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Flamenco is a Spanish musical genre with strong, rhythmic undertones and is often accompanied with a similarly impassioned style of dance characterized by its powerful yet graceful execution, as well as its intricate hand and footwork. Flamenco embodies a complex musical and cultural tradition. Although considered part of the culture of Spain in general, flamenco actually originates from one region: Andalusia. However, other areas, mainly Extremadura and Murcia, have contributed to the development of several flamenco musical forms, and a great number of renowned flamenco artists have been born in other territories of the state. The roots of flamenco are not precisely known, but it is generally acknowledged that flamenco grew out of the unique interplay of native Andalucian, Islamic, Sephardic, and Gypsy cultures that existed in Andalucia prior to and after the Reconquest. Latin American and especially Cuban influences have also been important in shaping several flamenco musical forms.

Even though there are two other cities in southern Spain named Jerez (Jerez de los Caballeros in Badajoz province

Jerez Jerez de de la la Frontera Frontera isis aa municipality municipality in in the the province province

and Jerez del Marquesado in Granada province), when one says "Jerez", it is more than likely that it is this city, Jerez

of of Cádiz Cádiz in in the the autonomous autonomous community community of of Andalusia Andalusia

de la Frontera, that is meant. In former times, during the Muslim occupation of Iberia, it was called Xerez or Xeres.

in in southwestern southwestern Spain. Spain. As As of of 2007, 2007, the the city city had had


Frontera in its name refers to its location on the border between the Moorish and Christian regions of Spain during

202,687 202,687 inhabitants; inhabitants; itit isis the the largest largest city city in in the the provprov-

that period. The name of the famous fortified wine, sherry, which originated here, is a corruption of the city's Arabic

ince ince of of Cádiz Cádiz and and the the fifth fifth largest largest in in Andalusia. Andalusia. ItIt has has

name, Sherish.

become become the the transportation transportation and and communications communications hub hub of of the the province, province, surpassing surpassing even even Cádiz, Cádiz, the the provinprovincial cial capital, capital, in in economic economic activity. activity. Jerez Jerez de de la la Frontera Frontera isis also, also, in in terms terms of of land land area, area, the the largest largest municipality municipality in in the the province, province, and and its its sprawling sprawling outlying outlying areas areas are are aa

fertile zone agriculture. fertileof zone for mountain agriculture. There There are are also also many many cattle cattle betweentourist the atfoothills thefor The capital of sherry wine, the horse, and flamenco, Jerez, situated midway between the sea and the mountains, has aSituated wealth of appealing

rangeand the sea, Jerez de la Frontera - whose

tractions, many of them related to the three preoccupations that made the city famous. A visitor will wish to see the famed vineyards, stop at a sherry

ranches ranches and and horse-breeding horse-breeding operations. operations.

municipal area covers 1.187 square kilometers -

enjoys a privileged bodega to see how the fortified wine is made, and taste the product as well. Jerez is the home of the Royal Andalusian School of Equestrian Art, location a riding on the fertile lands of

Cádiz.Ten kilometers away from the Atlantic Coast

school comparable to the world-famous Spanish Riding School in Vienna, Austria. Jerez, the city where flamenco singing began, is also proud of its

and with approximately 200.000 inhabitants, Jer-

Andalusian Centre of Flamenco. There are two museums of note: the Jerez Archaeological Museum and the Atalaya Watch Museum (also known as ez’s urban center is the most densely populated of

the province of Cádiz.

"Palace of Time").

Facade of a caseta Horseand Fair. especially flamenco are Horses, wine, atbulls,

the distinctive symbols of a city that stands today

Facade of a caseta at Horse Fair.

as one of the economic centers of western Andalusia, and that possesses, at the same time, a

vast historic and are cultural The old quarter of Jerez, dating from medieval times, has been named an "Artistic Historic Complex". The Easter week celebrations in Jerez of "Na-heritage. tional Touristic Interest", and its remarkable Horse Fair (Feria del Caballo) in May is an event of "International Touristic Interest".

Jerez is the home of the Xerez Club Deportivo football team. It is also the site of the motorsport track, Circuito Permanente de Jerez, where the annual Motorcycling Grand Prix is contested. The race course is a prime destination for Formula One teams who wish to perform off-season testing; it also hosted the highly controversial 1997 European Grand Prix.


Jerez was traditionally a city centered on the vinícola industry, with exports from Jerez-Xérez-Sherry to the rest of the world. Debido a no contar con la estruc-

In the second half of the fifteenth century the Jews of Jerez suffered from the enmity of the Christian population. In 1459

Triana in Seville, Santa María in Cádiz and Jerez

the city council gave a portion of the Jewish cemetery to a Christian inhabitant; and in spite of the protests of Joseph tura social de funcionariado que sí disfrutan otras ciudades, Jerez ha basado su economía en la industria. Además de lathe producción y comercialización form foundational triangle ofdeflamenco, but the

region of Jerez is the one that has given the greatde Paredes and Samuel Corcos, who represented the Israelite community, and regardless of their appeal to a decree est number of interpreters; Jerez was home to one

vino, también se cultivan frutas, cereales y hortalizas y se cría ganado vacuno y caballar.

of May 25, of the most famous flamenco interpreters, Tío1455, Luis issued by Henry IV.,according to which the synagogues and Jewish cemeteries were not in any

el de laJuliana, most likely a gypsy who and the council in March, 1460, granted another portion of the cemetery to a Christian who desired to waycreated to be violated, popularized several styles of tonás. The gypsies, in-

build a house upon it. At the same time the following incident, related by Abraham Arama, took place in Jerez: Certain

tegratedin the city from the beginning, give local fla-

mencoits most characteristic slant: in monks Jerez even the to a rich Jew for alms, and received blows instead, desired to avenge themselves on the whole who applied payos sing like gypsies.

community. They accordingly exhumed the body of a baptized Jew that had been buried in the Christian cemetery,

It had a Jewish community with a separate Juderia as early as

andconverge took it to the The stories of Jerez and the cante jondo inJewish burial-ground, hoping to create the impression that the act had been committed by the Jews.

the time of the Moors. When Alfonso theMiguel Wise, conquered the quarters ofX., San and Santiago, birthplaces The affair came before the duke or the governor, who wished to have the king's opinion on the subject and to keep all

of two of the houses greatest and interpreters of the city in Oct., 1264, he assigned andcreators lands to the the city under arrest until the king's decision should arrive. The influential Judah ibn Verga of Seville exerted flamenco, the payo Antonio Chacón the andJews the ingypsy

Jews. The Juderia, which was located near S. Cristobal street

Manuel Torre, and where particular varieties of the himself on behalf of the terrified Jews; and as the innocence of those who had been slandered was soon proved, two genres or styles haveflourished. La Plazuela, and extended alongdifferent the city wall, included ninety-six houses, of the monksitself were burned at the stake, while the others, at the intercession of the people, were banished for life. another name given to San Miguel, expresses

large and small, and had two synagogues and two "casas de la

in a more intense manner, while Santiago is identified

with orthodoxy. merced," institutions for aiding and housing the poor. Near one

synagogue were the "casas del reab" (houses of the rabbi); Don

Todros, father of Don Yuçaff, is mentioned as being the occupant in 1264. Near the other synagogue was the house of Rabbi

Yuçaff. Upon the conquest of the city the following persons re-

ceived houses by command of the king: Don Yehuda Mosca (as he is several times expressly called in the list drawn up in 1338), who made translations from Arabic into Spanish for the king; the

"almoxarife" Don Mayr, or rather Mür de Malhea, and his son Çag (Isaac); Çimha (Simḥah) Xtaruçi, whose father lost his life and the whole of his large fortune during the rebellion of the city; Don Vellocid (Vellecid), "ballestero del rey a caballo"; Solomon Ballestero; and Axucuri Ballestero—the last three being in the king's army.

Abd-ar-Rahman I became Emir of

The city’s recent evolution, particularly in the sec-

Córdoba six years ond half of the past century, has brought about a after his dynasty,


gradual isolation of the area, that together with thehad lost the position the Umayyad, population’s settlement outside the historic center,

of Caliph (held in Damascus) in 750.

has strongly contributed to its architectural and

functional decay. Nowadays, abandoned buildings, I was on the run Abd-ar-Rahman empty lots, and inadequate uses are common. At

from persecutors for 6 years before

the same time, the population’s socioeconomic lev-

arrivinginin overIberia. Intent on regaining el is one of city’s lowest, sometimes living

crowded and uninhabitable places.

a position of power, he defeated the

Islamic rulers of the area, and It had a Jewish community with a separate Juderia as early as the time of the Moors. When Alfonso X., the Wise, conquered the city in Oct., 1264, he asThis area has turned into a marginalexisting pocket in the

very heart of the historic district. Through a Special

included ninety-six ninety-six houses, houses, united various local fiefdoms into an signed houses and lands to the Jews. The Juderia, which was located near S. Cristobal street and extended along the city wall, included

Plan it has been possible to undertake a detailed analysis of every element, so unveiling the two as-

emirate. large and small, and had two synagogues and two "casas de la merced," institutions for aiding and housing the poor. Near one synagogue were the "casas

pects of this site: its historic value (very disfigured today), and the measures necesssary to invert its evolution, or rather, to turn it into a center of at-

traction because of the quality of its buildings and

del reab" (houses of the rabbi); Don Todros, father of Don Yuçaff, is mentioned as being the occupant in 1264. Near the other synagogue was the house of Rabbi Yuçaff. Upon the conquest conquest of of the the city city the the following following persons persons received received houses houses by by command command of of the the king: king: Don Don Yehuda Yehuda Mosca Mosca (as (as he he isis several several times times expressly called in the list drawn up in 1338), who made translations from Arabic into Spanish for the king; the "almoxarife" Don Mayr, Mayr, or or rather rather Mür Mür de de Malhea, Malhea,

spaces. The urban void of the Plaza de Belén as it

the city; city; Don Don Vellocid Vellocid (Vel(VelThe Caliphate of Córdoba (Arabic: ruled the Iberian peninsula (Al-Andalus) and North and his son Çag (Isaac); Çimha (Simḥah) Xtaruçi, whose father lost his life and the whole of his large fortune during the rebellion of the

is today,

army. Africa from the city of Córdoba, from 929 to 1031. This period was characterized by lecid), "ballestero del rey a caballo"; Solomon Ballestero; and Axucuri Ballestero—the last three being in the king's army. remarkable success in trade and culture; many of the masterpieces of Islamic Iberia were constructed in this period, including the famous Great Mosque of Córdoba. The title Caliph was claimed by Abd-ar-Rahman III on January 16, 929; he was previously known as the Emir of Córdoba. All Caliphs of Córdoba were members of the Umayyad dynasty; the same dynasty had held the title Emir of Córdoba and ruled over roughly the same territory since 756. The rule of the Caliphate is known as the heyday of Muslim presence in the Iberian peninsula, although it was practically finished in 1010 with the civil war (fitna) which started between descendants of the last legitimate Caliph Hisham II and the successors of his prime minister (or hayib) Almansur or Almanzor. The Caliphate was also probably exhausted by its expensive military efforts. However, it officially existed until 1031, when it was fractured into a number of independent taifas.

The cultural aspects are also amazing, in particular following Al-Hakam II's control of power. This caliph founded a library which contained 400,000 volumes. The Caliph of Córdoba thus became famous for its philosophy, translating to medieval Europe works from ancient Greece. Ibn Masarra, AbentoThe economy economy of of the the Caliph Caliph was was based based on on aa considerable considerable economic economic capacity capacity -- grounded grounded inin an an important important trade trade -,-, highly highly The fain, Averroes who returned the works of Aristotle

“Recover the public space paved the way for Aquinas's reconciliation of thethe enjoyment of evfor ancient Aristotelian philosophy with Christianity) were After the battle of Melilla in 927, the Umayyads controlled the triangle formed by Algeria, Siyimasa eryone, to promote the some of these famous thinkers, although the majorand the Atlantic Ocean. The Caliph's power extended itself toward the north, and until 950 the Holy harmonious and sustainity were known for their groundbreaking achieve- Roman Empire exchanged ambassadors with Córdoba. A few years before, Hugh of Italy demanded able development of the ments in medicine, mathematics and astronomy. safeguards for his merchant boats in the Mediterranean. In the north of the Iberian peninsula, the small territory and to recover the Christian kingdoms, such as the Marca Hispanica, the Kingdom of Navarre and Aragon had difficulty heart of the city.” resisting the power of the Caliphate. They sought a truce with the Caliph, exchanging some territories

developed craftsmanship, craftsmanship, and and the the most most modern modern agricultural agricultural techniques techniques inin Europe. Europe. ItIt based based its its economy economy on on its its money, money, developed

to Europe, and the Jew Maimónides (whose work

which had had aa fundamental fundamental role role inin its its financial financial splendor. splendor. The The gold gold cordobesa cordobesa money money became became the the most most important important one one of of which these ages, ages, which which was was possibly possibly imitated imitated later later by by the the Carolingian Carolingian these

empire. Córdoba, Córdoba, the the capital capital of of the the Caliphate, Caliphate, reached reached 450,000 450,000 inhabitants, inhabitants, arguably arguably making making itit the the most most important important huhuempire. man centre centre of of the the World World inin these these times. times. Other Other important important cities cities were were Toledo, Toledo, Almería, Almería, Zaragoza Zaragoza and and Valencia. Valencia. man

_ Contribution to the urban network

_ Creating a full preformance of the whole to create 1 thing

in exchange for peace.

