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inside june 2014

Reputation Revamp: Clearing the Name of the Hyena Often portrayed as villains, these resourceful recyclers are the good guys, helping to keep the planet clean.

wildlife

Secrets of Succulents Examine the finer points of juicy survival strategies employed by specialized plants.

Cow Moos and Cheese Puffs: How the Capuchinbird Says I Love You This unique bird takes public displays of affection to a new level.

The Boy Luck Club: Forming a New Gorilla Bachelor Group The bachelor group of gorillas at the San Diego Zoo enriches the social lives of primates on both sides of the glass.


conservation

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What’s in Store

Looking Up: Camera Trapping in a Rain Forest Canopy Rain forest research scales new heights to learn about the lives of the canopy community.

explore

Support

Through the Lens  till Ga Ga for Gao Gao: S Keeping an Aging Panda Healthy The Panda Team works to ensure Gao Gao’s golden years stay golden.

 Across the Spectrum: Animals in Living Color The Animal Kingdom is alive with fanciful, beautiful, and striking colors. How do animals do it?

on the cover: Striped hyena Hyaena hyaena ©Ken Bohn, SDZG Photographer

Chairman’s Note You Said It From the Archives


chairman’s note

SAN DIEGO ZOO GLOBAL OFFICERS Richard B. Gulley, Chairman William H. May, Vice Chairman Sandra A. Brue, Secretary Robert B. Horsman, Treasurer

A TREMENDOUS OPENING WEEKEND FOR TIGER TRAIL

BOARD OF TRUSTEES M. Javade Chaudhri Berit N. Durler Clifford W. Hague Nan C. Katona Patricia L. Roscoe Steven G. Tappan Judith A. Wheatley David S. Woodruff, Ph.D., D.Sc.

the Safari Park, and what a wonderful opening weekend it was! Thank you to everyone who came out to the Park to experience the launch with us—it was great to see so much excitement and enthusiasm, which all of us at San Diego Zoo Global share. During the three-day weekend, the Park surpassed its projected attendance and also saw a significant increase over last year’s attendance during Memorial Day weekend. Tiger Trail received a great deal of media attention from newspapers, online news, blogging sites, and television, with more than 2 million media impressions, and it was a big hit on social media, as well, with nearly half a million people seeing posts on Facebook alone. And the beautiful Sumatran tigers Delta, Teddy, Conrad, Thomas, Majel, and Joanne certainly made an impression on everyone who saw them, whether in person or in the media. It is also gratifying to see so much attention focused on the plight of tigers in the wild and the conservation efforts taking place to save them. Tiger Trail includes many interpretive aspects that bring these struggles to light, and visitors are seeing and appreciating the messages. This awareness and support is exactly what we hoped for and will stand in good stead as we move forward with tiger conservation work in Way Kambas National Park and Gunung Leuser National Park in Indonesia. Tiger Trail is stunning, and I am proud of all the planning, design, implementation, and animal care work that went into this new addition to the Safari Park. I am also grateful to all the donors, members, and supporters who helped make it happen, most especially Thomas Tull and his wife, Alba, who provided the generous lead gift that made this dream a reality. Tiger Trail is a dynamic, multi-layered experience that warrants many visits, and given the response to the grand-opening weekend, I know it will be a favorite area of the Park this summer and beyond.

Rick Gulley Chairman

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PHOTO BY KEN BOHN, SDZG

THE TULL FAMILY TIGER TRAIL is now officially open at

TRUSTEES EMERITI Frank C. Alexander Kurt Benirschke, M.D. Weldon Donaldson Thompson Fetter Bill L. Fox Frederick A. Frye, M.D. George L. Gildred Yvonne W. Larsen John M. Thornton Albert Eugene Trepte Betty Jo F. Williams William E. Beamer, General Counsel Douglas G. Myers, President/CEO Charles L. Bieler, Executive Director Emeritus

The Foundation of San Diego Zoo Global OFFICERS Murray H. Hutchison, Chair Maryanne C. Pfister, Vice Chair Susan N. McClellan, Secretary Richard M. Hills, Treasurer Mark A. Stuart, President Richard B. Gulley, Ex officio Douglas G. Myers, Ex officio BOARD OF DIRECTORS Christine L. Andrews Joye D. Blount Rick Bregman Lisa S. Casey Douglas Dawson Berit N. Durler, Ex officio U. Bertram Ellis, Jr. Arthur E. Engel Craig L. Grosvenor Judith C. Harris Craig A. Irving Michael E. Kassan Susan B. Major Michael D. McKinnon George A. Ramirez Thomas Tull Margie Warner Ed Wilson


Members get up close FREE all year long! Start your membership today. Call 619-718-3000 or visit sandiegozoo.org


you said it As a bird lover and member of Cornell’s Sapsucker Woods gang, I so appreciate these updates on endangered species. How exciting it must be to watch birds imprint in the wild – and to a breeding ground no less. Thank you for the informative blog and please keep them coming! Chris Fontana

Someone is excited about this month’s #zoonooz from @sandiegozoo. He is their biggest fan! He now owns 14! @Hashtagjustjenn

Could have done lots of homework but I just wasted 20 mins on @sandiegozoo’s Instagram. @tiana1120 Thanks for the [Condor] Cam’s bird’seye view of the condors this morning. I think each year that I watch these wonderful animals, they become better looking and now they are actually beautiful. That may be because they are also such great parents. I know that these guys put a smile on my face every day. Renee Dougherty

Epic pic Phil Amitrano

Thanks so much for the information about the Princess [elephant Qinisa]. She is such a character with such a playful personality. I love it that she seems to be fearless and always ready to mix it up with the older boys. I’ve learned so much from watching all the animals on the live cams. Thank you for taking such great care of them and for letting us into their/your world. Alice

Scout Camp, comparing tongues with her new friend. Joe Honescko Had a blast at the @sandiegozoo yesterday! Saw a lot of cool animals. Thanks! @tyesheridan Thank you for the awesome experience @sandiegozoo! @VMcDonald89

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Do you have the digital ZOONOOZ?

ZOONOOZ is now available in three digital formats: for iPad, Kindle Fire, and desktop computer. At home or on the go, you can now have ZOONOOZ at your fingertips!

Download ZOONOOZ for your iPad Download ZOONOOZ for your Kindle


through the lens Photos by Ken Bohn, SDZG Photographer

Transvaal lion cubs Panthera leo krugeri

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Queensland koala with joey Phascolarctos cinereus


Sumatran orangutan baby Pongo abelii

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REPUTATION Clearing the Name of the Hyena 14

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Zephyr (left) and Turbo are spotted hyena siblings. They usually greet their keeper with a giggle or two.

