an accomplished sailor, has noted that the Europeans developed square rigged ships for the angry oceans they sailed while the Arabians and Chinese developed big fore-and-afters for their easier ocean passages between Asia and Africa. How good was the big fore-and-after, truly, in deep-sea trade? One notices, certainly, heavy losses in the big American and Canadian schooners, particularly in winter North Atlantic gales. Contrast this with the tough North Atlantic packet service of the 1820's, over a half century earlier. In that decade, these little square riggers went without a loss at sea (although there were ships driven ashore in thick or heavy weather) and made their West-East crossings in three weeks and the return in four. The big hard-driven square rigged clippers of the 1840's and 50's had little loss. Like the packets, these ships sailed without regard to unfavorable season and sought only a good offing from the shore for safety. The big Down Easters that succeeded these flyers were sailed on a similar manner. "The proportion of schooners which foundered at sea appears to be very high," John Parker argues. The loss came in ocean voyages. "By cautious short runs the strict coaster was able to avoid encounters with the great Atlantic storms and all the strains and damage they were able to


There are, of course, quite a few implicit variables in this question. For instance, what is "successful" and which of the many types of deep-sea fore-and-afters is referred to. I will assume that you are concerned only with the American schooner rig. In this connection, I will say, flat out, that compared with the square rigger, the big American schooner was not a successful type for ocean trading. Under the conditions of deep-sea voyaging, the big fore-and-after tends to behave like an "energy sponge," in contrast to the square rigger which is an "energy reflector." Most voyages are carried out running "down" one or another of the prevailing wind systems, sometimes for weeks on end. The sea runs along in a fairly steady procession of more or less orderly wave patterns with a through to crest height of 15 to 20 feet on the average. There is also a wave velocity such that roughly a couple of waves will pass under the hull of the vessel every minute or so. Secondly, the big schooner rig is characterized, at least partly, by the relatively unconstrained motion of boom and gaff when the vessel is running free. I don't think anyone who has experienced it can forget the enormous patterns traced by boom and gaff as the vessel pitches and sceQds in the following sea. It is this continuous motion of heavy booms and gaffs, relative to the rest of the vessel, which is the key to my argument. When you get 60, 70 and 80 foot spanker booms and 30 and 35 foot booms on other masts, as well as three or more gaffs, all making tremendous gyrations about their ¡ point of suspension (whether gooseneck or jaw), it is clear that an enormous amount of energy is involved here. Most of this energy is wasted because it is not driving the vessel along, but only producing relative motion of the parts. The rest is energy absorbed from

there are few cases of a schooner's being dismasted at sea. It is true that the British experience with the long-voyage schooners such as RIMAC and TACORA did not lead to further building of fore-and-afters but this fact may be chiefly due to a lack of competent masters to handle schooners of their size. Captain Learmont records with indignation passing RIMAC at sea and observing that her booms were sheeted at an angle entirely unsuited to the wind direction and her desired course. The San Francisco experience between 1900 and 1910 is useful in showing the "success" of schooners in ocean trading. When the American-Hawaiian Steamship Co. was founded in 1899, Flint & Co. sold their fleet of Cape Horner square riggers to the California Shipping Co. At the same time, an extensive fleet of four masted schooners was being built on the West Coast for the coasting lumber trade. What was the picture by 1910? All the square riggers were out of the lumber trade. The survivors, manned with large crews of fishermen, were in the salmon packing fleets, making single voyages to Alaska each year and being laid up during the winter. Steam schooners, running cheaply on oil fuel, had displaced the big schooners, from the coasting trade. Yet the schooners, needing only one man per mast, were engaged in the offshore lumber trade, voyaging to Chile, Peru, Australia and South Africa. Those that lasted until 1916 and 1917 made fortunes for their owners during WWI. Even in 1910, they held their own in competition with foreign square riggers and steamers. No cheaper way to deliver Douglas Fir to South Africa was ever devised than the West Coast baldheaded fourmasted schooner.

the overtaking seas and passed along to the only flexible constrained boom and gaff-rig. This, too, only producing relative motion of the parts. Thus a considerable portion of the wind and wave energy is uselessly, and, in fact, harmfully absorbed by the schooner rig. All this energy must be dissipated somewhere and this can be done only by the hull. Assume that there are roughly two gyrations of the spars per minute under the trade-wind or prevailing wind system. In accordance with the characteristic wave frequency passing under the hull, in the course of an hour a spar makes perhaps 100 oscillations, and in the course of a day a couple of thousand such movements. Multiply this by the number of booms and gaffs involved and then by the number of days of the passage and you get an idea of the energy absorbed by the hull. This continuous alternating stress on various parts of the hull must work to weaken and loosen the fastenings in the course of time. Therefore, I believe big schooners would leak seriously long before square riggers of the same age or total distance travelled. The square rigger simply does not absorb this amount of energy. For the most part, square rigged sails merely deflect the impulse of the wind and thereby converting most of it to forward thrust. Thus my remark: the big schooner acts like an energy sponge while the square rigger is an energy deflector. However, this argument does not apply to conditions of coast-wise trading for which the boom and gaff rig is ideally suited. Finally, I would suggest that the freeswinging action of booms and gaffs in the course of tacking or even jibing placed only a small strain on the hull in comparison with the steady absorbtion of energy in the course of running down the various wind streams. I believe the need of the hull to assimilate and then dissipate this enormous strain fed to it by the design of the rig emphasizes the view that fore-and-afters were not successful in ocean trading.

OCEAN LINERS OF THE PAST-hardbound reprints of the Shipbuilder Magazine: currently available-No. l, OLYMPIC and TITANIC, $19 .95-No. 2, LUSITANIA and MAURETANIA, $19.95-No. 3, AQUITANIA, $19.95 .... Also "The Queens," $2.00 .... "QUEEN MARY-The Stateliest Ship," $7 .00 .... ALL Jane's Fighting reprints. Catalog-SH-25c ref undable. New Steamship Consultants, Box 508, Fresh Meadows, N.Y., 11365.

DR. JOHN LYMAN: It has been cited that the "long unstayed

stretch of the lower mast" is a possible source of unseaworthiness. In rebuttal, a schooner's lower masts are more stoutly supported by standing rigging than the topgallantmasts of a square rigger. Compared to square riggers,


Ship Models That Are Works Of Art Robert Burgess, Curator of The Mariners Museum.

A collection of sixteen miniature ships that illustrate the development of water travel from primitive times to the middle of the last century is on exhibit at the Mariners Museum in Newport News, Virginia. They represent practically the life work of August P. Crabtree. The collection has been twenty-five years in the making with as much as six years spent on single ones. Included in the sixteen are: a primitive raft and dugout, an Egyptian sea-going vessel of 1480 B.C., a Roman grain ship of 50 A.D., a Viking-like craft of William the Conqueror, 1066, the Santa Maria and Pinta of 1492, six different types of 17th Century vessels, the United States brig LEXINGTON of the Revolutionary War period, a British East Indiaman of 1805 and the English BRITANNIA of 1840. Most of the miniatures are built to the scale of one-fourth inch to the foot. Mr. Crabtree's interest in ships goes back to his boyhood days in Portland, Oregon. There, on weekends and school holidays, he worked in a small shipyard. His parents thought he would become a naval architect but he chose fine arts instead. As his major thesis, he set model ships as his goal. Since ordinary sculpture was common, he decided to combine his skill at that with his interest in and knowledge of ships. Considerable preparation was required before attempting his first miniature. Authoritative rare books were consulted for plans and drafts to guarantee exactness in all details. His first project was a Dutch yacht of 1666. A professor supplied complete construction details. Mr. Crabtree meant his miniatures to last virtually forever. This called for woods other than those normally used by model-makers. Also the woods had to be of a texture suitable for minute carving. He consulted craftsmen who had a knowledge of woods for suggestions of woods to use. After experimenting with various woods, he decided that firethorn or whitethorn and wild apple best suited his needs. They were close grained and not susceptible to splitting. He then worked out a method of seasoning them. To create the minute carvings he had in mind, he had to make his own tools. His first ones were made from jewelers' and diemakers' files. These he made into small chisels. He later found that cast-off dental and surgical instruments of the finest steel could be turned into chisels too. These were sharpened and retempered, some so that their cutting edge was 1-2000 of an inch wide. The miniatures developed into a full-time project after Crabtree left college. During the day he would work on the hulls; in the evening he carved the decorations. In 1936, he worked for a Hollywood movie studio making models which appeared in wreck, fire and collision scenes. He also served as a technical adviser in m.aritime pictures. But in his spare time he worked on the miniatures. During World War II he 10

was superintendent of a mold loft in an Oregon shipyard. After the War he moved to Florida to devote all his time to models. He had to re-experiment with native woods in that area and found guava and limewood ideal. Crabtree not only built his models as the actual ships were constructed, framed and planked from the keel up, but he employed some of the same methods. For the many knees used in framing the miniatures, he sought natural-growth crotches. Wood used in making abrupt turns in planking was bent while still green. This guaranteed no loss of strength or strain on fittings. Brass pins and treenails (small wooden plugs) secured the planks and decking to the frames. The most ornate of the ships is a Venetian galleass of 1660. This has 359 carved figures, busts and profiles. Figures representing crew members stand on deck in various poses. It took six years to complete this ship. Most of the carvings demand some coloration. Here is where the artistic hand of Mrs. Crabtree is added. She paints and colors the figures. She makes the sails, helps to rig the ships and makes the minute eye splices. She also applies a solution of eucalyptus oil and refined creosote to the wood periodically to prevent rot and discourage borers. During 1948-49, ¡the Crabtrees travelled across the nation exhibiting the collection at local department stores. But the continual moving, packing and unpacking soon proved too arduous. They returned to Florida and opened a museum devoted to displaying his work. It was on Route 1, south of Miami. But this business proved too confining after four years. Once again the models were packed but this time taken to The .Mariners Museum for permanent display. Mr. Crabtree is currently working on a model of the most highly decorated ship ever built, BUCENTAUR, a Venetian ceremonial galley with some 800 individual carvings. No other museum in the country has had the privilege of displaying this collection in its entirety. The ships are arranged in chronological order so that the visitor can follow the progress of design, rig and ornamentation. Some of the models have been planked on one side only. This allows a view of the interior arrangement of the vessel and gives an idea of the complexity of construction. Now an opportunity exists to see the next best things to the original ships-detailed scale miniatures. Since being acquired by the Museum in 1956, the models have been displayed in individual cases in a separate room: Now, through the Museum's expansion plans, they will have a completely new exhibit setting. CLASSIC TAHITI KETCH-included John Hanna Plans Catalog. Also, "ocean cruising sailing vessel" designs by Thomas E. Colvin. Two Hanna how-to-build books: 30' Tahiti & 27' Gulfweed. Cruising tale-Conversation With A World Voyager. FREE BROCHURE: Seven Sea Press, Dept. SH, 32 Union Sq., N.Y... N.Y. 10003.