_Create bars and tablaos to create an urban atmosphere _ Auditoria that can house a full rage of large activities In 974 the Caliphate annexed Morroccan _ Artthe School and territories plasticscontrolled by the Idrisid dynasty.

_ Centre Square that is works as and attraction pole to the neighboorhood In 985, the Moors sacked Barcelona and in 997 Santiago de Compostella.[citation needed]

The last Caliph of Córdoba was Hisham III (1027-1031). At his death in 1031 the territories he


controlled, which had by then shrunk mainly to possessions on the Iberian Peninsula, fractured into

a number of independent taifas. These fiefdoms continued until they were gradually pushed out by Christian forces during the Reconquista, unable to effectively resist as independent factions

The Mezquita (Spanish for "mosque") of Cordoba is a Roman Catholic cathedral and former Mosque situated in the Andalusian city of C贸rdoba, Spain. Primarily, the site had borne a temple, then a Christian cathedral. Under the rule of Islam, it was built as the second-largest mosque in the world, and

S. Marcos

is perhaps the most accomplished monument of the Umayyad dynasty of Existing historical buildings and cultural facilities _ churches,...

Cordoba. After the Spanish Reconquista, it was transformed into a church,

Existing historical buildings and cultural facilities _ others,...

Public network and partly the Islamic columns and arcs were replaced by a basilica in early

Baroque style. Today it houses the main church of the diocese of Cordoba in Spain.


S. Dionosio S. Mateo

The construction of the Mezquita started in approximately 600 A.D. asS. Llucas a Christian Visigothic church. Later, the Mezquita (originally the "Aljama Mosque") was reworked for over two centuries to refashion it as a

mosque, starting in 784 A.D. under the supervision of the first Muslim Emir Abd ar-Rahman I, who used it as an adjunct to his palace and

named it to honor his wife. The land was bought by the Emir from the

Iglesia Catedral Bodegas Instituto culturale de jerez Museo Arqueologico Scala escuenica compania Antonio chacon flamenco culture

previous owners. It is believed that the site included the Visigothic ca- center thedral of St. Vincent. When the forces of Tariq ibn-Ziyad first occupiedPena flamenca jose

Zoco de Artesanias

C贸rdoba in 711, the Christian cathedral was suppressed.

Several explanations have been proposed to explain the mosque's

unorthodox orientation. Some have suggested the mihrab faces south because the foundations of the mosque are borrowed from the old RoItIt was was the the most most magnificent magnificent of of the the more more than than 1,000 1,000 mosques mosques in in the the city city and and was was at at one one time time the the second second largest largest mosque mosque in in the the Muslim Muslim world. world. ItIt was was connected connected to to the the Caliph's Caliph's palace palace by by aa raised raised walk-way, walk-way, mosques mosques within within the the palaces palaces being being the the tradition tradition for for the the islamic islamic rulers rulers of of all all times. times.

man and Visigoth constructions. Others contend that Abd ar-Rahman oriented the mihrab southward as if he were still in the Ummayyad capital of Damascus and not in exile.

The The city city in in which which itit was was built built was was subject subject to to frequent frequent invasion invasion and and each each conquering conquering wave wave added added their their own own mark mark to to the the architecture. architecture. The The building building isis most most notable notable for for its its giant giant arches, arches, with with over over 1,000 1,000 columns columns of of jasper, jasper, onyx, onyx, marble, marble, and and granite. granite. These These were were made made from from pieces pieces of of the the Roman Roman temple temple which which had had occupied occupied the the site site previously, previously, as as well well as as other other destroyed destroyed Roman Roman buildings. buildings. The The double double arches, arches, pictured pictured above, above, were were aa new new introduction introduction to to architecture, architecture, and and helped helped support support the the tremendous tremendous weight weight of of the the higher higher ceilings. ceilings. The The double double arches arches consist consist of of aa lower lower horseshoe horseshoe arch arch and and an an upper upper semi-circular semi-circular arch. arch. The The Mezquita Mezquita also also features features richly richly gilded gilded prayer prayer niches. niches. AA centrally centrally located located honey-combed honey-combed dome dome has has beaubeautiful tiful blue blue tiles tiles decorated decorated with with stars. stars. The The mihrab mihrab isis aa masterpiece masterpiece of of architectural architectural art, art, with with geometric geometric and and flowing flowing designs designs of of plants. plants. The The Mezquita Mezquita reached reached its its current current dimensions dimensions in in 987 987 A.D. A.D. with with the the completion completion of of the the outer outer naves naves and and orange orange tree tree courtyard. courtyard.

The mosque underwent numerous subsequent changes: Abd arRahman III ordered a new minaret, while Al-Hakam II, in 961, enlarged the plan of the building and enriched the mihrab. The last of the reforms was carried out by Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir in 987.

During the Middle Ages, Moor was a common term to refer to the Muslims of the Islamic Iberian Peninsula and North Africa, who were of Arab and Berber descent. They inhabited the Iberian Peninsula after the Arab conquests of the Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates. The conquests influenced southern migration of the indigenous Moors to modernday Mauritania, Western Sahara and other West African countries as far south as the Senegal River. DYNAMIC SYSTEM



FUNCTIONS CLASSICAL Today, the word remains associated with the Morrocan immigrants in Spain, and is considered a pejorative word. It is sometimes used in a wider contextARCHITECTURE to describe any denizen VECTORS INDIVIDUAL VS COLLECTIVE



of North Africa. Similarly, in Spanish, the cognate moro is considered a racist and derogative term. But the Spanish still use it and even think of it as a neutral word in local sayings GEOMETRIC SYSTEM OF PROPORTION

such as "no hay moros NON-LINEAR DYNAMICS


en la costa" (lit. "there are no moors on the coast," meaning "the coast is clear"). DISTRIBUTION OF PARTS TO THE WHOLE


In 1236, Cordoba was recaptured from the Muslim army


by King Ferdinand III of Castile and the mosque was reconsecrated a Christian church. Alfonso X oversaw

“The field describes a space of propagation, of effects. It Chapel within the structure of the mosque. The kings no Enrique matter or matewho followedcontains added further Christian features: II rial rather functions, rebuilt the chapel in the points, 14th century. VECTORS and speeds” the construction of the Villaviciosa Chapel and the Royal





Sanford Kwinter

The most significant alteration was the construction of a

Modern texts, such as Webster's

Renaissance cathedral nave in the middle of the struc-

New World Dictionary, group all Moors

ture. It was constructed by permission of Carlos V, king

together under the terms Arab and

of united Spain. Its reversion to a Christian church (of-

Berber, which has to omit the as-

ficially the Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin) may

sociation with Africans that are racially

versions of of the the languages. languages. Through Through nominalization, nominalization, the the root root has has always always referred referred to to various various things things conveniently conveniently identified identified by by their their dark dark color, color, for for example, example, blackberries. blackberries. Moreno, Moreno, versions

have helped to preserve it when the Spanish Inquisition

considered "black". Considering that

from the the Latin Latin root, root, can can mean mean "tanned" "tanned" in in Spain Spain and and "black "black person" person" in in Cuba Cuba and and other other Spanish-speaking Spanish-speaking territories. territories. Also Also in in Spanish, Spanish, morapio morapio isis aa humorous humorous name name for for "wine", "wine", from

was most active.

Berbers were a mixture of various



Elias Canetti - Crowd and power SEQUENCE OF EVENTS

Moor isis believed believed to to come come from from the the Greek Greek word word mauros mauros (Greek (Greek orthography, orthography, plural), meaning meaning "black" or "very "very dark". dark".AGAINST In Latin LatinEACH became maurus (plural (plural mauri). mauri). In In the the Medieval Medieval Moor plural), or In itit became RELATIONSHIPS OF PARTS "black" AND CONFIGURATIONS OTHER maurus MOIRE Romance languages languages (such (such as as Portuguese, Portuguese, Spanish, Spanish, French, French, and and Italian), Italian), the the root appeared appeared with with such such forms forms as as "mouro", "mouro", moro,, moro,, moir, moir, and and mor. mor. Derivatives Derivatives are are found found in in today's today's Romance root


Crowd psychology, or social facilitation theory, is a branch of social psychology.

specially that that has has not not been been "baptized" "baptized" with with water, water, i.e., i.e., pure pure unadulterated unadulterated wine. wine. specially

Ordinary people can typically gain direct power by acting collectively. Historically, and architects continued to add to the existing because large groups of people have been able to affect dramatic Artisans and sudden

social change in a manner that bypasses established due process, they have

In Spanish Spanish usage, usage, moro moro ("Moor") ("Moor") came came to to have have an an even even broader broader usage, usage, to to moros moros of of Mindanao Mindanao in in the the Philippines, Philippines, and and the the moriscos moriscos of of Granada. Granada. Moro Moro isis also also used used to to describe describe In

structure until the late 18th century.

also provoked controversy. Social scientists have developed several different

all things things dark, dark, as as in in "Moor", "Moor", "moreno", "moreno", etc.; etc.; and and itit has has led led to to many many European European surnames surnames such such as astheories Moore, Mauro, Mauro, Moura, and and so on. on. The Milanese Milaneseand Dukethe Ludovico Il Moro Moro wasthe psychology all Moore, Moura, so The Duke Ludovico was for explaining crowd psychology, ways Ilin which

of the crowd differs significantly from because the psychology those individuals within so-called because of his his dark darkofcomplexion. complexion. so-called of it. Carl Jung coined the notion of the Collective unconscious. Other major think-

shades of diverse nomadic groups comprising of North Africans and some Sub-Saharan Africans, the claims of racial heritage being of one specific ethnic group are at best dubious.

ers of crowd psychology include Gustave Le Bon, Wilfred Trotter, Gabriel Tarde,

Today, it is the inhabitants of Southern

Sigmund Freud and Elias Canetti.

Morocco and Mauritania in addition to

Elias Canetti

groups from various countries of West Africa's Sahel Region who are referred to as Moors.

The design strategy has focused its design re-


Moor Moor isis believed believed to to come come from from the the Greek Greek word word mauros mauros (Greek (Greek orthography orthography μαύρος, μαύρος, plural plural μαύροι), μαύροι), meanmean-

search on Vector Fields and Fluid dynamics as the conceptual and technical basis in the cho-

ing ing "black" "black" or or "very "very dark". dark". In In Latin Latin itit became became maurus maurus (plural (plural mauri). mauri). In In the the Medieval Medieval Romance Romance languages languages

reography of complex dynamic urban interac-

(such (such as as Portuguese, Portuguese, Spanish, Spanish, French, French, and and Italian), Italian), the the root root appeared appeared with with such such forms forms as as "mouro", "mouro", moro,, moro,,


moir, moir, and and mor. mor. Derivatives Derivatives are are found found in in today's today's versions versions of of the the languages. languages. Through Through nominalization, nominalization, the the root root

The exploration of Vector fields as an urban

has has always always referred referred to to various various things things conveniently conveniently identified identified by by their their dark dark color, color, for for example, example, blackberries. blackberries.

tool allowed an alternative mode of address-

Moreno, Moreno, from from the the Latin Latin root, root, can can mean mean "tanned" "tanned" in in Spain Spain and and "black "black person" person" in in Cuba Cuba and and other other SpanishSpanish-

ing masterplanning strategies, not as one that is fixed but as one that is Modern relational to such possible texts, as Webster's futures.

n Spanish usage, moro ("Moor")

New World Dictionary, group all

came to have an even broader

Moorssystems together under Developing different parametric (land-the terms

usage, to moros of Mindanao in

scape/multiple ground condition, circulation,

Arab and Berber, which has to omit

the Philippines, and the moriscos

the association with Africans as a series of urban fields that correlate with that are

of Granada. Moro is also used to

one another to organizeand differentiraciallyintegrate considered "black". Consider-

describe all things dark, as in "Moor",

massing, program distribution and navigation)

speaking speaking territories. territories. Also Also in in Spanish, Spanish, morapio morapio isis aa humorous humorous name name for for "wine", "wine", specially specially that that has has not not been been "baptized" "baptized" with with water, water, i.e., i.e., pure pure unadulterated unadulterated wine. wine.


ated urban space. ing that Berbers were a mixture of

"moreno", etc.; and it has led to

This project addresses urban space by studying various shades of diverse nomadic

many European surnames such as

different programs relations through sectional

groups comprising of North Africans

Moore, Mauro, Moura, and so on.

a design tool explores different scales and lev- Africans, and some Sub-Saharan

The Milanese Duke Ludovico Il Moro

field navigation. The resolution of the vector as els of spatial, structural, material and program-

the claims of racial heritage being of

was so-called because of his dark

specific group are at best vector properties from one a local to aethnic global field


matic differentiation by developing vector to space.