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he way hyenas are depicted—and have been for centuries—is no laughing matter. The animals of the Hyaenidae family (the spotted hyena, striped hyena, brown hyena, and aardwolf) are often vilified and misrepresented as foolish and treacherous, even downright vicious and evil. It’s a reputation that these intelligent, resourceful, and efficient creatures do not deserve. Janet Rose-Hinostroza, animal training supervisor at the Safari Park, works with striped hyenas and is one of the species’ biggest fans—and most dedicated spokespeople. “Hyenas are an amazing sight to behold,” she says. “And guests’ preconceived notions about these animals immediately change when they actually see them.” It’s time to spread the word.

REVAMP

By Peggy Scott ASSOCIATE EDITOR

Photos by Ken Bohn SDZG PHOTOGRAPHER

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Who’s Who of Hyenas

The spotted hyena is the largest member of the Hyaenidae family, weighing up to 176 pounds, and is the only type that “laughs,” a vocalization that indicates nervousness or excitement rather than a tickled funny bone. Its characteristic spots are darker on younger hyenas and fade a bit as they get older.

The striped hyena is not the largest, but it might try to make you think so. To appear much larger than its three-foot height, the striped hyena can make its mane stand up when excited or threatened, appearing to double its size!

The brown hyena is the rarest hyena species and has the longest, shaggiest coat. Its pointy ears also help differentiate it from its relatives.

The aardwolf may look like a miniature striped hyena but is its own animal (although it also raises its mane to look bigger). Its name means earth wolf in Afrikaans, and it is the most specialized of the hyenas. Unlike its meatseeking brethren, the aardwolf has a strict diet: one or two termite species.

Striped hyenas use their impressive manes to appear larger.

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Hyenas may be scavengers, but they are also keen hunters in their own right.

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Above: Tamu, the Zoo’s striped hyena, enjoys strolls with Kisa, his Siberian lynx pal. Left: Turbo is more easygoing than his brother, Zephyr.

A Rocky Relationship Evidence of humankind’s dogged distrust of the hyena traces back to some far-from-flattering cave paintings. Depending on where they originated, the mythological and folkloric depictions of the hyena show it symbolizing greed, immorality, and dirty habits; consorting with witches; influencing the future character of children; and mesmerizing victims with their eyes—all while possessing the ability to morph into a vampire or “were-hyena.” Theories vary about how the hyena ended up with such an unsavory reputation. “Part of it could have come from their posture,” suggests Hali O’Connor, a senior keeper at the Zoo whose duties include caring for male spotted hyenas Turbo and Zephyr. “Their hind legs are shorter than their front legs, giving them a gait that kind of looks like they’re slinking along. It might seem like they’re guilty of something.” Conflict between humans and animals is also inevitable whenever the two are competing for resources. Deforestation brings people and animals into closer quarters, and hyenas that prey on livestock are not likely to be treated like good neighbors. As wild animals, hyenas are fearless hunters and thorough scavengers.

Waste Not, Want Not Though they appear dog-like, hyenas are more closely related to felids and viverrids (think civets, binturongs, and genets).

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Kim Hanley, a Safari Park animal trainer, works with striped hyena Tuli.

Hyenas are found in Africa and the Middle East to Asia. They are able to survive in savannas as well as semi-arid and desert regions and at the edges of forests. They play an important role in their habitat: nature’s garbage removers or, as Janet prefers to call them, recyclers. Hyenas, as scavengers, help clean up their habitat by removing dead and rotting animal carcasses. And they are, as Hali notes, efficient. “They eat and digest everything except the hair, which the hyenas vomit up in hairballs like an owl pellet,” she says, noting that the animal’s digestive system has adapted to enable the hyena to maximize the nutritional value of remains that other predators leave uneaten. She adds that hyenas are also able to catch their own live meals. “They are incredible hunters, and the spotted hyenas chase prey down as a group. They help keep their ecosystem in balance.”

Hyenas Up Close The impression that many people have of hyenas can often change with a visit to the Zoo or Safari Park. At the Zoo’s Wegeforth Bowl, Tamu the striped hyena often appears in the Camp Critters curtain call, and he acts as an animal ambassador for special tours and education programs. Kristi Dovich, animal training manager, points out that encounters with Tamu and his brothers, Puru and Tuli, who are animal ambassadors at the Safari Park, help dispel the myth of the hyena as the wicked beast portrayed in stories. “They came here when they were three or four months old,” Kristi says. “And they were so shy, it took a month to really get near them.” Tamu now peacefully coexists with Wegeforth Bowl’s wolves, dogs, and pig. He

and his trainers often take strolls with Kisa and Jasiri, a Siberian lynx and a serval. “He wants to be friends with everyone,” says Katie Springer, a senior animal trainer at the Zoo. At the Safari Park, Puru and Tuli are also poster animals for striped hyenas, often making appearances in the animal presentations outside Benbough Amphitheater. Janet explains that even after nine years of training, the boys are still shy. “They can be startled, but even then, they don’t get aggressive,” Janet says. “Their inclination is to escape. We are careful to control new things or unfamiliar noises, like construction sounds, that could scare them.” Zephyr and Turbo, the spotted hyena siblings at the Zoo, are doing their part to help show visitors what charismatic animals hyenas are—something their keepers already knew. Hali, who has been accepted as part of their clan, appreciates their unique personalities. They greet her with whoops and giggles, awaiting a training session and a treat of baby food or a lump of lard, as well as a quick back scratch through the mesh, which has them yawning with contentment. “They are really smart and playful,” Hali says. “They’ll grab each other’s tail and spin in circles, giggling.”

No More Nightmares When visitors see hyenas in person, Janet says they are often surprised at what the animals are really like. “The hyenas make a lasting—and positive—impression on guests,” she says. “People are seeing them as the attractive, amazing predators they are.” Now that’s the reputation we want to promote! n

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LOOKING UP Camera Trapping in a Rain Forest Canopy

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By Wendy Perkins STAFF WRITER

SDZG Postdoctoral Fellow Mark Bowler, Ph.D., climbs into the rain forest canopy to position camera traps to better study primate populations.

PHOTO BY JAVIER QUIROZ, SDZG

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ne moment, Javier Quiroz was in his element, ascending the lush canopy of trees in the Amazon rain forest in Peru. The next moment, he was in agony from the sting of a bullet ant— infamous for inflicting the most painful sting of any insect, with excruciating burning sensations radiating through the victim’s body for 24 hours. Yet Javier, a senior arborist at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, wouldn’t have missed the experience for anything!

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Red howler monkey Alouatta seniculus PHOTO BY MARK BOWLER

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White-fronted capuchin monkey Cebus albifrons

PHOTO BY JAVIER QUIROZ, SDZG

PHOTO BY MARK BOWLER

Javier Quiroz, a senior arborist at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, traveled to Peru to share his tree-climbing expertise with the research team.