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Photos by A. Horka

SKAREGRQ)M LOG A iournal kept

by Captain Archie Horka PART l

The crew of the SKAREGROM


Upon alighting from the train, I besought me to find an hotel at which I was not long and booked at the White Hart Hotel tho' I never noted the street. Had my luggage brought up from the station and then tidied up a bit after the dusty journey. I would have been justified in going to bed immediately to regain some of the sleep that was denied me on the journey but I was too impatient to see it through. Having come all this way in pursuit of an object, should I now lie down to sleep when perhaps to do so would let it to slip out of my reach? No, carry on, see it thro'. I locate the U.S. Consulate and inquire about the PHYLLIS. He curtly informs me that she had shipped all her men a few days ago and was even now lying in the readstead awaiting her skipper's pleasure. All the way down, I had feared such an answer, yet when I received it full in the face I was not dismayed, strange to say. I bustled into the train for Port Adelaide ever hopeful of the other grain-ships in port for there were three others. Sitting there in the train, dog-tired from my journey I must have presented a woebegone appearance to the other occupants of the carriage many of whom were bound out to Semaphore Beach for a day's bathing. Of an aspect denoting disappointment and a body worn by fatigue I sat there and thought how fortunate to be a "part of things," firmly established so to say and not be obliged to flit hither and thither in chase of ambition. But when I lit off the train and espied the rigging of a ship far down the street my fatigue was gone and my feet bounded over the pave with a spring. At last, I was coming to grips with Fate; bringing the matter to a head and soon I'd know what a bed I had made for myself. I liked the heavy, ponderous appearance of the British four-masted barque GARTHPOOL and as she lay alongside, her black hull and massive stump-to-gallant rigging reflected in the placid water shimmering in the noonday heat, I thought to myself, "There's a ship, boy." I climbed aboard and made inquiries, first of an apprentice, then of the 2nd Mate who was in charge, the Mate being laid up. Her crew had run away and only her cadets, ten in number were left, so there'd be no trouble getting in her. I hung about till the Old

Man tramped aboard and he was anxious to ship men right off, instantly. He'd pay nine pounds and I was to come aboard in the morning via the Customs Boat at Semaphore, for even now the vessel was expecting a towboat momentarily to go to an anchor outside. He had below and held the articles open for my inspection but I balked. It was altogether too fast, too breath-taking to suit me. I must first find out about my passport and shipping permit at the Customs and provide myself with a few needs. Then I must perform considerable letter-writing and most urgent of all I needed a good rest. And here was a ship being offered me! Under any other circumstances it's very likely that I would have shipped, but I backed out at any rate and don't rue it. Her focsle amidships was gloomy and dark and I heard she fed poor. Then, she was going up to finish loading at Melbourne and load grain for Europe which would likely occupy her over a month. In that time I'd probably lose heart and quit thus throwing my plans out of line again. No, I reckon I did best to hang out. As I stepped ashore from her I felt like a man who has just escaped the possibility of being coaxed into a bad bargain and I felt the better for it. I strolled leisurely about the dusty street of Port Adelaide, never minding even their names but observant of the Seaman's Mission, Sailor's Home, the Customs House and places I thought it would be to my advantage to know. I learned that Paul & Gray, the shipchandlers handled the providing of the boat PHYLLIS and I made for their stores. They told me where I'd probably find Capt. Haskell and hence I bustled to the Royal Arms Hotel where I found him at dinner. As he made his exit, or rather as I noted a smooth-shaven, cautious-stepping old gent come out, I asked him if he was Capt. Haskell. Receiving reply in the affirmative I stated my business and he repeated what the Consul had already told me. "However," said he, "the Captain of the SKAREGROM, the Norwegian full-rigger wants two men, why not see him?" At this time I was but little interested and told him I had banked on the PHYLLIS. Later by way of diversion I strolled over


the penny ferry and went over to look at the Norwegian, now taking in her last sacks of grain at Darling's wharf. Tho' she was a jubillee-rig and her stump-to'gallant rig gave her a square-appearance her masts had a smart rake and what a beauty below! Her graceful grey-white hull had a fine sweep ending at the figure-head. As I stood at her bow surveying her, I thought that in spite of her commonplace and foreign-name, she was a ship any sailor-man would like to sail in. I walked along the quay to see her deck and then received a pleasant surprise. There on deck, supervising the stowage of the last few sacks of wheat was Mr. Mathieson, the man who was Chief Mate of the Barque SOM during the passage I made in her in 1920. In four years he was practically unchanged and still had the prominent nose and full-face as when I knew him. His peach-like complexion was another characteristic I remember from knowing him before. My voyage in the SOM had attracted me strongly to the man, for he was indeed an officer, a square-rig mate who could handle his ship and his men and sho' had a style about doing things. Immediately upon seeing him, I forgot what objections I had as to the name, the rig and flag, etc. and decided that here was my ship! So I jumped aboard and was not long in getting acquainted for he remembered me from four year back. Yes, they were shy two men. I'd better wait and see the skipper. Hung about the decks awhile, getting chummy with what I reck'd would soon be my shipmates and when the Skipper came aboard I up and at him. He'd pay ten pounds, he said, and I'm to meet him at Paul and Gray tomorrow morn at 9:00, then we'll to the Consul's and sign on. To close the deal he retains some of my discharges. I contentedly make my way back to Adelaide by train, happy in the thought that my fears of striking and missing the mark were now to be allayed; that I had gambled and won! At the hotel, I resolutely buckled down to writing several letters altho' my eyes resented the abuse. About 8:00 p.m. I crept under the bed-clothes and was soon unconscious. Feb. 27, 1925-Friday-As luck would

have it, I overslept! Whether my little Hamburg clock failed me or whether it had tried to waken me in vain I cannot say but certain it is that when I opened my eyes it was exactly nine o'clock, the time I was to meet the Skipper in Port Adelaide! I hustled as best I could and felt keenly the slowness of the train but all the time I knew if likely that the man would go about his business and perhaps not trouble about mine any more. This dismayed me some for thru' neglect and being asleep on the job, perhaps I had lost my chance. I did to the appointed place and was told that he waited some time and then went to Adelaide, leaving word that he'd be back later in the day. So there was nought for me to do but while away time which I did by sauntering about the streets and indulging in various refreshments. Espying the Museum and Library not far from the Customs House I thought here would be a good place to pass an hour. So I strolled in thru' the door and ascended a flight of stairs to the Museum, the Reading Room being below. The afternoon was warm and of a kind that induces sleepiness. I became interested in several ship models displayed on the landing when a young girl of perhaps eighteen hurriedly came up the steps as if earnestly seeking something. Like any masculine I turned my head and met her gaze, thinking as men unconsciously do in such cases, "Hmm, not bad, that; good-looking kid and a trim figure. " Then as unconsciously did it leave my mind as I found more ship models. Entering the main hall like any casual visitor I proceeded systematically to inspect the displays. How quiet, this place I thought and how deserted, none but the lass and myself. I shifted farther along and began by now to observe things unusual to me. The maid stood, studying the case directly opposite me and being easy to look at I had me another look, only to become startled by finding that she too was "having alook." A mere accident, thought I or at most, passing interest between the sexes. I turned about and resumed my inspection but my mind was troubled by now. Why, thought I, should this wisp of a lass so tenaciously insist upon gazing at the same specimens as I and there, even now, of what interest was the exhibit of rare


coins to her . She was even then bent over a case of rare coins and medallions and as she leant over with back to me I could not help but noticing that she'd a pair of elegant legs! My blood was beginning to warm by now and tho' never had I pursued in my life, disdaining such sport, I became huntsman then. Reasoned I; she's come in here knowing that we two would be alone at this time of day and she's displaying her charms in order to attract my attention. I disdain this "picking-up" casual form of acquaintance and realize that I'm being goaded on by this little female. But to all appearances she wants to lead me on and it's up to me to at least show her I understand the game, and not act a sedate, stupid imbecile. By now I was curious to see if my deductions were correct so I followed her into another room, where curios and Aboriginal implements of war were shown. She became intensely absorbed in some native handiwork and this time I sidled over, evidently seeing something of great importance to me. We were close by now and an oppressive silence pervaded the room . Finally I ventured to ask her if she was interested in such things and how peculiar that a girl should have such a hobby as if she was interested, eh? Wide-eyed and surprised she affirmed that she was and that she often came to the Museum. Her voice was faltering and she felt embarrassed while I blundered along like a bumpkin courting his first love. We talked of generalities about town and then I decided to make the next move. I asked her if there was much in amusements about town. "Oh! my! yes, movie shows and Semaphore Beach and what not." Then I ventured to ask if she'd like to see a show in Adelaide the night and she hesitatingly said that she usually devoted this night to shopping. But, yes, she'd like to come and upon my asking her where and when we could meet, she chose the steps at the R.R. station, the place where such trysts are usually kept, I suppose. The deal closed she assumed an air of curtness and said she must be up and away as she was even then running an errand for her employer! And here in the museum she reminded me again of the time and place and was off feeling that she had scored and worked her points well. I hung about little longer, satisfied that I

had run the matter down and now trying to decide whether to keep the appointment or not. Surely, I was young and restless, so why not allow myself this brief spell of pleasure and companionship. All my young life I had adhered to a set principle of good conduct and it had returned me but little satisfaction; why not give myself free rein and see it through. After I had settled with the Old Man in town and gone to Adelaide I was still deliberating but allowing myself to be led on for I washed and attired myself neatly. I was at the Adelaide R.R. station at the stroke of the clock satisfied that I had kept the date and yet breathlessly hoping she wasn't there. I gave a hasty look about and then went to inspect the time-tables on the next day's trains. I had another look and suddenly it flashed thru' my cranium that perhaps it was the Port Adelaide R.R. station that she referred to for that has a long flight of steps such as one couldn't help noticing. Relieved at this and feeling that I had at least been game enough to see it thru' I dismissed the matter and went about my shipping. Picked up several good yarns in a booksellers and then to a show! Returned hotel-wards and wrote more letters. Lest I forget, upon leaving the museum and my little romance behind I went to Paul & Gray's and luckily bumped into the Skipper of the SKAREGROM, just returning from town. Tho' it was late in the day, he was anxious to have me ducketed, he gave me directions to the Consulate and sent me off to sign. The Norwegian Consulate was maintained by an agent in Bagot, Shaw Wool Brokers, and before him I signed as A.B. at ten pounds per month to go to a port of discharge in the U.K. or Continent, wages to commence Monday, March 2, 1925, and I to go aboard tomorrow. Feb. 28, 1925, Saturday-Yesterday whilst whiling away the hours, I chanced to become acquainted with an Estonian chap who had left a ship here and was finding it somewhat awkward getting along. Of him I learned considerable of conditions ashore and did treat him a "shot." Hearing that I was to join my ship tomorrow (today) he offered to help me with my luggage which offer I snatched upon eagerly. Accordingly he on hand when I most desired him for having risen early and break-


color lent by the bright Norwegian flag at her monkey-gaff. So, this thought I, is to be my first Cape Horner: well she'll do me. Once aboard I installed myself in a spare bunk forr'd which unfortunately was a lower but being at the forr'd end of the focsle it was later to prove a good bunk. As I'm not to "turn to" til Monday, I busy myself all the afternoon installing myself, stowing away "go-ashore" rigs, making shelves in the bunk and making the bunk as livable as possible. A word of the crew. There are sixteen bunks in the focsle and thus far fourteen are occupied. The crowd is composed in the main of young Norwegian chaps, (Deck Boys and Young Men they're called) who are making their first deep-water trip and who usually stay by a ship when the older hands desert. These chaps can take their places all right but there are three young fellows shipped here, Aussie two of them and one who claims to hail from Brooklyn, U.S.A. These fellows have had little or no time at sea and will be a hindrance rather than a help for some time. He intends to ship but three A.B.'s here, for ten pounds is appalling to him. Before I joined her, he shipped a Chilano who had served two years in the PHYLLIS, a crackerjack sailorman, a good pull on a brace from the looks of him and of a likable nature. Being both interested in the PHYLLIS and the Pacific Coast, we two hit it off nicely from the start. The cook is a skinny, English kid who is intent on returning home after two years on Australian sheep stations. Offering himself for next to nothing-four pounds-he was eagerly snatched up by the Skipper and it developed later that the Kid knew nothing whatever of his work, his idea merely was to get experience and so get a discharge. Then he could ship again perhaps. From past experience I had an idea of what to expect in the line of food but even then I found that I was to receive a surprise. For Sunday there was little besides soup, meat and potato-es; coffee and bread dominating the menu. Even then there was no coffee or tea for dinner, instead we had it at 3:00 in the p.m. which is the style in these ships. No dessert of any kind tho' a man can do just as well 'thout sweets. But what made matters bad was that that young imposter dished up the grub so poorly ; even the steward up-