The exploration of Vector fields as an urban tool allowed an alSouthern Morocco and Mauritania in mode of addressing addition to groups from variousternative counmasterplanning strategies, not tries of West Africa's Sahel Region who are referred to asas that is fixed but as one that is relational to possible futures. dubious. Today, it is the inhabitants of

Although the Moors came to be associated with Muslims, the name Moor pre-dates Islam. It derives from the small Numidian Kingdom of Maure of the third century BC in what is now northern central and western part of Algeria and a part of northern Morocco.[1] The name came to be applied to people of the entire region. "They were called Maurisi by the Greeks," wrote Strabo, "and Mauri by the Romans."[2] During that age, the Maure or Moors were trading partners of


Carthage, the independent city state founded by Phoenicians. During the second Punic war between Carthage and Rome, two Moorish Numidian kings took different sides, Syphax with

Carthage, Masinissa with the Romans, decisively so at Zama. Thereafter, the Moors entered into treaties with Rome. Under King Jugurtha collateral violence against merchants brought war. Juba, a later king, was a friend of Rome. Eventually, the region was incorporated into the

Roman Empire as the provinces of Mauretania Caesariensis and of them native inhabitants. The

In 1212, a coalition of Christian kings under the leadership of Alfonso VIII of Castile drove the Muslims from Central Iberia. However, the Moorish Kingdom of Granada continued for three more centuries in the southern Iberian peninsula. This kingdom is known in modern times for magnifi-

persecution and forced conversion to Catholicism of the Muslim population during the time of

cent architectural works such as the Alhambra palace. On January 2, 1492, the leader of the last Muslim stronghold in Granada surrendered to

the Catholic reconquista in the second part of the 15th century, causing a mass exodus, are

armies of a recently united Christian Spain (after the marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile). The remaining Muslims and Jews

considered the main reasons why their number shrank to one-third by 1600.

were forced to leave Spain, forced to convert to Roman Catholic Christianity or be murdered for not doing so. In 1480, Isabella and Ferdinand instituted the Inquisition in Spain, as one of many changes to the role of the church instituted by the monarchs.

In In the the meantime, meantime, the the tide tide of of Islam Islam had had rolled rolled not not just just westward westward to to Iberia, Iberia, but but also also easteastward, ward, through through India, India, the the Malayan Malayan peninsula, peninsula, and and Indonesia Indonesia up up to to Mindanao-—one Mindanao-—one of of the the major major islands islands of of an an archipelago archipelago which which the the Spaniards Spaniards had had reached reached during during their their voyages voyages westward westward from from the the New New World. World. By By 1521, 1521, the the ships ships of of Magellan Magellan and and other other Spanish Spanish expeditioners expeditioners had had themselves themselves reached reached that that island island archipelago, archipelago, which which they they named named Las Las Islas Islas de de Filipinas, Filipinas, after after Philip Philip IIII of of Spain. Spain. In In Mindanao, Mindanao, the the Spaniards Spaniards also also named named these these kris-bearing kris-bearing people people as as Moros Moros or or 'Moors'. 'Moors'.

# Alessandro de' Medici (July 22, 1510 – January 6, 1537) called "il Moro" ("the Moor") by his

In this project, i understood city as fluid

contemporaries was the Duke of Penne and container, continuously generate temporal

crowd organizations derived from the in-

also Duke of Florence (from 1532) and ruler

teractions of the people flow.Liquid archi-

of Florence from 1530 until 1537). Though iltecture is not the mimesis of natural fluids

in architecture Firstlegitimate, and foremost is alast liq-of the "senior" branch he wasit the uidizing of everything that has traditionally the Medici to rule Florence and the first to be been crystalline andofsolid in architecture. It

is the contamination ofmedia. This means(such as Christopher hereditary duke. Historians the smooth merging of, for instance, wall

Hibbert) believe he had been born to a black

and floor, of body and geometry, of object

and environment, ofserving-woman floor and volume, of household, identiin the Medici action and form - of course, this is called

fied in documents as Simonetta da Collavechio.

inter-action, because the point of action is

The nickname said subto derive from his features always exactly in between objectis and

ject, and this “in between� is where skin,

(Hibbert 1999: 236). Contemporary portraits

environment and interface come together.

depict his full lips and coppery skin - he still has Liquid architecture is always trying to con-

nect one act to another, of putting virus descendants (viaahis own illegitimate children) in the program itself, about the hyperbolic linking of events, where every object and

In this project, i understood city as fluid container, continuously # Macrinus, 164-218, a Berber officer, prefect of the Praetorian Guard under Caracalla. He became the first Roman emperor who was not a generate temporal crowd orgasenator in 217-18. nizations derived from the inter# Estevanico, also referred to as "Stephen the Moor", explorer of what is now the southwest of the United States in the service of Spain. actions of the people flow. # Gildo was a Berber chieftain who instigated a rebellion against the Roman Empire in 398. # Lusius Quietus was a Roman general, governor of Iudaea in 117. Originally a Berber prince, his military ability won him the favor of Trajan,

every event can have unforeseen and un-

who even designated him as his successor. During the emperor's Parthian campaign, the numerous Jewish inhabitants of Babylonia revolted

programmed effects. Nothing, no function, no object can remain isolated; everything

and were relentlessly suppressed by Quietus, who was rewarded by being appointed governor of Judea. Restlessness in Palestine caused

is brought in a continual process of trans-

Beside its its usage usage in in historical historical context context Moor Moor and and Moorish Moorish (Italian (Italian and and SpanSpanBeside

formation to the other - everything is nec-

Trajan to send his favorite, as a legate of consular rank, to Judea, where he continued his sanguinary course.

ish: moro, moro, French: maure, Portuguese: mouro moiro, Romanian: Romanian: maur) maur) isis essarily opened upPortuguese: and leaking away. ish: French: maure, mouro // moiro, used to to designate designate an an ethnic ethnic group group speaking speaking the the Hassaniya Hassaniya Arabic Arabic dialect, dialect, used inhabiting Mauritania Mauritania and and parts parts of of Algeria, Algeria, Western Western Sahara, Sahara, Morocco, Morocco, Niger Niger inhabiting and Mali. Mali. and


In modern, modern, colloquial colloquial Spanish Spanish the the sometimes sometimes pejorative pejorative term term "Moro" "Moro" refers refers In

to any any Arab. Arab. Similarly, Similarly, in in modern, modern, colloquial colloquial Portuguese Portuguese the the term term "Mouro" "Mouro" isis to used as as aa derogatory derogatory term term by by citizens citizens of of Northern Northern Portugal Portugal to to refer refer to to the the used inhabitants of of the the southern southern areas areas of of the the country, country, although although "Mouro" "Mouro" isis also also an an inhabitants

enchanted people people and and "Moura" "Moura" also also means means stone stone in in Northern Northern Portugal. Portugal. enchanted

Y DNA Haplogroup E3b predominates among North African populations; its E3b1b subgroup (M81+) is identified especially with the Berber people. The Vb subtype of p49a,f Haplotype V, apparently corresponding to E3b1b, has been found to occur in two thirds of the Haplotype V Southern Iberians, that is, about a quarter of all Andalusians tested. The frequency of Vb is at its highest among Berbers, and was found to decline rapidly from West to East among North Africans sampled, and to be uncommon in France and Italy. [10]

A 2006 Mitochondrial DNA study of 12th-13th century


The Y chromosome p49a,f TaqI Haplotype V, which

Islamic remains from Priego de Cordoba, Spain, indicate

corresponds to Y haplogroup [[E3b1b] referred to as a

a higher proportion (4%) of sub-Saharan African lineages

“Berber marker”, has been found among 68.9% of mod-

attributed at least partially to Moorish occupation, in addi-

ern Berbers in North Africa and is indigenous to this area,

tion to more ancient migrations to Europe.[11]

as high as 80% in one group. It is believed to be about

6,000 years old, and arrived with the neolithic expansion from the near East. M81 is not seen in sub Saharan Af-

rica. This haplotype has also been found as high as 40%


of one small group of Andalusians tested, but generally at much lower frequencies among Iberian populations, and lower as distance from North Africa increases.[9] Moorish Moorish Iberia Iberia excelled excelled in in city city planning; planning; the the sophistication sophistication of of their their cities cities was was astonishing. astonishing. According According to to one one historian, historian, Córdoba Córdoba "had "had 471 471 mosques mosques and and 300 300 pubpublic lic baths baths … … the the number number of of houses houses of of the the great great and and noble noble were were 63,000 63,000 and and 200,077 200,077 of of the the common common people. people. There There were were … … upwards upwards of of 80,000 80,000 shops. shops. Water Water from from the the mountain mountain was was distributed distributed through through every every corner corner and and quarter quarter of of the the city city by by means means of of leaden leaden pipes pipes into into basins basins of of different different shapes, shapes, made made of of the the purest purest gold, gold, the the finest finest silver, silver, or or plated plated brass brass as as well well into into vast vast lakes, lakes, curious curious tanks, tanks, amazing amazing reservoirs reservoirs and and fountains fountains of of Grecian Grecian marble." marble." The The houses houses of of Córdoba Córdoba were were air air conditioned conditioned in in the the summer summer by by "ingeniously "ingeniously arranged arranged draughts draughts of of fresh fresh air air drawn drawn from from the the garden garden over over beds beds of of flowers, flowers, chosen chosen for for their their perfume, perfume, warmed warmed in in winter winter by by hot hot air air conveyed conveyed through through pipes pipes bedded bedded in in the the walls." walls." This This list list of of impressive impressive works works includes includes lamp lamp posts posts that that litlit their their streets streets at at night night to to grand grand palaces, palaces, such such as as the the one one called called Azzahra Azzahra with with its its 15,000 15,000 doors.[8] doors.[8] During During the the height height of of the the Caliphate Caliphate of of Córdoba, Córdoba, the the city city of of Córdoba Córdoba proper proper was was one one of of the the major major capicapitals tals in in Europe Europe and and one one of of the the most most cosmopolitan cosmopolitan cities cities of of its its time. time.

Mitochondrial DNA sequences and restriction fragment polymorphisms were retrieved from three Islamic 12th-13th century samples of 71 bones and teeth (with >85% efficiency) from Madinat Baguh (today called Priego de Cordoba, Spain). Compared with 108 saliva samples from the present population of the same area, the medieval samples show a higher proportion of sub-Saharan African lineages that can only partially be attributed to the historic Muslim occupation. In fact, the unique sharing of transition 16175, in L1b lineages, with Europeans, instead of Africans, suggests a more ancient arrival to Europe from Africa. The present day Priego sample is more similar to the current south Iberian population than to the medieval sample from the same area. The increased


gene flow in modern times could be the main cause of this difference.

We must distinguish between the urban as a

discontinuous flow, a transformation process involving social, economic, architectural, etc.,

Islamic architecture has encompassed a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day, influencing the design and construction of buildings and structures within the sphere of Islamic culture.

forces, and the city as a temporary, diagram-

matic manifestation of the urban. The path of urbanisation, however, is not undirectional and

The principle architectural types of Islamic architecture are; the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace and the Fort. From these four types, the vocabulary of Islamic architecture

does not necessarily lead to a transglobal urban

is derived and used for buildings of lesser importance such as public baths, fountains and domestic architecture.[1]

zone. Rather, the urban is a complex, multi-di-


rectional process of connection and separation,

In 630C.E. the Prophet Muhammad's army reconquered the city

of layering, enmeshing and cutting, which leads

of Mecca from the Banu Quraish tribe. The sanctuary of Ka'ba was to ever different formations.