This wasn’t a busman’s holiday; Javier was on the job sharing his knowledge and advanced treeclimbing skills with members of the Primate Communities Project. To gather solid information on the wildlife of the area, Mark Bowler, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow with the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research, and his team wanted to place camera traps not only on the forest floor but also up in the canopy. To do this, they needed to be able to go up—and back down—the large rain forest trees. With about 30 years of experience under his belt, Javier—a certified arborist who teaches tree climbing to employees of San Diego Zoo Global as well as other organizations—was thrilled to put his abilities to work on behalf of rain forests, a passion of his. He packed up 800 feet of rope of different shapes and sizes, multiple climbing belts and other gear, and set out for Peru to help Mark and his team take rain forest research to new heights. After hours of flight time, traveling downriver in a small canoe, and then trekking through heat and heavy rain, Javier arrived at the rain forest base camp and began training the team. Instead of employing climbing spikes attached to boots, they used their hands and fingers to grip the trees. The trunks were so thickly covered with vines and bromeliads that it took close to two hours to set up an anchor line. “After that,” says Javier, “it was easy.” Well, except perhaps for that torturous ant sting, and the frequent, intense thunderstorms and accompanying flooding. Yet for Javier, the experience opened his eyes to how a rain forest works and creates its own ecosystem. He recalls the sense of wonder he felt looking into a bromeliad about 120 feet up and finding a few tiny green-and-black poison frogs in their own microcosm. A memorable moment, indeed. The Primate Communities Project’s arboreal camera-trapping survey is believed to be the largest in the world. “This pioneering effort in rain forest canopies is a way of assessing the recovery of primate and large mammal populations in the Maijuna Regional Conservation Area in Peru,” Mark explains. While the project covers a whole range of primates, from diminutive pygmy marmosets to the pot-bellied woolly monkeys, it will also focus on other members of the rain forest community. The higher cameras will capture the comings and goings of spider monkeys and other primates and birds, while the lower-placed cameras snap shots of tapirs, pacas, brocket deer, white-lipped peccaries, and other mammals. One thing that these animals SAN DIEGO ZOO GLOBAL

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PHOTO BY MARK BOWLER

Above: Beneath and within the lush canopy of the rain forest, a rich diversity of animals go about their daily lives. Carefully positioned cameras provide insight into what lives here—and how. Left: Ascending the canopy takes the right tools and techniques, not to mention a comfort with extreme heights.

PHOTO BY JAVIER QUIROZ, SDZG

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1. The canopy cameras provide rare views of primates like this monk saki monkey Pithecia monachus. 2. Ring-tailed coatimundis Nasua nasua are agile climbers that take fruit from the canopy, but they also spend time on the ground digging through the leaf litter for insects. 3. Most animals ignore the cameras, but others, like this white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari, show some curiosity about the contraptions. 4. A lowland tapir Tapirus terrestris triggered the camera as it sniffed around for fallen fruit.

have in common is a penchant for the fruits of the aguaje palm Mauritia flexuosa, a trait they share with the rural people of the area. “Knowing the value of the palms to wildlife can help guide conservation strategy,” says Mark. The Primate Communities Project’s study area is in transition—and that creates a unique opportunity. For years, “outsiders” had been logging the area. The indigenous people found that they had to hunt farther and farther from their villages, because wildlife distribution was disrupted by the logging operations. The local

people were able to get the logging stopped, and the wildlife populations are recovering. Now, the communities’ own conservation tactics restrict hunting in some spots. This creates a gradient of animal densities as you get farther from the river. Collecting data at points along the river offers a look at how indigenous people can implement effective conservation. Mark believes the results from the treetop cameras will help inform local communities on the sustainability of resource use so they can protect wild populations for future generations. n SAN DIEGO ZOO GLOBAL

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Secrets of

Succulents Agave shawii

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By Wendy Perkins STAFF WRITER

Photos by Tammy Spratt SDZG PHOTOGRAPHER

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ith their plump leaves and stems and thick, tough “skin,” succulents are a recognizable plant to most people. Yet “succulent” doesn’t define a genus or species so much as it describes a survival strategy: succulent-type plants save water for non-rainy days.

A carefully selected grouping of succulents and cactus was used to create this unusual garden at the San Diego Zoo.


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1. Cactus spines are modified leaves. However, they don’t function like typical leaves—they have no stomata and don’t respire. 2. The blossoms of Aloe marlothii and many other succulent plants provide nourishing nectar for hummingbirds and other wildlife. 3. What makes the leaves of a felt plant Kalanchoe beharensis feel so soft? A covering of nearly microscopic, silica hairs that also help deter predators.

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4. The white, powdery wax on the leaf surface of Dudleya brittonii reflects UV rays and helps the plant preserve moisture. It also earned this succulent the common name of chalk plant.

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5. The long, overlapping spines of Untia biglovii protect the plant’s flesh from hungry animals and create a sort of shade structure to keep excess sun and heat away. 6. The succulent popularly called donkey’s tail Sedum morganium has a trailing growth habit that gives it the ability to grow on steep cliff faces in the wild, where many other plants can’t. 7. Commonly called living stones, members of the Lithops genus grow low to the ground, blending in with rocks in their habitat. Each lobe of one of these plants measures just 1/4 inch in diameter.

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Left: Hoodia curroii only blooms after a good rain. The blossom’s scent is like that of rotting meat and feces—just the thing to attract the flies and other insects that pollinate these plants. Right: The pleats on this cardón Pachycerus pringlei reduce exposed surface area, which helps the plant lose less moisture during dry spells. When it rains, however, the pleats allow the plant to expand to store as much water as possible.

Form and Function

To the Point

A plant is considered a succulent if it has water-storing tissue in its leaves, stem(s), or roots and is able to remain independent of soil moisture for an extended period of time. A cactus stores water in its stem, which happens to be the largest part of the plant. Many succulents cache moisture in their thick leaves, which may take a familiar leaf shape, appear as a rosette of petals, or form a cluster of fingerlike projections. This range of visual variety is one of the things that make succulents popular with people. That, and their perceived low maintenance—­no need to ask a friend to water your plants if you take a vacation!