fasted, I had a walk about awhile and then made for the station to hire a cab to convey me and my luggage to the trains. Arrived there, my obliging acquaintance shouldered the bag and together we managed the lot nicely. The train conveyed us to the old depot in Port Adelaide, only a block from the shipchandler's and depositing the whole here I strolled about for my last look at the dusty little grain-port of which I hope to see more later. The skipper turned up about 10 o'clock and seemed all haste to get me aboard. I was bundled into the tonneau of a car and away we went to Semaphore Landing. En route we picked up a Customs Officer who hailed us and asked for a lift as he was going out to the anchored ships. Arrived at the pier or rather boardwalk, which thrust itself into the bay for perhaps a quarter mile. I shouldered my sea-bag and the skipper and the Customs chap took hold of the handle of the suitcase which groaned from its load of books. Thus we proceeded out to the end of the pier and I was bundled aboard of the Custom's steamer lying there. There were three square-riggers at anchor about two miles off and of the two fourstickers, I picked the black one as the PHYLLIS tho' she showed no colors. She had a slightly hull, but her rigging appeared light and awry unlike the smart, viol-string tautness usually seen in old Yankee squareriggers. I was told later that she was virtually a wreck aloft due to age and tho' her hull was neatly painted it served only to conceal the rust beneath. Still, she was the PHYLLIS, the only I had set my heart on and she looked good to me. The Britisher, the GARTHPOOL, was anchored farthest up and seen thus at a good distance she looked more massive than ever. By now we were approaching my next ship the SKAREGROM and tho' I cannot become reconciled to her name and the stump to'gallant rig, there's a beauty in her. We approached her from a little on the bow and she looked a capable comfortable ship as she swung to her hook. Against the grey of an overcast sky and the motionless sheen of a calm sea, her greyish-white hull and bright yellow spars contrasted beautifully and the scheme was further enhanced by the dash of t6

braided him and averred he wouldn't go to sea with such a cook. Perhaps it's the sharp contrast 'twixt this and the ham and eggs, the cakes and fruit and desserts of the CALERA that makes me feel the change and bearing this in mind I try to bear up patiently, for I willed it of my own. March 2, 1925, Monday-First job this day a'bending mizzen to'gallantsl' upper and lower. Find the help sails light and easy to h'st (hoist). With these on she's got all on mut the 'crojack but she doesn't carry one so she's practically dressed up. Countless other jobs fill out the day. March 3, 1925, Tuesday-Making all snug below and aloft, awaiting the Old Man's pleasure and a fair wind. Late in the day the Britisher, the GARTHPOOL hore-up and got under way. Tho' the wind was not quite favorable it was a strong breeze such as a big vessel would want and she braced up to it on the port tack. In about two hours she was hull down and as it came out more from N.E. this night, it's likely she had a good start for Melbourne where she's bound. March 4, 1925, Wednesday-Each day we watch the movements of the little Custom boat as she plies from ship to ship in the anchorage doing various errands. Whenever she points her nose our way, all is expectation that at last the Old Man had straightened up his shore affairs and was come to take his ship to sea. This afternoon she brought off some stores and the usual note from the Old Man to the Mate. As she had previously called at the PHYLLIS a note came aboard for "Chilano" John from two of his old mates. I read it for him and the contents were amusing. It stated that the Old Man had taken his wife and daughter ashore Sunday last and was not seen since, giving rise to a suspicion that he didn't want to take his family round the Horn in the old pot. That they had a crew of "cowboys" aboard who would need much rounding into shape and finally that they'd try to locate our ship when we all got up to Europe. I composed a suitable reply for John, sending it by next day's boat and they must have been reading it just when we were making sail. March 5, 1925, Thursday-This noon the skipper and his daughter, a girl of about

twenty-one, whom he has to sea with him, come aboard by the Custom boat and the wind being right due north and exactly to suit, there's a "straining at the leash all round." After dinner the anchor is hove up by means of a gas motor and rope to the capstan and altho' it goes slow, it's far better than the old "bread." Tho' we're a raw crowd ourselves, the canvas is set quickly for the young Norwegian chaps who made the passage out know their way about aloft and are lively at it. Three or four of us lead the way for the greener fellows to the sheets and halliard and in an hour and a half she's gliding S. under a faint N.E. breeze with all on but the mains'l. At sundown it comes ahead abit but she's holding her own nicely. After all sail is set the two Mates choose the watches and to my great satisfaction, I'm chosen for the Mate's watch. A Canadian chap of about 30, a ruddy-haired, jovial faced fellow and a young Dane, we three are the A.B.'s of this watch, while "Chilano" John, a big Norwegian and an Australian just out of the Gulf of St. Vincent ketches make up the starb'd watch backbone. The deck boys and Ordinary seamen are divided between the two watches and as is usually the case the Mate got the better of the bargain. Our watch on deck til 8:00 p.m., the long afternoon watch as it's kept in these ships and we turn in for our first watch below of God knows how many. Tho' the night was dark and the wind heading, he headed her for the Buckstairs passage and shortly after midnight, Kangaroo Island was off the starb'd beam about five miles. At this juncture the wind fell light and baffled-round, giving us our first drifting at the braces. It finally steadied down to about N.E. or so and we lay up close by the wind on the port tack. I marvelled at the coolness and indifference of the afterguard when we were "ghosting" along thru' here this dark night and I tried to picture the KITTY MACKALL under Beatty's charge, going thru'. There'd be nought but dreadful speculations, tales of treacherous currents and ships lost on Kangaroo Isld. Then the clown of a mater would be snooping around the deck spreading his apprehension forr'd and telling all to


March 7, 1925, Saturday-With the advent of a full moon, a strong southeaster sets in and to our surprise he heads before it, heading west! A most peculiar course to be steering for the Horn, reck'd we. Then when the man returned from the wheel he brought tidings that the Old Man was going to try to make the passage round the Cape of Good Hope, preferring the nicer weather and trades in the Indian Ocean to the westerlies of the Horn. He was talkative when I was at the wheel and appeared content with wind, only hoping it would hold to Cape Leeuwin, West Australia. He had made the passage this way before and found that if a man's luck holds to the Leeuwin, then he's safe for he usually gets the S.E. Trade not long after clearing the Cape. But if the wind fails and go ahead it's no use to beat for it's only wasted time and it's best to go around and run the easting down. March 8, 1925, Sunday-Surging along easily with yards slightly canted and it's difficult to believe she's going ten knots. "Ah, you beauty!" Skipper highly pleased with his turn of luck and mentions the many ships that have won out by going this way also the tea clippers that used this route on their racing home with rich Oriental cargoes. Even if we're obliged to turn around in the face of a head-wind it will only mean a few days' loss. March 9, 1925, Monday-Wind veers around to N.W. and as she falls off to the southard the Skipper becomes dubious. He waits for it to come out fair for a few hours and waiting in vain he ups helm disgustedly and squares away for Tasmania, cursing that "there'd be nothing that way." He appears of an undecided nature and believes in using any wind for fair wind as long as it goes in his general way. I suppose he knows best but I think it's a good idea to make up the mind on a certain passage and use whatever winds blow to work his way down. There are several adventurous "passengers" forr'd who received with regret the news that we weren't going round the Horn, one even venturing that now he'd have to sign in another square-rigger for a voyage that way. i, too, would like to see her go east and "round the corner," but I'm not asking for a

"keep handy." And then to see them when the wind died and played 'round as it did here, it would have shaken our confidence, I'm sure. Luckily, that's all over and it appears that I'm now in a ship that is handled by men who are not afraid of her. I hope it will help . to eradicate some of the illusions and disgust I suffered in the KITTY. March 6, 1925, Friday-At daylight the black-looking Kangaroo ¡Island is well astern on the starb'd quarter tho' the breeze is light for a smooth sea she appears to slip easily thru' the water. Wind going 'round. The night it was necessary to "go about." At midnight ship on S. tack with all hands on deck the watches took their stations. We (the port watch) on the lee mizzen braces and the second mate's watch on the main. Previously to this we had hauled up the fore and mains'l and seen all clear for tacking. I was on the alert to see the manoeuver for I had always wanted to see just such a thing done, the handling of a full'rigged ship under canvas. A growing moon added to the sport and made it easier all 'round. She was kept a good clean full and then 'twas "Hard'lee !" in the mate's clear resonant voice. She glided up into the wind and 'thout hesitation was soon all aback. At the "zero hour" it was "topsail haul" and then every man did his bit. Pat Hunter on our watch was told to slack off the weather crojack braces and at the order at it we went on the other side of the main life rail. We pawed the ropes in feverishly and it was thrilling to see those massive yards come round with a groan and the wire pennants of the braces made a swishing sound as they crossed each other aloft. Meanwhile, the 2nd Mate had of course let go his main yards as his nine men were hauling home the slack with an "ayeeeee" and much wailing as is the peculiar manner of whoever happens to be at the fore hand. When these were hauled taut and belayed all hands manned the fore braces and I reckon 15 to 20 minutes would cover the time we required for going about with her and coiling down all gear clear for running. She's now on the port tack laying up about S.E. by S. The readiness with which she responded to the wishes of her handlers made me like the old ship more and each day I find out I'm getting to like her more. 18-

Physically handicapped, with little clothing, nothing but an imagination fired by reading sea-yarns, that's his equipment for the voyage! The Danish chap on the other hand, was a sailor-man and when he became talkative over a bottle that night in the focsle, he revealed that he'd knocked about in Australia, the States and South America. He had sailed in the six-mast schooner OREGON PINE and hand made a passage out to Melbourne in the Norwegian bk. BELLANDS. I questioned him about this voyage and found it was the very one "Paddy" Kelly, my shipmate in the KITTY MACKALL, had made. Most assuredly he knew Maurice or "Paddy" as he was called and when he later related incidents which "Paddy" had told me of before, I knew the man's story was genuine. A good ship, I hope and one who seems anxious to please and satisfy, qualities rare in most cooks especially going deep-water. March 11, 1925, Wednesday-The appearance of the horizon is threatening today and the light sou'westerly breeze developed into a half-gale by night. As our watch turned in 8 o'clock (first watch) the 2nd Mate's whistle summoned his crowd out in a hurry and it was in all three upper to'gallants'ls. There was some delay getting the fore to'gallants'l in owing to a halliard's fouling but aside from this they were snubbed in good style. I thought how handy it is to be with a big gang rather than the four and five on a watch that the Yankee schooners carry. Tho' it blew strong, the wind was quartering and they held on to their canvas heroically. The full-rigged boiled thru' it, going ten and eleven with none of the noise and slogging of the KITTY MACKALL and none of the prowling and worrying on the Mate's part. This man kept his place on the poop with the sailmaker handy to help pass the tedious hours of the night watch and at all times one of the crew kept on the alert for a call, he being styled the policeman. The others were at liberty to snuggle up and find comfort as they could, being ever dressed and ready for a call. This may sound like a happy-go-lucky system but it appears sensible to me. If the men are not needed, why create a militaristic spirit and the feeling of being dogged and hazed by continually trying to keep them awake? Insist