If the urban is something rebuilt that one work with, and can re-dedicated to Islam, the reconstruction being carried intervene into, or become a part of, then it is imout before the prophet Muhammad's death in 632C.E. by a ship-

portant to understand its forces and layers

wrecked Abyssinian carpenter in his native style. This sanctuary was amongst the first major works of Islamic architecture. Later doctrines of Islam dating from the eighth century and originating from the Hadith, forbade the use of humans and animals.[1] in architectural n the 7th century, Muslim armies conquered a huge expanse of land. Once the Muslims had taken control of a region, their first need was for somewhere to worship - a mosque. design,in order to obey God's command (and thou shalt not make The simple layout provided elements that were to be incorporated into all mosques and the early Muslims put up simple buildings based on the model of the Prophet's house or for thyself an image or idol of God..)and also (thou shalt have no adapted existing buildings for their own use. god before me)From ten commandments and similar Islamic teachings.For jews and muslims veneration violates these command- Recently discoveries have shown that quasicrystal patterns were first employed in the girih tiles found in medieval Islamic architecture dating back over five centuries ago. In 2007, ments.They read these commandments as prohibiting the use of Professor Peter Lu of Harvard University and Professor Paul Steinhardt of Princeton University published a paper in the journal Science suggesting that girih tilings possessed properidols and images during worship in any way. ties consistent with self-similar fractal quasicrystalline tilings such as the Penrose tilings, predating them by five centuries.[2][3]

A specifically recognisable Islamic architectural style developed soon after the time of the Prophet Muhammad, developing from Roman, Egyptian, Byzantine, and Persian/ Sassanid models. An early example may be identified as early as 691 AD with the completion of the Dome of the Rock (Qubbat One of the first civilizations that Islam came into contact with during and after its generate relations birth was that of Persia. The eastern banks of the Tigris and Euphrates was where vaulted spaces, awith circular dome, and the different prothe capital of the Persian empire lay during the 7th century. Hence the proximity grams use of stylized repeating decorative patterns al-Sakhrah) in Jerusalem. It featured interior

Working with the intensity parameter in the vector field allowed us to generate a 3d point cloud to then translate it into a 3d vector field that allowed us to control

Distinguishing motifs of Islamic architecture have always been ordered repetition, radiating

speed and directionality into a series of


often led early Islamic architects to not just borrow, but adopt the traditions and ways of the fallen Persian empire.

topological organizations. structures, and rhythmic, metric patterns. In this respect, fractal geometry has been a key utility, especially for mosques and palaces. Other significant features employed as motifs include columns, piers and arches, organized and interwoven with alternating sequences

Islamic architecture borrows heavily from Persian architecture and in many ways can be called an extension and further evolution of Persian architecture.

of niches and colonnettes.[4] Many cities such as Baghdad, for example, were based on precedents such as The role of domes in Islamic architecture has been considerable. Its usage spans centu-


ries, first appearing in 691 with the construction of the Dome of the Rock mosque, and

recurring even up until the 17th century with the Taj Mahal. And as late as the 19th century,

Firouzabad in Persia. In fact, it is now known that the two designers who were hired by al-Mansur to plan the city's design were Naubakht (‫)تخبون‬, a former Persian Zoroastrian, and Mashallah (‫)هللا‌ءاشام‬, a former Jew from Khorasan, Iran.

Islamic domes had been incorporated into Western architecture.[5][6] Persian-style mosques are characterized by their tapered brick pillars, large arcades, and arches supported each by several pillars. In South Asia, elements of Hindu architecture were employed, but were later superseded by Persian designs. [7]

The Great Mosque of Samarra in Iraq, completed in 847 AD, combined the hypostyle architecture of rows of columns supporting a flat base above which a huge spiraling minaret was constructed.

The Hagia Sophia in Istanbul also influenced Islamic architecture. When the Ottomans captured the city from the Byzantines, they con-

verted the basilica to a mosque (now a museum) and incorporated Byzantine architectural elements into their own work (e.g. domes). The Hagia Sophia also served as model for many of the Ottoman mosques such as the Shehzade Mosque, the Suleiman Mosque, and the Rüstem Pasha Mosque.

The Ottomans achieved the highest level architecture in the Islamic lands hence or since.[citation needed] They

architecture, the the Fatimids Fatimids followed followed Tulunid Tulunid techniques techniques and and used used similar similar materials, materials, but but also also developed developed those those of of InIn architecture,

mastered the technique of building vast inner spaces

their own. own. InIn Cairo, Cairo, their their first first congregational congregational mosque mosque was was al-Azhar al-Azhar mosque mosque ("the ("the splendid") splendid") founded founded along along with with their

confined by seemingly weightless yet massive domes,

the city city (969–973), (969–973), which, which, together together with with its its adjacent adjacent institution institution of of higher higher learning learning (al-Azhar (al-Azhar University), University), became became the the the

and achieving perfect harmony between inner and outer

spiritual center center for for Ismaili Ismaili Shia. Shia. The The Mosque Mosque of of al-Hakim al-Hakim (r. (r. 996–1013), 996–1013), an an important important example example of of Fatimid Fatimid architecarchitecspiritual

spaces, as well as light and shadow. Islamic religious _loop configuration

The next strategy towards the vector materialization waswhich the loop architecture until then consisted of simple buildings scheme. By linking the different interactions of the vectorial lines


logic. The continue relation from loop to loopmans appear as aandynamic inter- architectural vocabulary of vaults, The most numerous and largest of through esting way to link space and navigation strategies.

_loop to loop

structures include include the the Mosque Mosque of of al-Aqmar al-Aqmar (1125) (1125) as as well well as as the the monumental monumental gates gates for for Cairo's Cairo's city city walls walls commiscommisstructures sioned by by the the powerful powerful Fatimid Fatimid emir emir and and vizier vizier Badr Badr al-Jamali al-Jamali (r. (r. 1073–1094). 1073–1094). sioned

domes, semidomes and columns. The mosque was mosques exist in Turkey, which obtained

transformed being I try to develop this continuity from the overall to the from detail anda cramped and dark chamber with influence from Byzantine, Persian and

tectonic organization in a series of parametric models. I tried to

arabesque-covered walls into a sanctuary of esthetic and Syrian-Arab designs. Turkish architects im-

close the gap between fluid dynamic behavior and material orga-

technical balance, refined elegance and a hint of heavenly plemented their own style of cupola domes. nization demonstrating the power of fluid to describe interactions

beyond matter into spatial and programmatic distribution. The vectorial coordination is spread along the different orientation issues like views, slops, air control, temperature, etc… allowing us to spread this logic across the site as an organization urban statement.

transcendence. [7] The architecture of the Turkish Ottoman Empire forms a distinctive whole, especially the great mosques by and in the style of Sinan, like the mid-16th century Suleiman Mosque. For almost 500 years Byzantine architecture such as the church of Hagia Sophia served as models for many of the Ottoman mosques such as the Shehzade Mosque, the Suleiman Mosque, and the

Timurid architecture is the pinnacle of Islamic art in Central Asia. Spectacular and stately edifices erected by Timur and his successors in Samarkand and Herat helped to disseminate the influence of the Ilkhanid school of art in India, thus giving rise to the celebrated Moghol school of architecture. Timurid architecture started with the sanctuary of Ahmed Yasawi

in present-day Kazakhstan and culminated in Timur's mausoleum Gur-e Amir in Samarkand. The style is largely derived

from Persian architecture. Axial symmetry is a characteristic of all major Timurid structures, notably the Shah-e Zendah in Samarkand and the mosque of Gowhar Shad in Meshed. Double domes of various shapes abound, and the outsides are perfused with brilliant colors.

_loop configuration

_loop Navigation the religious religious and and political political role role of of the the Fatimid Fatimid caliph. Besides Besides elaborate elaborate funerary funerary monuments, monuments, other other surviving surviving Fatimid Fatimid the caliph.

with extensive decorations, was transformed by the Otto-

I managed to develop a variable organizationwithin a gradient

ture and and architectural architectural decoration, decoration, played played aa critical critical role role inin Fatimid Fatimid ceremonial ceremonial and and procession, procession, which which emphasized emphasized ture

_loop configuration _loop Navigation

Rüstem Pasha Mosque.


In the second half of the fifteenth century, the arts thrived under the patronage of Qa’itbay (r. 1468–96), the greatest of the later Mamluk sultans. During his reign, the shrines of Mecca and Medina were extensively restored. Major cities The reign of Baybars's ally and successor, Qala’un (r.

were endowed with commercial buildings, religious foundations, and bridges. In Cairo, the complex of Qa’itbay in

1280–90), initiated the patronagecharacteristic of public and pious foundaNorthern Cemetery (1472–74) is the best known and admired structure of this period. Building continued under One interesting to note aboutthe a drag-

onflymadrasas, wing is that there minarets, are several different kinds of tions that included mausolea, and hospithe last Mamluk sultan, Qansuh al-Ghawri (r. 1501–17), who commissioned his own complex (1503–5); however, patterns present in the wing vein framework.

tals. Such endowed complexes not only ensured the survival

construction methods reflected the finances of the state. Though the Mamluk realm was soon incorporated into the

The leading edge consists of the patron's wealth but also perpetuated his primarily name, bothofof rectangular Ottoman empire (1517), Mamluk visual culture continued to inspire Ottoman and other Islamic artistic traditions. frames whereas the trailing surface is largel formed

which were endangered by legal problems relating to inheri-

of hexagons and some other polygons with more

than 4 sides. tance and confiscation of family fortunes. Besides Qala’un's




Another distinctive distinctive sub-style sub-style isis the the architecture architecture of of the the Mughal Mughal Empire Empire in in India India in in the the 16th 16th cencenAnother tury and and aa fusion fusion of of Arabic, Arabic, Persian Persian and and Hindu Hindu elements. elements. The The Mughal Mughal emperor emperor Akbar Akbar concontury

complex, other important commissions by Bahri Mamluk

Another notable characteristic of wing structure is

structed the the royal royal city city of of Fatehpur Fatehpur Sikri, Sikri, located located 26 26 miles miles west west of of Agra, Agra, in in the the late late 1500s. 1500s. structed

sultans includethe those of al-Nasir Muhammad (1295–1304) three-dimensional structure presentasin the Thewing. first Chinese mosque was

Although from most photographs of wings, they may

well as the immense and splendid complex of Hasan (begun

established in the 7th century dur-

appear to lay on a flat plane, in actuality the wings

The most most famous famous example example of of Mughal Mughal architecture architecture isis the the Taj Taj Mahal, Mahal, the the "teardrop "teardrop on on eternity," eternity," The

are full of three dimensional relief.1356). One example of Dynasty in Xi'an. The ing the Tang

completed in in 1648 1648 by by the the emperor emperor Shah Shah Jahan Jahan in in memory memory of of his his wife wife Mumtaz Mumtaz Mahal Mahal who who completed

this, as mentioned before is in the leading edge.

Great Mosque of Xi'an, whose

died while while giving giving birth birth to to their their 14th 14th child. child. The The extensive extensive use use of of precious precious and and semiprecious semiprecious died

current buildings date from the Ming Dynasty, does not replicate

stones as as inlay inlay and and the the vast vast quantity quantity of of white white marble marble required required nearly nearly bankrupted bankrupted the the empire. empire. stones

_loop Navigation

many of the features often as-

The Taj Taj Mahal Mahal isis completely completely symmetric symmetric other other than than the the sarcophagus sarcophagus of of Shah Shah Jahan Jahan which which isis The placed off off center center in in the the crypt crypt room room below below the the main main floor. floor. This This symmetry symmetry extended extended to to the the buildbuildplaced

sociated with traditional mosques.

ing of of an an entire entire mirror mirror mosque mosque in in red red sandstone sandstone to to complement complement the the Mecca-facing Mecca-facing mosque mosque ing

Instead, it follows traditional Chi-

place to to the the west west of of the the main main structure. structure. Another Another structure structure built built that that showed showed great great depth depth of of place

nese architecture. Some Chinese

mughal influence influence was was the the Shalimar Shalimar Gardens. Gardens. mughal

mosques in parts of western China were more likely to incor-

_loop to loop 3D

porate minarets and domes while eastern Chinese mosques were more likely to look like pagodas.[8] Costa

triangle/ supertriangle Subcosta Radius

(levers trailing edge downward)


(provides stress relief)

(1250-1517 (1250-1517 AD) AD) marked marked aa breathtaking breathtaking flowerflowering ing of of Islamic Islamic art art which which isis most most visible visible in in old old CaiCairo. ro. Religious Religious zeal zeal made made them them generous generous patrons patrons of of architecture architecture and and art. art. Trade Trade and and agriculture agriculture flourished flourished under under Mamluk Mamluk rule, rule, and and Cairo, Cairo, their their The Burji Mamluk sultans followed the artistic traditions established by their Bahri predecessors. Mamluk textiles and carpets were prized in international trade. In architecture, endowed public and pious foundations continued to be

capital, capital, became became one one of of the the wealthiest wealthiest cities cities in in the the Near Near East East and and the the center center of of artistic artistic and and intellectual intellectual activity. activity.

favored. Major commissions in the early Burji period in Egypt included the comThis This made made Cairo, Cairo, in in the the words words of of Ibn Ibn Khaldun, Khaldun,

In the eastern Mediterranean provinces, the lucrative trade in textiles between Iran

"the "the center center of of the the universe universe and and the the garden garden of of

and Europe helped revive the economy. Also significant was the commercial activity

the greatest of the later Mamluk sultans. During

the the world", world", with with majestic majestic domes, domes, courtyards, courtyards,

of pilgrims en route to Mecca and Medina. Large warehouses,

his reign, the shrines of Mecca and Medina were

and and soaring soaring minarets minarets spread spread across across the the city. city.

extensively restored. Major cities were endowed

The The Mamluk Mamluk utilized utilized chiaroscuro chiaroscuro and and dappled dappled

such as the Khan al-Qadi (1441), were erected to satisfy the surge in trade. Other

with commercial buildings, religious foundations,

light light effects effects in in their their buildings. buildings. Mamluk Mamluk history history

public foundations in the region included the mosques of Aqbugha al-Utrush

and bridges. In Cairo, the complex of Qa’itbay in the

isis divided divided into into two two periods periods based based on on different different