When it comes to the difference between cacti and fat-leafed succulents, the sticking point is those sharp spines. The threatening thorns of a cactus are believed to be modified leaves. Some cacti, like the prickly pear, also have defensive weapons called glochids. These specialized spines usually bear a barbed tip, which lodges into the skin of any animal (or human) that brushes against it. Glochids detach from the plant, while primary thorns do not. By the time the pain registers with the unfortunate victim, it’s already too late— they’re hooked. The glochid got you! Since most people envision cacti as a threatening form of flora in the desert, they are surprised to learn that one member of the family, the epiphyllum, has a tropical address. Also known as orchid cacti because of their large, jewel-toned blossoms, epiphyllums (or epis, as they are called by aficionados) live a much different life than other cacti. Epis make a living in the forks of trees and in rock crevices in the tropical jungles of Mexico and Central and South America. Their unassuming, leaf-like stems don’t grow as thick with moisture as those of a desert cactus, but they do store their share of water. And while at first glance epis appear to be thornless, they do have quite short and nearly painless bristles along the edges of the stem. Epiphyllums are an example of a plant living where one least expects it. The succulent known as donkey’s tail, a popular hanging houseplant, adapted to thrive on steep cliff faces. Wherever there is flat space, the advantage of a trailing habit like that of donkey’s tail becomes an important factor in survival. The huge diversity of forms found among succulent plants is one of the reasons we find them so fascinating. n

Hold It! For cacti and succulents, once water is stored, the goal becomes keeping it. Green plants lose moisture through transpiration, and leaves, stems, and even flowers bear microscopic openings, called stomata, through which the plant takes in carbon dioxide and releases oxygen and water vapor. The leaf of a non-succulent plant can have about 100 to 860 stomata per square millimeter, while a succulent has dramatically fewer: 18 to 33 stomata per square millimeter. Fewer openings means less moisture lost. Succulent forms of flora have another trick up their stalk: they keep their stomata closed during the driest part of the day. At night, when temperatures drop and humidity rises, these plants open their stomata and load up on CO2, storing it for the next day’s production of energy. In most other plants, that process takes place during the day. Succulents also have a thick, hardened epidermis overlaid with a waxy coating. This double-layer of protection gives them their shiny look, and in a desert habitat, it can help the plant stay cool by reflecting the sun’s rays.

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The Boy Luck Club Forming a Gorilla Bachelor Group

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By Karyl Carmignani STAFF WRITER

Photos by Ken Bohn SDZG PHOTOGRAPHER

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hey make a handsome trio: lithe and sleek 8-yearold Ekuba, bulky yet graceful 11-year-old blackback Mandazzi, and platinum-backed Maka, 18 years old and the reigning alpha male of this newly formed bachelor group of gorillas. In the wild, single males (those without a troop of females and young to protect) are known to form periphery bachelor groups, but doing so in zoos can be tricky. “The earlier you start, the more successful the group will be,” explained Kim Livingstone, lead keeper at the San Diego Zoo. “We don’t want to wait until we’re putting silverbacks together,” she said, since there may be more aggression as each male competes for dominant status. The bachelor group at the Zoo is well balanced, and all the fellows know each other; in fact, they are brothers. However, Maka had

been on his own since becoming an adult and, although he could see and smell his brothers, he didn’t have physical contact with them. In the wild, as younger males approach adulthood, they challenge the reigning silverback for breeding rights, so he kicks the young guys out. As males leave their natal group, they may encounter other males and form a satellite bachelor troop. This new arrangement at the Zoo jibes with normal gorilla social structure and is stimulating for Maka, as he has been displaying more typical gorilla social behaviors since joining the group. Kim described this bachelor troop as a new level of care for Zoo gorilla management. “You have to dedicate yourself to make the time, labor, and strategy for the long run,” she said. “It takes a great deal of collaboration with others, including our veterinarians.” It’s a challenge, but well worth the effort.

Ekuba’s role as peacemaker has helped make the bachelor group successful.


Maka is the dominant male of the bachelor group, despite being on the small side for a silverback.

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Silverback Memba and young Ekuba also spend time together. For easygoing Ekuba, it’s another opportunity to learn from his elders.

The Players Due to a genetic anomaly (the terminal end to chromosome 3, to be precise), Maka is smaller in stature than other silverbacks. Though diagnosed at an early age, he has always been treated the same as the other gorillas, which serves him well now as the dominant member of the bachelor group. Maka is in his prime and doesn’t hesitate to display his elevated status. He who postures is king, and Maka often struts his stuff, with an occasional lunge and smack on the glass toward Zoo guests for emphasis. Younger brother Mandazzi already outweighs him, but Maka’s glistening silver hair trumps a few pounds. For now. Ekuba is an athletic little guy with a big heart. If there is tension or a scuffle going on, he tends to take the underdog’s side. “He has really helped stabilize the bachelor group,” said senior keeper Nerissa Foland. As a shy and friendly gorilla, Ekuba’s social etiquette and fawning over his elders make him a cherished member of the group. Living with the big guys has its perks, and Ekuba often imitates the older ones, even carrying browse between his pursed lips, just as Maka does. “We are managing our bachelor gorillas in various group configurations to meet their social needs,” explained Nerissa. “We follow the clues of their behavior and what the animals are comfortable with. Reading their social cues has helped this bachelor group be successful.” In his youth, Mandazzi was a rambunctious gorilla. He is more subdued now but remains playful and patient with his little brother.

Being second in command doesn’t seem to bother him much, and he allows Maka to do all the posturing. Mandazzi seems to be savoring his black-backed, laid-back time.

Ready? Staff worked together in advance of the bachelor introductions to be ready for any scenario. Wound Treatment Protocol and Management guidelines created by animal care staff ensured everyone was speaking the same language and able to mobilize, if needed, while not compromising the integrity of the group. “Intervention is out of normal husbandry protocol,” explained Kim, “but we had to be ready for anything.” Happily, the guidelines were not needed. There were a few skirmishes, but nothing serious, considering the mighty titans who were going toe-to-toe for alpha status. Displays of aggression can be just as effective as coming to actual blows while sparing everyone a painful healing process. The “boys” are still separated for feeding, which ensures each one gets enough of the good stuff and can enjoy it without having to look over his shoulder. The tasty but less-valued browse is distributed and consumed on exhibit, as these leafy items are not worth fighting over. “We have enjoyed the challenge of forming this new social group,” said Nerissa. “We’re still learning as we go, but it has gone really well so far, and that’s a relief.” And the gorillas seem pretty keen on the new arrangement as well. n

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Cow Moos and Cheese Puffs: How the

Capuchinbird Says I Love You

PHOTO BY KEN BOHN, SDZG

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By Peggy Scott ASSOCIATE EDITOR

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hen it comes to courting a mate, the male capuchinbird Perissocephalus tricolor is a double threat. If his potential gal pal isn’t wooed by his feather display, then she is sure to be swept off her perch by his unique love song. It’s a winning combination, according to Athena Wilson, a senior keeper at the Zoo. “They look like no other bird,” she says. “And that call—who could resist that?” Indeed, this winged Don Juan is quite the charmer.