licking into the bargain. I wanted to make the passage because it's part of every deep-water sailor's life and also because we'd be assured of plenty of fair wind and a quicker passage by going east. But I got all the bad weather I wanted in the SOM that passage across the North Atlantic and the North Sea to long for more. However, I understand the sentiment; it's just like a new chap who wants to see it blow "real hard" and then gets his belly-full when he's got to lay aloft some dark, wet night and claw away at a booming topsail. I know the feeling all right and I'm quite sure there will be some illusions broken ere many days are past. March 10, 1925, Tuesday-Wind comes out about S.S.W. and the Old Man puts her about for "one more try" as he terms it. But no sooner was she around and braced for the wind on the port beam when it shifts back to S.W. and freshens. Disappointed again, he squares in and swears there'll be no more "humor" but we'll go about our business from now on. Complaints of cramps in the stomach and an unnatural movement of the bowels heard in many quarters. The blame is laid to the "highpowered" coffee (coal-tar) and water and hints are made to the Cook about the food but he declares it's only the water, the alkaline water of the Torrens in Adelaide. Whatever it is it's bringing on a most distressing weakness, a fear of meal-times and a rushing business at the lavatories under the focsle head. While mentioning the Cook: He's not the young, skinny London boy we had in port, but an adventurous young Dane who came aboard sailing day, or no, to be correct, it was the night before. The other spindly chap was given his choice of going ashore or going forr'd in the focsle as dick boy. We advised him against that for who wants 110 lbs. of skin and bone on a yard beside him or tailing onto a brace. He's a willing chap; but green, so very green and so timid. With such a useless man, it means that's so much more work to do for the rest whereas if he went ashore the Skipper would fetch up a more qualified man. But no, he wanted the "experience" and said he'd stay. He's got pluck but it's the pluck of ignorance and could he but see what's ahead of him I wonder if he'd want the experience. 19

on the look-out man and "police" being awake and they'll look after the wheel-trick reliefs, etc. March 12, 1925, Thursday-Our noble ship goes soaring along at 11 knots all the day and night headed E .S.E. for the south of Tasmania. March 13, 1925, Friday-Steering E.N.E. Compass which is about E by Sl/zS by standard. Strong breeze abeam from S.S.W. and this night the wheel-trick was an ordeal for a couple of spokes of lee helm would bring her head up a'flying and a fellow would have to tug and pant and swear trying to bring her off and rap full again. It's great for the shoulders, though! At daylight it was real "Easting weather.' ' Blowing a gale and cruel sea running. The ship showed as how she could perform now and tho' she lifted her stern and bow handsomely to the grey beards rolling down upon her, she allowed each one to spew itself over the rails amidships, much to our anxiety and discomfort. The main running gear being coiled on the pins amidships was of course all washing off and a tangled mess of ropes swept back and forth across the deck with each sea. She'd a heavy press of sail on her yet and this caused her to lay her lee rail under, allowing solid water to cascade aboard as each big one went by. Led along with the rushing water the ropeends all made for the scupper and the clanging wash-ports that by now were banging unceasingly. This, of course, was not to be, for the buntlines and clewlines would all be cut off thus and we must needs rescue them. Watching our chance we'd claw and tug at the mess hurriedly, the Mate watching the sea and singing out when a dollop was about to break. But as is usually the case when water is breaking over the first days, we were all careless and several g~t.llgr~~~-~~ , _ myself, was "unhors~!'"'fan.d~~<:rabD?,t and having a mizzen brace in hiJ:natl!lifug toit tenaciously only to feel if pay out when I put weight on it. This caused me a sickening sensation and it was with relief when I felt the deck beneath me and saw daylight thru' the green that had floated me about. I fetched up breathless and spluttering whilst as to my person that was bruised and wetted thru'. This dismayed me for if anything is disheartening


it's oilskins soaked and boots full when in bad weather for it's inconvenient a time for drying and a man needs them continually. After breakfast all hands take in the mainsail and then to ease the ship of her bulk of water the Old Man keeps her off a point or so, we checking in on the weather braces. She rides much easier this way, altho' two men are now wrestling at the wheel. The galley being in the after part of the forr'd house and directly in the path of the dollops coming over the lee rail it was washed out four times during the day, and the fire was put out twice, steam clouds issuing up thru' the "Charlie Noble" and the door when the water reached the stove. The poor cook, running around barefoot and light clad was up to his waist in it, wading about among his pots and pans. But he was a hero, that chap, for each time he came back and built up his fire again so that we wretches forr'd had tolerable dish-ups the day. The focsle got its share of course and one especially nasty one that vaulted clear over the house came crashing down upon the closed skylight sending a cataract of cold sea water down upon the dinner table and down the necks of several of the gang. The deck ran water from the door altho' there was an outside passage thru' where it had to come first. Boots and shoes went sailing about and it was little cheer to the watch below turning out and from their bunks trying to recognize their sea-boots swim by and picturing their misery during their spell on deck. We set about to acclimatize ourselves. We nailed shifting boards on the mess table and in the dish locker so that the plates would stay in place. The benches were nailed down and everything taken off the deck. The scuttle overhead was nailed down and battened well down with canvas so that after this we were made quite comfortable even tho' the seas came crashing against the house frequently. At the change of watch (1 :oo p.m.) the fore and main togallants'ls were fallen , the mizzen having been doused during the forenoon. At 3:00 p.m. our watch took the mizzen upper tops'l and tho' the wind was aft and it ballooned, it proved an easy sail to take for eight hands. The A.B. 's are to do all the wheeling and there being but three on each watch, it means




ribbon and our entire watch is wearing tiny green bows and cockades tho' there's nary an Irishman amongst them. The N.W. wind brings fog and muck so that lookout is kept day and night and the "cowhorn" is kept a'going. Wind steady from W.N.W. with long S.W. swell and annoying rolling. March 18, 1925, Wednesday-A dirty fog shuts out the sun again to-day and the "after guard" begins to concern itself about the nearness of the New Zealand coast. The forenoon, the mizzen lower togallants'l and mains'l are taken by all hands. The fog having enveloped us all day and a fresh breeze blowing, the Skipper deemed it best to heave her to fill daylight, so we shortened her down to the fores 'l and six tops'ls. She rode comfortably, tho' a rising sea was running. March 19, 1925, Thursday-Square in at dawn and it's touch and go whether a dollop gets you or not as a fearful sea is running from S.W. and consistently boarding her over the lee rail. The focsle shipped water most alarmingly so that several of the chaps who owned sea-chests betook themselves about removing them under the forecastle-head and it looked like a refugee-train for awhile. The short forr'd life-boat had been unshipped from its chocks by a sea and was careened over nearly on its beam end atop the forr'd house. The chocks were smashed to kindling and we lashed the boat well as she lay, exposed to any big sea that chanced to hurtle aboard. She had been trimmed on the starb'd tack for several days on end now and had heeled over considerable when seas pounded. Fearing that this might tend to shift her weights, the Mate had us down below in the square of the fore-hatch shifting the grainsacks. A heavy job this proves, for an 180 lbs. sack and the uneasy footing of the laboring ship makes an ugly combination. The task went leisurely tho' for his intention is to shift a couple of tons at intervals as required. The day is one of stinging squalls and occasional bursts of cold, cheerless sunlight, and the sea higher if anything. About 7:00 o'clock in the evening, jllst when all hands were called to check in abit on

plenty of work. Each have partners and the man steering takes the weather helm, his younger pard putting his shoulder to it on the lee side at the other's nod or grunt or beck of the hand. At dark the wind let up some but the sea was still running high, helping the good ship along. March 14, 1925, Saturday-At 8:00 a.m. both watches stretched up the mizzen upper topsail and later, our watches set all three lower togallants'ls. Altho' a heavy sea was still running she shipped less water, running quite steady with wind on the quarter. At noon fore and main upper to'gallants are stretched up. As is the style in these Scandinavian ships all hands are subject to call at 6 bells in the dog-watches or the long afternoon watch (1:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m.) as it is observed here. This so that any sweating up, or sail work to be done for the night can be performed snappily with plenty of help about. This eve. all hands ran up the jibs and two stays'ls, then swayed away on the mizzen upper togallants'l, the entire performance being over in about half an hour. The night was peaceful save that the wind shifted to the N.W. and we canted the yards. March 15, 1925, Sunday-We're lucky with our Sundays it appears. Turned out a glorious day. A leaping, sparkling blue sea and a strong N.W. breeze. Ship going ten and riding steady as a church. We're in latitude 46 degrees South, headed for N. Zealand. These days "Paddy" Hunter starts working on a bottle model and out of curiosity I lend a hand to see how it's done. The job progressed for a couple of weeks, he doing a little each favorable day and when he finally slipped his cunning little ship in with the rigging lying down and drew it upright by a complicated system of threads that led out thru' the neck of the bottle, the result was so startling that half the focsle began carving little models. "Paddy" has done much of this before and is turning them out now for a quid each, he being a keen business-man. March 17, 1925, Tuesday-St. Patrick's Day-One year ago I left Newcastle, N.S.W. for Chile in the "Kitty" MACKALL: remember? "Pat" manages to dig up some green


the weather braces, a solid crash of water hurled itself over the lee rail (port) and against the focsle. Luckily none of the crew had poked their heads out of the door yet for had they been grouped about there as we usually do they'd be tossed about like wooden soldiers. The mate was forr'd at the brace rail we had rigged between the foremast and the bulwarks, seeing the brace clear and it being my police I was lending a hand. When the sea broke over we both leapt for the life-rail and clung on blindly. After the roar and crash and rush of swirling water had subsided we opened our eyes and blinked into the darkness. Tho' we could not instantly account for it there seemed a great void about the deck before us and surely the forr'd house had never showed rust so much before! Suddenly it dawned upon us that the pighouse had been ripped from its lashings and 'thout a sound had been floated clean round the corner of the house and over to the starb'd side! The pig never uttered a squeal and this caused us to think that he'd probably been drowned or frightened to death. All hands were out by now. We put our shoulders to the shack and slowly pushed it back into its place at the fore part of the house, just abaft the foremast. Upon opening the door, "Old Dennis" proved to be very much alive, he let out a series of squeals and grunts that indicated his disgust with the whole business. We hauled him out and after running about wild with everyone trying to chase him, got the fellow into the locker forr'd and shut him up for the night. Besides this, the workboat, the bluntnosed pram that lay upturned on the skids to port had received the full force of the sea on its bottom and was hanging a splintered wreck in its lashings. Just a hint of its power when it seems to remind people not to underestimate its prowess and to maintain a ceaseless vigilance by its caprice, this last dollop left its imprint behind very audibly. Damp, wet and miserable spirits all 'round. March 20, 1925, Friday-Heavy sea running and lighter wind, which encouraged the Old Man to put the tops'ls on her. We (port watch ) hoist the fore by capstan and tail on to the mizzen by hand. I had never pulled to a chantey and here I thought is an excellent chance with about 10 men tailing onto the


halliards. So I mounted in fore hand and bravely let out "Whiskey-Johnny." The crowd seemed a bit startled and being unused to it they didn't join in the chorus except "Paddy" Hunter, but the swing of the song set a good pace and in surprisingly short time the yard was mastheaded. This noon a sad mess was doled out to us as salt-beef, old condemned stuff from the smell of it and at Paddy's instigation we two brought a plateful aft for the Skipper to whiff. As was expected of him he declared it to be good meat, in fact he saw it corned himself at the butcher's! We respectfully told him that being new hands, we disliked to complain and start "food-riots," but this wanted attention. He admitted that there was a condemned barrel of beef forr'd, but the steward had orders to dump it and use of the better meat, he said. Tho' a bit surprised at our boldness, he wasn't irritated any and when he told us this ship fed better than many Norwegian ships and there being little of variety aboard he couldn't do much, we asked that the foulsmelling stuff be with-held from us. So ended our first complaint aboard. When I joined this ship, I knew from past experience and hearsay what to expect and in general I was not surprised at anything. But altho' a man can accustom himself to good coarse food, he shouldn't be asked to feed on tainted stuff and this formed the theme of our argument. We had the satisfaction of seeing nice, clean beef come on the table after that. In the afternoon watch the mizzen lower togallants'l was put on. Ship ploughing along at nine and ten. March 21, 1925, Saturday-Northerly weather, overcast skies and raw wind, which falls light and allows the vessel to roll heavily in a long swell. Letting sail the morning and at breakfast everything is set. March 22, 1925, Sunday-We've lucky Sundays in this ship for to-day a fresh, clear weather came out of the W.N.W. and bowled our good ship along. We're in the vicinity of Bounty Island to the S.E. of New Zealand and there's a great variety of birds flying about. Crossed the 180th meridian to-day and they made it Sunday again, very sporty of them. Everyone is engrossed at various hobbies and unlike the shiftless young fellows in steam