(Aleppo, 1399–1410) and Sabun (Damascus, 1464) as well as the Madrasa Jaq-

In the second half of the fifteenth century, the arts plexes built by Barquq (r. 1382–99), Faraj (r. 1399–1412), Mu’ayyad Shaykh (r.


thrived under the patronage of Qa’itbay (r. 1468–96),

Northern Cemetery (1472–74) is the best known

1412–21), and Barsbay (r. 1422–38).

dynastic dynastic lines: lines: the the Bahri Bahri Mamluks Mamluks (1250–1382) (1250–1382) maqiyya (Damascus, 1421).

and admired structure of this period. Building contin-

of of Qipchaq Qipchaq Turkic Turkic origin origin from from southern southern Russia, Russia,

ued under the last Mamluk sultan, Qansuh al-Ghawri

named named after after the the location location of of their their barracks barracks on on

(r. 1501–17), who commissioned his own complex

the the Nile Nile and and the the Burji Burji Mamluks Mamluks (1382–1517) (1382–1517) of of

(1503–5); however, construction methods reflected

Caucasian Caucasian Circassian Circassian origin, origin, who who were were quarquar-

the finances of the state. Though the Mamluk realm

tered tered in in the the citadel. citadel.

was soon incorporated into the Ottoman empire


(1517), Mamluk visual culture continued to inspire

The The Bahri Bahri reign reign defined defined the the art art and and architecture architecture

Ottoman and other Islamic artistic traditions.

of of the the entire entire Mamluk Mamluk period. period. Mamluk Mamluk decorative decorative arts—especially arts—especially enameled enameled and and gilded gilded glass, glass, inlaid inlaid metalwork, metalwork, woodwork, woodwork, and and textiles—were textiles—were prized prized around around the the Mediterranean Mediterranean as as well well as as in in Europe, Europe, where where they they had had aa profound profound impact impact on on local local production. production. The The influence influence of of Mamluk Mamluk

An important feature in Chinese architecture is its emphasis on symmetry, which connotes a sense of grandeur; this applies to everything from palaces to mosques. One notable exception is in the design of gardens, which tends to be as asymmetrical as possible. Like Chinese scroll paintings, the principle underlying the garden's composition is to create enduring flow; to let the patron wander and enjoy the garden without Chinese buildings may be built with either red or grey prescription, as in nature herself. bricks, but wooden structures are the most common; these are more capable of withstanding earthquakes, but are vulnerable to fire. The roof of a typical Chinese building is curved; there are strict classifications of gable types, comparable with the classical orders of European columns.

Most mosques have certain aspects in common with each other however as with other regions Chinese Islamic architecture reflects the local architecture in its style. China is renowned for its beautiful mosques, which resemble temples. However in western China the mosques resemble those of the Middle East, with tall, slender minarets, curvy arches and dome shaped roofs.


In West Africa, Islamic merchants played a vital role in the Western Sahel region since the

In northwest China where the Chinese Hui have built their

Kingdom of Ghana. At Kumbi Saleh, locals lived in domed-shaped dwellings in the king's

mosques, there is a combination of eastern and western

Modern Islamic architecture has recently been taken on to a whole new level with such buildings being erected such as the

section of the city, surrounded by a great enclosure.

styles. The mosques have flared Buddhist style roofs set

Burj Dubai, which is soon to be the world’s tallest building. The Burj Dubai’s design is derived from the patterning systems

in walled courtyards entered thr ough archways with min-

embodied in Islamic architecture, with the triple-lobed footprint of the building based on an abstracted version of the desert

iature domes and minarets (see Beytullah Mosque).[9]

flower hymenocallis which is native to the Dubai region.

Traders lived in stone houses in a section which possessed 12 beautiful mosques (as described by al-bakri), one centered on Friday prayer. [10] The king is said to have owned several mansions, one of which was sixty-six feet long, forty-two feet wide, contained seven rooms, was two stories high, and had a staircase; with the walls and chambers filled with sculpture and painting.[11] Sahelian architecture initially grew from the two cities of Djenné and Timbuktu. The Sankore Mosque in Timbuktu, constructed from mud on timber, was similar in style to the Great Mosque of Djenné.

Nature and flowers have often been the focal point in most traditional Islamic designs. Many modern interpretations of Islamic architecture can be found in Dubai due to the architectural boom of the Middle East. Yet to be built is Madinat al-Hareer in


An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques and Muslim homes and buildings, the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants, shapes and sometimes animals (specifically birds). The choice of which geometric forms are to be used and how they are to be formatted is based upon the Islamic view of the world. To Muslims, these forms, taken together, constitute an infinite pattern that extends beyond the visible material world.

To many in the Islamic world, they in fact symbolize the infinite, and therefore uncentralized, nature of the creation of the one God (Allah). Furthermore, the Islamic Arabesque artist conveys a definite spirituality without the iconography of Christian Christian art. art. Arabesque Arabesque is is used used in in mosques mosques and and building building around around the the Muslim Muslim world, world, and and itit is is aa way way of of decorating decorating using using Almostevery everymosque mosqueand andtraditionally traditionallyallallhouses houses beautiful, embellishing and repetitive Islamic art instead of using pictures of humans and animals (which is forbidden Almost andbuildings buildingsininareas areasofofthe theArab ArabWorld Worldcontain containaa Haram in Islam). and courtyardknown knownas asaasahn sahn(Arabic (Arabic‫)نحص‬, ‫)نحص‬,which whichare are courtyard surroundedon onallallsides sidesby byrooms roomsand andsometimes sometimesan an surrounded arcade.Sahns Sahnsusually usuallyfeature featureaacentrally centrallypositioned positioned arcade. poolknown knownas asaahowz. howz. pool

ALWAYS READ THE LABEL sahnisisininaamosque, mosque,ititisisused usedfor forperforming performing IfIfaasahn

ablutions.IfIfaasahn sahnisisininaatraditional traditionalhouse houseororprivate private ablutions.

courtyard,ititisisused usedfor foraesthetics aestheticsand andtotocool coolthe the courtyard,

summerheat. heat. summer

_ Contribution to the urban network

An iwan iwan (Persian (Persian ‫ناويا‬ ‫ ناويا‬derived derived from from Pahlavi Pahlavi word word Bān Bān meaning meaning house) house) is is defined defined as as aa vaulted vaulted hall hall or or space, space, walled walled on on three three sides, sides, with with one one end end entirely entirely open. open. An

_ Creating a full preformance of the whole to create 1 thing.

_ Auditoria that can house a full rage of large activities

Iwans were were aa trademark trademark of of the the Sassanid Sassanid architecture architecture of of Persia, Persia, later later finding finding their their way way into into Islamic Islamic architecture. architecture. This This transition transition reached reached its its peak peak during during the the Seljuki Seljuki era era when when iwans iwans became became established established as as aa fundamental fundamental design design unit unit in in Islamic Islamic Iwans

_ Flamenco School and plastics

_ Centre Square that is works as and attraction pole to the neighboorhood

architecture. Typically, Typically, iwans iwans open open on on to to aa central central courtyard, courtyard, and and have have been been used used in in both both public public and and residential residential architecture. architecture. architecture.

_ Creating networking between several open spaces whtin the distrect _Create bars and tablaos to create an urban atmosphere

Iwan mosques mosques are are most most notable notable for for their their domed domed chambers chambers and iwans, which which are are vaulted vaulted spaces spaces open open out out on on one one end. end. In In iwan iwan mosques, mosques, one one or or more more iwans iwans face face aa central central courtyard courtyard that that serves serves as as the the prayer prayer hall. hall. The The style style represents represents aa Iwan . and iwans, borrowing from from pre-Islamic pre-Islamic Iranian Iranian architecture architecture and and has has been been used used almost almost exclusively exclusively for for mosques mosques in in Iran. Iran. Many Many iwan iwan mosques mosques are are converted converted Zoroastrian Zoroastrian fire fire temples temples where where the the courtyard courtyard was was used used to to house house the the sacred sacred fire.[12] fire.[12] Today, Today, iwan iwan borrowing mosques are are seldom seldom built.[14] built.[14] A A notable notable example example of of aa more more recent recent four four iwan iwan design design is is the the King King Saud Saud Mosque Mosque in in Jeddah, Jeddah, Saudi Saudi Arabia, Arabia, finished finished in in 1987. 1987. mosques

Common Common interpretations interpretations of of Islamic Islamic architecture architecture include include the the followfollowing: ing: The The concept concept of of Allah's Allah's infinite infinite power power isis evoked evoked by by designs designs with with repeating repeating themes themes which which suggest suggest infinity. infinity. Human Human and and animal animal forms forms are are rarely rarely depicted depicted inin decorative decorative art art as as Allah's Allah's work work isis considered considered to to be be matchless. matchless. Foliage Foliage isis aa frequent frequent motif motif but but typically typically stylized stylized or or simplified simplified for for the the same same reason. reason.

Arabic Arabic Calligraphy Calligraphy isis used used to to enhance enhance the the interior interior of of aa building building by by Many forms of Islamic architecture have evolved in different regions of the Islamic world. Notable Islamic architectural types include the early Abbasid buildings, T-type mosques, and the central-dome mosques of from providing providing quotations quotations from the the Qur'an. Qur'an. Islamic Islamic architecture architecture has has been been Anatolia. The oil-wealth of the 20th century drove a great deal of mosque construction using designs from leadingcalled modern called the thearchitects. "architecture "architecture of of the the veil" veil" because because the the beauty beauty lies lies inin the the inner inner spaces spaces (courtyards (courtyards and and rooms) rooms) which which are are not not visible visible from from Arab-plan or hypostyle mosques are the earliest type of mosques, pioneered under the Umayyad Dynasty. These mosques are square or rectangular in plan with an enclosed courtyard and covered prayer the theaoutside outside (street (street view). view). Furthermore, Furthermore, the the use use of of grandiose grandiose forms forms hall. Historically, because of the warm Mediterranean and Middle Eastern climates, the courtyard served to accommodate the large number of worshipers during prayers. such such Friday as as large large domes, domes, towering towering minarets, minarets, and and large large courtyards courtyards are are intended intended to to convey convey power. power. Most early hypostyle mosques have flat roofs on top of prayer halls, necessitating the use of numerous columns and supports.[12] One of the most notable hypostyle mosques is the Mezquita in C贸rdoba,


Spain, as the building is supported by over 850 columns.[13] Frequently, hypostyle mosques have outer arcades so that visitors can enjoy some shade. Arab-plan mosques were constructed mostly under the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties; subsequently, however, the simplicity of the Arab plan limited the opportunities for further development, and as a result, these mosques gradually fell out of popularity.

The Ottomans introduced central dome mosques in the 15th century and have a large dome centered over the prayer hall. In addition to having one large dome at the center, there are often smaller domes that exist off-center over the prayer hall or throughout the rest of the mosque, where prayer is not performed.[14] This style was heavily influenced by the Byzantine religious architecture with its use of large central domes.[12]

Arabic calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art (the Neo-Moorish Neo-Moorish isis one one of of the the exotic exotic revival revival architectural architectural Arabesque) on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on styles styles that that were were adopted adopted by by architects architects of of Europe Europe and and


the page. Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the the the Americas Americas inin the the wake wake of of the the Romanticist Romanticist fascinafascinaheritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions tion tion with with all all things things oriental. oriental. ItIt reached reached the the height height of of its its in their work. popularity popularity after after the the mid-nineteenth mid-nineteenth century, century, part part of of aa widening widening vocabulary vocabulary of of articulated articulated decorative decorative ornaorna-

Instead of recalling something related to the reality of the spoken ment ment beyond beyond classical classical and and Gothic Gothic modes. modes. Little Little disdisword, calligraphy for the Muslim is a visible expression of spiritual tinction tinction was was made made inin European European and and American American practice practice concepts. Calligraphy has arguably become the most venerated between between motifs motifs drawn drawn from from Ottoman Ottoman Turkey Turkey or or from from form of Islamic art because it provides a link between the languag- Andalusia. Andalusia. es of the Muslims with the religion of Islam. The holy book of Islam,

al-Qur'ト], has played a vital role in the development of the Arabic language, and by extension, calligraphy in the Arabic alphabet. Proverbs and complete passages from the Qur'an are still active sources for Islamic calligraphy.

The "Moorish" garden structures built at Sheringham, Norfolk, ca. 1812, were an unusual touch at the time, a parallel to chinoiserie, but as early as 1826, Edward Blore used islamic arches, domes of various size and shapes and other details of Near Eastern Islamic architecture to great effect in his design for Alupka Palace in Crimea, a cultural setting that had already been penetrated by authentic Ottoman styles. By the mid-19th century, the style was adopted by the Jews of Central Europe, who associated mudejar architectural forms with the golden age of Jewry in medieval Muslim Spain. As a consequence, Moorish Revival spread around the globe as a preferred style of synagogue architecture.