You Won’t Believe Your Eyes—or Ears Found in the humid forests of Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Suriname, and Venezuela, the capuchinbird’s appearance is distinctive, to say the least, with its heavy bill and bald, almost vulture-like head. About the size of a jay (14 inches from head to tail), the capuchinbird is thickset, and the feathers on the back of its head are dense and stand upright, forming a prominent cowl that gives it a hunchbacked appearance. Capuchinbirds are sexually monomorphic, except for one bright difference: the male’s distinctive feature is his curly, orange under-tail covert feathers, which are visible only when he is “in the mood.”

With its bare face and hunched posture, the capuchinbird’s appearance is distinctive, to say the least.

PHOTO BY KEN BOHN, SDZG

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PHOTO BY TAMMY SPRATT, SDZG

During mating season, male capuchinbirds form a group, called a lek, to display and compete for females. They perch in understory trees, and each male’s location correlates to his hierarchical status, with one dominant male. This big bird on campus is able to control the most desired display site and is usually the only male with whom the females breed, although, as Athena notes, “sometimes a subordinate male will challenge a dominant for that spot.” In these leks, each male leans forward and inhales while simultaneously fluffing out his plumage so that his bare head is ringed by feathers. It is then you hear it: the unmistakable call of the male capuchinbird. This hoarse, mooing sound, as if a cow swallowed a didgeridoo, earned the capuchinbird its other common name: the calfbird. “The males time their calls to not overlap,” Athena says, pointing out that the male’s throat patch expands to extend the end of the call. “It’s not a sound you forget.”

Above: The curly, bright-orange display feathers on the capuchinbird’s back are called under-tail covert feathers. RIght: During mating season in the wild, male capuchinbirds form a group, called a lek, to display and compete for females. Far right: Its call, a hoarse mooing sound, earned the capuchinbird its other common name: the calfbird.

PHOTO BY TAMMY SPRATT, SDZG

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And should you believe your ears, your eyes may still want a second opinion. In the midst of the call, the male capuchinbird’s orange under-tail coverts pop out and up, resembling two cheese puff sticks on its lower back. “Some people call them taillights,” Athena says, “because they sure get your attention, and you stop!”

The food they do eat, however, is consumed with style. The capuchinbird plucks hanging fruits while in flight, and it perches motionless on a branch while watching for insects. Once a morsel is spotted, the bird flies over to grab its meal off of the foliage. It’s eating on the go!

Life Away from the Lek

Checking in on the Capuchinbird

Unless they’re looking for a mate, capuchinbirds are usually solitary. After mating, the female builds a nest composed of twigs and lays a single, splotched egg, which she incubates for about 30 days—with no help from the male. She is also responsible for bringing home the groceries once the chick hatches, usually fruit, grasshoppers, insects, and maybe even a small reptile or two. Athena says that in looking at the capuchinbird, it seems as though it would consume much larger prey. “They have these relatively large beaks for their size,” she explains, “but they’re not going after mice or other rodents. They’re not using that big beak to rip anything up, although they can chomp down pretty big pieces of fruit.”

The San Diego Zoo’s Parker Aviary is home to two capuchinbirds, one male and one female. These birds are young—the male is three years old, and the female is two—so they are barely into sexual maturity. Athena says the male is getting the hang of the display, which usually is a group activity among male capuchinbirds. “They call, and their taillight feathers pop out as they compete with each other.” If you’re visiting and can’t tell them apart, the male has a purple band on his right leg. But given his fondness for showing off, identifying him won’t be a problem—he stands out, which is one reason Athena is so fond of capuchinbirds. “They look like no other bird, and their display is so unique,” she says. “They have such charisma!” And they’re waiting to display it for one and all to see. n

PHOTO BY KEN BOHN, SDZG

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Across the Spectrum Animals in Living Color 40

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By Karen E. Worley MANAGING EDITOR

Photos by Ken Bohn SDZG PHOTOGRAPHER

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he Animal Kingdom has an extraordinary color palette. Pick any color on the spectrum, and there is an animal somewhere that displays it to excellent effect. Some animals are kaleidoscopic wonders, like the mandrill, the Gouldian finch, the male red-headed agama lizard, and the male mandarin duck. Others are more subdued in hue but make a statement with bold patterns. What mechanisms are at work to create this riot of color? As it turns out, animal color both is, and is not, just skin deep.

PIGMENTS AT PLAY Chemical compounds known as pigments are responsible for much of the color in living things. Pigments absorb light and reflect back certain wavelengths, such as blue or red; what is reflected is the color we see. A fundamental part of color in hair, skin, feathers, and scales is the pigment called melanin produced by the body. There are two types of melanin: eumelanin, which produces black and brown colors, and pheomelanin, which produces red and orange colors. Genetics determines how much of these the body produces. The more eumelanin there is, the darker hair and skin will be, as in gorillas and black cobras. Less eumelanin means that varying amounts of pheomelanin can come through, resulting in combinations from the reddish-brown coat of a roan antelope to the bright-red hair of an orangutan. What about when there are dark colors right next to light colors, as in tigers? That’s genetics at work: the code directs the deposit of more eumelanin in the hair that forms the dark stripes, while the rest of the hair has less eumelanin to let the reddish pheomelanin shine through. And white has little or no melanin—completely white-looking hair, like that of the polar bear, is colorless, but we perceive it as the color white. This male mandarin duck shows how colorful the Animal Kingdom can be—sometimes all on the same animal!

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We see this beetle as green, because the blue wavelength of light reflects off the middle layer of cells in the insect’s wing casing and back through the yellow pigment in the upper level of cells. Blue + yellow = green!

SOME ARE WHAT THEY EAT Plants are even more colorful than animals; through photosynthesis, they make their own carotenoid and porphyrin pigments, resulting in yellow, orange, red, green, and even violet. Animals don’t make carotenoids or porphyrins, but they do eat plants—or other animals that have eaten plants. The pigments they ingest can be metabolized and deposited into feathers, scales, and skin. The algae and crustaceans that flamingos eat produce their rosy hue, and seeds and berries give canaries and goldfinches their golden glow. This effect is most pronounced in birds, but it can occur in other animals as well. Invertebrates such as insects and mollusks display yellow, green, red, and purple colors from pigments they absorb through their diet. And if you’ve ever eaten way too many carrots, you may have noticed that your skin temporarily takes on an orange tinge where the carotene collected.