lower were taken in by the watch. The buntlines could not be hauled up properly because the boys had nipped them too strongly and it fell to my lot to tackle the fore. A strong breeze on the quarter that just lifted your oilskin coat and sent a penetrating drizzle up your back as we clawed despairingly at the balloon, soaked with wet. Danish George, the boy Couzess and myself had the fore while Paddy and two others took the main. "Sails" and little Frank had the mizzen lower togallants'ls for theirs. Frank was practically useless for in the darkness he could do but little else than hang on for which I don't blame him, and with his thin arms he could not help us much with the sails. How I upbraided him for insisting upon coming to sea with the ship and tho' I relieved myself of much rancor on the yard, I regretted it in my cooler moments. But the despair of clutching desperately at the wetted canvas only to have it slip and flap out again embittered a fellow and made him curse those who "couldn't hold their end up,'' so to speak. We bundled the canvas up in lumps and passed gaskets as best we could and finally when we began our descent, it had already begun to get grey on the horizon. Meanwhile, while we were battling with our two togallants'ls, Paddy and his gang were having their hands full on the main for there the lower togallants'l was of new canvas and this soaked with rain and full of wind from the quarter present a problem. We were still aloft at 8 bells (4:00 a.m.) when the starb'd watch turned out on deck. Poor devils! As an eye-opener they took in all three upper topsails and proceeded to tie them up. When we reached the deck and heard the welcome "Free vacht!" of the Mate it was 5:00 o'clock and never had I felt so fagged out and disgusted as that morn. Despite all the premonitions of a blow nothing materialized but a heavy easterly sea. Expecting it to veer to the N.W. the Old Man wore ship at 11:00 a.m. but altho' she lay E .N.E. it wouldn't breeze up. All this night we heard and endured nervously the aggravating slatting of the sails against the mast. March 28, 1925, Saturday-Intermittent fog and clear patches with little or no wind which is very aggravating. This night, after

who lie about reading magazines and playing poker, these chaps take to fancy work and the finer points of marlinespike sailorizing. Dittybag lanyards and bags are the "go" just now, the bottle-model fever having subsided for a while. March 23 , 1925, Monday-Cold wind from south'ard and of all inconvenient jobs, we're set to oiling down the rigging. The vessel rolling in the swell and sails filling and slatting aback made it nasty work out on the yardarms oiling the sheaves but what was worse, the oil thickened in the cold and ran very slowly. If I didn't know this Mate as well as I do, I'd declare that he was hazing us but I can't think that of him. The gear certainly needs oiling, but this was a day ill-chosen. The rope and wire-rope in the fore-peak are being put to use these days for there are many replacements to make and two men of each watch fell in for a share of "sailorizing." This night it fell light and nearly flat calm. March 24, 1925, Tuesday-Overcast and chilly. Heavy S.W. swell, the regular heavings of a Cape Horn sea. Wind works slowly around to the nor'ard, making it necessary to ship in the afternoon. Lay up E . by S. on the port tack. March 25, 1925, Wednesday-Finally settled down to a steady norwesterly breeze and sent the full-rigger about her business. This day we overhauled the sail-locker, . re-stowing the sails as the mate took an inventory. She hasn't much spare canvas but besides two new sails her other sails are in good repair. Am given a pensioner's job to-day. Am set to sewing a thrummed sennit-mat, a job that is to be wholly my own from watch to watch and promises to hold for many watches. March 26, 1925, Thursday-Noon position- Latitude 49 degrees S. , Longitude 170 degrees W. Easterly wind, muzzler ; at 8 bells (8:00 p.m.) all hands wear ship. Glass falling and an annoying drizzle dampens our spirits the night. March 27 , 1925, Friday-At midnight both watches take in the mains'l, a trying job to us wretches just turning out for the mid-watch. Blowing up! Later the mizzen upper togallants'l came in and about 2:30 a.m. all togallants upper and


all day of deliberation, it came on fair and strong. March 29 and 30, 1925, Sunday & Monday-Wind battling again to-day but trying to come out N. W. Owing to a dirty drizzle and ugly foreboding, sail is taken at dark and made at daylight. At night it held clear and cold with a so'westerly wind. Heard from the Mate, we're in 50 degrees South. The bottle-ship craze having subsided, ditt-bag lanyards are in style now and all spare time is employed by the boys. The Mate will feel this for several skeins of his marline have been "lifted" for the job and the end is not yet. March 31, 1925, Tuesday-Increasing to a sou'west gale and things are asswning an "easting weather" aspect again. In togallants'ls in the forenoon but tho' the squalls are heavy he holds on to his topsails and fores'l and the ship exults in the free rein. Going twelve knots: two men at the wheel. April 1, 1925, Wednesday-A respectable sea running and the wind steadies down to that trade-like regularity that is looked for here, a few hours on one quarter with heavy, gray skies and rain and then a shift to the clear skies and keen, cutting wind of a sou'west. "All Fool's Day" with the usual pranks upon the boys such as sending them aft to the Mate on various errands. April 2 and 3, 1925, Thursday and Friday"Booming along." Fine weather and doing some sailing compared to what I've seen in the past two years in the KITTY MACKALL! April 5, 1925, Sunday-A Sunday ship and Sunday weather! To-day, the cook became nettled because we had been keeping the galley fire going all night and had taken charge of the galley in general. He came into the focsle and set to laying the law down at which we reared up on our hind legs and told him he'd best stay in his place and do his orating from the galley door. Thus far we had got on tolerably well with the cook, a most unusual thing in a deep-water ship where it's usually "put and take," but at last the break has come and we expect he'll be exercising petty reciprocation, "getting even," from now on. But we had a frank talk on deck later in the day and we decided to try to be tolerant of each other's rights and 24

continue diplomatic relations. The days following turned out to be real "easting weather." A fine growing moon and strong steady westerlies. Running it down! April 8, 1925, Wetlnesday-It keeps going from quarter to quarter and this day by way of change it increases to a heavy gale from the nor-westerly quadrant. Confident that it wouldn't get bad from there, the skipper let her have it all! She's no clipper and too much cannot be expected of her but she logged her eleven and twelve knots each hour regularly. The Old Man feels proud of his ship and becomes talkative to the wheelman, emphasizing that she's got plenty of canvas and hoping the wind holds strong till we get around "the corner." He's no demon for carrying canvas perhaps but he certainly does outshine the afterguard of the KITTY MACKALL. Two men at the wheel to-day. Noon position Longitude 118 degrees W.-Latitude 51 degrees S. At 8:00 o'clock, the evening, all hands furl the mains'l and mizzen upper togallants'l. Later, our watch takes in all togallants. Shortly before midnight, the outer jib stayed parted, preswnably owing to the outer jib tack carrying away and allowing the sail to run 'way up to the crosstrees. I was then at the wheel and didn't see the show but I learned from my watchmates that the sail ran merrily up to the crosstrees and having seen that happen in the MACKALL I reckon the same happened here. They had a dirty job of it salvaging the sail for it all dropped down over the boom when the halliards were lowered away and when it was fished out of the water partly, it was hauled back onto the focsle head. They say the Mate took it cooly which increased every one's respect for him. It only confirms my impression of him, I formed when the main spar get adrift that night aboard the SOM when we wallowed about in the North Sea. April 9, 1925, Thursday-To-day is the first of our Holy Week Holidays as it's the custom in Scandinavian ships to make four days of it. He had looked forward to these days with pleasure, expecting to devote much spare time to hobbies, etc. But it was not to be for as on several Thursdays before, it set in dirty. A heavy nor'westerly gale with a hellish

A word about the young lady aboard for the rough log has it that " girl getting interesting." This buxom lass of eighteen usually comes up for a promenade when the weather is nice and at first appeared quite shy and careful lest she met one's glance but of late she's been airing herself tho' it hailed and rained and gladdened a fellow with a coquettish smile and glance or two. Poor girl ! What a dreary existence for a lass who is perhaps pining to be amusing herself among youth and maidhood ashore rather than pass an existence here like a recluse and be the target for curious stares as soon as she shows herself. Her presence aboard furnishes a topic of conversation and tho' fellows deny the fact it is apparent that the oft-shaved faces are also due to her being among us . The only female among a number of males, she's naturally the perfection of femininity in our hungry eyes and the gazes and stares are illconcealed. She's aware of this and conducts herself with a becoming reserve tho' as I've said she's not above a swift side glance and of late a disturbing smile. April 12, 1925, Easter Sunday- At noop our position is Latitude 52 degrees S.Longitude 96 degrees W. or approximately 1,000 miles to the Horn. Sunday weather and our noble ship goes boring into the backs of the rearing greybeards before a strong westerly. April 13, 1925, Monday-Last of the Eastertide holidays to-day. 720 miles to the Horn. A heavy sou'west gale with stinging hail and sleet squalls and the long Cape Horn swell running. During the day, sail is being reduced and for the night she's under fores 'l, three lower topsl's and a main upper. It being a full moon tonight, stealing aft to the wheel was less precarious altho' she was taking it solid all the night! The moonlight shining full upon the lordly greybeards as they rolled by us seemed to enhance their awfulness and majesty and truly it was a wild scene. April 14, 1925 , Tuesda) Wind shifting from quarter to quarter but ever with gale force and at intervals, bringing squalls of sleet. This forenoon the main topmast staysail carried away but it was downed 'ere it had done itself much harm. "All hands" were then bowled out for the main upper

drizzle that penetrates oilskins and a high sea running . Shortened down to the six tos'ls, (upper and lowers) and foresail. Shipping much water all day but we're all 'ware of it and nobody gets hurt. We're likewise snug in the focsle, being well battened down from the skylight and gear clear of the deck. Nevertheless, it's damp, damp and cold! During the afternoon a heavy squall brought a sudden shift of wind from the sou'westward and soon after the weather began to clear up. The Mate issues out a tot of "iron ration" during the dog-watch, a drink of "Aquavit," a Danish spirit that tones up the lad wonderfully. And well it might for shortly after, it being then 7:00 o'clock, all hands manned the braces and canted the yards abit. Managed to keep the decks tolerably dry it being our wheel (Suerre and myself do weather). Moderating at midnight. April 10, 1925, Friday-Making sail accordingly for the weather holds clear and cold with a high, sparkling "blue" running. Hands aloft with the sailmaker patching the fores'l, a hellish trying job in the cold. Nearly all sail was made during the day for tho' the old man's a bit quick at "getting the wind up" as the saying is, he makes sail soon enough. At sundown it shifts to nor'west and heavy rain-squalls howl thru' the rigging. All hands at 6:00 p.m. to snub the lower togallants'ls and mizzen upper tops'l, that being the order of shortening her down. Second Mate doing much shouting and impatiently calls to our watch to come out, arousing our ire so that next day "Paddy" Hunter accosted him on the quarter-deck while talking to the Mate and told him that we were not first-trippers and were not hanging back but would come out when dressed and ready. Further that this barking would only provoke discontent and produce little good. Words to that effect and tho' the Second Mate, if a bit ill, he was less boisterous about the decks the following days. The Mate, like the "ace" he was, did not take up the cudgels and call Paddy down but with a firm politeness he showed the boys that he wanted to use them as men with feelings. April 11, 1925, Saturday- Gloriously clear and it gives a man a chance to get a breathing spell. Making sail to it. 25