Although Although Carlo Carlo Bugatti Bugatti employed employed Moorish Moorish arcading arcading among among the the exotic exotic features features of of his his furniture, furniture, shown shown at at the the 1902 1902 exhibition exhibition at at Turin, Turin, by by that that time time the the Moorish Moorish Revival Revival was was very very much much on on the the wane wane everywhere everywhere but but Imperial Imperial Russia, Russia, where where the the shell-encrusted shell-encrusted Morozov Morozov House House in in Moscow Moscow (a (a stylisation stylisation of of aa Portuguese Portuguese palace palace in in Sintra) Sintra) and and the the NeoNeoMameluk Mameluk palaces palaces of of Koreiz Koreiz exemplify exemplify the the continuing continuing development development of of the the style, style, and and in in Bosnia, Bosnia, where where the the Austrian Austrian government government commissioned commissioned aa range range of of Neo-Moorish Neo-Moorish structures. structures.

This This included included application application of of ornamentations ornamentations and and other other Moorish Moorish design design strategies strategies neither neither of of which which had had much much to to do do with with prior prior architectural architectural direction direction of of indigenous indigenous Bosnian Bosnian architecture. architecture. Post Post office office in in Sarajevo Sarajevo for for example example follows follows disdis-


tinct formal characteristics of design like clarity of form, symmetry, and proportion while the interior followed the same

In the United States, Washington Irving's travel sketch, Tales of the Alhambra

(1832) first brought Moorish Andalusia into readers' imaginations; one of the first neo-Moorish structures was Iranistan, a mansion of P. T. Barnum in Bridgeport,

Connecticut. Constructed in 1848 and demolished by fire ten years later, this architectural extravaganza "sprouted bulbous domes and horseshoe arches".[1] In the 1860s, the style spread across America, with Olana, the painter Frederic Edwin Church's house overlooking the Hudson River, Castle Garden in Jacksonville and Nutt's Folly in Natchez, Mississippi usually cited among the more prominent examples. After the American Civil War, Moorish or Turkish smoking rooms achieved some popularity.

There were Moorish details in the interiors created for the Havemeyer residence on Fifth Avenue by Louis Comfort Tiffany. In 1937 the Corn Palace in Mitchell, South Dakota added minarets and Moorish domes that are unusual because the polychrome decorations are made out of corn cobs of various colors assembled as mosaic tiles are to create patterns.

The 1891 Tampa Bay Hotel, whose minarets and Moorish domes are now the pride of the University of Tampa, was a particularly extravagant example of the style. Other schools with Moorish Revival buildings include Yeshiva University in New York City.

doctrine. Library in Sarajevo is an example example of of Pseudo Pseudo Moorish Moorish architectural architectural language language using using decorations decorations and and pointed pointed arches while still integrating other formal formal elements elements into into the the design. design.

From the 15th to the 19th century, "Pattern books" were published


in Europe which gave access to decorative elements recorded from cultures all over the world. Napoleon documented the great pyramids and temples of Egypt in the Description de l'Egypte (1809). Owen Jones published The Grammar of Ornament in 1856 with colored

illustrations of decoration from Egypt, Turkey, Sicily and Spain. He took residence in the Alhambra Palace to make drawings and plaster castings of the ornate details. Interest in classical architecture was also fueled by the tradition of traveling on The Grand Tour, and translation of early literature about architecture in the work of Vitruvius and


During the 19th century, the acceptable use of ornament, and its precise definition became the source of aesthetic controversy in academic Western architecture, as architects and their critics searched for a suitable style. "The great question is," Thomas Leverton Donaldson asked in 1847, "are we to have an architecture of our period, a

InIn Spain, Spain, the the country country conceived conceived as as the the place place of of origin origin of of Moorish Moorish ornaornamentation, mentation, the the interest interest inin this this sort sort of of architecture architecture fluctuated fluctuated from from provprovince ince to to province. province. The The main main stream stream was was called called Neo-Mudéjar. Neo-Mudéjar.

distinct, individual, palpable style of the 19th century?" [2]. In 1849, when Matthew Digby Wyatt viewed the French Industrial Exposition set up on the Champs-Elysées in Paris, he disapproved in recogniz-

InIn Catalonia, Catalonia, Antoni Antoni Gaudí's Gaudí's profound profound interest interest inin Mudéjar Mudéjar heritage heritage govgoverned erned the the design design of of his his early early works, works, such such as as Casa Casa Vicens Vicens or or Astorga Astorga Palace. Palace. InIn Andalusia, Andalusia, the the Neo-Mudéjar Neo-Mudéjar style style gained gained belated belated popularity popularity inin connection connection with with the the Ibero-American Ibero-American Exposition Exposition of of 1929 1929 and and was was epitomized epitomized by by Plaza Plaza de de España España (Seville) (Seville) and and Gran Gran Teatro Teatro Falla Falla inin Cádiz. Cádiz. InIn Madrid. Madrid.

the the Neo-Mudéjar Neo-Mudéjar was was aa characteristic characteristic style style of of housing housing and and public public buildbuildings ings at at the the turn turn of of the the century, century, while while the the 1920s 1920s return return of of interest interest to to the the style style resulted resulted inin such such buildings buildings as as Las Las Ventas Ventas bull bull ring ring and and Diario Diario ABC ABC office. office.

A more radical route abandoned the use of ornament altogether, as in some designs for objects by Christopher Dresser. At the time, such unornamented objects could have been found in many unpretending workaday items of industrial design, ceramics produced at the Arabia manufactory in Finland, for instance, or the glass insulators of electric lines.

This latter approach was described by architect Adolf Loos in his 1908 manifesto, translated into English in 1913 and polemically titled Ornament and Crime, in which he declared that lack of decoration is the sign of an advanced society. His argument was that ornament is economically inefficient and "morally degenerate", and that reducing ornament was a sign of progress. Modernists were eager to point to American architect Louis Sullivan as their godfather in the cause of aesthetic simplification, dismissing the knots of intricately patterned ornament that articulated the skin of his structures.

,, conceived conceived of of as as the the elimination elimination of of ornament ornament inin favor favor of of purely purely functional functional structures, structures, left left architects architects the the problem problem of of how how to to properly properly adorn adorn modern modern structures.[4] structures.[4]

There There were were two two available available routes routes from from this this perceived perceived crisis. crisis. With the work of Le Corbusier and the Bauhaus through the 1920s and 1930s, lack of decorative detail became a hallmark of modern architecture and equated with the moral virtues of honesty, simplicity, and purity. In 1932 Philip Johnson and Henry-Russell Hitchcock dubbed this the "International Style". What began as a matter of taste was transformed into an aesthetic mandate. Modernists One One was was to to attempt attempt to to devise devise an an ornamental ornamental vocabulary vocabulary declared their way as the only acceptable way to build. As the style hit its stride in the highly-developed postwar work of Mies van der Rohe, the tenets of 1950s modernism became so strict that even that that was was new new and and essentially essentially contemporary. contemporary. This This was was accomplished architects like Edward Durrell Stone and Eero Saarinen could be ridiculed and effectively ostracized for departing from the aesthetic rules.[citation needed] the the route route taken taken by by architects architects like like Louis Louis Sullivan Sullivan and and his his pupil pupil Frank Frank Lloyd Lloyd Wright, Wright, or or by by the the unique unique Antoni Antoni GaudĂ­. GaudĂ­. At the same time, the unwritten laws against ornament began to come into serious question. "Architecture has, with some difficulty, liberated itself from ornament, but it has not liberated itself from the Art Art Nouveau, Nouveau, for for all all its its excesses, excesses, was was aa conscious conscious effort effort fear of ornament," Summerson observed in 1941. to to evolve evolve such such aa "natural" "natural" vocabulary vocabulary of of ornament. ornament.


One reason was that the very difference between ornament and structure is subtle and perhaps arbitrary. The pointed arches and flying buttresses of Gothic architecture are ornamental but structurally necessary; the colorful rhythmic bands of a Pietro Belluschi International Style skyscraper are integral, not applied, but certainly have ornamental effect. Furthermore, architectural ornament can serve the

practical purpose of establishing scale, signaling entries, and aiding wayfinding, and these useful design tactics had been outlawed. And by the mid-1950s, modernist figureheads Le Corbusier and

Marcel Breuer had been breaking their own rules by producing highly expressive, sculptural concrete work.

Modernism Modernism describes describes an an array array of of cultural cultural movements movements rooted rooted inin the the changes changes inin Western Western society society inin the the late late nineteenth nineteenth and and early early twentieth twentieth century. century. The The term term covers covers aa series series of of reforming reforming movements movements inin art, art,

environment, environment, with with the the aid aid of of scientific scientific knowledge, knowledge, technology technology or or practical practical experimentation.[1] experimentation.[1] ModernModern-

The continue relation from loop to loop appear as an inEmbracing change change and and the the present, present, modernmodernteresting way to link space Embracing and navigation strategies. ism encompasses encompasses the the works works of of thinkers thinkers who who ism

ism ism encouraged encouraged the the re-examination re-examination of of every every aspect aspect of of existence, existence, from from commerce commerce to to philosophy, philosophy, with with

rebelled against against nineteenth nineteenth century century academic academic rebelled

the the goal goal of of finding finding that that which which was was 'holding 'holding back' back' progress, progress, and and replacing replacing itit with with new, new, progressive progressive and and

and historicist historicist traditions, traditions, believing believing the the "tradition"traditionand

therefore therefore better, better, ways ways of of reaching reaching the the same same end. end.

al" forms forms of of art, art, architecture, architecture, literature, literature, religious religious al"

architecture, architecture, music, music, literature literature and and the the applied applied arts arts which which emerged emerged during during this this period. period.

ItIt isis aa trend trend of of thought thought that that affirms affirms the the power power of of human human beings beings to to create, create, improve, improve, and and reshape reshape their their

faith, social social organization organization and and daily daily life life were were faith, becoming outdated; outdated; they they directly directly confronted confronted becoming the new new economic, economic, social social and and political political condicondithe tions of of an an emerging emerging fully fully industrialized industrialized world. world. tions Some divide divide the the 20th 20th Century Century into into movements movements Some designated Modernism Modernism and and Postmodernism, Postmodernism, designated whereas others others see see them them as as two two aspects aspects of of whereas the same same movement. movement. the

The first half of the nineteenth century for Europe was marked by a number of wars and revolutions, which reveal the rise of the ideas and doctrines now identified as Romanticism: emphasis on individual subjective experience, the sublime, the supremacy of "Nature" as a subject for art, revolutionary or radical extensions of expression, and individual liberty.

By mid-century, however, a synthesis of these ideas with stable governing forms had emerged, partly in reaction to the failed Romantic and demo-

Central Central to to this this synthesis synthesis were were common common assumptions assumptions and and institutional institutional frames frames of of reference, reference, including including the the religious religious norms found found in in Christianity, Christianity, scientific scientific norms norms found found in in classiclassinorms

cratic Revolutions of 1848. It was exemplified by

cal physics, physics, especially especially electromagnetism, electromagnetism, and and doctrines doctrines that that cal

Otto von Bismarck's Realpolitik and by "practical"

asserted that that the the depiction depiction of of external external reality reality from from an an objecobjecasserted


philosophical ideas such as positivism.

tive standpoint standpoint was was not not only only possible possible but but desirable. desirable. Cultural Cultural tive critics and and historians historians label label this this set set of of doctrines doctrines Realism, Realism, critics

Called by various names—in Great Britain it is

though this this term term isis not not universal. universal. In In philosophy, philosophy, the the rationalist, rationalist, though

designated the "Victorian era"—this stabilizing syn-

materialist and and positivist positivist movements movements established established aa primacy primacy of of materialist

thesis was rooted in the idea that reality dominates

reason reason and and system. system.

over impressions that are subjective. Against the the current current ran ran aa series series of of ideas, ideas, some some of of them them Against direct continuations continuations of of Romantic Romantic schools schools of of thought. thought. Notable Notable direct were the the agrarian agrarian and and revivalist revivalist movements movements in in plastic plastic arts arts were and poetry poetry (e.g. (e.g. the the Pre-Raphaelite Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood Brotherhood and and the the and philosopher philosopher John John Ruskin). Ruskin). Rationalism Rationalism also also drew drew responses responses from from the the anti-rationalists anti-rationalists in in philosophy. philosophy. In In particular, particular, Hegel's Hegel's dialectic dialectic view view of of civilization civilization and and history history drew drew responses responses from from Friedrich Friedrich Nietzsche Nietzsche and and Søren Søren Kierkegaard, Kierkegaard, who who were were major major influences influences on on Existentialism. Existentialism. All All of of these these separate separate reactions reactions together together began began to to be be seen seen as as offering offering aa challenge challenge to to any any

Cádiz Cádiz isis aa city city and and port port in in southwestern southwestern Spain. Spain. ItIt isis the the capital capital of of the the province province of of the the same same name, name, aa province province which which is one of eight comprising prising the the autonomous autonomous community community of of Andalusia. Andalusia.

Cádiz, Cádiz, the the oldest oldest continuously-inhabited continuously-inhabited city city in in western western Europe, Europe, has has been been aa principal principal home home port port of of the the Spanish Spanish Navy Navy since since the the accession accession of of the the Spanish Spanish Bourbons Bourbons in in the the 18th 18th century. century. ItIt isis also also the the site site of of the the University University of of Cádiz. Cádiz.