IT ISN’T EASY BEING GREEN Why are there so many green reptiles and amphibians? As an adaptation, their color helps camouflage them in the leafy environments where many of them live, of course. But how do they go about being green? As it happens, their skin is even more complex than that of mammals and birds. It contains pigment-bearing cells called chromatophores, which occur in three layers. The top layer holds yellow and sometimes red pigments, the middle layer contains cells that reflect and refract light, and the bottom layer contains melanin. In a typical green frog, light penetrates to the middle level, where the blue

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wavelength is reflected back through the yellow pigments in the top layer—with the result that we see green. If an animal is red or orange, like a coral snake or a Gila monster, its top layer contains red pigments, which block the blue light. And a blue poison frog? It has little or no yellow or red pigment in the top layer, so the reflected blue light is what we see. What’s amazing is that some reptiles and amphibians can actively control their colors by expanding or contracting these layers. They can bring the melanin layer closer to or farther away from the skin surface, creating different shades and colors. Some chameleon species have perfected this ability; they can move layers in specific locations on their body to create spots, stripes, and blotches of different colors.

MIRROR, MIRROR The way light reflects and refracts leads to another way to produce color: through structure. The multitude of surfaces, angles, and layers in bird feathers, butterfly wings, insect exoskeletons, reptile scales, and sometimes mammal hair cause light wavelengths to reflect in different ways and different directions. If the majority of the surfaces reflect the same way, we see a solid color, like the bright yellow of butterfly wings or the intense blue feathers of a hyacinth macaw. In reality, the scales on the butterfly’s wings are clear, and the bird’s feathers are dark from melanin, but the reflection creates the color we perceive. If surfaces disrupt light wavelengths in different directions and at different speeds (known as interference), it causes the effect of iri-


ANIMALS OF MANY COLORS Teal, lavender, magenta, orange, and more: some animals have amazing color palettes!

MANDARIN DUCK

Would you believe this hyacinth macaw isn’t blue? It’s true: it is a brownish black! We just see it as blue, because blue light is being refracted off the many angles of the structure of the feathers, and that’s what we perceive.

descence—to our eyes, it appears that the colors are shifting and changing. A familiar example is the peacock, with his stunning array of greens, blues, and violets, which seem to change color when viewed from different angles. Somehow he knows it, too, slowly shifting his position here and there for maximum effect as he courts a peahen.

MANDRILL

COLOR IS IN THE EYE OF THE BEHOLDER In the majority of animals, color is the result of several of these mechanisms working together. The patterns, variations, shades, and markings help animals blend into their environment or stand out to attract a mate or warn a predator. We might look at an animal and think, “Why is it colored like that? It stands out like a sore thumb!” But in its habitat, it blends right in with grasses, trees, and leaf litter or ripe fruit and brightly colored flowers. If it has showy, attention-getting colors, it’s because those colors have served a purpose throughout the course of natural selection, helping the animal breed more successfully or advertise that it is toxic and not good to eat. We should also remember that not all animals see the way we do: a red orangutan disappears in the green forest to an animal with limited color vision, and a deer can’t discern the jaguar in the tree until it moves. Some animals can see colors at the ultraviolet and infrared ends of the spectrum that we can’t. Who knows what colorful shenanigans might be going on there—and we humans are completely oblivious! n

RED-HEADED AGAMA


The Animal Kingdom’s Color Spectrum Northern purple roller Coracias naevius naevius The lovely shade of purple on these birds is caused by a combination of the pigments melanin and porphyrin in the cells of the feathers, which produce reddish colors, along with blue light that is reflected and scattered by the structural surfaces of the feathers. The reds and blues combine to have us seeing purple.

Caribbean flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber You’ve probably heard that flamingos get their color from what they eat, and that is indeed the case. The feathers have little pigment of their own, but carotenoid pigments in the crustaceans the flamingos eat are absorbed, metabolized, and deposited into the cells in the birds’ feathers. The result is the many shades of pink we admire in flamingos.

Red panda Ailurus fulgens The striking whiteand-red patterns on red pandas are the result of some areas of fur that contain no melanin pigments and other areas that contain a predominate amount of the yellow/red pheomelanin pigment.

Gila monster Heloderma suspectum Like other reptiles, Gila monsters have three-layered chromatophores in their skin that produce their color. Unlike many reptiles, though, Gila monsters are not green—and they’re not yellow, either. Their coloration is the result of the dark melanin layer dominating. The black areas have lots of melanin and the lighter areas have varying amounts, which combine with some of the xanthophore layer of yellow/red to produce everything from dark orange to almost pink.

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Sumatran orangutan Pongo abelii The glorious orange-red locks of this great ape are the result of a predominance of the yellow/red pheomelanin pigment; in contrast, gorillas have mostly the brown/ black eumelanin pigment in their hair. There’s another force at work in primates as well: a hormone regulates the amount of each pigment that is produced. If more of the hormone is present, it binds to the cells and activates the production of more eumelanin; less of the hormone results in pheomelanin being produced.

Sunburst diving beetle Thermonectus marmoratus The yellow spots on this beetle are an example of the complexity of color patterns. The black areas are dominated by the dark melanin layer at the base of the cells, but where the yellow shows up, the melanin layer has receded to let the top xanthopore layer containing yellow pigment shine.


Amethyst starling Cinnyricinclus leucogaster The striking purple on these birds is caused by a combination of pigmentation and structural color. The pigment is melanin, producing varying reddish colors; the structural element is the refraction of blue light scattered by the structure of the feathers. Red and blue together make purple. This is a shimmering, shifting purple, though—the blue light is refracting off many different angles, which creates iridescence.

Blue morpho butterfly Morpho peleides Butterfly wings are made up of thousands of tiny scales—and most are colorless. It’s the way that light hits their many surfaces that creates the color we see—in this case, mostly blue light, refracting from many angles to create what our eyes see as shining, shimmering blues.

Great blue heron Ardea herodias As with other birds, the blues in this heron’s feathers are the result of blue light bouncing off the structure of the feathers. The different shades are created by differing amounts of other melanin pigments in the feathers.

Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus In mammals, melanin is the pigment that gives skin and hair their color, contained in pigment cells called melanocytes. However, there are two types of melanin in mammals: eumelanin, which produces browns and blacks, and pheomelanin, which produces yellows and reds. The cheetah’s black spots contain mostly eumelanin. Its golden fur has little eumelanin; but it only has some pheomelanin—more, and cheetahs would be orange or red! Genetics determines how the spot pattern will be laid out.

Thick-billed parrot Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha These parrots are this shade of green because of a combination of factors. First, melanin in the cells of their feathers produces a reddishbrown color. Second, they eat plants containing carotenoids, which are pigments that produce yellow colors, that are deposited in the feather cells. And third, blue light reflects off the feathers. It’s the interaction of all three that results in the green we see.