topsail and curiously enough no sooner was this sail furled than the wind fell light. The Mate told me later at the wheel that when the westerly in these latitudes increases to such force as to cause an upper tops'l to be taken, wind aft, it's like a dying flurry and it spends itself soon after. The clearing sky and moderating wind encouraged the Old Man to set the main tops 'l again before the day was done, the starbo'd watch walking it up with the capstan. These cold, wet nights the watch usually kept handy in the galley keeping the fire alight to a cheery glow and boiling coffee. Wet clothes were hung in all available places and when the watch below was rousted out at one bell there was always a bundle of dry clothes and a pot of steaming coffee for them as well as those aft. These hours "around the galley fire" with the lantern dimmed and the shadows of the gang leaping to the flickerings of the stove fire will live in memory for they were the only real moments of comfort in that long, cheerless six-weeks of oilskins and sea boots, of flooded decks and clawing at steellike canvas! Sitting about on boxes, some dozing, others drawing lazily at their pipes talking of everything under the sun, then the spell broken by the striking of the bells and relieving the wheel and lookout. The wheelman would bundle in with a drawn, screwed-up scowl on his flushed face and set about to warm himself, cursing wheel tricks and easting weather in general. Or perhaps the mate's whistle, so full of meaning would drag us out to a job aloft but more often these sail jobs came at the relief of the watch when "all beef" was available. Somebody conceived the idea of toasting bread one night and from then on we could eat none other than toasted bread! April 15, 1925, Wednesday-Clearing away the scud to-day and sail is made. We chanty up the mizzen upper tops'l in good style to-day for the gang is getting on the swing and "Paddy" Hunter gave us "Reuben Ranzo ." To-day's observation was the first in several days it appears and it rectified the dead reck'g. She was found to be farther north than was necessary and a sharp course was made to the south'ard for Cape Horn. April 16, 1925, Thursday-Held promising

until late in the day when it freshened-from the W.N.W. and sail was taken in. Shipping it green, too! , but walloping along working south! April 17 ,1925 Friday-Stinging squalls and a heavy sea running from west'ard but in general the wind is lighter. Altho' we've been bustled along on the wings of the westerlies and received a ducking for six weeks "running it down" it looks now as if we'll round "old Cape Stiff" nicely. All talk forr'd is of the Horn and how cheering to think that soon we'll be round and steering north for warmer climes. It was my wheel from 6:30 P.M. to 8:00 P.M. and under the clear, starry sky with the ship running easily before a steady breeze my imagination ran riot. Here we were off the pitch of the Horn, down the far slopes of the globe effecting a passage that many ship~ have made before us and many of which hall good cause to remember it after. Drake had forced his wilful way 'round it and rich Spanish galleons had been buffetted in the same parts. Ponderous ships of the line, big seventy-fours and fleet frigates of Nelson's day had braved it and later the lofty clippers of California's days had seen these parts. Later when iron and steel replaced wood in the builders' hands the beautiful postpainted wool-clippers raced home this way and the powerful German nitrate clippers pounded their way about, making westing against wind and tide. Each one in its turn received some reminder, had to pay toll in some form to "Old Stiff" for altho' it wasn't ever boisterous there was the cold, the long Cape seas and usually the ordeals well endured before the Horn was made. Into such a romantic atmosphere as this the ship SKAREGROM (ex-Castleton) worked her way for this April night, the latest of many such voyages for her. Surely to one devoid of a fanciful mind there was nought but an expanse of long, heaving sea, a grey sky and few living creatures save the numerous Cape pigeons and the petrels. It could not be said of anything here as of a landmark in some historic spot ashore that it had witnessed such an event and if it could but speak what tales it would unfold. No, no such fixed objects here, for altho' the sea assumed the same aspect as from time immemorial and had awed each -26

passing ship in like manner; tho' the davit overhead was now brightly be-starred, then overcast and torn with flying scud that every anxious skipper had watched as even now we were doing, these were all fleeting by, hurrying onward, ever onward urged toward the rising sun by the march of the westerly in its whirl about the pole! To an unimaginative eye it was mere sky and water and was as any other expanse of sea. But see the prick-off on the chart. We're off the Horn, surely that ought to revive romance in the dullest breast. See now a big four-sticker, perhaps a German, a staunch iron vessel with strong gear hanging on to her canvas in grim determination to beat 'round for her cargo of Chilean nitrate. Or some white-winged clipper soaring along before it racing home for the wool sales, making the most of the following wind and sea. And then with a start come the "ding, ding-ding, ding,'' etc. of the bells and I realize that I'm aboard of another Cape Horner, the last of a proud, dying line of which there are still numerous fellows of her kind left, plodding their way under changed names and other flags, rust-streaked and showing the wear of age but in their behavior and grace there is still the mark of honest workmanship, that gives them an almost human quality in the eyes of those who sail them, who curse them and who toil for them and by which in spite of it all they learn to love them. April 18, 1925, Saturday-This morning at daylight we were said to be due south of Cape Horn, distant about fifty miles. As if to mock the stern old place and its traditions the weather held clear with only an occasional hail and rain squall to mar its serenity. Sail is made, as would a timid old lady who, when crossing a busy corner sees that she gets by unharmed, suddenly takes up her skirts and dashes to safety. The night was very dark and the wind, falling light, hauled ahead more to the north' ard. As we lay up higher after rounding the "corner" this brought the wind ahead, an unlooked for condition here. Forty-three days to the Horn! Not bad! April 19, 1925, Sunday-Sunday weather and all sail on but the wind keeps to the north' ard driving her east, east. We're anxious to get north now, into decent weather, to be done with these latitudes and dog days. Now set in a period of weather that kept us

all on the jump, the after-quard watching the "glass" and we monkeys doing a regular schoolship turn over the rigging at dark. At 6 bells (7:00 P.M.) the watch takes the upper togallants'ls and midnight sees the mainsail furled. The lower togallants were taken during the midwatch, all such jobs usually coming when a man's vitality is at its lowest ebb and the thought of a climb aloft to take in a wet sail most galling. April 20, 1925, Monday-A strong blow from the north'ard, a sort of reminder that we're not yet finished with Cape Horn. Latitude 57 degrees South-Longitude 58 degrees West. All hands take the upper topsails and foresail during the day but a lull at dark induces him to give her a chance to make headway. With the gas engine we mastheaded all three tops'ls and also set the fores'l. Tho' it was very dark, a condition unfavorable for working speedy engines and handling wet halliards, there were plenty of hands and those in charge and the fellows doing the actual work kept their eyes open and the performance was carried through smoothly. While "policing" the poop this night the Mate had me in the chart room for a peep at the chart and a glimpse of the ship's track was fascinating. The pencil line was drawn from the Australian Bight to a point about 40 miles south of Tasmania, then it diverged more to the south' ard and cleared New Zealand by a hundred, or so. On, onward it stretched between Bounty and Antipodes Is. and as the Mate unrolled the big "blue-back" Admiralty chart it still stretched its way across it. From N.Z. it curved slightly northward until the parallel of fifty where it continued for some distance until 110 degrees West was reached. From here she began to "work south" for the Horn and the long jumps between the tiny circles that marked each day's position little served to tell of the flooded decks and the still squalls that were the result of these good days' runs. The line cleared the Diego Ramirez Rocks just off the Horn and to-day the circle was in 57 degrees South and 58 degrees West. The northerly drives us toward the South Georgias as if reluctant to let us away from these parts. April 21, 1925, Tuesday-Moderates a bit and before breakfast, we sheet out the three lower togallants'ls, only to find that the stress


of the past weeks and the repeated clewing up is telling badly on the suit. Plenty of makeshift patching to do aloft to-day and the biting cold doesn't help matters, either. The afternoon gets dirty and our watch snubs the "branns'ls" of which all six are now on. Must say there's plenty of "sail-drill" aboard here, a regular training ship turnout. Much growling and Paddy gives the Mate an earful declaring the ship to be a home for old men and boys. All hands at six bells (7:00 P.M.) to take in the mizzen and fore upper tops'ls. The lads on the mizzen managed handily but we on the fore had a hell of a time? There were the Second Mate, Chilano John, "Paddy" Hunter, myself and a brace of the younger fellows on the weather yardarm and this combination had handled canvas before. But a more stubborn sail I never saw for the quartering gale had so ballooned it that the buntlines could not be hauled home and the sail stood like a balloon over our heads. We clutched at the bunt till our nails dug into the skin the 2nd Mate proving himself a reckless but of a handler. Seeing that the usual procedure of taking the bunt would not work we groped our way out to the weather yardarm and clawed away at the clew, thinking to catch a turn with a gasket and work in thus. The 2nd hung in the lift and jumped in the huge belly of canvas to spill the wind out of it and several times we had it well in hand when suddenly away she'd flap nearly taking us with it! A mad despair was coming over us now and it looked as if we'd lose the rag; tho' more help was on hand from the mizzen by now. Suddenly a rift was seen to open in the clew and as it widened eager hands grasped at this handhold and laboriously we pulled her into the yard. With the clew "killed" the rest of the sail was soon stowed and as we were feeling our way in off the yard "Paddy" mumbled something about "fixing his sails if he persisted in juggling them thus." He told us later that he had put his knife to work and expedited matters in this way, and I believe that without him resorting to this old trick, we'd had only tattered rags to put in whereas we had yet a slit sail. 'Tho' it was dark he said the Second saw the game and accidentally or not, no one knows, he put his hand on Paddy's and helped him draw the "cochilo" along the sail. With this sail off her


she lays more comfortably. Bitter cold the night and dark, dark! April 22, 1925, Wednesday-Light wind comes out fair S.W. with a heavy swell. An ordeal patching the mutilated topsail altho' our watch only had to finish what the others had started afore breakfast. Making sail and at noon she has the lower togallants on. Steering N.N.E . A whistling and calling from aft aroused my curiosity this forenoon when at the wheel and I noticed that the sound came from a school of duck-like creatures whose head resembled somewhat the "divers" of the West Coast ports. But in their diving and emerging like porpoises I observed that they used their short wings like flippers to propel themselves and their web-feet were of a large size in proportion to the body. It suddenly occurred to me that these were penguins and the Mate verified my observation when I called his attention to it. I conjured pictures of Antarctic Ice-floes and the thousands of penguins that abound thereon as often seen in museum sets but the sight of these so near at hand brought the proximity of the Frigid Zone to me with a reality and a suddenness. We're in the latitude of the South Falklands, about 200 miles east. April 23, 1925, Thursday-Sets in a period of gruelling labor at "sail drills" these days for the winds are contrary and of a force too strong for the skipper. Consequently it's "up the stick and down again." To-day was biting cold and clear till the afternoon when a shift ahead caused us to wear her. It's now threatening from the north'ard so our watch begins to skip her down. We shortened her down to topsails and foresail, even furling the mainsail. This occasioned much cussing and discontent in general a feeling that had it been the other watch, they'd have called us out too. Withal nothing of import came of it and during the first watch the starbo'rd watch "wore ship" laying up nearly course, N.N.E. Friday and Saturday, April 24 - 25, 192~ Rotten northerly weather and head wind. Laying hove to under small sail and bemoaning the luck. Fog, dense fog all day! April 26, 1925, Sunday-Out of the murk, there leisurely rose a fair wind to which all sail was made and the yards squared. Steering N.N.E.