Its Its peculiar peculiar location location at at the the end end of of aa narrow narrow isthmus isthmus protruding protruding into into the the Bay Bay of of Cádiz Cádiz lends lends added added charm charm to to this this ancient ancient city. city. In In actualactual-

ity, ity, Cádiz Cádiz isis on on an an island island which which isis separated separated from from the the mainland mainland by by aa larger larger island, island, the the Isla Isla de de Léon; Léon; thus, thus, to to reach reach the the mainland mainland from from

Cádiz, Cádiz, itit isis necessary necessary to to cross cross aa narrow narrow channel channel to to the the low-lying low-lying Isla Isla de de Léon, Léon, before before crossing crossing another another narrow narrow channel channel to to the the mainland. mainland.

This This geographical geographical circumstance circumstance has has played, played, time time and and again, again, aa signifisignifi-

cant cant part part in in the the city's city's history, history, commerce, commerce, and and culture. culture.

Despite its unique site, Cadiz is, in most respects, a typically Andalusian city with a wealth of attractive vistas and well-preserved historical landmarks. The older part of Cádiz, within the remnants of the city walls, is commonly referred to as the Old

Isolated Isolated behind behind its its high high thick thick medieval medieval walls walls on on its its improbable improbable site site in in

City (in Spanish, Casco Antiguo). It is characterized by the antiquity of its various

the the middle middle of of the the bay, bay, Cádiz, Cádiz, on on approach approach from from the the sea, sea, presents presents aa

quarters (barrios), among them El Populo,

dramatic dramatic and and aesthetically aesthetically appealing appealing La Viña, and Santa Maria, which present a marked contrast to the newer areas of town. While the Old City's street plan consists largely of narrow winding alleys connecting large plazas, newer areas of Cádiz typically have wide avenues and more modern buildings. In addition, the city is dotted by numerous parks where exotic plants, including giant trees supposedly brought to Spain by Columbus, flourish.

Spanish and and Italian Italian share share aa very very similar similar phonological phonological system system and and do do not not differ differ very very much much inin grammar. grammar. At At present, present, the the lexical lexical similarity similarity with with Italian Italian Spanish estimatedatat82%.[8] 82%.[8]As Asa aresult, result,Spanish Spanishand andItalian Italianare aremutually mutuallyintelligible intelligibletotovarious variousdegrees. degrees.The Thelexical lexicalsimilarity similaritywith withPortuguese Portugueseisiseven even isisestimated


greater, 89%, vagaries of Portuguese pronunciation make it less easily understood Hispanophones than Italian. Mutual intelligibility greater, 89%, butbut thethe vagaries of Portuguese pronunciation make it less easily understood by by Hispanophones than Italian. Mutual intelligibility betweenSpanish Spanishand andFrench FrenchororRomanian Romanianisiseven evenlower lower(lexical (lexicalsimilarity similaritybeing beingrespectively respectively75% 75%and and71%[8]): 71%[8]):comprehension comprehensionofofSpanish Spanishbyby between

Ladino, which is essentially medieval Spanish and closer to

French speakers who have studied language is as estimated 45% - the same of English. common features of the French speakers who have notnot studied thethe language is as lowlow as as an an estimated 45% - the same as as of English. TheThe common features of the

modern Spanish than any other language, is spoken by many

writingsystems systemsofofthe theRomance Romancelanguages languagesallow allowforfora agreater greateramount amountofofinterlingual interlingualreading readingcomprehension comprehensionthan thanoral oralcommunication communicationwould. would. writing

descendants of the Sephardi Jews who were expelled from

Spanish evolved from Vulgar Latin, with minor influ-

Spain in the 15th century. Ladino speakers are currently almost

ences from Arabic during the Andalusian period and

exclusively Sephardi Jews, with family roots in Turkey, Greece

from Basque and Celtiberian, and some Germanic

or the Balkans: current speakers mostly live in Israel and Turkey,

languages via the Visigoths. Spanish developed

with a few pockets in Latin America. In many ways it is not a

along the remote cross road strips among the Alava,

separate language but a parallel dialect of Castilian. It lacks the

Cantabria, Burgos, Soria and La Rioja provinces of

Native American vocabulary which was influential during the

Northern Spain, as a strongly innovative and differing

Spanish colonial period, and it retains many archaic features

variant from its nearest cousin, Leonese speech, with

which have since been lost in standard Spanish. It contains,

a higher degree of Basque influence in these regions

however, other vocabulary which is not found in standard Castil-

(see Iberian Romance languages).

ian, including vocabulary from Hebrew, some French, Greek and Turkish, and other languages spoken where the Sephardim

Typical features of Spanish diachronical phonology


include lenition (Latin vita, Spanish vida), palatalization (Latin annum, Spanish a単o, and Latin anellum, Span-

Ladino is in serious danger of extinction because many native

ish anillo) and diphthongation (stem-changing) of short

speakers today are elderly as well as elderly olim (immigrants to

e and o from Vulgar Latin (Latin terra, Spanish tierra;

Israel) who have not transmitted the language to their children or

Latin novus, Spanish nuevo). Similar phenomena can

grandchildren. However, it is experiencing a minor revival among

be found in other Romance languages as well.

Sephardi communities, especially in music. In the case of the Latin American communities, the danger of extinction is also

Among Among the the causes causes of of this this loss loss of of population population isis the the peculiar peculiar geography geography of of Cádiz; Cádiz; the the city city lies lies on on aa narrow narrow spit spit of of land land hemmed hemmed inin by by the the sea. sea. Consequently, Consequently, there there isis aa pronounced pronounced shortage shortage of of buildable buildable land. land. The The city city has has very very little little vacant vacant land, land, and and aa high high proportion proportion of of its its housing housing stock stock isis relatively relatively low low inin density. density. (That (That isis to to say, say, many many buildings buildings are are only only two two or or three three stories stories tall, tall, and and they they are are only only able able to to house house aa relatively relatively small small number number of of people people within within their their "footprint".) "footprint".)

The The older older quarters quarters of of Cádiz Cádiz are are full full of of buildings buildings that, that, because because of of their their age age and and historical historical significance, significance, are are not not eligible eligible for for urban urban rerenewal. newal. Replacement Replacement of of these these old old buildings buildings with with high-density high-density apartment apartment projects projects would would allow allow Cádiz Cádiz to to sustain sustain aa higher higher population. population.


According According to to aa 2006 2006 census census estimate, estimate, the the population population of of Cádiz Cádiz proper proper was was 130,561, 130,561, and and the the population population of of the the entire entire metropolitan metropolitan area area was was estimated estimated to to be be 629,054. 629,054. Cádiz Cádiz isis the the seventeenth seventeenth largest largest Spanish Spanish city. city. However, However, inin recent recent years, years, the the city city has has been been steadily steadily losing losing population; population;

itit isis the the only only municipality municipality of of the the Bay Bay of of Cádiz Cádiz (the (the comarca comarca composed composed of of Cádiz, Cádiz, Chiclana, Chiclana, ElEl Puerto Puerto de de Santa Santa María, María, Puerto Puerto Real, Real, and and San San Fernando), Fernando), whose whose population population has has didiGadir (in Phoenician: ‫)רדג‬, the original name given to the outpost established here by the Phoenicians, means "castle", "fortress", or, more generally, "walled stronghold" or simply "wall". The name is equivalent to the place-name, Agadir, which is common in north Africa. To this day, "agadir" means "wall" in the Berber language. Gadir became the most important Phoenician enclave on the Iberian Peninsula.

Later, the city became known by a similar Attic Greek name, Gadeira, τὰ Γάδειρα. In Ionic Greek, the name is spelled slightly differently: Γήδειρα. This spelling appears in the histories written by Herodotus. Rarely, the name is spelled ἡ Γαδείρα, as, for example, in the writings of Erastosthenes (as attested by Stephanus of Byzantium).

In the Latín language, the city was known as Gades; in modern Arabic, it is called ‫سداق‬, Qādis. The Spanish autonym for a resident of Cádiz is gaditano.

minished. minished. Between Between 1995 1995 and and 2006, 2006, itit lost lost more more than than 14,000 14,000 inhabitants, inhabitants, aa decrease decrease of of 9%. 9%.

Cádiz is the provincial capital with the highest rate of unemployment in Spain. This, too, tends to depress the population level. Young Gaditanos, those between 18 and 30 years of age, have been migrating to other places in Spain (Madrid and Castellón, chiefly), as well as The city city was was originally originally founded founded as as Gadir Gadir (Phoenician (Phoenician ‫רדג‬ ‫" רדג‬walled "walled city") city") by by the the Phoenicians, Phoenicians, who who used used itit inin their their trade trade with with Tartessos, Tartessos, aa city-state city-state believed believed by by archæologists archæologists to to be be somewhere somewhere The near the the mouth mouth of of the the Guadalquivir Guadalquivir River, River, about about thirty thirty kilometres kilometres northwest northwest of of Cádiz. Cádiz. (Its (Its exact exact location location has has never never been been firmly firmly established.) established.) near Phoenician sarcophagus sarcophagus found found inin Cadiz, Cadiz, now now inin the the Archaeological Archaeological Museum Museum of of Cádiz. Cádiz. The The sarcophagus sarcophagus isis thought thought to to have have been been designed designed and and paid paid for for by by aa Phoenician Phoenician merchant merchant and and Phoenician

emigrating to other places in Europe and the Americas. The population younger than twenty years old is only 20.58% of the total, and the population older than sixty-five is 21.67%, making Cádiz one of the most aged cities in all of Spain.

made inin Greece Greece made Phoenician sarcophagus sarcophagus found found inin Cadiz, Cadiz, now now inin the the Archaeological Archaeological Museum Museum of of Cádiz. Cádiz. The The sarcophagus sarcophagus isis thought thought to to have have been been designed designed and and paid paid for for by by aa Phoenician Phoenician merchant merchant and and Phoenician made inin Greece Greece made

Despite these trends, some are cheered by the fact that the other towns and cities surrounding the Bay of Cádiz are growing modestly, absorbing some of the population fleeing the capital. Improvements in roads and railways have allowed people to commute to Cádiz for work more easily. Increasingly, outlying communities, like Puerto Real and San Fernando,

Two other physical factors tend to are providing bedrooms for Cádiz's workforce. In recent years, Cádiz has become more of a limit the city's population. It is imposplace to work than a place to live. sible to increase the amount of land available for building by reclaiming land from the sea; a new national law governing coastal development thwarts this solution. Also, because Cádiz is built on a sandspit, it is a costly proposition to sink foundations deep enough to support the high-rise buildings that would allow for a higher population density. As it stands, the city's skyline is not substantially different than it was in medieval times. A


seventeenth-century watchtower, the Tavira tower, still commands a panoramic view of the city and the bay despite its relatively modest 45-metre

height. (See below.)

One of the city's notable features during antiquity

During the Age of Exploration, the city experienced a renais-

was the temple dedicated to the Phoenician god

sance. Christopher Columbus sailed from Cádiz on his second

Melqart. (Melqart was associated with Hercules by the Greeks.) According to the Life of Apollonius of Tyana, the temple was still standing

and fourth voyages, (see Voyages of Christopher Columbus) and the city later became the home port of the Spanish treasure fleet. Consequently, the city became a major target of

at the beginning of the third century CE. Some

Spain's enemies. The sixteenth century also saw a series of

historians, based in part on this source, believe

failed raids by Barbary corsairs.

that the columns of this temple were the origin of the myth of the pillars of Hercules.[4]

The greater part of the old town was consumed in the conflagration of 1569. In April 1587 a raid by the Englishman Sir

Around 500 BCE, the city fell under the sway of Carthage. Cádiz became a base of operations for Hannibal's[5] conquest of southern Iberia. However, in 206 BCE, the city fell to Roman forces under Scipio Africanus. The people of Cádiz welcomed the victors. Under the Romans, One of the city's notable features during antiquity was the temple dedicated to the Phoenician god Melqart. (Melqart was associated with Hercules by the Greeks.) According to the Life of Apollonius of Tyana, the temple

the city's Greek name was modified to Gades; it flourished as a Roman naval base.

was still standing at the beginning of the third century CE. Some historians, based in part on this source, believe that the columns of this temple were the origin of the myth of the pillars of Hercules.[4]

By the time of Augustus, Cádiz was home to more than five hundred equites (members of one

Around 500 BCE, the city fell under the sway of Carthage. Cádiz became a base of operations for Hannibal's[5] conquest of southern Iberia. However, in 206 BCE, the city fell to Roman forces under Scipio Africanus. The people of Cádiz welcomed the victors. Under the Romans, the city's Greek name was modified to Gades; it flourished as a Roman naval base.

of the two upper social classes), a concentration of notable citizens rivaled only by Padua and Rome itself. It was the principal city of a Roman colony, Augusta Urbs Julia Gaditana. However, with the decline of the Roman Empire, Gades's

By the time of Augustus, Cádiz was home to more than five hundred equites (members of one of the two upper social classes), a concentration of notable citizens rivaled only by Padua and Rome itself. It was the principal city of a Roman colony, Augusta Urbs Julia Gaditana. However, with the decline of the Roman Empire, Gades's commercial importance began to fade.