Emerald tree boa Corallus caninus Amphibians and reptiles have pigment-bearing cells in their skin called chromatophores, composed of three layers. The bottom layer contains the dark pigment melanin; the middle layer is colorless but reflects light wavelengths; and the top layer contains yellow/red pigment. When light hits the cells of this boa, most of the colors are absorbed, except for blue. It hits the middle layer and bounces back through the top layer. The combination of blue light plus yellow pigment means we see a green snake.

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Still Gaga for

Gao Gao

Keeping an Aging Panda Healthy

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By Karyl Carmignani STAFF WRITER

Photos by Ken Bohn SDZG PHOTOGRAPHER

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nimal welfare is San Diego Zoo Global’s top priority for animals in our collection. As veterinary medicine advances, animal life spans increase, which brings a new set of challenges: geriatric care. Keeping elderly animals comfortable and healthy can entail rearranging animal groups so that individuals in their golden years don’t get roughed up by younger animals, providing medication for aching joints and other age-related ailments, and monitoring potential health issues with noninvasive exams. The latter requires the patient’s cooperation, and it can take time to train and condition the animal to go along with it. For instance, tracking the blood pressure of Gao Gao, our 24-year-old male giant panda, requires collaboration between keepers and veterinary staff, as well as the bear’s full cooperation. The calm competency of the staff involved and the sweet trust of the black-and-white bear are impressive!

No Pressure... Equipped with one-and-a-half apples cut into bite-sized pieces, a small bucket of biscuit balls and bamboo bread, and a blood pressure cuff attached to an extension cord, keepers and veterinary technicians got into position. Gao Gao ambled past, dapper and darling all at once, and stepped into the training area, eager to get down to business with a series of enthusiastic bleats and neighs (excited giant panda vocalizations). A steel sleeve, with a cutout area on the top that aligns with the bear’s forearm, was secured to the sturdy mesh. Knowing that this noninvasive medical procedure included his favorite foods, Gao Gao plunged his arm into the sleeve, grasping the metal bar at the end. “We use this sleeve to collect blood samples as well,” explained Brian Opitz, a registered veterinary techni-

At the ripe age of 24, Gao Gao is a senior bear (pandas can live up to about 20 years in the wild and up to 30 years in managed care), and keepers and vets go to great lengths to ensure he remains healthy. cian (RVT) at the Zoo, “so he knows to hold onto the bar inside the sleeve. To get his blood pressure, we just wait a few minutes for him to let go of the bar and let us place the cuff around his forearm.” All the while, Gao Gao was being hand-fed his favorite snacks while peering at us from behind those big, black eye spots. At the ripe age of 24, Gao Gao is a senior bear (pandas can live up to about 20 years in the wild and up to 30 years in managed care), and keepers and vets go to great lengths to ensure he remains healthy. “Keepers put a lot of time into training for these procedures, so we can stay on top of possible medical issues without having to use anesthesia to collect bio-samples,” said Jill Kuntz, RVT at the Zoo. As ardent herbivores, despite being part of the Order Carnivora, pandas eat the leaves and culm of several bamboo species almost exclusively. Over time, the grinding action can wear down a panda’s teeth, as is the case with Gao Gao. Hence, during the blood pressure procedure, he received tasty little homemade biscuit balls made of dried bamboo, which he devoured with great gusto.

Off the Cuff Keepers and vets have been gathering baseline data—no one knows what a normal blood pressure range is for a giant panda—on Gao Gao since May 2013. A few other zoos are also participating in this SAN DIEGO ZOO GLOBAL

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Top: Gao Gao reaches his arm into the metal sleeve so keepers can attach a blood pressure cuff or collect blood samples. He is given healthy treats throughout the procedure. Left: Panda keepers patiently train the bears in a variety of behaviors to better monitor the animals’ health. Right: Zoo Veterinarian Meg Sutherland-Smith interprets an ultrasound image taken of Bai Yun to see if she is pregnant. Conditioning the panda to accept this noninvasive procedure enhances her overall health care.

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After collecting three blood pressure readings, Gao Gao is given a few drops of rubbing alcohol on the floor, which he happily rolls in before moseying out on exhibit.

blood pressure project. Every 7 to 14 days, staff gathers to collect three blood pressure readings from Gao Gao, which he is agreeable to doing on either arm. “We also trained Yun Zi to do this before he left for China,” said Liz Simmons, panda keeper, referring to Gao Gao’s four-year-old son, “but he grabbed the blood pressure cuff and tore it up.” Undaunted, the panda team continued the training process, rewarding the young bear for placing his arm in the steel sleeve while keepers peeled the Velcro apart to get him accustomed to the sound of the blood pressure cuff. Soon, he was going along with the procedure, a skill that may come in handy later in his life. Accepting the blood pressure cuff is one of many husbandry behaviors the pandas are trained to do through positive reinforcement. The bears also present a paw, belly, or rump to keepers, which is helpful in monitoring the animals’ health. Bai Yun, our prolific adult female panda, has even allowed ultrasound procedures for veterinarians to monitor her pregnancies. It’s clear that the keepers are committed to their charges. “We do this training for their health,”

said Karen Scott, senior keeper. “That’s what we’re here for. We don’t force them.” The bears have to want to cooperate. “What we do here at the Zoo with the animals is amazing, without getting our hands on them or immobilizing them,” she said. As the bottom of the treat bucket became visible and his blood pressure readings were noted, Gao Gao looked us all over. A keeper put a few drops of rubbing alcohol on the floor, and the bear happily rolled around on it. “Usually animals balk at the scent of rubbing alcohol, but Gao Gao loves it—it’s like catnip to him,” explained Brian. It’s the ultimate treat! Gao Gao continued to rub and roll in the acrid odor, then proceeded to scent mark with his own “cologne.” With the procedure completed, he was free to mosey back out on exhibit. “We are lucky to have such an easygoing, tractable panda that allows us to do these exciting and important health procedures as he ages,” said Liz. And we are all fortunate to share the noble journey of Gao Gao’s life, quirks and all. n

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Cliff Hangers of Africa

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n the sunset glow of the North African sky, a hamadryas baboon family settles in for the night nestled high on the granite cliffs, away from predators in search of an evening meal. The drama from the day’s activities has subsided, and the baboons snuggle up to one another to keep warm. In the morning, these agile monkeys will return to the arid savanna below. There, the majestic male leader will guard his harem while the females forage for food and groom each other, and the youngsters play and ride jockey-style on the backs of their elders.

Peekaboo! Baboon infants are adorable and agile— they are sure to steal the show in Cliffs of Africa.

Getting this close to hamadryas baboons could be a first for many visitors to the San Diego Zoo. Perched up high on a walkway, there will be great views of this primate family. Be sure to also notice their neighbors, warthogs that will be rooting around the habitat or enjoying a good mud wallow.