It portends evil this night added to which is the darkness and at 6 bells (7:00 P.M.) all hands clew up and furl the mains'l. Taking solid water over both rails. About 9:00 o'clock the Mate hurriedly calls the watch to jump aloft to the main lower tops'l and re-bend the port yardarm. In the darkness a gap could be made out, working its way from the yardarm into the bunt and in haste we sprang into the rigging armed with hanks of robands in our belts! But hardly had we started aloft when the sail was rent from head to clew with a swish as of a knife and immediately it set about threshing itself to pieces. This dismayed us not a little for we had reck'd on only passing a few robands and thus insuring against come what would, but it had already gotten ahead of ¡ us and done its work of destruction. All hands (port watch) the Mate with us dragged ourselves reluctantly onto the tops'l yard for we all knew it meant a fearsome job and especially as it was now drizzling profusely! We tackled the bunt but it was like clutching at a stone wall for the buntlines could not be hauled home properly and we worked from the clew. After a struggle a gasket was passed about the sail and this gave us the upper hand. After the saved portion was "collared" we clawed in and stowed the "ribbons" to windward, glad to have finally beaten the wind in what at first looked like a losing job. After this it was in the fore togallants'ls and main upper boom. While tugging at the tops'l buntlines in the lee waist I was reminded of the picture "Wet Work in The Waist" I'd seen in nautical magazines. With a lee roll, she'd ship one over us and as it filled in the scuppers and worked up over our waists I'll never forget the gasps of anguish uttered here and there as the cold water crept up over the tops of oilskin pants and seaboots. Ahh! Who wouldn't go to sea? April 27, 1925, ~'~"'1day-Noon position-40 degrees South-Longitude 45 degrees West. Daylight revealed a sorry mess about decks, for during the night when she'd shipped dollop upon dollop, the running gear of the lower tops'l (main) had been coiled down carelessly and was now streaming out thru the scuppers and wash-ports. The main

braces were also out thru an after port and towing aft like a log-line! Now all these ends . must be restored to their proper places else they would fray or cut off, and an unfortunate ¡ circumstance if the yards must needs be braced or so. The starb'd watch "goosewinged" the main lower tops'l for the lee side of it (starb'd in this case) was undamaged by last night slamming, and with this on she looked like a lady holding her skirts aloft. A heavy sea running and a gale o' wind, but a fine warm sun adds cheeriness to the day. Slackened up a bit in the afternoon and we marched up the main upper togallants'l to "Californi-o", round the capstan. But it blew up fearfully during the mid-watch. Tuesday, April 28, 1925-and it was "up stick" again. Had a devil's own job getting in the togallants'ls. Starb'd watch brings fair wind and daylight sees a rising sea and westerly wind. It develops into real "forties" weather; sunshine and squalls, driving the good ship along like a bird! Noon position: Latitude 43 degrees South-Longitude 39 degrees West. The atmosphere is getting warmer and already heavy clothing is being shed. On all hands cheerfulness is evident that the longsought fine weather is at hand and that we're now emerging from our seven weeks of discomfort and misery. Seven weeks of it! A continual round of dirty weather with an occasional breathing spell of serenity; when every watch on deck required that a man dundle garment upon garment and boots and oilskins overall. The "ungirding" of the loins so to speak when watch below came and the clothes drying in the galley which proved a godsend to us. It is often remarked that long-faithful usage in a garment endears it in the heart of its wearer. Such a garment was my old Navy pea-jacket. I bought it off a shipmate on my first trip to sea little thinking what an old standby it would prove to be. I've worn it huddled against a kicking wheel in a winter North Atlantic gale when only my face could be seen out of the huge, enveloping collar. Or pacing out the weary hours of a lookout watch in some tramp. By way of diversity I often drew it over me for a cloak when snatching a snooze about decks in a hooker running thru' the Trades, 29

and now it has won further regard in my estimation by serving me as a foot-robe when turned in my bunk. So attached have I become to this pea-jacket that when its seams will no longer hold together, as indeed they show signs of gaping even now, I shall snip off the huge anchor-buttons and preserve them as mementos-a mute, uncomplaining and everready friend. During these weary weeks the grind was hard, and altho' the grub was coarse and of little variety, the labor exacted energy and appetites were keen, so that the crowd have become hard as bullocks. There being two factions in the forecastle, the Scandinavian lads from home and the English speaking gang shipped in South Australia, it is not to be wondered at that two cliques formed and there were bickerings and friction between the two. But the afterguard made no distinctions and saw to it that there was no hanging back and allowing one to bear the brunt and another to get off easily. Perhaps, I might add that this fairmindedness was characteristic of the Mate but the young Second Mate had his likes and dislikes and were it not that Chilano J ohn

often curbed and snubbed him the "English" lads of his watch would have fared badly. The passage itself, the running easting down and passage of Cape Horn, might be described as fair . True we had a beating up south of Tasmania and another below New Zealand. We had strong winds and long following seas that flooded our decks for better than a month not to mention the occasional "rinsing" out of the forecastle and galley . The sail drills were hard and often and it galled the mind and fatigued the body. All this was trying in the extreme, but it is typical of this slope of the earth and only what is to be expected when traversing the converging meridians. Ours was a staunch ship and we suffered little damage from the weather, unlike the beatings less fortunate ships get down these parts. So now that I'm about to close this chapter on "bad weather, oilskins & seaboots" and "all hands shorten sail" I must say that tho' I'm satisfied I've tried, and experienced the "run'', my first passage 'round the Horn, even tho' checkered by occasional bad spells, was on the whole a good one. This night a steady breeze saw the fore and main upper togallants 'ls on her.

Captain Horka pointing out part of the route of his early voyage. Captain Horka has devoted his life to the sea . A veteran of nearly 40 years under both sail and steam, he is a member of the Marine Society of New York, the Council of American Master Mariners and will be the recipient of the JAMES MONROE AWARD to be presented April 10 in New York. Now retired, he lives in Fair Lawn, New Jersey .


NMHSNEWS The National Maritime Historical Society has announced that at its last two meetings six new Trustees have been elected to the Board. Captain Frederick L. Sabel, a retired captain in sail and steam, was Commissioner of the Chinese Maritime Customs prior to the Communist takeover. He is an old friend of KAIULANI; he prepared the rigging specifications when the first attempts were made to bring KAIULANI home. Others elected were: Charles Wittholz, a Washington naval architect; Edward Sette, Director of the United Seamen's Service in New York; Robert Bruce lnverarity, Director of the Philadelphia Maritime Museum; Karl Kortum, Director of the San Francisco Maritime Museum; and Henry A. Newbold. The Society has announced ambitious new plans for KAIULANI. She is to be restored as a national symbol of our maritime heritage and a keystone of our nation's Bicentennial Celebration in 1976. She will then sail the Atlantic coast visiting all the major ports as America's newest sail training ship. Her home port will be the South Street Seaport Museum.

Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum Kicks Off Extensive Building Campaign The Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, situated on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay, is a living testimony to the maritime history of an area which includes Virginia, Maryland, and parts of Delaware. Dedicated to preserve the types of vessels indigenous to the region, its exhibitions include a 19th century gaff rigged cargo or oyster sloop, a log bugeye, a power oyster boat, and the original Hooper Strait cottage-type Screw Pile Lighthouse. The unusual lighthouse is wooden and octagonal in shape. In order to better exhibit the growing collections, the Museum has recently announced an extensive building campaign to enlarge its quarters and to renovate the nineteenth-century waterfront houses already in its possession. A model of the proposed additions is below. Besides its ships, the Chesapeake Museum has a large collection of models, prints, photos, engravings and artifacts housed in its three original 19th century residences. The present site is land originally owned by the first purser of a United States Naval Squadron, Samuel Hambleton. It was he who named the site "Navy Point."

BUTCHER BOY To Be Restored By San Diego Maritime Museum Captain Kenneth Reynard of the San Diego Maritime Museum has taken the helm again. This time it is not the STAR OF INDIA but the 29 foot sloop BUTCHER BOY. After lengthy searching ¡ by Joe Jessop, past president of the Maritime Association, the Last surviving sloop of the San Diego fishing fleet has been returned


to its home. Built in 1902, BUTCHER BOY became famous for her speed as a fishing vessel. Later she served as the San Diego Yacht Club's flagship. She will become a part of a land exhibit following her restoration. The Museum has also just acquired the famed British yacht MEDEA. The 132foot steam vessel is in very poor condition and is enroute to Vancouver for restoration. She plans to join STAR and BUTCHER BOY in 1973. By modern standards she is very low-powered; she is powered by a ¡two-cylinder engine which turns the five-foot propeller a maximum of 110 revolutions per minute. MEDEA was commissioned by an aristocratic Briton in 1904 and was built in the remarkably short time of 57 days. Once restored, she will be. an elegant addition to the San Diego Maritime Museum.

Museum Ships And Sudden Squalls The following excerpt from a San Diego newspaper details some of the problems that arise in working toward the reality of a living museum: The STAR OF INDIA won't be setting its sails too often. Those big sails unfurling in the breeze made too many people nervous, including the Coast Guard. ' 'We' re not preventing them from raising the window shades, ' ' says Capt. Geo. Schmidt of the Coast Guard. ''We've requested the boat-if they intend raising the sails-to furnish us with guidelines so safety can be observed. It would be manifestly imprudent under gale conditions. A wind of 30 or 40 knots could sail it into the Bay.'' Capt. Reynard says there have been no problems. He says the mooring lines have never been put under stress. Meanwhile there is some doubt whether STAR will ever make its long-planned picture-taking voyage. One problem is insurance and another is that the Coast Guard has classified it as a permanent land structure. ''How do you sail a permanent land structure?" asks Schmidt. Captain Reynard is determined to take his ship to sea, and we're sure he will overcome the problems that such a goal entails.

Maine Shipyard Reopened As Museum The Percy & Small Shipyard of Bath, Maine, closed since 1920, has been reopened to the public by the Bath Marine Museum. The yard, still almost totally intact, is the last surviving shipyard in the U.S. that built large wooden-hull sailing vessels. Opening originally in 1894, the Percy & Small yard was part of the last stand against steam vessels. The yard owners planned to compete by increasing the cargo space, decreasing the crew and maintaining schooner speeds. They confined themselves almost exclusively to schooners (42 of 44 ships built) ranging from four to six masts. The largest was WYOMING, 3730 tons and six masts, built in 1909. She was the largest wooden ship ever to sail in the U.S. Merchant Marine. What is remarkable is the condition of the buildings. Everything is exactly as it was fifty years ago, complete to the Workmen's Compensation Act notice of 1917.


The ultimate plans for the yard include moving all the exhibits to the yard, restoring the original style of machinery and operating the yard again. Contracts will be sought for building wooden sailing craft so that visitors can observe nineteenth century building techniques in progress. Its site, on the Kennebec River, is as ideal today as it was almost a century ago. Two ways are planned for construction. One for new construction and the other as the berth for the downeast tug SEQUIN.

Hampton Roads Museum Expanding The Portsmouth Naval Shipyard Museum is undergoing a major expansion and reorganization program. This excellent small museum houses the history of the first naval shipyard in the United States. It is located at Gosport, (now Portsmouth) Virginia. The plans call for a new and larger building and a reorganization of its collections. The waterfront on which it is situated is being converted to a park which should help it attract visitors. Nearby and open to the public, the lightship PORTSMOUTH is maintained as a museum ship by the U.S. Coast Guard.

Mariners Museum Announces New Acquisitions And Personnel The Mariners Museum in Newport News, Virginia, has announced that William Wilkinson has joined its staff as Associate Director. He will assume the Associate Directorship in June upon the retirement of Harold Sniffen. Mr. Wilkinson was formerly the Registrar of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. The Museum has also just begun its long planned expansion and remodeling program. Their two most recent acquisitions fit nicely into the plans. First is the gift of papers, designs, photos, models and drafting board of Francis Gibbs. Gibbs personally donated these artifacts and a gallery in his name is scheduled to open in May. Mr. Gibbs designed the S.S. UNITED STATES. Also just acquired is the Seven-Foot Knoll Lighthouse from the upper Chesapeake Bay. It is a Screw-Pile type lighthouse like the Hooper Strait lighthouse. The SevenFoot lighthouse is cast iron and circular while the other is wooden and octagonal. Both are architectural rarities. Another new gallery will be the Crabtree exhibit now being re-designed to incorporate the latest in museum display know-how.