In the eighteenth century, the sand bars of the river Gua-


dalquivir forced the Spanish government to transfer the port monopolizing trade with Spanish America from upriver Seville to Cádiz with better access to the Atlantic.

During this time, the city experienced a golden age during

which three-quarters of all Spanish trade was with the Americas. It became one of Spain's greatest and most cosmopolitan cities and home to trading communities from many countries, among whom the richest was the Irish

community. Many of today's historic buildings in the Old

The success of the Irish merchant community in late eighteenth-century Cádiz was due mainly to their engagement in the colonial trade. Small in number compared to other immigrant groups, they played a disproportionately prominent role in civic

By the the end end of of the the century, century, however, however, the the city city suffered suffered another another By

and ecclesiastical life, and as patrons

series of of attacks. attacks. The The British British blockade blockade and and siege siege of of Cádiz Cádiz between between series

of the arts in their adopted city.

February 1797 1797 and and April April 1798 1798 was, was, by by most most standards, standards, aa costly costly February failure. Nelson, Nelson, returning returning from from his his defeat defeat at at Santa Santa Cruz, Cruz, bombarded bombarded Their success stories in Cádiz failure.

City date from this era.

the city city inin 1800. 1800. During During Napoleon's Napoleon's conquest conquest of of Europe, Europe, the

contrast starkly with the lack of opportunity available to them in Ireland. Nevertheless, they did maintain vigor-

Cádiz was was one one of of the the few few cities cities inin Spain Spain that that was was able able to to resist resist the the Cádiz

ous mercantile and dynastic connec-

French invasion. invasion. French

tions with their homeland.

Their accomplishments were all the more remarkable in that they were achieved against a background of fierce competition in Europe's most dynamic entrepôt of the day.[6]

It is a connection that continutes to this day.

Among the many landmarks of historical and scenic interest in Cadiz, a few stand out. The city can boast of an unusual cathedral of various architectural styles, a magnificent theatre, an attractive old


municipal building, an eighteenth-century watchtower, a vestige of the ancient city wall, an ancient Roman theatre, and electrical pylons of an eye-catching modern design carrying cables across the Bay of

Cadiz. The old town is characterised by its narrow streets connecting into magnificent squares, bordered from the sea by the City walls. Most of the landmark buildings are situated in the squares.

Cádiz was was also also the the seat seat of of the the liberal liberal [edit] Plazas and their landmark buildings Cádiz

Historically, the diocese counts among its most famous prelates Cardinal Juan

Cortes Cortes (parliament) (parliament) that that fought fought against against de Torquemada, a Dominican theologian and expert on canon law, who took

Joseph Bonaparte Bonaparte (who (who reigned reigned as as The old town of Cadiz is one of the most densely populated urban areas in Europe, and is packed with Joseph

a leading part in the Councils of Basle and Florence, and defended, in his

Joseph I)I) inin the the Peninsular Peninsular War; War; at at narrow streets. The old town benefits though from several striking plazas, which are enjoyed by citizens Joseph

Summe de Ecclesiâ, the direct power of the pope in temporal matters. It is

Cadiz the the liberal liberal Spanish Spanish Constitution Constitution and tourists alike. These are Plaza de Mina, Plaza San Antonio, Plaza de Candelaria, Plaza de San Juan Cadiz

Torquemada who is most closely associated with the fifteenth-century Spanish

of 1812 1812 was was proclaimed. proclaimed. The The citizens citizens Inquisition. de Dios and Plaza de España. of revolted revolted inin 1820 1820 to to secure secure aa renewal renewal of of this this constitution; constitution; the the revolution revolution spread spread across across Spain, Spain,

leading leading to to the the imprisonment imprisonment of of King King Ferdinand Ferdinand VII VII inin the the city city of of Cádiz. Cádiz. French French forces forces secured secured the the release release of of Ferdinand inin the the Battle Battle of of Trocadero Trocadero The diocese of Cadiz y Ceuta is a suffragan of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Seville; that is, it Ferdinand (1823) and and suppressed suppressed liberalism. liberalism. is a diocese within the metropolitan see of Seville. It became a diocese in 1263 after its Reconquista (1823) 1868, Cádiz Cádiz was was once once again again (reconquest) from the Moors. By the Concordat of 1753, in which the Spanish crown also gained InIn 1868, the seat seat of of aa revolution, revolution, resulting resulting inin the rights to make appointments to church offices and to tax church lands, the diocese of Cadiz was the the eventual eventual abdication abdication and and exile exile of of merged with the diocese of Ceuta, a Spanish conclave on the northern coast of Africa, and the dioc- the Queen Isabella Isabella II.II. The The same same Cádiz Cádiz esan bishop became, by virtue of his office, the Apostolic Administrator of Ceuta. Queen Cortes Cortes decided decided to to reinstate reinstate the the monmonarchy archy under under King King Amadeo Amadeo I I just just two two years years later. later.

Located inin the the heart heart of of the the old old town, town, Plaza Plaza de de Mina, Mina, (the (the Located most beautiful beautiful of of the the Cadiz Cadiz plazas) plazas) was was developed developed inin the the most first half half of of the the nineteenth nineteenth century. century. Previously, Previously, the the land land ococfirst cupied by by the the plaza plaza was was the the orchard orchard of of the the convent convent of of San San cupied Francisco. Francisco.

The plaza, plaza, was was converted converted into into aa plaza plaza inin 1838 1838 by by the the The architect Torcuato Torcuato Benjumeda Benjumeda and and (later) (later) Juan Juan Daura, Daura, with with architect its trees trees being being planted planted inin 1861. 1861. ItIt was was then then redeveloped redeveloped its again inin 1897, 1897, and and has has remained remained virtually virtually unchanged unchanged again since. ItIt isis named named after after General General Francisco Francisco Espoz Espoz yy Mina, Mina, since. hero of of the the war war of of independence. independence. Manuel Manuel de de Falla Falla yy aa hero


Matheu was was born born inin Number Number 33 Plaza Plaza de de Mina, Mina, where where aa Matheu

plaque bears bears his his name. name. plaque

The plaza plaza also also contains contains several several statues, statues, one one of of these these isis aa The

bust of of José José Macpherson Macpherson (a (a pioneer pioneer inin the the development development of of bust petrography, stratigraphy stratigraphy and and tectonics) tectonics) who who was was born born inin petrography, number 12 12 Plaza Plaza de de Mina Mina inin 1839. 1839. The The Museum Museum of of Cadiz, Cadiz, number to be be found found at at number number 55 Plaza Plaza de de Mina, Mina, and and contains contains isis to many objects objects from from Cadiz's Cadiz's 3000 3000 year year history history as as well well as as many

works by by artists artists such such as as Peter Peter Paul Paul Rubens. Rubens. In the 19th century Plaza San Antonio was considered to be Cadiz’s main square. It is a beautiful square, surrounded by a number of mansions built in works neo-classical architecture or Isabelline Gothic style, once occupied by the Cadiz upper classes. San Antonio church, originally built in 1669, is also situThe houses houses which which face face the the plaza, plaza, many many of of which which can can be be ated in the plaza, The classified as as neo-classical neo-classical architecture architecture or or built built inin the the style style classified of Isabelline Isabelline Gothic, Gothic, were were originally originally occupied occupied by by the the Cadiz Cadiz The plaza was built in the 18th century, and on 19 March 1812 the Spanish Constitution of 1812 was proclaimed here, leading to the plaza to be named of bourgeoisie. Plaza de la Constitución, and then later Plaza San Antonio, after the hermit San Antonio. bourgeoisie.

The The Plaza Plaza de de lala Catedral Catedral houses houses both both

The The Plaza Plaza de de España España isis aa large large square square close close to to the the port. port. ItIt isis dominated dominated by by the the Monument Monument to to the the Constitution Constitution of of

the the Cathedral Cathedral and and the the baroque baroque Santiago Santiago

1812, 1812, which which came came into into being being as as aa consequence consequence of of the the demolition demolition of of aa portion portion of of the the old old city city wall. wall. The The plaza plaza isis

church, church, built built inin 1635. 1635.

an an extension extension of of the the old old Plazuela Plazuela del del Carbón. Carbón. The The goal goal of of this this demolition demolition was was to to create create aa grand grand new new city city square square to to mark mark the the hundredth hundredth anniversary anniversary of of the the liberal liberal constitution, constitution, which which was was proclaimed proclaimed inin this this city city inin 1812, 1812, and and provide provide aa

One One of of Cádiz's Cádiz's most most famous famous landmarks landmarks

setting setting for for aa suitable suitable memorial. memorial.

isis its its cathedral. cathedral. ItIt sits sits on on the the site site of of an an older older cathedral, cathedral, completed completed inin 1260, 1260, which which The The work work isis by by the the architect, architect, Modesto Modesto Lopez Lopez Otero, Otero, and and of of the the sculptor, sculptor, Aniceto Aniceto Marinas. Marinas. The The work work began began inin burned burned down down inin 1596. 1596. The The reconstrucreconstruc-

1912 1912 and and finished finished inin 1929. 1929.

tion, tion, which which was was not not started started until until 1776, 1776, was was supervised supervised by by the the architect architect Vicente Vicente Acero, Acero, who who had had also also built built the the Granada Granada Cathedral. Cathedral. Acero Acero left left the the project project and and was was succeeded succeeded by by several several other other architects. architects.

As As aa result, result, this this largely largely baroque-style baroque-style cathecathedral was was built built over over aa period period of of 116 116 years, years, Construction of this plaza began in the 15th century on lands reclaimed from the dral and, due due to to this this drawn-out drawn-out period period of of conconsea. With the demolition of the City walls in 1906 the plaza increased in size and and, struction, the the cathedral cathedral underwent underwent several several a statue of the Cadiz politician Segismundo Moret was unveiled. Overlooking the struction, major changes changes to to its its original original design. design. Though Though plaza, the Ayuntamiento is the town hall of Cádiz's Old City. The structure, con- major the cathedral cathedral was was originally originally intended intended to to structed on the bases and location of the previous Consistorial Houses (1699), the


be aa baroque baroque edifice, edifice, itit contains contains rococo rococo was built in two stages. be

elements, elements, and and was was finally finally completed completed inin the the

neoclassical style. style. Its Its chapels chapels have have many many The first stage began in 1799 under the direction of architect Torcuato Benjumeda neoclassical

paintings and and relics relics from from the the old old cathedral cathedral in the neoclassical style. The second stage was completed in 1861 under the paintings and monasteries monasteries from from throughout throughout Spain. Spain. direction of García del Alamo, in the Isabelline Gothic (in Spanish, "Gótico Isabelino" and or, simply, the "Isabelino") style. Here, in 1936, the flag of Andalusia was hoisted for the first time.

The Casa del Almirante is a palatial house, adjacent to the Plaza San Martín in the Barrio del Pópulo, which was constructed in 1690 with the proceeds of the lucrative trade with the Americas.

It was built by the family of the admiral of the Spanish treasure fleet, the so-called Fleet of the Indies, Don In the 18th century, Cádiz had more than 160 towers from which local merchants Diego de Barrios. The exterior is could look out to sea for arriving merchant ships. These towers often formed part of the sheathed in exquisite red and white merchants' houses. The Torre Tavira, named for its original owner, stands as the tallest re-

The original Gran Teatro was constructed in 1871 by the architect García del Alamo, and was destroyed

maining watchtower. It has a cámara oscura, a room that uses the principal of the pinhole

by a fire in August, 1881. The current theatre was built between 1884 and 1905 over the remains of the

camera (and a specially-prepared convex lens) to project panoramic views of the Old City

previous Gran Teatro. The architect was Adolfo Morales de los Rios, and the overseer of construction

onto its interior walls. (Also see the article titled Widow's walk.)

was Juan Cabrera de la Torre. The outside was covered in red bricks and is of a neo-Mudejar or Moor-

The lower level of the monument

ish revival style. Following renovations in the 1920s, the theatre was renamed the Gran Teatro Falla, in

[edit] represents a chamber and an empty

honor of composer Manuel de Falla, who is buried in the crypt of the cathedral. After a period of disrepair

presidential armchair. The upper level

in the 1980s, the theatre has since undergone extensive renovation.

has various inscriptions surmounting the chamber. On each side are

Genoan marble, prepared in the workshops of Andreoli, and mounted by the master, García Narváez. The colonnaded portico, the grand staircase under the cupola, and the hall on the main floor are architectural features of great nobility and beauty.

bronze figures representing peace and war. In the center, a pilaster rises to symbolize, in allegorical terms, the principals expressed in the 1812 constitution. At the foot of this pilaster, there is a female figure representing Spain, and, to either side, scuptural groupings representing agriculture and citizenship.

The shield of the Barrios family appears on the second-floor balcony.

Architectural thesis book  

Flows in the city controling the flamenco preformance centre

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