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Reaching New Heights for Monkeys

A Helping Hand for Monkeys

For the first time in nearly 40 years, visitors to the San Diego Zoo will witness life in the wild world of hamadryas baboons in a new home that will replicate their native habitat in Ethiopia’s highlands. Guests will also get a rare peek inside the lives of a bachelor group of geladas, a unique monkey species that is like no other primate on Earth. Our Zoo will be one of only two places in North America where you can see geladas! Guests will experience our large baboon family and the geladas from an elevated walkway that will be surrounded by our new Cliffs of Africa habitat in the Conrad Prebys Africa Rocks. Although these engaging monkeys will live in separate areas, they will coexist with the most comical animals in Africa—warthogs—and sure-footed Nubian ibex. Glass windows at a lower level will offer close-up views of the bustling band of baboons and other animals, making this one of the Zoo’s most dynamic exhibits. Cliffs of Africa will be located in the eight-acre Africa Rocks zone, which will replace the 1930s-era grottos and cages in the former Dog and Cat Canyon, just south of the kopje exhibit. Africa Rocks will transform one of the Zoo’s oldest areas into an engaging adventure through some of Africa’s most extraordinary and diverse landscapes, teeming with animals that call the region home.

Wild hamadryas baboon and gelada populations are decreasing dramatically. People are encroaching on their habitats by creating farmland and livestock grazing areas. In addition to planning a new home for these species at the Zoo in Cliffs of Africa, San Diego Zoo Global already supports conservation efforts for these impressive primates in their native habitat. Now, we need your support to help us create this sanctuary for both species, where Zoo guests can witness their energetic lifestyles and the intricacies of their societies, as well as understand the importance of conservation efforts on their behalf. With your heartfelt generosity, we will create an amazing primate experience that will enthrall children and adults alike and provide splendid environments where the hamadryas baboons and geladas can thrive. For more information, visit sandiegozoo.org/africacliffs. n

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You can help secure the future for wildlife!

Heritage Guild By creating a Charitable Gift Annuity or including the Zoological Society of San Diego in your will or trust, you can help protect wildlife. To receive more information, please call 619-557-3947 or tap here visit our website at zoolegacy.org.


Help Us Meet the Rady Challenge San Diego businessman and philanthropist Ernest Rady has stepped up with a significant gift to help us create Africa Rocks. He pledged a $10 million challenge grant if the Zoo can raise $20 million in matching funds. Any dollars you contribute to Cliffs of Africa will take us one step closer to meeting this challenge and renewing one of the oldest areas of your San Diego Zoo. Many animals will thrive in enriching new habitats, all thanks to the generosity of friends like you.

TAP HERE TO HELP TODAY

Above: A hamadryas baboon troop snuggles together with the dominant male for warmth and safety. RIght: Dignified and stately geladas, like this male photographed in the wild, will make their home near the hamadryas baboons.

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what’s in store

Baboon $98

Giraffe $128

The Jonathan Adler animal kingdom: simple silhouettes and gestured shapes, pared down to their most basic forms. Jonathan Adler pottery begins its life in a Soho studio, where Jonathan and his team design and sculpt every prototype. The product you are viewing is produced by skilled artisans at their main workshop in Peru. They

Hedgehog $98

make molds from prototypes and then hand craft each piece from high-fired stoneware or porcelain. The Peruvian workshop was found through Aid to Artisans, a non-profit organization that connects designers in America with artisans in developing countries to promote fair trade.

Visit our stores at the Zoo and Safari Park to purchase these featured items. Items and prices may vary based on availability. Available in select stores.

Lion $130

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from the archives

Mbongo

Ngagi

Truly Great Apes In the 1930s and ‘40s, the San Diego Zoo was quite the “Gorilla Capital,” as scientists and zoo buffs from every corner of the globe came to observe Mbongo and Ngagi, two thriving gorillas. At the time, there were many myths but few facts about gorillas, making every detail of their care a learning experience. It wasn’t until the two had been at the Zoo for over three years that staff felt confident in declaring them both to be males! People came to know the magnificent apes as individuals. Although Ngagi was more dominant, Mbongo was considered the more clever of the two. Their adoring public kept a close watch on them both through visits to the Zoo and in the pages of ZOONOOZ, where they earned a lot of ink. Over their lifetime, these two great apes opened eyes to what remarkable, gentle giants gorillas are. Then-Managing Director Belle Benchley said it best: “…Mbongo and Ngagi got to be something besides just animals.” Even now, the magnificent bronzes of Mbongo and Ngagi on the front plaza are among the most photographed subjects in the Zoo. n

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PUBLISHED SINCE 1926

JUNE 2014

MANAGING EDITOR

KAREN E. WORLEY

ASSOCIATE EDITORS

PEGGY SCOTT DEBBIE ANDREEN

STAFF WRITERS SAN DIEGO ZOO GLOBAL™ PHOTOGRAPHER DIGITAL IMAGING TECHNICIAN DESIGN AND PRODUCTION

SAN DIEGO ZOO GLOBAL™ VIDEOGRAPHERS

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LXXXVII–NO. 6

WENDY PERKINS KARYL CARMIGNANI KEN BOHN TAMMY SPRATT DAMIEN LASATER CHRISTOPHER MARTIN HEIDI SCHMID STEPHANIE BEVIL-PAGADUAN DENNIS CORBRAN KAMBIZ MEHRAFSHANI KRISTIN NIELSEN TIM REAMER LISA BISSI JENNIFER MACEWAN LEE RIEBER MARIA BERNAL-SILVA DUSTIN TRAYER

The Zoological Society of San Diego was founded in Octo­ber 1916 by Harry M. Wegeforth, M.D., as a private, nonprofit corporation. The Zoological Society of San Diego does business as San Diego Zoo Global. This digital version of ZOONOOZ® is currently published every month and is available for the iPad and Kindle Fire. Publisher is San Diego Zoo Global, at 2920 Zoo Drive, San Diego, CA 92103, 619-231-1515. Copyright® 2014 San Diego Zoo Global. All rights reserved. “ZOONOOZ” Reg. U.S. Pat. Office. All column and program titles are trademarks of San Diego Zoo Global. Annual Memberships: Dual $119, new; $104, renewal. Single $98, new; $86, renewal. Each membership includes unlimited entrance to the San Diego Zoo and the San Diego Zoo Safari Park.

SAN DIEGO ZOO HOURS: June 1–20: 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.; June 21: 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.; June 22–27: 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.; June 28–30: 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. SAN DIEGO ZOO SAFARI PARK HOURS: June 1–20: 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.; June 21–30: 9 a.m. to 7 p.m. For more information about our animals and events, visit sandiegozoo.org or call 619-231-1515.


June 2104 ZOONOOZ