Letters West Coast this handsome ship was called MOSHULU by her owners, her master and her seamen. Mrs. Woodrow Wilson chose the name and no other, or even the same with another accent would do . It's well that I'm not a marine historian, for if I were presented with the decision of what ship I should save if only one could be, my answer, purely emotional, would be immediate: "Save the MOSHULU. She has no equal. Her majestic strength and beauty will thrill everyone who sees and boards her ! "

In Praise Of Moshulu It was a fortunate coincidence for the friends of the old ships that the task of writing the report on their preservation ("The Shivs That Brought Us So Far") fell to you. The booklet conveys its message most eloquently. In it, the description of Captain Barker returning to TUSITALA "ashenfaced" from seeking shore employment in New York struck home. It recalled a night wheel watch as the TUSITALA was battling a storm off the Washington coast in late October, 1927. Barker fought his way to the wheel against the 45 degree leeward roll and shouted above the screaming gale "This Washington coast of yours, Doyle, is just like the Cape Hom! " As a Washingtonian, I felt honored but his next words caused this ultimate concession from a Cape Horner to pale. " Next voyage, Doyle, I'm shipping you as bos'n, then second mate and first mate when you will then be ready to succeed me as master of this ship." Coming from Barker, that was a compliment which for me has never since been approximated. At the same time, I was stunned by his words since they implied that he had not yet faced the reality that each voyage of TUSIT ALA threatened to be her last. Your comments on MOSHULU were to me like old love letters. She sailed to Puget Sound from Australia in Ballast arriving late January, 1928. I had left TUSITALA in Puget Sound some three months before. Late on a bright February afternoon, I saw MOSHULU unbending sail in Lake Union, the final moorage of sailing ships home from their last voyage and awaiting their own funeral. I frequently rowed out to the ship to visit with her watchman and former captain, P.A. McDonald. It was probably the summer of 1930 that I spent doing standby maintenance along with McDonald aboard the five ships in his care, all at anchor and secured together; the fourmasted bark MONONGAHELA, the 5 masted barkentine MONITOR, the 5 mast schooner THISTLE, the 6 mast schooner FORT LARAMIE, and MOSHULU. Of all, MOSHULU was the bravest. McDonald kept her in trim condition . Years later, McDonald and I would occasionally meet accidentally on the street and he would yarn for an hour or so on the ships of the sea. One very small point. I'm told that New Yorkers speak of Moshulu Parkway. Here on the

Tom Doyle Los Alamos, N.M.

Seeks Information On Pirate Lair You may be able to give me some information on an island called Tobi or Lord North Island. It is situated north of New Guinea and is a coral atoll. Its inhabitants had a very bad reputation. They were known to attack sailing vessels that passed that way. I was in a ship chased by these islanders. I was on the German fourmasted bark ANNA ex OTTERBURN. We were on a voyage from New York to Yokahoma with a full cargo in February, 1907. In the forenoon, we sighted the atoll called Tobi Island. After passing ...we noted two vessels rigged as dhows making towards us. As they gained, the captain noted that both vessels held about 50 natives each. The wind was moderate but squally; the sea was fairly smooth. The ANNA carried about six Mauser rifles and the captain had two Winchesters and a couple of revolvers. All these ¡ were readied, loaded and on hand on the poop. Captain Koester did not take any chances. The latest "Annalen der Hydrographie" had warned him that the natives of Tobi could not be trusted. Not only were the rifles ready but other weapons were at hand. I was detailed to turn the grindstone for "Chips" the Carpenter. He was sharpening axes and hatchets to be used to repel boarders should it be necessary. The squalls increased in force and although the Island dipped below the horizon, the two dhows cracked on. So did we. "Full and by" was the order. The yards were checked in about one point and the ANNA was making tracks. At last one of the squalls was so so heavy that the pursuers had to drop sails. But as soon as this


/ was over, they again hoisted their sails. But we were pulling away. Finally after a heavy squall they gave up the chase. Now don't believe that Captain Koester was chicken hearted; he was not that kind of guy. In fact, he was the coolest of any shipmaster I have been shipmate with. He was a man to be admired and trusted in any emergency. Fred Klebingat

Courageous Mate Of KAIULANI


My interest in KAIULANI is three fold: I love old ships; I was one of the few Americans in the U.S. to see her sail on her last voyage from Grays Harbor, Washington; and one of my last - official duties as operations officer for the Commander, U.S. Forces in Australia was to dispatch a tug and doctor from Biak or Moritai to treat and remove a sick sailor on the hulk of KAIULANI, then under tow in waters off New Guinea. In i939, when the ship was outfitted in Grays Harbor, I took the tug down to the harbor inside the bar to take KAIULANI in tow and give her offing. It was then, I witnessed one of the finest acts of seamanship I have ever seen. The ship had been swinging on her hook in the lower harbor for several tides and when a few fathoms of the anchor chain were hauled in, the anchor came up in a maresnest of chain wrapped around the flukes and stock. It could not be hauled on board. The mate, who had just signed on with only his word to his ability, climbed down on this mass and directed the operation of untangling the puzzle. The whole great weight of the chain and anchor held only by the capstan could have given at any time and pulled him under. He had to tie short lines on the free links and one by one pass them up to sailors on the deck who then carried them aft and made them fast to the rail. After all the free chain, bights and anchor had been secured, the dangerous part of the operation began. With the mate maintaining his position on the anchor between wind and water, he had to direct the unwinding of the chain, bight


by bight. The last turn around the anchor was the most inboard so the whole length of the anchor chain had to be unwound before the anchor could be freed. The whole ordeal took about four hours forcing the ship to miss a tide. Throughout, the mate would not permit any sailor to get on the chain or anchor to help him. What courage! Late on a slightly overcast fall afternoon, we got the ship under weigh and over the bar. We gave her an offing of ten miles. There was a light southwesterly breeze. Because the crew was now tired, the Captain set his courses only. The last we saw her was sailing due west-right into the white ball of the setting sun just cutting into the horizon, bathing the sky and the ship in all the rose lights of a splendid sunset. She is a priceless relic which should be all means be saved for our sons and grandsons. Captain W.J. Young USN <Ret)

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Book Reviews footnotes, bibliography and a Muskingum fleet list , ii should be on y ship lover 's shelf.

THE WAR WITH CAPE HOR N by Allan Villiers; Charles Scribner's Sons , N.Y. 1971. $10. " I have been doing my best to learn about deep-sea sailing ships since I was capable of learning anything ," says Villiers at the outset of his work on the latter days of sailing ships rounding Cape Horn. To say that he is qualified is an understatement ; as a young man he sailed on many ships making the passage from his native Australia to England. He also sailed his own small square rigger, the JOSEPH CONRAD around the Horn in 1935. He has lived what h~ writes and that is what makes the pages come alive. The result is a masterpiece. In form it is a sweeping narrative. He is occasionally florid but he rivets you to his subject and makes it live. There is plenty here to enthrall the buff as well as the old tar. Drawings and maps by Adrian Small elegantly supplement a remarkable collection of photographs. There is an excellent index which makes the book invaluable for reference and research. The book is more than a document ; it is a living testament to the spirit of men. Peter Stanford

TH E STORY OF THE SAVANNAH-AN EPISODE IN MARITIME LABORMANAGEMENT RELATIONS by David Kuechle; Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. 1971. ONE OF THE SAD TALES in the history of our Merchant Marine , the story of the nuclear ship SAVANNAH makes most discouraging reading . The parallel between the life of the first SAVANNAH, of 1819, is striking, each having mechanical success and each failing to be used to fulfillment. Professor Kuechle, who teaches industrial relations at the University of Western Ontario, seeks, through this book, to propose some answers to the age-old maritime labor relations problem . Well written, well documented and complete, the work adds much to the sadly limited literature on maritime labor. THE AGE OF NELSON- THE ROYAL NAVY 1793-1815 by G.J. Marcus; Viking Press, N.Y. 1971. A 532-PAGE STUDY of Britain's naval battle against the French, this new work is an interesting, well-illustrated addition to the vast literature on the Napoleonic period.

MELVILLE AND HIS WORLD by Gay Wilson Allen; Viking Press, N.Y. 1971. A SMALL BOOK but filled with interesting pictures, this work tells a little known story of the life of one of America's greatest sea history writers. Melville 's life was rich in nautical experience; he wrote what he knew well. His career ended with a sad chapter of obscurity. An index, set of picture notes, bibliography and chronology of Melville's life add reference value to the work by Professor Allen, known also for his biographies of Walt Whitman and William James. Frank O. Braynard

HAVE YOU SEEN BOATS? by Joanne Oppenheim; Youg Scott Books, N.Y., 1971. FOR VERY YOUNG CHILDREN this is a wonderful gift book. It is written in a poetic mood, with very few words but large thoughts. Exceptional pictures add to its value.

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STEAMBOATS ON THE MUSKINGUM by J . Mack Gamble ; Steamship Historical Society of America, 414 Pelton Pl. , Staten Island, N.Y., 1971. AN OUTSTANDING STUDY of a small but historically most interesting steamboat area, its stern wheelers, its steamboat disasters and its famous boatmen, this work will contribute to the reputa~ion of the Steamboat Historical Society. Packed with lore and facts , filled with wonderfully nostalgic illustrations and enriched with


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GREAT SHIP DISASTERS by A.A. Roehling; Cowles Book Co., N.Y. 1971, $6.95. THE LITERATURE of ship disasters continues to grow, evidence of the pull that t~rror has for man. Dolph Roehling, one of our most able and prolific maritime writers, takes seventeen tragic ship accidents and reviews them with zest and scholarship. A list of 70 other maritime disasters is given in the back. A 16page picture section will add to the reader's interest.

LEGENDARY YACHTS by William Robinson; The MacMillan Co., N.Y., 1971. $12.95. A BOOK THAT HAD TO BE WRITTENand beautifully illustrated-this work is a gem, a historical document of wealth and extravagance and a record of some of the world's most beautiful vessels. There are outstanding pictures, and fortunately they are sharp and dark, not gray as in so many modern photoffset books. There are also old prints and some intimate snapshots blown up of the wealthy owners of these craft. Even a few small motor yachts are included, although they seem out of place in a book featuring the several CORSAIRS of J .P . Morgan and the stately SEA CLOUD. A photograph of Mr. Morgan is of incidental interest in that the large bump on his nose, for which he was legendary, has been retouched out.

THE AMISTAD AFFAIR by Christopher Martin; Abelard-Schuman, Ltd., N.Y., $5.95. A LITTLE KNOWN BUT IMPORTANT episode in our national history, with important maritime implications and a real relevance today, this work will catch many by surprise. It relates the true story of the Black uprising on the ship AMISTAD off Long Island in 1839, and tells how the slaves were captured, tried and freed. Pitted on one side in the case was Spain, the American South and President Martin Van Buren. Former President John Quincy Adams led the successful defense in this dramatic and significant episode from a long forgotten past.

WESTERN OCEAN PASSENGER LINES AND LINERS, 1934-1969 by Commander C.R. Vernon Gibbs ; Brown, Son & Ferguson, Ltd., Glasgow, 1970. 55 Shillings A CATALOGUE, and a good one, of the ocean passenger liners built for service on the North Atlantic. A good sized picture section adds value and interest to this scholarly list of liners.

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Model of BRITANNIA, pioneering vessel of Cunard Line showing the transition from sail to steam. (Courtesy of The Mariners Museum, Newport News, Va.)

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Sea History 001 - April 1972  
Sea History 001 - April 1972  

6 SMITHSONIAN OFFERS $5000 PRIZE FOR KAIULANI MODEL CONTEST • 8 Sea Forum • 10 Ship Models That Are Works Of Art by Robert Burgess, Curator...